Changes in lactic acid bacteria and components of Awa-bancha by anaerobic fermentation.
Abstract Awa-bancha is a post-fermented tea produced in Naka and Kamikatsu, Tokushima, Japan. We investigated the lactic acid bacteria in each stage of production of Awa-bancha and evaluated the relationships with the components. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from tea leaves cultured with de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) agar plates, and the species were identified by homology of the 16 S rRNA gene and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the recA gene to distinguish the Lactobacillus plantarum group. As a result, a variety of species were isolated from the raw tea leaves, and Lactobacillus pento...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 28, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nishioka H, Mizuno T, Iwahashi H, Horie M Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 displays substrate promiscuity.
Abstract Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase is a phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme that introduces a fatty acyl group into the sn-2 position of phospholipids. Its substrate selectivity is physiologically important in defining the physicochemical properties of lipid membranes and modulating membrane protein function. However, it remains unclear how these enzymes recognize various fatty acids. Successful purification of bacterial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (PlsCs) was recently reported and has paved a path for the detailed analysis of their reaction mechanisms. Here, we purified and characterized PlsC ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 26, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ogawa T, Suwanawat N, Toyotake Y, Watanabe B, Kawamoto J, Kurihara T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Alleviation of drought stress and the physiological mechanisms in Citrus cultivar (Huangguogan) treated with methyl jasmonate.
Abstract The role of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in alleviating drought stress was investigated on Huangguogan. Except for intercellular CO2 concentration, MeJA had little effect on net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate under drought stress. Compared with drought stress, MeJA significantly alleviated the decrease of chlorophyll content. However, chlorophyll a/b ratio was significantly increased. MeJA significantly increased proline and soluble sugar contents, significantly decreased the O2 -· and H2O2 levels, and increased SOD and POD activities. In addition, the MDA co...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 25, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xiong B, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Ma M, Gao Y, Zhou Z, Wang B, Wang T, Lv X, Wang X, Wang J, Deng H, Wang Z Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Inhibition kinetics of acetosyringone on xylanase in hydrolysis of hemicellulose.
In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of AS on xylanase activity through kinetic experiments. The results showed that AS could obviously inhibit the activity of xylanase in a reversible and noncompetitive binding manner (up to 50% activity loss). Inhibitory kinetics and constants of xylanase on AS were conducted by the HCH-1 model (β = 0.0090 ± 0.0009 mM-1). Furthermore, intrinsic and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic (ANS)-binding fluorescence results showed that the tertiary structure of AS-mediated xylanase was altered. These findings provide new insights into the ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 24, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Liu F, Xu WF, Mu H, Lv ZR, Peng J, Guo C, Zhou HM, Ye ZM, Li XH Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Influence of freeze-drying and spray-drying preservation methods on survivability rate of different types of protectants encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 3081.
Abstract The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of different drying methods and to investigate the effects of adding a series of individual protectant such as skim milk, sucrose, maltodextrin, and corn starch for preserving Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 3081 cells during spray and freeze-drying and storage at different temperatures. Results showed a remarkable high survival rate of 70-80% immediately after spray- and freeze-drying in which the cell viability retained at the range of 109 to 1010 CFU/mL. After a month of storage, maltodextrin showed higher protective ability on both spray- and fre...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 24, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tang HW, Abbasiliasi S, Murugan P, Tam YJ, Ng HS, Tan JS Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Identification of the putative N-acetylglucosaminidase CseA associated with daughter cell separation in Tetragenococcus halophilus.
Abstract The lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus, which is used as a starter to brew soy sauce, comprises both cluster-forming strains and dispersed strains. The cluster-forming strains are industrially useful for obtaining clear soy sauce, because the cell clusters are trapped by filter cloth when the soy sauce mash is pressed. However, the molecular mechanism underlying cell cluster formation is unknown. Whole genome sequence analysis and subsequent target sequence analysis revealed that the cluster-forming strains commonly have functional defects in N-acetylglucosaminidase CseA, a peptidoglycan hyd...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 24, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Shirakawa D, Wakinaka T, Watanabe J Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Effect of koji starter on metabolites in Japanese alcoholic beverage sake made from the sake rice Koshitanrei.
In this study, to investigate the effect of koji starter and sake rice cultivars on the sake metabolites, we performed small-scale sake-making tests using the above 3 rice cultivars and 3 koji starters. Finally, we demonstrated that some of the characteristic components/metabolites of sake from KOS are affected by the koji starter. Thus, in addition to rice cultivar, koji starter plays an important role for establishment/maintenance of the quality of the final product. PMID: 32448088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry)
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 24, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ichikawa E, Hirata S, Hata Y, Yazawa H, Tamura H, Kaneoke M, Iwashita K, Hirata D Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory action of herbal medicine comprised of Scutellaria baicalensis and Chrysanthemum morifolium.
Abstract Various mixtures were prepared depending on the mixing ratio of Scutellaria baicalensis hot water extract (SB-HW), and Chrysanthemum morifolium ethanol extract (CM-E) and their anti-inflammatory activity were compared. Among them, SB-HW (80 μg/mL)/CM-E (120 μg/mL) or SB-HW (40 μg/mL)/CM-E (160 μg/mL) significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated NO and IL-6 levels in RAW 264.7 cells. The SB-HW (80 μg/mL)/CM-E (120 μg/mL) mixture, which was determined as active mixture, significantly reduced MUC5AC secretion in PMA and LPS-induced NCI-H292 cells. The active mixture ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 24, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Suh MG, Choi HS, Cho K, Park SS, Kim WJ, Suh HJ, Kim H Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Relationship between lactose utilization of lactic acid bacteria and browning of cheese during storage.
Abstract To produce processed cheese turning hardly brown during transportation and storage at room temperature, natural cheese showing less discoloration should be used as a raw material. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the lactose utilization of lactic acid bacteria and the browning of cheese during storage. Three type-cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus thermophilus) and five isolates from Japanese pickles (Lactobacillus spp.) were used. Cheese curds inoculated with these bacteria were prepared and stored. The L. plantarum-inoculated curds showed smaller Δ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Arai A, Igoshi A, Inoue A, Noda K, Tsutsuura S, Murata M Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Ultra-high-throughput analysis of functional biomolecules using in vitro selection and bioinformatics.
Abstract Functional analysis of biomolecules, including nucleic acids and proteins, is important for understanding biological mechanisms in living cells such as gene expression and metabolism. To analyze diverse biomolecular functions, large-scale screening systems for biomolecules have been developed for various applications such as to improve enzyme activity and identify target binding molecules. One of these systems, the Bead Display system, utilizes emulsion technology and is a powerful tool for rapidly screening functional nucleic acids or proteins in vitro. Furthermore, an analytical pipeline that consists o...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kojima T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Glucose limitation and pka1 deletion rescue aberrant mitotic spindle formation induced by Mal3 overexpression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Abstract The cAMP-dependent protein kinase Pka1 is known as a regulator of glycogenesis, transition into meiosis, proper chromosome segregation, and stress responses in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We demonstrated that both the cAMP/PKA pathway and glucose limitation play roles in appropriate spindle formation. Overexpression of Mal3 (1-308), an EB1 family protein, caused growth defects, increased 4C DNA content, and induced monopolar spindle formation. Overproduction of a high-affinity microtubule binding mutant (Q89R) and a recombinant protein possessing the CH and EB1 domains (1-241) both resulted in more severe ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tanabe T, Kawamukai M, Matsuo Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Structural and functional analyses of organic molecules regulating biomineralization.
Abstract Biomineralization by living organisms are common phenomena observed everywhere. Molluskan shells are representative biominerals that have fine microstructures with controlled morphology, polymorph, and orientation of CaCO3 crystals. A few organic molecules involved in the biominerals play important roles in the formation of such microstructures. Analyses of structure-function relationships for matrix proteins in biominerals revealed that almost all matrix proteins have an acidic region for the binding of calcium ion in CaCO3 crystals and interaction domains for other organic molecules. On the other hand, ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Suzuki M Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Knockdown of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 inhibited proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and suppressed MAPK signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer cells.
In this study, a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was constructed to assess the effect of IFITM1 on PANC-1 and ASPC-1 cells. The level of IFITM1 was downregulated in cells transfected with shRNA targeting IFITM1 (sh-IFITM1). Silencing of IFITM1 significantly decreased cell viability, downregulated the level of Ki-67, arrested cell at G1/S phase, reduced the number of cells in S phase, and decreased cyclinD1, cyclinE, CDK2, and CDK4 levels. Moreover, Hoechst staining and Western blotting analysis showed that cell apoptosis was induced by IFITM1. IFITM1 knockdown suppressed the MAPK signaling pathway by downregulation of p-ERK, p-P...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang L, Wang Z, Kong D, Zhao X, Chen X, Chai W Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Knockdown of KLF9 promotes the differentiation of both intramuscular and subcutaneous preadipocytes in goat.
In this study, the expression profiles of KLF9 were different between subcutaneous and intramuscular preadipocytes of goat during differentiation process. After silencing KLF9 gene, the lipid droplets were increased in both two types of adipocytes. In subcutaneous preadipocyte with silencing KLF9, the expressions of C/EBPβ, PPARγ, LPL, KLF1-2, KLF5, and KLF17 genes were up-regulated, while KLF12, KLF4, and KLF13 genes were down-regulated in expression level. In intramuscular preadipocyte, aP2, C/EBPα, KLF2-3, KLF5, and KLF7 gene were up-regulated, and Pref-1 gene was down-regulated. In addition, the bindin...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xu Q, Lin Y, Wang Y, Bai W, Zhu J Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

An anti-inflammatory isoflavone from soybean inoculated with a marine fungus Aspergillus terreus C23-3.
Abstract A new isoflavone derivative compound 1 (psoralenone) was isolated from soybean inoculated with a marine fungus Aspergillus terreus C23-3, together with seven known compounds including isoflavones 2-6, butyrolactone I (7) and blumenol A (8). Their structures were elucidated by MS, NMR, and ECD. Psoralenone displayed moderate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in the LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell model. Compound 2 (genistein) showed moderate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity whereas compounds 2, 5 (biochanin A), 6 (psoralenol), and 7 exhibited potent larvicidal activity against brine shrimp. Comp...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yang JM, Liu YY, Yang WC, Ma XX, Nie YY, Glukhov E, Gerwick L, Gerwick WH, Lei XL, Zhang Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Silencing CCL8 inhibited the proliferation and migration of PDGF-BB-stimulated human aortic smooth muscle cells.
Abstract C-C motif Chemokine ligand 8 (CCL8) has been found in diseases' pathogenesis. But its molecular mechanism in atherosclerosis (AS) remains to be elucidated. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were stimulated by PDGF-BB to establish cell model. α-SMA in PDGF-BB-stimulated HASMCs was measured by immunofluorescence staining. Relative gene expressions in PDGF-BB-stimulated HASMCs were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. HASMCs proliferation, migration, and cell cycle were assessed by cell counting kit-8, wound-healing assay, and flow cytometry. HASMCs via...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dai S, Zhang J, Xu Z Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

5-Keto-D-fructose production from sugar alcohol by isolated wild strain Gluconobacter frateurii CHM 43.
Abstract GLUCONOBACTER FRATEURII: CHM 43 have D-mannitol dehydrogenase (quinoprotein glycerol dehydrogenase) and flavoprotein D-fructose dehydrogenase in the membranes. When the two enzymes are functional, D-mannitol is converted to 5-keto-D-fructose with 65% yield when cultivated on D-mannitol. 5-Keto-D-fructose production with almost 100% yield was realized with the resting cells. The method proposed here should give a smart strategy for 5-keto-D-fructose production. PMID: 32427050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry)
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 19, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Adachi O, Nguyen TM, Hours RA, Kataoka N, Matsushita K, Akakabe Y, Yakushi T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

The characteristic smell emitted from two scale insects, Ceroplastes japonicus and Ceroplastes rubens.
Abstract The volatile components emitted from two scale insects, Ceroplastes japonicus and Ceroplastes rubens, were identified using GC-MS analysis. The major volatile components of the solvent extract from C. japonicus were α-humulene (35.8%) and δ-cadinene (17.0%), while those of C. rubens were β-selinene (10.3%) and β-elemene (5.1%). In GC/olfactometry, linalool, butyric acid, 3-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, and vanillin were identified as the odor-active components of the extract from C. japonicus, in addition to trace amounts of trans-4,5-epoxy-(2E)-decenal, 4-methyl-(3E)-hex...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 18, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sakurai K, Tomiyama K, Yaguchi Y, Asakawa Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Harvesting of Arthrospira platensis by flocculation with phytic acid from rice bran.
Abstract The recovery of algal biomass is one of the critical steps involved in the commercial production of beneficial metabolites from Arthrospira platensis. Efficient and safe harvesting methods that do not sacrifice quality of final product are important for commercial application. Phytic acid (PA) is a natural non-toxic phytochemical widely distributed in plant tissues. Effect of PA from rice bran on the growth, trichome morphology such as spiral number and algal filament length, and harvesting efficiency of A. platensis were investigated. Cells aggregated into large cell flocs after the addition of PA in the...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 18, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhu J, Wakisaka M Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Uniform straw-like cell architecture for three-dimensional cell-cell communication assay.
Abstract We fabricated uniform straw-like cell architecture with central lumen using a suture thread within 1 h. The architecture consisting of cancer cells and mature adipocyte was used for cell-cell communication assay, although mature adipocyte could not form spontaneous multi-cellular spheroids. Using the system, it is possible to investigate three-dimensional cell-cell communication as an alternative to animal experiments. ABBREVIATIONS: EB: embryoid body; 2D: two-dimension; 3D: three-dimension; PBS: phosphate buffered saline. PMID: 32419629 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bioscien...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 18, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Inubushi Y, Sakaguchi Y, Tachibana A Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Ferroptosis is involved in alcohol-induced cell death in vivo and in vitro.
In this study, we discovered and illuminated a new mechanism that led to alcoholic liver disease via ferroptosis, an iron-dependent regulated cell death. Study in vitro showed that both necroptosis inhibitor and ferroptosis inhibitors performed significantly protective effect on alcohol-induced cell death, while apoptosis inhibitor and autophagy inhibitor had no such effect. Our data also indicated that alcohol caused the accumulation of lipid peroxides and the mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, reduced the protein expression of the specific light-chain subunit of the cystine/glutamate antiporter and...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 18, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Liu CY, Wang M, Yu HM, Han FX, Wu QS, Cai XJ, Kurihara H, Chen YX, Li YF, He RR Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Effects of a pyroglutamyl pentapeptide isolated from fermented barley extract on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in hairless mouse.
In this study, we examined the effects of orally administered fermented barley extract P (FBEP), which is prepared from a supernatant of barley shochu distillery by-product, on stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in AD-like lesions induced in hairless mice using 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene. Oral administration of FBEP increased SC hydration and decreased TEWL in the dorsal skin of this mouse model. Further fractionation of FBEP showed that a pyroglutamyl pentapeptide, pEQPFP comprising all -L-form amino acids, is responsible for these activities. These results suggested that this pyroglutamy...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 13, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Maruoka N, Watanabe B, Ando D, Miyashita M, Kurihara T, Hokazono H Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

MiR-153-5p promotes sensibility of colorectal cancer cells to oxaliplatin via targeting Bcl-2-mediated autophagy pathway.
In conclusion, our data suggested that miR-153-5p was a mediator of cisplatin resistance in colorectal cancer by affecting Bcl-2-mediated autophagy, indicating a new therapeutic target for CRC treatment. PMID: 32380907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry)
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - May 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: He Y, Zhang L, Tan F, Wang LF, Liu DH, Wang RJ, Yin XZ Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Improved preparation of vitexin from hot water extract of Basella alba, the commercially available vegetable Malabar spinach ("Tsurumurasaki" in Japanese) and the application to semisynthesis of chafuroside B.
Improved preparation of vitexin from hot water extract of Basella alba, the commercially available vegetable Malabar spinach ("Tsurumurasaki" in Japanese) and the application to semisynthesis of chafuroside B. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2020 Apr 30;:1-6 Authors: Kurahayashi K, Hanaya K, Higashibayashi S, Sugai T Abstract Hot water extraction of D-arabinofuranosylvitexin from the raw leaves of commercially available Basella alba "Tsurumurasaki" and subsequent acidic hydrolysis was improved to be a procedure using a high-pressure steam sterilizer to afford vitexin. The amount was est...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 30, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kurahayashi K, Hanaya K, Higashibayashi S, Sugai T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Integrin ανβ3 modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperpermeability in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.
Integrin ανβ3 modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperpermeability in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2020 Apr 30;:1-7 Authors: Li L, Rongfang Z, Junhai Z, Changqin C, Jing Y Abstract Previous studies suggest an association of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) hyperpermeability with sepsis-related cardiac injury. Our results showed that CMECs permeability was dependent upon concentration and time of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation. Integrin ανβ3 expression decreased after LPS stimulation. Pretreatment with anti-integ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 30, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Li L, Rongfang Z, Junhai Z, Changqin C, Jing Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Sucrose starvation induces the degradation of proteins in trans-Golgi network and secretory vesicle cluster in tobacco BY-2 cells.
Abstract Endomembrane transport system begins at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), continues to the Golgi apparatus and subsequent compartment called trans-Golgi network (TGN). We found that SUT2, a tobacco sucrose-transporter ortholog and was localized in the TGN, decreased significantly under a sucrose-starvation condition. The tobacco SNARE protein SYP41, localized in the TGN and secretory vesicle cluster (SVC), also decreased under the starvation. Similarly, the SCAMP2-RFP fusion protein, which is localized in TGN, SVC, and plasma membrane (PM), was distributed solely in the PM under the starvation. Under the sa...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 26, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Oda Y, Asatsuma S, Nakasone H, Matsuoka K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

New phenylspirodrimane metabolites MBJ-0030, MBJ-0031, and MBJ-0032 isolated from the soil fungal strain Stachybotrys sp. f23793.
Abstract Chemical screening of culture medium from the soil fungus Stachybotrys sp. resulted in the isolation of the three new phenylspirodrimanes MBJ-0030 (1), MBJ-0031 (2) and MBJ-0032 (3). Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1-3 were determined by modified Mosher's and Marfey's methods. In addition, cytotoxic and antimicrobial evaluations of the compounds were conducted. PMID: 32338185 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry)
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 26, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kawahara T, Itoh M, Izumikawa M, Kagaya N, Sakata N, Tsuchida T, Shin-Ya K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

A fluorescence method to visualize the nuclear boundary by the lipophilic dye DiI.
Abstract Here, we describe a procedure to fluorescently contrast the nuclear boundary using the lipophilic carbocyanine dye DiI in cultured human cells. Our procedure is simple and is applicable to detect nuclear boundary defects, which may be relevant to studies on nuclear envelope dynamics, micronuclei formation and cancer biology.Abbreviations: DiI: 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate; DiO: 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate; NE: nuclear envelope; RanBP2: Ran-binding protein 2/Nucleoporin 358. PMID: 32326840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bioscience, Bi...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 23, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Miyazaki K, Yano KI, Saitoh H Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Transcriptome alterations in HepG2 cells induced by shRNA knockdown and overexpression of TMEM2 gene.
Abstract Transmembrane 2 (TMEM2) gene inhibits chronic hepatitis-B virus (HBV) infection, while the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Transcriptome alterations in HepG2 cells following TMEM2 overexpression or silencing by shRNA were analyzed by next-generation sequencing. Both overexpression and knockdown of the TMEM2 gene caused wide-spread changes in gene expression in HepG2 cells. Differentially expressed genes caused by altered TMEM2 gene expression were associated with multiple biological processes linked with viral infection and various signaling pathways. KEGG analysis revealed that many of th...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 23, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jia X, Mo Z, Zhao Q, Bao T, Xu W, Gao Z, Peng L, Zhu X Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Characterization of a novel shell matrix protein with vWA domain from Mytilus coruscus.
Abstract Mollusk shell is a product of biomineralization with excellent mechanical properties, and the shell matrix proteins (SMPs) have important functions in shell formation. A vWA domain-containing protein (VDCP) was identified from the shell of Mytilus coruscus as a novel shell matrix protein. The VDCP gene is expressed at a high level in specific locations in the mantle and adductor muscle. Recombinant VDCP (rVDCP) showed abilities to alter the morphology of both calcite and aragonite, induce the polymorph change of calcite, bind calcite, and decrease the crystallization rate of calcite. In addition, immunohi...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sun Q, Jiang Y, Fan M, Zhang X, Xu H, Liao Z Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Amazake made from sake cake and rice koji suppresses sebum content in differentiated hamster sebocytes and improves skin properties in humans.
Abstract Amazake is a traditional Japanese health drink. Here, we examined the effects of amazake on skin in cells and humans. Treatment with sake cake or rice koji suppressed intracellular lipid accumulation in differentiated hamster sebocytes, likely through the reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) mRNA. In double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seventeen Japanese women ingested either amazake or placebo for 4 weeks. Ingestion of the amazake decreased the sebum content compared to the placebo. The questionnaires showed improvements in "face color," ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Maruki-Uchida H, Sai M, Yano S, Morita M, Maeda K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Enhanced lactic acid bacteria viability with yeast coincubation under acidic conditions.
Abstract The enhancing effects of yeasts on the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) under acidic conditions were investigated. Meyerozyma guilliermondii, coaggregative with both LAB strains under acidic conditions, significantly enhanced the viability of Lactobacillus pentosus and L. paracasei in pH 3.0 lactic acid (LA) buffer at 10°C (p 
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hirai S, Kawasumi T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Production of styrene oxide from styrene by a recombinant Escherichia coli with enhanced AcrAB-TolC efflux pump level in an aqueous-organic solvent two-phase system.
Abstract The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump is involved in the organic solvent tolerance of Escherichia coli. Most E. coli strains are highly sensitive to organic solvents such as n-hexane and cyclohexane. Here, a recombinant E. coli transformed with an expression plasmid containing acrAB and tolC became tolerant to n-hexane and cyclohexane. The levels of AcrA, AcrB, and TolC in the recombinant increased by 3- to 5-fold compared to those in the control strain without the plasmid for acrAB or tolC. To investigate the usability of the recombinant as a biocatalyst in an aqueous-organic solvent two-phase system, we further in...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Doukyu N, Iida S Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Analog synthesis of DAMASCENOLIDETM, an important aroma component of roses, and their odor properties.
Abstract DAMASCENOLIDETM [1, 4-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)furan-2(5H)-one], which has a citrus-like odor, is an important aroma component of roses. We have previously reported on the synthesis and odor evaluation of double-bond isomers of 1 and concluded that the position and the geometric isomerism of the double-bond had a significant effect on the odor. For the purpose of deepening knowledge about structure-odor relationships, we synthesized 13 analogs of compound 1 and evaluated their odors. As a result, it was found that the presence of two double-bonds and branched methyl group at the terminal position in the si...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 17, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Miyazawa Y, Kawaguchi K, Katsuta R, Nukada T, Ishigami K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Isoimperatorin (ISO) reduces melanin content in keratinocytes via miR-3619/CSTB and miR-3619/CSTD axes.
Abstract Melanin metabolism disorders may cause severe impacts on the psychological and social activities of patients. Different from the other two steps of melanin metabolism, namely synthesis and transport, little has been known about the mechanism of melanin degradation. Isoimperatorin (ISO) suppressed the activity of tyrosinase, an essential enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, hence, we investigated the effects and mechanism of ISO in melanin reduction. ISO stimulation significantly reduces the melanin contents and PMEL 17 protein levels; meanwhile, the activity and the protein levels of two critical lysosomal enz...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 16, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zeng B, Li K, Yang Z, Wang H, Wang C, Huang P, Pan Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Comprehensive semisyntheses of catathelasmols C, D, and E from D-glutamic acid, utilizing lipase-catalyzed site-selective reactions on intermediates.
Abstract Catathelasmols C, D, and E, which had been isolated from Catathelasma imperiale as inhibitors for 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, were comprehensively semisynthesized from commercially available D-glutamic acid. The key synthetic intermediate, (R)-pentane-1,2,5-triol, was site-selectively acetylated by treatment with vinyl acetate and Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at 25°C to furnish 1,5-diacetate (catathelasmol E, quantitative). The acetylation occurred site-selectively on the primary alcohols at the C-1 and C-5 positions over the secondary alcohol at the C-2 pos...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 14, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hashiba R, Hashimoto R, Nishiguchi M, Kobayashi T, Hanaya K, Higashibayashi S, Sugai T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

MiR-181a-5p is involved in the cardiomyocytes apoptosis induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation through regulating SIRT1.
In conclusion, miR-181a-5p involved in H/R-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis through regulating SIRT1, which might become a novel direction for related diseases. PMID: 32290769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry)
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 14, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Qi M, He L, Ma X, Li Z Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Phytic acid exerts protective effects in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by activating the anti-oxidative protein sestrin2.
Abstract Cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) is a therapeutic strategy for ischemia; however, it usually causes injury by the aspect of inflammation and neuron apoptosis. This investigation aims to investigate the protective effects of phytic acid (IP6) for cerebral I/R injury in vitro. PC-12 cells under Oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) were performed to mimic cerebral I/R. IP6 was pretreated before PC-12 cells under OGD/R treatment. The data showed that IP6 activated the expression of sestrin2 in OGD/R injured PC-12 cells. IP6 inhibited OGD/R induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 14, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Liu J, Li Y, Mei C, Ning X, Pang J, Gu L, Wu L Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Bulleyaconitine A inhibits the lung inflammation and airway remodeling through restoring Th1/Th2 balance in asthmatic model mice.
Abstract The current study aimed to study the effects of Bulleyaconitine A (BLA) on asthma. Asthmatic mice model was established by ovalbumin (OVA) stimulation, and the model mice were treated by BLA. After BLA treatment, the changes in lung and airway resistances, total and differential leukocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected, and the changes in lung inflammation and airway remodeling were observed. Moreover, the secretion of IgE, Th1/Th2-type and IL-17A cytokines in BALF and serum of the asthmatic mice were determined. The resuts showed that BLA attenuated OVA-induced lung and airway ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 14, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Liu L, Wang S, Xing H, Sun Y, Ding J, He N Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Purification and characterization of formaldehyde dismutases of Methylobacterium sp. FD1.
Abstract In the present study, we purified and characterized three formaldehyde dismutases (Fdms) (EC 1.2.98.1) (Fdm1, Fdm2, and Fdm3) of Methylobacterium sp. FD1. These Fdms (with His-tag) were produced in the recombinant E. coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography from the E. coli extracts. In each of the three Fdms, the enzyme-bound coenzyme was nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(H)) and the enzyme-bound metal was zinc. The quaternary structures of these Fdms were estimated as homotetrameric. The optimal pHs and temperatures of Fdm1, Fdm2, and Fdm3 were approximately 6.5, 6.0, and 6.0,...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Imoto S, Yonemitsu H, Totsui N, Kishimoto N Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Characterization of plant immunity-activating mechanism by a pyrazole derivative.
Abstract A newly identified chemical, 4-{3-[(3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]propyl}-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-one (BAPP) was characterized as a plant immunity activator. BAPP enhanced disease resistance in rice against rice blast disease and expression of a defense-related gene without growth inhibition. Moreover, BAPP was able to enhance disease resistance in dicotyledonous tomato and Arabidopsis plants against bacterial pathogen without growth inhibition, suggesting that BAPP could be a candidate as an effective plant activator. Analysis using Arabidopsis sid2-1 and npr1-2 mutants suggested that BAP...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kusajima M, Fujita M, Yamakawa H, Ushiwatari T, Mori T, Tsukamoto K, Hayashi H, Maruyama-Nakashita A, Che FS, Nakashita H Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Comparison of the prebiotic properties of native chicory and synthetic inulins using swine fecal cultures.
Abstract Inulin-type fructans are known to exert different effects on the fermentation profile depending on the average and range of the degree of polymerization (DP). Here, swine fecal cultures were used to investigate the prebiotic properties of native chicory inulin (NIN), extracted from the chicory root, and synthetic inulin (SIN), which has a narrower DP distribution than NIN. Both NIN and SIN showed prebiotic effects, but NIN exhibited a significant decrease in pH and increase in the production of propionate and butyrate compared to SIN. There were also differences in the production of succinate and lactate,...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nakayama Y, Kawasaki N, Tamiya T, Anzai S, Toyohara K, Nishiyama A, Kitazono E Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Exploring the binding pocket of quinone/inhibitors in mitochondrial respiratory complex I by chemical biology approaches.
Abstract NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I) is a key player in mitochondrial energy metabolism. The enzyme couples electron transfer from NADH to quinone with the translocation of protons across the membrane, providing a major proton-motive force that drives ATP synthesis. Recently, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy provided further insights into the structure and functions of the enzyme. However, little is known about the mechanism of quinone reduction, which is a crucial step in the energy coupling process. A variety of complex I inhibitors targeting the quinone-binding site hav...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Murai M Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

The 1975 type Japanese diet improves the gut microbial flora and inhibits visceral fat accumulation in mice.
In this study, the 1975 type Japanese diet was prepared and its effects and related mechanism were examined in mice. Mice were assigned to three experimental groups, the CD group fed a control diet, the MD group fed a modern Japanese diet (MD), and the JD group fed the 1975 type Japanese diet (JD) for 4 weeks. MD and JD were low protein, high fat, and high carbohydrate diets compared to the CD. Total white adipose tissue weights were significantly increased in the MD group compared to those in the CD group and were decreased in the JD group compared to those in the MD group. In the JD group, adipocyte hypertrophy was ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - April 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Asano M, Nakano F, Nakatsukasa E, Tsuduki T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Plant growth regulators and Axl and immune checkpoint inhibitors from the edible mushroom Leucopaxillus giganteus.
Abstract A novel compound, (R)-4-ethoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid (1), and six known compounds (2-7) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the wild edible mushroom Leucopaxillus giganteus. The planar structure of 1 was determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by comparing specific rotation of the synthetic compounds. In the plant regulatory assay, the isolated compounds (1-7) and the chemically prepared compounds (8-10) were evaluated their biological activity against the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth. Compounds 1 and 3-10 showed the s...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - March 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Malya IY, Wu J, Harada E, Toda M, D'Alessandro-Gabazza CN, Yasuma T, Gabazza EC, Choi JH, Hirai H, Kawagishi H Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Interaction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide accumulation with nitric oxide production in abscisic acid signaling in guard cells.
Abstract Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO•) concomitantly play essential roles in guard cell signaling. Studies using catalase mutants have revealed that the inducible and constitutive elevations of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have different roles: only the inducible H2O2 production transduces the abscisic acid (ABA) signal leading stomatal closure. However, the involvement of inducible or constitutive NO• productions, if exists, in this process remains unknown. We studied H2O2 and NO• mobilization in guard cells of catalase mutants. Constitutive H2O2 level was higher in the m...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - March 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jannat R, Senba T, Muroyama D, Uraji M, Hossain MA, Islam MM, Nakamura Y, Munemasa S, Mori IC, Murata Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

N-terminal [Glu]3 moiety of γ-glutamyl peptides contributes largely to the activation of human calcium-sensing receptor, a kokumi receptor.
In this study, the relationship between γ-glutamyl peptide structure and hCaSR activity was systematically analyzed using γ-[Glu](n=0-4)-α-[Glu](n=0-3)-Tyr. Our results suggest that N-terminal [Glu]3 moiety is very important for hCaSR activities of γ-glutamyl peptides. PMID: 32202205 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry)
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - March 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yamamoto M, Terada Y, Motoyama T, Shibata M, Saito T, Ito K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Enzymatic preparation of chitooligosaccharides and their anti-obesity application.
Abstract Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are derived from chitosan, which can be used as nutraceuticals and functional foods. Because of their various biological activities, COS are widely used in the food, medicine, agriculture, and other fields. COS were prepared by chitosanase  from Pseudoalteromonas sp. SY39 and their anti-obesity activity was researched in mice in this study. The effects of hydrolysis time, temperature, the ratio of enzyme to chitosan, and pH on the productivity of COS were discussed. Preparation process of COS was established in a 5-L fermenter. COS were characterized and their anti-obesity...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - March 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhou Y, Li S, Li D, Wang S, Zhao W, Lv Z, Li X, Li H, Han Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Effect of light on carotenoid and lipid production in the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.
In this study, R. toruloides was cultured under both light and dark conditions in order to understand the light response involved in lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis. Our results from phenotype and gene expression analysis showed that R. toruloides responded to light by producing darker pigmentation with an associated increase in carotenoid production. Whilst there was no observable difference in lipid production, slight changes in the fatty acid composition were recorded. Furthermore, a two-step response was found in three genes (GGPSI, CAR1, and CAR2) under light conditions and the expression of the gene encoding the ph...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - March 19, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pham KD, Shida Y, Miyata A, Takamizawa T, Suzuki Y, Ara S, Yamazaki H, Masaki K, Mori K, Aburatani S, Hirakawa H, Tashiro K, Kuhara S, Takaku H, Ogasawara W Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research

Vascular plant one-zinc finger 1 (VOZ1) and VOZ2 negatively regulate phytochrome B-mediated seed germination in Arabidopsis.
In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis thaliana mutants vascular plant one-zinc finger 1 (voz1) and voz2 showed higher seed germination percentage than wild type when PhyB was inactivated by far-red light. In wild type, VOZ1 and VOZ2 expression were downregulated after seed imbibition, repressed by PhyB, and upregulated by Phytochrome-interacting factor 1 (PIF1), a key negative regulator of seed germination. Red light irradiation and the voz1voz2 mutation caused increased expression of Gibberellin 3-oxidase 1 (GA3ox1), a gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic gene. We also found that VOZ2 is bound directly to the promote...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - March 18, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Luo D, Qu L, Zhong M, Li X, Wang H, Miao J, Liu X, Zhao X Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research