Fibroblast growth factor 21 improves glucose homeostasis partially via down-regulation of Na+-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in the small intestine
In conclusion, FGF-21 regulates glucose level in diabetes partially due to inhibiting glucose absorption in the SI via inactivating SGK-1 pathway. These results expand our knowledge about how FGF-21 regulates glucose metabolism.Graphical abstract (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Preeclampsia: A close look at renal dysfunction
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Hakimeh Moghaddas Sani, Sepideh Zununi Vahed, Mohammadreza ArdalanAbstractPreeclampsia (PE) is a unique pathophysiologic situation that physiologic interests of mother, fetus, and placenta diverge. PE is related to the increased circulating antiangiogenic factors originated from hypoxic placenta. It is simply defined by the new onset of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) and proteinuria (≥0.3 g/day) after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is associated with kidney dysfunction due to deficiency in podocyte specific vascular en...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy: Antimicrobial mechanisms and clinical application for infections
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Mohammad Yousef Memar, Mina Yekani, Naser Alizadeh, Hossein Bannazadeh BaghiAbstractHyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment procedure that involves breathing 100% O2 for a certain time and under a certain pressure. HBOT is commonly administrated as a primary or alternative therapy for different diseases such as infections. In this paper, we reviewed the general aspect of HBOT procedures, the mechanisms of antimicrobial effects and the application in the treatment of infections. Parts of the antimicrobial effects of HBOT ar...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Stress-driven discovery in the natural products: A gateway towards new drugs
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Syed Shams ul Hassan, Hui-zi Jin, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Abdur Rauf, Muhammad Ishaq, Hafiz Ansar Rasul SuleriaAbstractElicitation by chemical means including heavy metals is one of a novel technique for drug discoveries. In this review, the effect of heavy metals on animal, plants and microorganisms for the production of novel compounds with the unique structures has been discussed. The number of parameters such as metal concentration, type, dose, treatment schedule, duration of metal exposure, and nutrient composition are significant ...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

NK cells in cerebral ischemia
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Chen Chen, Qi-Di Ai, Shi-Feng Chu, Zhao Zhang, Nai-Hong ChenAbstractAs a vital cell type in immune system and infiltrating cells in ischemic brain, NK cells can bridge the crosstalk between immune system and nervous system in stroke setting. The mechanism of action of NK cells is complicated, involving direct and indirect actions. NK cells are closely associated with poststroke inflammation, immunodepression and infections. The excessive inflammatory response in ischemic brain is one of the important causes for aggravating cerebra...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygen and aerobic exercise in the long-term treatment of fibromyalgia: A narrative review
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Kholoud M. El-Shewy, Ahmad Kunbaz, Mohamed M. Gad, Muneer J. Al-Husseini, Anas M. Saad, Yasser M. Sammour, Mohamed M. Abdel-DaimAbstractChronic pain is one of the most common clinical presentations in the primary care settings. In the US, Fibromyalgia (FM) affects about 1–3% of adults and commonly occurs in adults between the ages of 40–50 years. FM causes widespread muscular pain and tenderness with hyperalgesia and allodynia and may be associated with other somatic complaints.Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The renin-angiotensin system as a target to solve the riddle of endocrine pancreas homeostasis
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Francielle Graus-Nunes, Vanessa Souza-MelloAbstractLocal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pancreas is linked to the modulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells and insulin sensitivity in target tissues, emerging as a promising tool in the prevention and/or treatment of obesity, diabetes, and systemic arterial hypertension. Insulin resistance alters pancreatic islet cell distribution and morphology and hypertrophied islets exhibit upregulated angiotensin II type 1 receptor, which drives oxidative st...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dietary composition modulates impact of food-added monosodium glutamate on behaviour, metabolic status and cerebral cortical morphology in mice
In conclusion, the findings suggest that possible interactions that may occur between dietary constituents and MSG are determinants of the effects of food-added MSG in mice.Graphical abstract (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Prevention of pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling and behavioral comorbidities in mice by levetiracetam combined with the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide: Involvement of brain antioxidant and BDNF upregulating properties
In conclusion, our results showed that LIRA can be a promising adjunctive therapy for epilepsy-related neuropsychiatric comorbidities and to improve the management of antiepileptic drug associated behavioral adverse effects.Graphical abstract (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cardio-protective and antioxidant properties of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid: Mechanistic role of angiotensin converting enzyme, cholinesterase and arginase activities in cyclosporine induced hypertensive rats
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Odunayo Michael Agunloye, Ganiyu Oboh, Adedayo Oluwaseun Ademiluyi, Ayokunle Olubode Ademosun, Akintunde Afolabi Akindahunsi, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Temitayo Olabisi Ajibade, Adeolu Alex AdedapoAbstractCaffeic acid (CAA) and chlorogenic acid (CHA) are important members of hydroxycinnamic acid with natural antioxidant and cardio-protective properties. The present study aimed to determine the effect of CAA and CHA on systolic blood pressure, heart rates (HR) as well as on the activity of the angiote...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Teneligliptin protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced endothelial cell injury
In this study, we investigated the effect of teneligliptin on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced endothelial cell injury in rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs). We showed that teneligliptin pretreatment suppressed H/R-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression and promoted glutathione production. Teneligliptin pretreatment reduced H/R-induced LDH release and improved cell viability. Teneligliptin significantly relieved the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) induced by H/R. Moreover, teneligliptin suppressed H/R-induced cytokine production and pro...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ovarian carcinoma biological nanotherapy: Comparison of the advantages and drawbacks of lipid, polymeric, and hybrid nanoparticles for cisplatin delivery
In this study, DDP loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (DDP-NLC), polymeric NPs (DDP-PNP), and lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles (DDP-LPN) were prepared for the evaluation in vitro and in vivo. The efficiency of these three kinds of the NPs was compared in terms of in vitro drug release, cellular uptake, in vitro cell growth inhibition, in vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and in vivo antitumor in mice. The size of DDP-PNP (119.8 nm) was smaller than DDP-NLC (132.4 nm) and DDP-LPN (141.2 nm). The release of DDP from DDP-NLC was faster than DDP-PNP. Cellular uptake efficiency of DDP-NLC and...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Triterpenoids from fruits of Sorbus pohuashanensis inhibit acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in mice
In this study, triterpenoids (Trds) which are mainly composed of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, were isolated and prepared from fruits of Sorbus pohuashanensis. Further, the effect of Trds against APAP-induced liver injury and the pharmacological mechanism were investigated. The results showed that Trds treatment significantly restrained the increase of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as evidently reversed the decrease of hepatic superoxide d...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Baicalein stimulates fibroblast growth factor 21 expression by up-regulating retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α in C2C12 myotubes
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Takao Hirai, Kohei Nomura, Rie Ikai, Ken-ichi Nakashima, Makoto InoueAbstractRetinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) α has been implicated in various physiological functions, including the immune system, inflammation, and circadian rhythms. In the present study, the synthetic RORα/γ agonist SR1078 stimulated the production and gene expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in C2C12 myotubes. FGF21, a member of the FGF family, plays important roles in the regulation of peripheral glucose toler...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bile acids elicited endothelium-dependent vasoconstrictor hypo-activity through TRPV4 channels in the thoracic aorta of bile duct ligation rats
In this study, we first determined that bile acids elicited endothelium-dependent vasoconstrictor hypo-activity via TRPV4 channels, which further activated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Myography results demonstrated that the vascular contractile response was attenuated in BDL rats when exposed to 60 mmol/L KCl. Real time PCR and western blotting results showed that bile duct ligation (BDL) induced a time-dependent increase in TRPV4 expression levels. In addition, bile acids upregulated the expression of TRPV4 protein, which proved to be located on the cell surface of endothelial cells, and induced intracellular Ca2+ eve...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Increased expression of LINC01510 predicts poor prognosis and promotes malignant progression in human non-small cell lung cancer
This study aimed to characterize the biological role of LINC01510 in NSCLC and illuminate the molecular mechanisms. Here we found that LINC01510 was highly expressed in NSCLC tissues. Besides, Fisher’s exact test showed that high expression of LINC01510 was associated with larger tumor size, advanced TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with high LINC01510 expression had a much lower overall survival rate. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches were employed to investigate the effects of LINC01510 on NSCLC cell phenotypes. Functional studies demonstrated that LINC015...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Possible neuroprotective mechanisms of action involved in the neurobehavioral property of naringin in mice
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Benneth Ben-Azu, Ekene Enekabokom Nwoke, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Itivere Adrian Omogbiya, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Elizabeth Toyin Olonode, Solomon Umukoro, Ezekiel O. IwalewaAbstractFlavonoids are naturally occurring bioactive phytochemical metabolites widely known to prevent and suppress several human diseases, and are important sources of therapeutic compounds from plants. Evidence derived from previous studies suggests that naringin, a neuroactive flavonoid possess functional beneficial neurobehavioral effects including anxi...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Gambogic acid induces heme oxygenase-1 through Nrf2 signaling pathway and inhibits NF-κB and MAPK activation to reduce inflammation in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Jie Ren, Lixia Li, Yue Wang, Jingchen Zhai, Guangtong Chen, Kun HuAbstractGambogic acid (GA), a natural product with a xanthone structure, was previously demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of GA on LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 and its anti-inflammatory mechanism. Pretreatment with GA inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) through reducing the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ginkgolide B enhances gemcitabine sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cell lines via inhibiting PAFR/NF-кB pathway
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Changjie Lou, Haibo Lu, Zhigang Ma, Chao Liu, Yanqiao ZhangAbstractGemcitabine resistance will occur by time after the initial response in pancreatic cancer. Ginkgolide B (GB), a major terpene lactone component of Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a highly selective and competitive inhibitor for platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of GB on gemcitabine sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability assay, flow cytometry, dual luciferase reporter assay and...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Combined treatment with Cinnamaldehyde and β-TCP had an additive effect on bone formation and angiogenesis in critical size calvarial defect in ovariectomized rats
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): She-Ji Weng, De-Yi Yan, Jia-Hao Tang, Zi-Jian Shen, Zong-Yi Wu, Zhong-Jie Xie, Jia-Yi Yang, Bing-Li Bai, Liang Chen, Viraj Boodhun, Lin Yang, Xiang Da (Eric) Dong, Lei YangAbstractAccumulating evidence suggests that improvements in osteogenesis and angiogenesis play an important role in repairing osteoporotic bone defects. Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is reported to show anabolic effects on osteoblasts. However, whether C. cassia could actually repair bone defects in osteoporotic conditions ...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Extracellular calcium influx through L-type calcium channels, intracellular calcium currents and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling are involved in the abscisic acid-induced precognitive and anti-anxiety effects
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Reyhaneh Naderi, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Mehdi AbbasnejadAbstractAbscisic acid (ABA), a critical phytohormone, is also produced in animal tissues. It has been reported that ABA has pro-cognitive and anti-anxiety effects in rats. However, its detailed mechanism has not yet been clarified. Here, the possible roles of extracellular and intracellular calcium store and ERK signaling were evaluated in pro-cognitive and anti-anxiety effects of ABA. Morris water maze (MWM) and plus maze tests were used to evaluate the learning and memory a...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Co-administration of the low dose of orexin and nitrergic antagonists induces an antidepressant-like effect in mice
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Sahar Alijanpour, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza ZarrindastAbstractIt is now well-established that orexins (OXs) and their receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Considering the evidence indicating the importance of nitric oxide (NO) system in the mood modulation, this study investigated the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of orexin 1 (OX1) receptor antagonist -SB334867- alone or in combination with NO agents on depression using the forced swimming test (FST), tail s...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Up-regulation of miR-383-5p suppresses proliferation and enhances chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer cells by targeting TRIM27
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Jing Jiang, Chuanmei Xie, Yujuan Liu, Qi Shi, Yan ChenAbstractMicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which play important roles in tumor progression. MiR-383-5p has been characterized as a cancer suppressor in several cancers. The aim of theses present study was to explore the role of miR-383-5p in the proliferation and chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells. MiR-383-5p expression was down-regulated while the expression of TRIM27 was up-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. We came up with the hypothesis that miR-383-...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Atorvastatin alleviates early hypertensive renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats
This study aimed to examine the effects of atorvastatin on early hypertensive renal damage and explored the underlying mechanisms. 12-week-old salt-loaded spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) were divided into four groups: atorvastatin (AVT), losartan potassium (LP), atorvastatin combined with peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) inhibitor (AVT + GW9662), and saline. During 10 weeks administration blood pressure and urea albumin creatinine ratio were determined. We also examined the renal function, pathological changes of kidney, inflammatory cytokines in the serum and the associ...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian green propolis modulates inflammatory process in mice submitted to a low protein diet
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Marina Barcelos de Miranda, Mariana Ferreira Lanna, Ana Luiza Barros Nascimento, Carmen Aparecida de Paula, Marcelo Eustáquio de Souza, Mariane Felipetto, Lucíola da Silva Barcelos, Sandra Aparecida Lima de MouraAbstractThe occurrence of inflammation and protein malnutrition is an aggravating risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the clinical setting. The green propolis, a natural product made by Apis mellifera bees from Baccharis dracunculifolia resin, has therapeutic potential to modulate chronic inflammation....
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Aminophenols increase proliferation of thyroid tumor cells by inducing the transcription factor activity of estrogen receptor α
In this study, the transcription factor activity of ERα in BHP10-3 cells (a thyroid tumor cell line) was examined using luciferase assays. The promoter recruitment of ERα was examined using chromatin co-precipitation (ChIP). Additionally, in an in vivo study, BHP10-3 cells were transplanted into nude mice. Upon administration of aminophenols, the transcription factor activity of ERα was significantly increased in BHP10-3 cells, and the recruitment of ERα to the promoter of its target gene was increased. Aminophenols enhanced the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of BHP10-3 cells. By discovering tha...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tabernaemontana catharinensis leaves effectively reduce the irritant contact dermatitis by glucocorticoid receptor-dependent pathway in mice
ConclusionThe results confirm the topical popular use ofT.catharinensis leaves in the treatment of skin inflammation and demonstrate the TcE’ potential for the development of a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent to treat inflammatory disorders.Graphical abstract (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Early administration of empagliflozin preserved heart function in cardiorenal syndrome in rat
This study tested the hypothesis that early administration of empagliflozin (Empa), an inhibitor of glucose recycling in renal tubules, could preserve heart function in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) in rat. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was caused by 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by doxorubicin (DOX) treatment. In vitro results showed that protein expressions of cleaved-caspase3 and autophagy activity at 24 h/48 h in NRK-52P cells were significantly upregulated by para-Creso treatment; these were significantly downregulated by Empa treatment. Flow cytometric analysis showed that annexi...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Response to “Effect of monacolin K and COQ10 supplementation in hypertensive and hypercholesterolemic subjects with metabolic syndrome”
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Marilyn K. Schoenle, Stephanie L. Ballard (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Occurrence, chemical composition, biological activities and analytical methods on Copaifera genus—A review
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Caroline Arruda, Jennyfer Andrea Aldana Mejía, Victor Pena Ribeiro, Carly Henrique Gambeta Borges, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins, Rodrigo Cássio Sola Veneziani, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Jairo Kenupp BastosAbstractCopaifera is a genus of large trees found in Brazil, mainly in Amazon forest, but also in Atlantic forest and cerrado biomes. It has also been found in other countries in South America. In Africa, it is found mainly in Congo, Cameroon, Guinea and Angola. Its oleoresin has been used in folk medi...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Targeting gap junction in epilepsy: Perspectives and challenges
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Qin Li, Qiu-Qi Li, Ji-Ning Jia, Zhao-Qian Liu, Hong-Hao Zhou, Xiao-Yuan MaoAbstractGap junctions (GJs) are multiple cellular intercellular connections that allow ions to pass directly into the cytoplasm of neighboring cells. Electrical coupling mediated by GJs plays a role in the generation of highly synchronous electrical activity. Accumulative investigations show that GJs in the brain are involved in the generation, synchronization and maintenance of seizure events. At the same time, GJ blockers exert potent curative potential o...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The SUMO-specific protease family regulates cancer cell radiosensitivity
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Chenxi Hu, Xiaodong JiangAbstractAbnormalities in the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) pathway and the SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs) pathway are frequently observed in cancer. SUMOylation and deSUMOylation are dynamic processes in cells. SUMOylation of cancer-associated proteins may serve as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis and a target for cancer therapy. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have focused on the role of SENPs in the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. SENPs regulate cancer cell radiosensitivity ...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Regulatory mechanisms of miR-145 expression and the importance of its function in cancer metastasis
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Tahereh Zeinali, Behzad Mansoori, Ali Mohammadi, Behzad BaradaranAbstractMicroRNAs are post-transcriptional mediators of gene expression and regulation, which play influential roles in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis. The expression of tumor suppressor miR-145 is reduced in various cancer cell lines, containing both solid tumors and blood malignancies. However, the responsible mechanisms of its down-regulation are a complicated network. miR-145 is potentially able to inhbit tumor cell metastasis by targeting of multiple oncoge...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Stem cells as therapy for heart disease: iPSCs, ESCs, CSCs, and skeletal myoblasts
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Reza Rikhtegar, Masoud Pezeshkian, Sanam Dolati, Naser Safaie, Abbas Afrasiabi Rad, Mahdi Mahdipour, Mohammad Nouri, Ahmad Reza Jodati, Mehdi YousefiAbstractHeart Diseases are serious and global public health concern. In spite of remarkable therapeutic developments, the prediction of patients with Heart Failure (HF) is weak, and present therapeutic attitudes do not report the fundamental problem of the cardiac tissue loss. Innovative therapies are required to reduce mortality and limit or abolish the necessity for cardiac transpla...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Fungal vaccines, mechanism of actions and immunology: A comprehensive review
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Sanam Nami, Rasoul Mohammadi, Mahshid Vakili, Kimia Khezripour, Hamed Mirzaei, Hamid MorovatiAbstractFungal infections include a wide range of opportunistic and invasive diseases. Two of four major fatal diseases in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are related to the fungal infections, cryptococcosis, and pneumocystosis. Disseminated candidiasis and different clinical forms of aspergillosis annually impose expensive medical costs to governments and hospitalized patients and ultimately lead to high mortali...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Role of vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in oral cancer
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Nazanin Fathi, Elham Ahmadian, Shahriar Shahi, Leila Roshangar, Haroon Khan, Maryam Kouhsoltani, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Simin SharifiAbstractOral cancer is known as one of the most common cancers, with a poor prognosis, related to delayed clinical diagnosis, either due to the lack of particular biomarkers related to the disease or costly therapeutic alternatives. Vitamin D executes its functions by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR), both in healthy and diseased individuals, including oral cancer. This review discusses th...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The impact of Keap1/Nrf2, P38MAPK/NF-κB and Bax/Bcl2/caspase-3 signaling pathways in the protective effects of berberine against methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity
In conclusion, the current findings indicated that co-administration of BBR with MTX may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for attenuation of MTX -induced renal damage.Graphical abstract (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Carvedilol (CAR) combined with carnosic acid (CAA) attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by suppressing excessive oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Qiu-Lan Zhang, Jing-Jie Yang, Hong-Sheng ZhangAbstractDoxorubicin (DOX) is a wide spectrum antitumor drug. However, its clinical application is limited due to the cardiotoxicity. Carvedilol (CAR) is a β-blocker used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. Accordingly, supplementation with natural antioxidants or plant extracts exerts protective effects against various injury in vivo. Carnosic acid (CAA), the principal constituent of rosemary, has various biological activities, including antioxidant, antitumor, and ant...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Protective effects of Astragaloside IV on endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced renal tubular epithelial cells apoptosis in type 2 diabetic nephropathy rats
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Yinghui Ju, Yong Su, Qingqing Chen, Keke Ma, Tianjiao Ji, Zhongyuan Wang, Weizu Li, Weiping LiAbstractDiabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Renal tubular injury plays an important role in the development and progression of DN. And apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) contribute to the loss of renal function, increased levels of serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urine total protein to urine creatinine and microalbuminuria and reduction of c...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Trichosanthes kirilowii lectin ameliorates streptozocin-induced kidney injury via modulation of the balance between M1/M2 phenotype macrophage
ConclusionsThe study for the first time showed that TKL attenuated deterioration in renal structure and function by increasing M2 macrophage proportion via inhibition of Notch signaling. (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The nephroprotective properties of taurine in colistin-treated mice is mediated through the regulation of mitochondrial function and mitigation of oxidative stress
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Reza Heidari, Shima Behnamrad, Zahra Khodami, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Negar Azarpira, Afsaneh VazinAbstractColistin (COL) belongs to the polymixin class of antibiotics used as the last line antibiotic against drug-resistant infections. However, nephrotoxicity is the major deleterious and dose-limiting side effect associated with COL therapy. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment are suspected mechanisms involved in COL-induced nephrotoxicity. Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the human body with antioxidant...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Farrerol attenuates β-amyloid-induced oxidative stress and inflammation through Nrf2/Keap1 pathway in a microglia cell line
In conclusion, farrerol attenuated Aβ-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in BV-2 cells through enhancing the activation of Nrf2/Keap1 pathway. The findings indicated that farrerol could be considered as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the anti-asthmatic and antitussive potentials of methanol leaf extract of Napoleona vogelii in rodents
This study evaluated antiasthmatic and antitussive properties of its methanol leaf extract (NVE) in rodents. Phytochemical screening was conducted using established methods. Acute oral toxicity test was done in mice and guinea pigs. Ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs were orally pretreated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of NVE or 0.5 mg/kg/day of salbutamol for 14 days before exposure to 0.2% histamine aerosol. Latency to preconvulsive dyspnea (PCD), tracheal fluid volume (TFV), flow rate (FR), and tracheal morphometry (TM) were evaluated. Tracheal rings from sensitized guinea pigs were tested in organ bat...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

MiR-221-3p is down-regulated in preeclampsia and affects trophoblast growth, invasion and migration partly via targeting thrombospondin 2
This study examined the role of miR-221-3p in trophoblast growth, invasion and migration, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that miR-221-3p was down-regulated in placental tissues from PE patients compared to heathy controls as measured by quantitative real-time PCR assay. CCK-8 assay, Transwell invasion assay and wound healing assay showed that miR-221-3p overexpression promoted trophoblast (HTR-8/SVneo cells) growth, invasion and migration, and knockdown of miR-221-3p exerted the opposite effects. Flow cytometry experiments further demonstrated that miR-221-3p overexpression inhibited apoptosis, ...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Exendin-4 promotes actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and protects cells from Nogo-A-Δ20 mediated spreading inhibition and growth cone collapse by down-regulating RhoA expression and activation via the PI3K pathway
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Fei Zhao, jianwei Li, Renjie Wang, Huiyou Xu, Ke Ma, Xianbin Kong, Zhonglei Sun, Xuegang Niu, Jipeng Jiang, Baohu Liu, Bo Li, Feng Duan, Xuyi ChenAbstractExendin-4 is a protein of the GLP-1 family currently used to treat diabetes. Recently, a greater number of biological properties have been associated with the GLP-1 family. Our data shows that exendin-4 treatment significantly increases the cytoskeleton rearrangement, which leads to an increasingly differentiated phenotype and reduced cell migration. We also found that exendin-4 ...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of ternary copper(II) complexes and in vivo evaluation of the most promising complex
Publication date: January 2019Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 109Author(s): Drielly A. Paixão, Carla D. Lopes, Zumira A. Carneiro, Luana M. Sousa, Leticia P. de Oliveira, Norberto P. Lopes, Marcos Pivatto, Joana Darc S. Chaves, Mauro V. de Almeida, Javier Ellena, Mariete B. Moreira, Adelino V.G. Netto, Ronaldo J. de Oliveira, Silvana Guilardi, Sérgio de Albuquerque, Wendell GuerraAbstractIn order to improve the previously observed antichagasic activity of Cu(II) complexes containing 2-chlorobenzhydrazide (2-CH), we report herein the synthesis and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of novel copp...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Adrenomedullin and glucagon-like peptide-1 have additive effects on food intake in mice
In conclusion, we demonstrate additive anorectic effects of ADM and GLP-1, and that GLP-1 co-administration prevents ADM-induced impairment of glucose tolerance, suggesting that ADM could be potential anti-obesity target when combined with GLP-1 agonist therapy.Graphical abstractAdrenomedullin and GLP-1 shows additive effects on acute food intake in mice. (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Association between catatonia and levels of hair and serum trace elements and minerals in autism spectrum disorder
The objective of the study was to investigate the association between catatonia in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the levels of hair and serum trace elements and minerals in children with ASD. The levels of hair and serum trace elements and minerals of boys suffering from ASD with (n = 30) and without (n = 30) catatonia, as well as 30 age- and sex-matched neurotypical controls were assessed using ICP-MS. Hair calcium (Ca) and selenium (Se) levels were lower in ASD patients as compared to the controls. Hair mercury (Hg) levels in ASD patients were more than 3-fold and 2-fold higher as compare...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The neurovascular protective effect of alogliptin in murine MCAO model and brain endothelial cells
In this study, we investigated the neurovascular protective effects of alogliptin both in vivo and in vitro. In a murine middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model, administration of alogliptin ameliorated cerebral infarction and disruption of brain vascular permeability, and restored expression of the endothelial tight junction proteins occludin and zona occludens 1 (ZO-1). In brain vascular endothelial cells exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R), alogliptin prevented OGD/R-induced high permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Alogliptin treatment recovered the reduction in occludin and...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Involvement of AMPK activation in the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by Ficus carica leaf extract in diabetic mice and HepG2 cells
In conclusion, FCL extract inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of AMPK and down-regulation of gluconeogenic enzymes.Graphical abstractAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays pivotal roles in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. PEPCK, G6pase, PGC-1α, FOXO1, HNF4α are the key enzymes and transcription factors in gluconeogenesis. PGC-1α, FOXO1, HNF4α can regulate G6Pase and PEPCK enzymes gene expression. (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - November 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research