Three-dimensional cultured liver-on-a-Chip with mature hepatocyte-like cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells.
Abstract Liver-on-a-Chip technology holds considerable potential for applications in drug screening and chemical-safety testing. To establish such platforms, functional hepatocytes are required; however, primary hepatocytes are commonly used, despite problems involving donor limitations, lot-to-lot variation, and unsatisfactory two-dimensional culture methods. Although human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) may represent a strong alternative contender to address the aforementioned issues, remaining technological challenges include the robust, highly efficient production of high-purity hepatic clusters. In addition, ...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Kamei KI, Yoshioka M, Terada S, Tokunaga Y, Chen Y Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Fabrication of a polycarbonate microdevice and boronic acid-mediated surface modification for on-chip sample purification and amplification of foodborne pathogens.
In this study, we integrated sample purification and genetic amplification in a seamless polycarbonate microdevice to facilitate foodborne pathogen detection. The sample purification process was realized based on the increased affinity of the boronic acid-modified surface toward the cis-diol group present on the bacterial outer membrane. The modification procedure was conducted at room temperature using disposable syringe. The visible color and fluorescence signals of alizarin red sodium were used to confirm the success of the surface modification process. Escherichia coli O157:H7 containing green fluorescence protein (GFP...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: La HC, Lee NY Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Implantable microchip containing oxygen-sensing paramagnetic crystals for long-term, repeated, and multisite in vivo oximetry.
In this report, we describe the development of a substantially smaller version of OxyChip (0.07 mm3 or 70 cubic micron), called mChip, that can be placed in the tissue of interest using a 23G syringe-needle with minimal invasiveness. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we have shown that the microchip provides adequate EPR sensitivity, stability, and biocompatibility and thus enables robust, repeated, and simultaneous measurement from multiple implants providing mean and median pO2 values in the implanted region. The mChips will be particularly useful for those applications that require repeated measurements of mean/me...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Kmiec MM, Tse D, Mast JM, Ahmad R, Kuppusamy P Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Ejection of cell laden RPMI-1640 culture medium by Electrohydrodynamic method.
Abstract Sample deposition based on micro-droplet ejection has broad application prospects in the field of biomedicine. Ejection of RPMI-1640 medium (with and without cells) is investigated experimentally using a home-build electrohydrodynamic (EHD) ejection system, consisting of a liquid supplier and a nozzle, a high voltage source, a droplet collector, and a high speed photography module. High electric voltage is applied between the nozzle and the droplet collector. The liquid surface is electrically charged and the ejection takes place when electric force overcomes the surface tension. The ejection process is s...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Haiyi Z, Can W, Ruiwen J, Fei W, Yiwei W, Zhihai W, Xi C, Xiaolin W, Jingang G Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

POISED-5, a portable on-board electrochemical impedance spectroscopy biomarker analysis device.
Abstract Point-of-care medical devices offer the potential for rapid biomarker detection and reporting of medical conditions, thereby bypassing the requirements for offline clinical laboratory facilities in many cases. Label-free electrochemical techniques are suitable for use in handheld diagnostic devices due the inherent electronic detection modality and low requirement for processing reagents. While electrochemical impedance sensing is widely used in tissue analysis such as body composition measurement, its use in point-of-care patient testing is yet to be widely adopted. Here we have considered a number of is...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Sawhney MA, Conlan RS Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

New opportunities for creating man-made bioarchitectures utilizing microfluidics.
Abstract Cells are the basic units of life, and can be mimicked to create artificial analogs enabling the investigation of cellular mechanisms under controlled conditions. Building biomimetic systems ranging from proto-cells to cell-like objects such as compartment membranes can be achieved by collecting biobricks that self-assemble to build simplified models performing specific functions. Hence, scientists can develop and optimize new synthetic cells with biological functions by taking inspiration from nature and exploiting the advantages of synthetic biology. However, the bottom-down approach is not restricted t...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Damiati S Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Fabrication of sponge-forming microneedle patch for rapidly sampling interstitial fluid for analysis.
Abstract Microneedle (MN) patch has been used for collecting dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) containing biomarkers from patients with safety, pain-free and easy-to-use manner. However, long sampling time for biomarkers analysis still poses a significant challenge. Here, we describe a new sponge-forming MN patch consisting of polyvinyl formal (PVF) for rapidly extracting ISF from skin. Owing to the supreme water affinity of PVF, this MN patch can extract 1.6 mg ISF in 1 min without the assistance of extra devices, which remarkably facilitates timely analysis. The MN patch had preserved structural integrit...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Chen J, Wang M, Ye Y, Yang Z, Ruan Z, Jin N Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Dermatotoxicology of microneedles (MNs) in man.
Abstract Developed within the last few decades, microneedles (MNs) have only recently seen wide-scale use among the general population, especially in the area of cosmetics. With the FDA only starting to regulate microneedling devices and the many new microneedling products that enter the modern global market, it is of utmost importance to establish the safety profile and reasonable expectations of the microneedling practice and its products. In our review of current literature, the authors searched the keyword "microneedle" with the following terms: "safety", "side effect", "toxi...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Cary JH, Li BS, Maibach HI Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Multi-purpose machine vision platform for different microfluidics applications.
Abstract Image processing is widely growing as a useful tool in biosensing applications. It can be used to convert any camera/microscope into an optical sensor with wide range of capabilities such as monitoring completion of colorimetric reactions, differentiating and counting cells, and tracking motile cells/organisms. However, implementation of image processing in Lab-on-Chip devices is still challenging for researchers with little expertise in this field. Here, we present a multi-purpose real-time machine vision platform for tracking and analyzing objects inside lab-on-chip devices and for automating many micro...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Esmaeel AM, ElMelegy TTH, Abdelgawad M Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

CoCrMo alloys ions release behavior by TiNbN coating: an in vitro study.
Abstract The aim of the study was to show in vitro the greater inertness to the corrosion body fluid of TiNbN coating than the CoCrMo alloy substrate. The prosthetic component under study was a femoral component of total knee prosthesis in CoCrMo alloy coated in TiNbN with Physical Vapor Deposition technique immersed in static Hank's balanced salt solution (HBS) (pH = 6) for at least 34 months at a constant temperature of 37 °C. Another uncoated prosthetic component of CoCrMo alloy with the same type and size was left in static immersion in the same solution and for the same period of t...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Ragone V, Canciani E, Biffi CA, D'Ambrosi R, Sanvito R, Dellavia C, Galliera E Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Sensitive detection of lung cancer biomarkers using an aptameric graphene-based nanosensor with enhanced stability.
We present an electrolyte-gated graphene field effect transistor (GFET) nanosensor using aptamer for rapid, highly sensitive and specific detection of a lung cancer biomarker interleukin-6 (IL-6) with enhanced stability. The negatively charged aptamer folds into a compact secondary conformation upon binding with IL-6, thus altering the carrier concentration of graphene and yielding a detectable change in the drain-source current Ids. Aptamer has smaller size than other receptors (e.g. antibodies), making it possible to bring the charged IL-6 more closely to the graphene surface upon affinity binding, thereby enhancing the ...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Hao Z, Pan Y, Huang C, Wang Z, Zhao X Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

A hinge-based aligner for fast, large-scale assembly of microfluidic chips.
Abstract Microfluidics has shown its vitality in scientific research. But the lack of fast and straightforward approaches for aligning chip and easy-to-control on-chip valve still prevent microfluidic chips from becoming powerful commercial products. This work presents an aligner based on hinge structures, which we call a "hinge aligner", for aligning microfluidic chips. Two flat chip holders are connected by a connecting rod so that the chip holders can rotate relative to each other along the connecting rod, in the way a hinge works. The two chip holders contain pre-designed recesses for placing two chi...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Mou L, Hu B, Zhang J, Jiang X Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Low density culture of mammalian primary neurons in compartmentalized microfluidic devices.
Abstract This paper demonstrates the fabrication of a compartmentalized microfluidic device with docking sites to position a single neuron or a cluster of 5-6 neurons along with varying length of microgrooves and the optimization process for culturing primary mammalian neurons at low densities. The principle of centrifugation was employed to situate cells in desired locations followed by the application of a fluid flow to remove the extra or unwanted cells lying in the vicinity of the located neurons. The neuronal cell density was optimized by seeding 103 cells and 104 cells/microfluidic device. The speed of centr...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Poddar S, Parasa MK, Vajanthri KY, Chaudhary A, Pancholi UV, Sarkar A, Singh AK, Mahto SK Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

A multilayered sheet-type device capable of sustained drug release and deployment control.
Abstract Minimally invasive delivery of a sustained drug release device to the body is a promising approach for treating chronic conditions such as retinal diseases. Herein, we describe a sheet-type device capable of sustained drug release and deployment control after being applied to the body through a small opened hole via a syringe-type injector. Such device consists of a four-layered structure of thin photopolymerized sheets, which are in turn made of different ratios of a mixture of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDM) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDM). A layer containing a model drug, i.e.,...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - July 1, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Sato Y, Nagai N, Abe T, Kaji H Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Rapid prototyping of Nanoroughened polydimethylsiloxane surfaces for the enhancement of immunomagnetic isolation and recovery of rare tumor cells.
In this study, a simple microfluidic chip featured with nanoroughened channel substrate was developed for effectively capture and release of CTCs based on an immunomagnetic chip-based approach. The nanoroughened substrate aims to increase the cell-surface contact area, facilitate the immobilization of magnet particles (MPs) and accommodate cell attachment tendency. Hep3B tumor cells were firstly conjugated with MPs that were functionalized with anti-EpCAM. Comparing with the flat channel, MPs modified tumor cells can be more effectively captured on nanoroughened substrate at the presence of the magnetic field. Upon the rem...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Zhang L, Li Q, Yang R, Xu Z, Kang Y, Xue P Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Effects of two surface acoustic wave sorting chips on particles multi-level sorting.
Abstract Particle/cell sorting has great potential in medical diagnosis and chemical analysis. Two kinds of microfluidic sorting chips (sequential sorting chip and direct sorting chip) are designed, which combine hydraulic force and acoustic radiation force to achieve continuous sorting of multiple particles. Firstly, the optimal values of the angle (α) between the interdigital transducer (IDT) and the main channel, the peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp), the main flow velocity (Vmax) and the flow ratio (A) are determined by simulation and experiments, the related optimal parameters were obtained that the α&th...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Liu G, He F, Li Y, Zhao H, Li X, Tang H, Li Z, Yang Z, Zhang Y Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

A liver-chip-based alcoholic liver disease model featuring multi-non-parenchymal cells.
Abstract Non-parenchymal cells play a key role in the occurrence and development of alcoholic liver disease. However, this cellular behaviour has not been fully characterized, and it is inconvenient to observe in traditional in vitro alcoholic liver disease (ALD) models and animal models. Herein we developed a demountable liver-on-chip device for investigation of pathophysiological process of individual non-parenchymal cells in alcohol induced ALD. This liver-device comprised of HepG2, LX-2, EAhy926 and U937 cells, which were ordered in a physiological distribution under perfuse. This device allows improved HepG2 ...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 20, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Deng J, Chen Z, Zhang X, Luo Y, Wu Z, Lu Y, Liu T, Zhao W, Lin B Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Functional textiles impregnated with biogenic silver nanoparticles from Bionectria ochroleuca and its antimicrobial activity.
o IS, De Souza AO Abstract Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were obtained throughout the fungal biosynthesis using extracellular filtrate of the epiphytic fungus B. ochroleuca and were incorporated in cotton and polyester fabrics by common impregnation procedure that was repeated once, twice or four times. Both fabrics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the effectiveness of impregnation was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The AgNPs loaded fabrics showed potent antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as well...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 20, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rodrigues AG, Romano de Oliveira Gonçalves PJ, Ottoni CA, de Cássia Ruiz R, Morgano MA, de Araújo WL, de Melo IS, De Souza AO Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Highly aligned and geometrically structured poly(glycerol sebacate)-polyethylene oxide composite fiber matrices towards bioscaffolding applications.
Abstract The biocompatible and biodegradable polymer poly(glycerol sebacate), or PGS, is a rubber-like material that finds use in several biomedical applications. PGS is often cast into a mold to form desired structures; alternatively, blending PGS with other reinforcing polymers produces viscous solutions that can be spun into non-woven fibrous scaffolds. For tissue scaffolding applications, ordered fibrous matrices are advantageous and have been shown to promote cell orientation and proliferation by contact guidance, providing topographical cues for the seeded cells. The development of techniques for easily prod...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: O'Brien D, Hankins A, Golestaneh N, Paranjape M Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Efficacy of eluted antibiotics through 3D printed femoral implants.
Abstract Costs associated with musculoskeletal diseases in the United States account for 5.7% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Weinstein et al. 2018). As such, there is a need to pursue new ideas in orthopaedic implants that can decrease cost and improve patient care. In the recent years, 3D printing of polymers using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) and metals using Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) has opened several exciting possibilities to create customized orthopaedic implants. Such implants can be engineered to release antibiotics in a controlled manner by infusing the drug into the material during man...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Benmassaoud MM, Kohama C, Kim TWB, Kadlowec JA, Foltiny B, Mercurio T, Ranganathan SI Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Target capturing performance of microfluidic channel surface immobilized aptamers: the effects of spacer lengths.
In this study, we investigate the effects of different lengths of oligo-T spacers on surface tethered sgc8 aptamers and their target capturing performances. To achieve this, sgc8 aptamers were immobilized onto microfluidic channel surfaces via oligo-T spacers of different lengths, and the target capturing performances of these immobilized aptamers were studied using CCRF-CEM cells. We demonstrate that the capturing performances of the immobilized aptamers were significantly affected by steric hindrance. Our results also show that aptamers immobilized on surfaces via spacers of ten Ts demonstrated the best cell capturing pe...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Qin Y, Yang X, Zhang J, Cao X Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

High inertial microfluidics for droplet generation in a flow-focusing geometry.
Abstract A numerical study of aqueous droplet generation in a high Reynolds (Re) number air flow was performed in a microfluidic flow-focusing geometry. Droplet breakup mechanisms, flow regime mapping, droplet morphology, and droplet generation frequency were studied in a high initial air flow under various flow conditions. Several flow regimes were identified including dripping, unstable dripping, plugging, stratified flow, multi-satellite droplet formation, and unstable jetting. Unstable dripping, multi-satellite droplet formation, and unstable jetting have been observed as new flow regimes in our study. We foun...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Mastiani M, Seo S, Riou B, Kim M Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Vertical flow paper-based plasmonic device for cysteine detection.
Abstract Cystinuria, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder involving increasingly high levels of poorly soluble cysteine in urine leading to formation of stones. Developing a facile, low-cost, point-of-care and selective sensor for diagnosis of cysteine is imperative. Accordingly, for the detection of cysteine, the present study demonstrates an inexpensive colorimetric, paper-based vertical flow plasmonic micro-well device with a two-minute turn-around time. The method encompasses the use of microbially-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that change from light brown / yellow to dark brown upon binding w...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Mehta SM, Mehta S, Muthurajan H, D'Souza JS Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Cell extraction automation in single cell surgery using the displacement method.
Abstract Micromanipulation is the precise in vitro handling and study of individual biological cells, where the smallest error can be disastrous. One such example is the extraction of cellular material from multicellular organisms, such as cells from early stage embryos. In this paper, we propose automation methods for the extraction and retrieval of individual cells from a multicellular organism in vitro using the displacement method. Computer-controlled syringe pumps and micromanipulators combined with custom computer vision algorithms are used for automated cell extraction and retrieval. Automation feasibility ...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Wong CY, Mills JK Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

A portable microfluidic platform for rapid determination of microbial load and somatic cell count in milk.
The objective of the study is to develop a microfluidic platform for determination of the microbial load and the number of somatic cells in milk. For this purpose, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip with a channel size of 300 μm × 60 μm was produced. Cells/bacteria labeled with fluorescent stain in milk were counted with the proposed microfluidic platform and the results were compared with the reference cell concentration/the bacterial counts by conventional method. It was found that our platform could count somatic and bacterial cells with an accuracy above 80% in 20 min run for ea...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Düven G, Çetin B, Kurtuldu H, Gündüz GT, Tavman Ş, Kışla D Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Inkjet printed microfluidic paper-based analytical device ( μPAD) for glucose colorimetric detection in artificial urine.
This article introduces a novel inkjet printing method for the fabrication of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPADs) with improved analytical performance for colorimetric measurements. Firstly, a hydrophobic boundary was created by wax printing on chromatography paper. Then, chitosan (CHI), 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and enzymatic mixture solvent (glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)) were sequentially printed in the sensing zone. Polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) was mixed with the bienzymatic solution to act as an enzyme stabilizer, forming the printable ink. The resulting μPAD...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Zhang H, Smith E, Zhang W, Zhou A Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Advanced implantable drug delivery technologies: transforming the clinical landscape of therapeutics for chronic diseases.
Abstract Chronic diseases account for the majority of all deaths worldwide, and their prevalence is expected to escalate in the next 10 years. Because chronic disorders require long-term therapy, the healthcare system must address the needs of an increasing number of patients. The use of new drug administration routes, specifically implantable drug delivery devices, has the potential to reduce treatment-monitoring clinical visits and follow-ups with healthcare providers. Also, implantable drug delivery devices can be designed to maintain drug concentrations in the therapeutic window to achieve controlled, con...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - May 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Pons-Faudoa FP, Ballerini A, Sakamoto J, Grattoni A Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Organotropic drug delivery: Synthetic nanoparticles and extracellular vesicles.
Abstract Most clinically approved drugs (primarily small molecules or antibodies) are rapidly cleared from circulation and distribute throughout the body. As a consequence, only a small portion of the dose accumulates at the target site, leading to low efficacy and adverse side effects. Therefore, new delivery strategies are necessary to increase organ and tissue-specific delivery of therapeutic agents. Nanoparticles provide a promising approach for prolonging the circulation time and improving the biodistribution of drugs. However, nanoparticles display several limitations, such as clearance by the immune systems...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - April 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Busatto S, Pham A, Suh A, Shapiro S, Wolfram J Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Polymers for extended-release administration.
Abstract Developing strategies to deliver the required dose of therapeutics into target tissues and cell populations within the body is a principal aim of controlled release and drug delivery. Specifically, there is an interest in developing formulations that can achieve drug concentrations within the therapeutic window, for extended periods of time, with tunable release profiles, and with minimal complication and distress for the patient. To date, drug delivery systems have been developed to serve as depots, triggers, and carriers for therapeutics including small molecules, biologics, and cell-based therapies. No...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - April 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Paolini MS, Fenton OS, Bhattacharya C, Andresen JL, Langer R Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

A quantitative approach for determining the role of geometrical constraints when shaping mesenchymal condensations.
Abstract In embryogenesis, mesenchymal condensation is a critical event during the formation of many organ systems, including cartilage and bone. During organ formation, mesenchymal cells aggregate and undergo compaction while activating developmental programmes. The final three-dimensional form of the organ, as well as cell fates, can be influenced by the size and shape of the forming condensation. This process is hypothesized to result from multiscale cell interactions within mesenchymal microenvironments; however, these are complex to investigate in vivo. Three-dimensional in vitro models that recapitulate key ...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - April 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Onesto V, Barrell WB, Okesola M, Amato F, Gentile F, Liu KJ, Chiappini C Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

A tissue chamber chip for assessing nanoparticle mobility in the extravascular space.
Abstract Although a plethora of nanoparticle configurations have been proposed over the past 10 years, the uniform and deep penetration of systemically injected nanomedicines into the diseased tissue stays as a major biological barrier. Here, a 'Tissue Chamber' chip is designed and fabricated to study the extravascular transport of small molecules and nanoparticles. The chamber comprises a collagen slab, deposited within a PDMS mold, and an 800 μm channel for the injection of the working solution. Through fluorescent microscopy, the dynamics of molecules and nanoparticles was estimated within the gel,...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - April 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Lusi V, Moore TL, Laurino F, Coclite A, Perreira R, Ferreira M, Rizzuti I, Palomba R, Zunino P, Duocastella M, Mizrahy S, Peer D, Decuzzi P Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Hang on tight: reprogramming the cell with microstructural cues.
Abstract Cells interact intimately with complex microdomains in their extracellular matrix (ECM) and maintain a delicate balance of mechanical forces through mechanosensitive cellular components. Tissue injury results in acute degradation of the ECM and disruption of cell-ECM contacts, manifesting in loss of cytoskeletal tension, leading to pathological cell transformation and the onset of disease. Recently, microscale hydrogel constructs have been developed to provide cells with microdomains to form focal adhesion binding sites, which enable restoration of cytoskeletal tension. These synthetic anchors can recapit...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - April 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Le LV, Mkrtschjan MA, Russell B, Desai TA Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

In situ three-dimensional printing for reparative and regenerative therapy.
Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging biofabrication technology, driving many innovations and opening new avenues in regenerative therapeutics. The aim of 3D bioprinting is to fabricate grafts in vitro, which can then be implanted in vivo. However, the tissue culture ex vivo carries safety risks and thereby complicated manufacturing equipment and practice are required for tissues to be implanted in the humans. The implantation of printed tissues also adds complexities due to the difficulty in maintaining the structural integrity of fabricated constructs. To tackle this challenge, the concept o...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - April 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Ashammakhi N, Ahadian S, Pountos I, Hu SK, Tellisi N, Bandaru P, Ostrovidov S, Dokmeci MR, Khademhosseini A Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Mathematical modeling in cancer nanomedicine: a review.
Abstract Cancer continues to be among the leading healthcare problems worldwide, and efforts continue not just to find better drugs, but also better drug delivery methods. The need for delivering cytotoxic agents selectively to cancerous cells, for improved safety and efficacy, has triggered the application of nanotechnology in medicine. This effort has provided drug delivery systems that can potentially revolutionize cancer treatment. Nanocarriers, due to their capacity for targeted drug delivery, can shift the balance of cytotoxicity from healthy to cancerous cells. The field of cancer nanomedicine has made sign...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - April 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Dogra P, Butner JD, Chuang YL, Caserta S, Goel S, Brinker CJ, Cristini V, Wang Z Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Investigation of parameters that determine Nano-DC vaccine transport.
Abstract Effective migration of dendritic cells into the lymphatic system organs is the prerequisite for a functional dendritic cell vaccine. We have previously developed a porous silicon microparticle (PSM)-based therapeutic dendritic cell vaccine (Nano-DC vaccine) where PSM serves both as the vehicle for antigen peptides and an adjuvant. Here, we analyzed parameters that determined dendritic cell uptake of PSM particles and Nano-DC vaccine accumulation in lymphatic tissues in a murine model of HER2-positive breast cancer. Our study revealed a positive correlation between sphericity of the PSM particles and their...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - April 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Zhang J, Mai J, Li F, Shen J, Zhang G, Li J, Hinkle LE, Lin D, Liu X, Li Z, Wang RF, Mittendorf EA, Ferrari M, Shen H Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Functionalization of endovascular devices with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.
This study demonstrates proof-of-concept for rapid prototyping of iCMR-specific endovascular interventional devices that can take advantage of the capabilities of iCMR. PMID: 30937546 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical Microdevices)
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - April 1, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Blanco E, Segura-Ibarra V, Bawa D, Nafiujjaman M, Wu S, Liu H, Ferrari M, Lumsden AB, Shah DJ, Lin CH Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Project honeybee: Clinical applications for wearable biosensors.
Abstract Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references. The Project Honeybee Observational Clinical Trials were 12-month studies designed to validate the use of commercially available ambulatory medical devices costing $50-$300 for clinical applications. Each trial had a patient population of about 15-30 subjects with a broad range of disease types including heart failure, diabetes, sepsis, and Parkinson's disease. Over 30 supported proposals were funded in the 4-year period, as well as the creation of a database of all commerc...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - April 1, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Hartwell L, Ross HM, La Belle JT Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Liquid crystal delivery of ciprofloxacin to treat infections of the female reproductive tract.
Abstract Infections of the female reproductive tract are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, requiring significant investment to sustain treatment and representing a major challenge to health. The increasing prevalence of bacterial resistance, and an almost complete absence of new antibiotic therapies for the past five decades, mean there is a desperate need for novel approaches to the treatment of bacterial infections. Within the present study, we demonstrate the effective ex vivo treatment of bacterial infection of the female reproductive tract using a controlled-release, liquid crystal-based pla...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Pisano S, Giustiniani M, Francis L, Gonzalez D, Margarit L, Sheldon IM, Paolino D, Fresta M, Conlan RS, Healey GD Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Chitosan-based composite bilayer scaffold as an in vitro osteochondral defect regeneration model.
Abstract Prolonged osteochondral tissue damage can result in osteoarthritis and decreased quality of life. Multiphasic scaffolds, where different layers model different microenvironments, are a promising treatment approach, yet stable joining between layers during fabrication remains challenging. Here, a bilayer scaffold for osteochondral tissue regeneration was fabricated using thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS). Two distinct polymer solutions were layered before TIPS, and the resulting porous, bilayer scaffold was characterized by seamless interfacial integration and a mechanical stiffness gradient reflec...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Erickson AE, Sun J, Lan Levengood SK, Swanson S, Chang FC, Tsao CT, Zhang M Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Coupling tumor growth and bio distribution models.
er BA Abstract We couple a tumor growth model embedded in a microenvironment, with a bio distribution model able to simulate a whole organ. The growth model yields the evolution of tumor cell population, of the differential pressure between cell populations, of porosity of ECM, of consumption of nutrients due to tumor growth, of angiogenesis, and related growth factors as function of the locally available nutrient. The bio distribution model on the other hand operates on a frozen geometry but yields a much refined distribution of nutrient and other molecules. The combination of both models will enable simulating t...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Santagiuliana R, Milosevic M, Milicevic B, Sciumè G, Simic V, Ziemys A, Kojic M, Schrefler BA Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Microfluidic device for the analysis of MDR cancerous cell-derived exosomes' response to nanotherapy.
In this study, we presented a microfluidic device featured exosome specific anti-CD63 immobilized ciliated micropillars, which were capable to isolate cancer-derived exosomes from cell culture medium. The captured exosomes can be recovered intact by dissolving the cilia on the micropillars using PBS soaking. Owing to the immobilized antibody in the microfluidic device, nearly 70% of exosome from the biofluid could be isolated. So the secreted exosomes of the MDR and ordinary human breast cancer cells pre-treated by free drug or nanotherapy could be isolated with high purity. The drug contents of the isolated exosomes were ...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Qi R, Zhu G, Wang Y, Wu S, Li S, Zhang D, Bu Y, Bhave G, Han R, Liu X Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Engineered microscale hydrogels for drug delivery, cell therapy, and sequencing.
Abstract Engineered microscale hydrogels have emerged as promising therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various diseases. These microgels find wide application in the biomedical field because of the ease of injectability, controlled release of therapeutics, flexible means of synthesis, associated tunability, and can be engineered as stimuli-responsive. While bulk hydrogels of several length-scale dimensions have been used for over two decades in drug delivery applications, their use as microscale carriers of drug and cell-based therapies is relatively new. Herein, we critically summarize the fundamentals of...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Wechsler ME, Stephenson RE, Murphy AC, Oldenkamp HF, Singh A, Peppas NA Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer - from academic research to clinical interventions.
Abstract The National Cancer Institute (NCI) of National Institutes of Health has funded and operated the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer - a large multi-disciplinary program which leverages research at the intersection of molecular biology, oncology, physics, chemistry, and engineering to develop innovative cancer interventions. The program has demonstrated that convergence of several scientific disciplines catalyzes innovation and progress in cancer nanotechnology and advances its clinical translation. This paper takes a look at last thirteen years of the Alliance program operations and delineates its ...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Grodzinski P, Liu CH, Hartshorn CM, Morris SA, Russell LM Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Glioblastoma adhesion in a quick-fit hybrid microdevice.
Abstract Translational research requires reliable biomedical microdevices (BMMD) to mimic physiological conditions and answer biological questions. In this work, we introduce a reversibly sealed quick-fit hybrid BMMD that is operator-friendly and bubble-free, requires low reagent and cell consumption, enables robust and high throughput performance for biomedical experiments. Specifically, we fabricate a quick-fit poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PMMA/PDMS) prototype to illustrate its utilities by probing the adhesion of glioblastoma cells (T98G and U251MG) to primary endothelial cells. In sta...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Tsai HF, Toda-Peters K, Shen AQ Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Influence of the static magnetic field on cell response in a miniaturized optically accessible bioreactor for 3D cell culture.
di MT Abstract Hydraulic sealing is a crucial condition for the maintenance of sterility during long term operation of microfluidic bioreactors. We developed a miniaturized optically accessible bioreactor (MOAB) allowing perfused culture of 3D cellularised constructs. In the MOAB, the culture chambers are sealed by magnets that generate a weak static magnetic field (SMF). Here, we predicted computationally the exact level of SMF to which cells are subjected during culture in the MOAB and we assessed its influence on the viability, metabolic activity and gene expression of neuroblastoma-derived cells cultured up to...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Izzo L, Tunesi M, Boeri L, Laganà M, Giordano C, Raimondi MT Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

CNT bundle-based thin intracochlear electrode array.
CONCLUSION: A thin and flexible CNT bundle-based intracochlear electrode array was successfully developed. The feasibility of the proposed electrode was shown in terms of mechanical and electrochemical characteristics. A proposed CNT bundle-based intracochlear electrode may reduce the risk of trauma during electrode insertion surgery. PMID: 30847585 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical Microdevices)
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 7, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Choi GJ, Gwon TM, Kim DH, Park J, Kim SM, Oh SH, Lim Y, Jun SB, Kim SJ Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Microfluidic chip to interface porous microneedles for ISF collection.
In this study, we developed a microfluidic system with a hydrodynamically designed interface between a porous MN array and microchannels to enable a direct analysis of liquids extracted by the porous MN array. The microfluidic chip with an interface for the MN array was successfully realized by standard MEMS processes, enabling a liquid flow through the whole microfluidic structure. The porous MN array was fabricated by the salt leaching and molding method, which was integrated with the chip and demonstrated the successful extraction of liquids from an agarose gel-based skin phantom. PMID: 30847695 [PubMed - in proces...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 7, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Takeuchi K, Takama N, Kim B, Sharma K, Paul O, Ruther P Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

The relationship between the Young's modulus and dry etching rate of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).
Abstract Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been the pivotal materials for microfluidic technologies with tremendous amount of lab-on-a-chip devices made of PDMS microchannels. While molding-based soft-lithography approach has been extremely successful in preparing various PDMS constructs, some complex features have to been achieved through more complicated microfabrication techniques that involve dry etching of PDMS. Several recipes have been reported for reactive ion etching (RIE) of PDMS; however, the etch rates present large variations, even for the same etching recipe, which poses challenges in adopting this pro...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - March 2, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Fitzgerald ML, Tsai S, Bellan LM, Sappington R, Xu Y, Li D Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Immuno-gold silver staining assays on capillary-driven microfluidics for the detection of malaria antigens.
Abstract Accurate and affordable rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are indispensable but often lacking for many infectious diseases. Specifically, there is a lack of highly sensitive malaria RDTs that can detect low antigen concentration at the onset of infection. Here, we present a strategy to improve the sensitivity of malaria RDTs by using capillary-driven microfluidic chips and combining sandwich immunoassays with electroless silver staining. We used 5 μm fluorescent beads functionalized with capture antibodies (cAbs). These beads are self-assembled by capillary action in recessed "bead lanes", w...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - February 27, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Pham NM, Rusch S, Temiz Y, Beck HP, Karlen W, Delamarche E Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

A novel and reproducible release mechanism for a drug-delivery system in the gastrointestinal tract.
Abstract To establish a reliable, reproducible and accurate release of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract, a novel release mechanism for a controllable drug-delivery system has been investigated. The release mechanism, consisting of a one-way valve for drug release, a drug chamber, two axially magnetized cylindrical permanent magnets and a multi-layer solenoid coil, is hosted in the capsule-shaped shell with diameter 11 mm and length 30 mm. To actuate the coil piston, the two static magnetic fields produced by the two magnets are aligned along the same axis, having the same magnitude, but opposite di...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - February 27, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Guo X, Luo Z, Cui H, Wang J, Jiang Q Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research