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Authors ’ reply re: Maternal prepregnancy obesity and the risk of shoulder dystocia: a meta‐analysis
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Caixia Zhang, Dongfeng Zhang Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Efficacy of antenatal corticosteroids in preterm twins: the EPIPAGE ‐2 cohort study
ConclusionIn preterm twins, a single complete course of antenatal corticosteroids was associated with an improvement of severe neurological outcome, whereas reduced in‐hospital mortality was seen only when the ACS‐to‐delivery interval was ≤7 days. Tweetable abstractA single complete course of antenatal steroids reduced severe neurological morbidity in preterm twins (24–31 weeks). (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: D Palas, V Ehlinger, C Alberge, P Truffert, G Kayem, F Goffinet, P ‐Y Ancel, C Arnaud, C Vayssière Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Author's reply re: Pre ‐eclampsia is primarily a placental disorder: AGAINST: Pre‐eclampsia: the heart matters
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Basky Thilaganathan Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Re: Pre ‐eclampsia is primarily a placental disorder
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Xue Qing Wu, Xin Xin Xu, Zhi Yang Zhou, MJ Quinn Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Author's reply re: Pre ‐eclampsia is primarily a placental disorder: FOR: Pre‐eclampsia is primarily a placental disorder
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Stefan Verlohren Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Re: Partner smoking influences whether mothers quit smoking during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Saumya Pandey, Kshitiz Murdia, Ajay Murdia, Vipin Chandra, Nitiz Murdia Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Authors ’ reply re: Genetic variation in the progesterone receptor gene and susceptibility to recurrent pregnancy loss: a case–control study
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Wassim Y Almawi, Wael Bahia, Touhami Mahjoub Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Healthcare and wider societal implications of stillbirth: a population ‐based cost‐of‐illness study
ConclusionThis work expands the current intelligence on the costs of stillbirth beyond the health service to costs for parents and society, and yet these additional findings must still be regarded as conservative estimates of the true economic costs. Tweetable abstractThe costs of stillbirth are significant, affecting the health service, parents, professionals, and society. Plain Language SummaryWhy and how was the study carried out?The personal, social, and emotional consequences of stillbirth are profound. Placing a monetary value on such consequences is emotive, yet necessary, when deciding how best to invest limit...
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: HE Campbell, JJ Kurinczuk, AEP Heazell, J Leal, O Rivero ‐Arias Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Authors ’ reply re: Ultrasound bladder wall thickness and detrusor overactivity: a multicentre test accuracy study
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 14, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Pallavi Latthe, Lee Middleton, Jonathan Deeks, Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Authors ’ reply re: Starting a Uterus transplantation service: Notes from a small island
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 11, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: HK Tan, BK Tan, LK Tan, JI Olofsson, P Dahm ‐Kähler, M Brännström Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Diffusion tensor imaging determines three ‐dimensional architecture of human cervix: a cross‐sectional study
ObjectiveTo determine the microarchitecture of the cervix using high‐resolution diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DesignCross‐sectional study. SettingLeeds, UK. SampleWomen undergoing hysterectomy for benign pathology. MethodsEx‐vivo DT‐MRI measurements were obtained using a 9.4‐T Bruker nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer on seven fixed human cervices obtained at hysterectomy. A deterministic fibre‐tracking algorithm was used to indirectly visualise underlying fibre organisation. Inter‐regional differences in tissue structure were sought using quantitative measurements of diff...
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 11, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: JP Nott, E Pervolaraki, AP Benson, EA Bonney, JD Pickering, N Wilkinson, NAB Simpson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Authors ’ reply re: Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta‐analysis of randomised trials
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 11, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Jyotsna Pundir, Dimitrios Psaroudakis, Prakash Savnur, Priya Bhide, Luca Sabatini, Helena Teede, Arri Coomarasamy, Shakila Thangaratinam Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Re Re Re: Perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality among term singletons following midcavity operative vaginal delivery versus caesarean delivery
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 8, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Manoj Mohan, Jithesh Puthen, Rauf Ghani, Antonios Antoniou, Farina Kidwai, Stephen Lindow Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Re: Ultrasound bladder wall thickness and detrusor overactivity: a multicentre test accuracy study
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 8, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Victoria Asfour, Giuseppe Alessandro Digesu, Abigail Ford, Ruwan Fernando, Vikram Khullar Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Safety of the balloon catheter for cervical ripening in outpatient care: complications during the period from insertion to expulsion of a balloon catheter in the process of labour induction: a systematic review
ConclusionThis study suggest the risk of adverse events during the period between insertion and expulsion of a balloon catheter in cervical ripening to be low. These data facilitate further evaluation and implementation of this procedure in an outpatient setting for low risk pregnancies.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: M Diederen, J S M Gommers, C Wilkinson, D Turnbull, B W J Mol Tags: Systematic review Source Type: research

Subsequent reproductive outcome among women with peripartum cardiomyopathy: a nationwide study
ConclusionPPCM affects women's reproduction with few subsequent pregnancies resulting in a live‐born child. The finding of a 1/7 relapse among women with recovered LVEF is in accordance with most previous studies.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Maria Guldbrandt Hauge, Marianne Johansen, Niels Vejlstrup, Finn Gustafsson, Peter Damm, Anne S. Ersb øll Tags: Main Research Article Source Type: research

Look, then Leap: Quality and Improving Maternity Care
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Neel Shah Tags: Mini ‐commentary Source Type: research

Recent work supports the concept of an active sphincter in the uterine cervix
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Helen Feltovich, Joy ‐Sarah Vink Tags: Mini ‐commentary Source Type: research

Re: Comparison of management regimens following ultrasound diagnosis of nontubal ectopic pregnancies: a retrospective cohort study
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Paola Algeri, Maria Sonia Rota, Valentina Stagnati Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Re: Starting a uterus transplantation service: notes from a small island
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Iori Kisu, Yusuke Matoba, Kouji Banno, Daisuke Aoki Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Re: Maternal prepregnancy obesity and the risk of shoulder dystocia: a meta ‐analysis
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Lauren Jade Ewington, Siobhan Quenby Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Re: Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta ‐analysis of randomised trials
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Rachel Hibberd, Nick Raine ‐Fenning, Jim Thornton Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Re: Insights from Outside BJOG. Research Snippets
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: David Hutchon Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Authors ’ reply re: Comparison of management regimens following ultrasound diagnosis of nontubal ectopic pregnancies: a retrospective cohort study
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Ricardo Palma ‐Dias, Karen Reidy, Jayshree Rahmkrishna, Genevieve Kan, W Catarina Ang Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Author's reply re: Insight from outside BJOG. Research Snippets
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Athol Kent Tags: BJOG Exchange Source Type: research

Do time of birth, unit volume, and staff seniority affect neonatal outcome in deliveries at ≥34+0 weeks of gestation?
ConclusionsDifferent times of delivery were associated with increased adverse neonatal outcomes. The management of uncomplicated deliveries by less experienced staff showed no negative impact on perinatal outcome. In contrast, riskier pregnancies delivered by senior staff in a tertiary centre favour a better outcome. Achieving a better balance in the total number of labour ward staff during the day and the night appears to be a greater priority than increasing the continuous presence of senior obstetrical staff on the labour ward during the out‐of‐hours period. Tweetable abstractDeliveries during night time lead to a g...
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: P Reif, G Pichler, A Griesbacher, G Lehner, W Sch öll, U Lang, H Hofmann, D Ulrich Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Effectiveness of seminal plasma in in vitro fertilization treatment: a systematic review and meta ‐analysis
BackgroundWith in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques, only 20–25% of the transferred embryos lead to a pregnancy. ObjectiveTo evaluate the beneficial effects of seminal plasma (SP) or semen applied at the time of oocyte aspiration or embryo transfer. Search strategyElectronic databases were searched from their inception up to August 2017. Selection criteriaWe included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of SP or semen in IVF treatment. Trials were considered if women were exposed to any kind of SP or semen (either SP/semen injection or sexual intercourse) around the time of oocyte pickup ...
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 6, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: G Saccone, A Di Spiezio Sardo, A Ciardulli, C Caissutti, M Spinelli, D Surbek, M Wolff Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Smoking and Pregnancy: Getting dads “on the bus”
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 1, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Robert M. Silver Tags: Mini ‐commentary Source Type: research

Respectful maternity care needs to be the standard for all women worldwide
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 1, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Elaine Denny Tags: Mini ‐commentary Source Type: research

Traditional and molecular chromosomal abnormality analysis of products of conception in spontaneous and recurrent miscarriage
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 1, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Ting Zhang, Yun Sun, Zi ‐jiang Chen, T. C Li Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Uterine Caesarean Closure Techniques Affect Ultrasound Findings and Maternal Outcomes: a Systematic Review and Meta ‐Analysis
ConclusionDouble‐layer unlocked sutures are favorable over single‐layer locked sutures concerning RMT, healing ratio and dysmenorrhea. Excluding the decidua seems to result in higher niche prevalence. Since thin residual myometrium or niches may serve as intermediates for gynaecological and reproductive outcomes, future studies should focus on these outcomes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 1, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: S I Stegwee, I P M Jordans, L F van der Voet, P M van de Ven, J C F Ket, C B Lambalk, C J M de Groot, W J K Hehenkamp, J A F Huirne Tags: Systematic review Source Type: research

Non ‐invasive prenatal testing for fetal inheritance of maternal β‐thalassaemia mutations using targeted sequencing and relative mutation dosage: a feasibility study
ConclusionsRMD for detection of inheritance of maternal β‐thalassaemia mutations has potential for clinical use. Our sequential approach could be applied to other single‐gene disorders.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - December 1, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Li Xiong, Angela N Barrett, Rui Hua, Sherry S Y Ho, Li Jun, K C Allen Chan, Zhong Mei, Mahesh Choolani Tags: Main Research Article Source Type: research

Angiogenic factors: Potential to change clinical practice in preeclampsia?
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 29, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Ana Sofia Cerdeira, Swati Agrawal, Anne Cathrine Staff, Christopher W. Redman, Manu Vatish Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Making stillbirths visible: a systematic review of globally reported causes of stillbirth
ConclusionsThere is a paucity of quality information on causes of stillbirth globally. Improving investigation of stillbirths and standardisation of audit and classification is urgently needed and should be achievable in all well‐resourced settings. Implementation of the WHO Perinatal Mortality Audit and Review guide is needed, particularly across high burden settings. FundingHR, SH, SHL, and AW were supported by an NHMRC‐CRE grant (APP1116640). VF was funded by an NHMRC‐CDF (APP1123611). Tweetable abstractUrgent need to improve data on causes of stillbirths across all settings to meet global targets. Plain...
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 29, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: HE Reinebrant, SH Leisher, M Coory, S Henry, AM Wojcieszek, G Gardener, R Lourie, D Ellwood, Z Teoh, E Allanson, H Blencowe, ES Draper, JJ Erwich, JF Fr øen, J Gardosi, K Gold, S Gordijn, A Gordon, AEP Heazell, TY Khong, F Korteweg, JE Lawn, EM McClure, Tags: Epidemiology & Public health ‐ From data to prevention Source Type: research

Cause of stillbirth reporting
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 29, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: RL Goldenberg Tags: Mini Commentary Source Type: research

The incidence, characteristics, managements and outcomes of anaphylaxis in pregnancy: a population ‐based descriptive study
ConclusionsAnaphylaxis is a rare severe complication of pregnancy and frequently the result of a reaction to antibiotic administration. This study highlights the seriousness of the outcomes of this condition for the mother. The low incidence is reassuring given the large proportion of the pregnant population that receive prophylactic antibiotics during delivery.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 29, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Stephen J McCall, Kathryn J Bunch, Peter Brocklehurst, Rhiannon D'Arcy, Kim Hinshaw, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, D Nuala Lucas, Benjamin Stenson, Derek Tuffnell, Marian Knight Tags: Main Research Article Source Type: research

Decisions about aneuploidy screening: why women's reasons are important
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 28, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Dafina Petrova, Rocio Garcia ‐Retamero Tags: Mini ‐commentary Source Type: research

Genetic linkage studies for the non ‐geneticist
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 28, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Stephanie Romero Tags: Mini ‐commentary Source Type: research

Preterm birth with placental evidence of malperfusion is associated with cardiovascular risk factors after pregnancy: a prospective cohort study
Abstract ObjectivePreterm birth (PTB) is associated with excess maternal cardiovascular disease risk. We considered that women with PTB and placental evidence of maternal malperfusion would be particularly affected. DesignPregnancy cohort study. SettingPittsburgh Pennsylvania, US. PopulationWomen with PTB (n=115) and term births (n=210) evaluated 4‐12 years after pregnancy. MethodsCardiometabolic risk markers were compared in women with prior PTB vs. term births; preeclampsia and growth restriction cases were excluded. Placental evidence of maternal vascular malperfusion (vasculopathy, infarct, advanced villous maturatio...
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 28, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Janet m. Catov, matthew f. Muldoon, steven e. Reis, roberta b. Ness, lananh n. Nguyen, jose ‐miguel yamal, hyunsoo hwang, w. Tony parks Tags: Main Research Article Source Type: research

The Blue Journal Club
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 27, 2017 Category: OBGYN Tags: Journal Club Source Type: research

More evidence needed for association between sleep practices and stillbirth
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 23, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: EM McClure, RL Goldenberg Tags: Mini Commentary Source Type: research

Erratum
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 22, 2017 Category: OBGYN Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Contraception – of potions, pills and social change
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 22, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Jacqueline Berry, Boon H Lim Tags: BJOG since 1902 Source Type: research

Reproductive rights: perspectives from a retired American obstetrician ‐gynaecologist
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 22, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Stephen S Entman Tags: BJOG on the Case Source Type: research

Insights from outside BJOG
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 22, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Athol Kent, Shona Kirtley Tags: Insights from outside BJOG Source Type: research

Abortion care as a key women's health service
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 22, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Lesley Regan Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

The emancipation of women ’s fertility
Deputy Editor‐in‐Chief, Dr Michael Marsh, discusses his top articles from this issue in an audio podcast available at: https://soundcloud.com/bjog/December-editors-choice-2017. (Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 22, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Michael Marsh Tags: BJOG Editor's Choice Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 22, 2017 Category: OBGYN Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ Editorial Board
(Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 22, 2017 Category: OBGYN Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Pregnancy weight gain by gestational age and stillbirth: a population ‐based cohort study
Abstract ObjectiveTo study the association between total and early pregnancy (
Source: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 21, 2017 Category: OBGYN Authors: Kari Johansson, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Lisa M Bodnar, Sven Cnattingius, Olof Stephansson Tags: Main Research Article Source Type: research