The influence of attachment styles on autonomic correlates of perspective-taking.
This study examined the effects of attachment styles on physiological responses during a perspective-taking task. Sixty-eight participants were selected according to attachment styles. Physiological responses were assessed using skin conductance responses (SCRs) in the three attachment groups (secure, insecure-anxious and insecure-avoidant) during the presentation of attachment-based pictures (distress, comfort or neutral) in two different perspective-taking conditions: self perspective-taking (i.e. imagine how you would feel in the given situation) or other perspective-taking (i.e. imagine how that person could feel in th...
Source: Biological Psychology - May 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Henschel S, Nandrino JL, Pezard L, Ott L, Vulliez-Coady L, Doba K Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Neurophysiological correlates of sexually evocative speech.
Abstract Speakers modulate their voice (prosody) to communicate non-literal meanings, such as sexual innuendo (She inspected his package this morning, where "package" could refer to a man's penis). Here, we analyzed event-related potentials to illuminate how listeners use prosody to interpret sexual innuendo and what neurocognitive processes are involved. Participants listened to third-party statements with literal or 'sexual' interpretations, uttered in an unmarked or sexually evocative tone. Analyses revealed: 1) rapid neural differentiation of neutral vs. sexual prosody from utterance onset; (2) N400-...
Source: Biological Psychology - May 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rigoulot S, Jiang X, Vergis N, Pell MD Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

The Reward Positivity: Comparing Visual and Auditory Feedback.
Abstract Past work has demonstrated that the reward positivity (RewP) indexes a feedback-monitoring system sensitive to positive outcomes. Research on the RewP has frequently used simple guessing tasks. In the doors task, participants receive either feedback denoting monetary gain or loss on each trial after choosing one of two doors to "open." Typically, these tasks present visual stimuli on a computer monitor. The current study developed and validate a version of the doors task utilizing auditory stimuli to indicate gains and losses. Thirty-eight young adults completed both a standard visual doors task...
Source: Biological Psychology - May 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Threadgill AH, Ryan J, Jordan C, Hajcak G Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Salivary oxytocin after oxytocin administration: Examining the moderating role of childhood trauma.
This study examined whether salivary oxytocin increased after oxytocin administration and whether trauma attenuated this effect. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study in 100 male adolescents living in residential youth care facilities. Participants self-administered intranasally 24 IU of oxytocin and placebo (one week later) and provided a saliva sample before and 15 min after administration. Salivary oxytocin increased significantly after oxytocin administration, but this effect might be inflated by exogenous oxytocin reaching the throat. Trauma did not moderate this eff...
Source: Biological Psychology - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fragkaki I, Glennon JC, Cima M Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Distinguishing true from false confessions using physiological patterns of concealed information recognition - A proof of concept study.
Abstract Wrongful conviction cases indicate that not all confessors are guilty. However, there is currently no validated method to assess the veracity of confessions. In this preregistered study, we evaluate whether a new application of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a potentially valid method to make a distinction between true and false admissions of guilt. Eighty-three participants completed problem-solving tasks, individually and in pairs. Unbeknownst to the participants, their team-member was a confederate, tempting the participant to break the experimental rules by assisting during an individual assi...
Source: Biological Psychology - May 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Geven L, Ben-Shakhar G, Kassin S, Verschuere B Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

High levels of psychopathic traits increase the risk of transferring reactive aggression to innocent people after provocation: Evidence from an ERP study.
This study investigated the neuropsychological underpinnings of reactive aggression toward innocent people in a student population with different levels of psychopathic traits. While recording event-related potentials, participants (divided into high/low psychopathic [HP/LP] traits groups) competed against two fictitious opponents in a modified Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We found that the HP group compared to the LP group selected more often high-intensity punishment for the second innocent opponent after being provoked by the first opponent. Further, a more negative N2 and a smaller P3 was found in the HP group while pun...
Source: Biological Psychology - May 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wang Y, Yang Q, Zhu B, Ye S, Tian X, Krueger F Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Low cardiac vagal control is associated with genetic liability for elevated triglycerides and risky health behaviors.
We report evidence for shared genetic liability between low CVC and both poor physical health (elevated triglycerides) and risky health-related behaviors (increased drinking and sexual activity). The present findings are consistent with shared genetic liability explaining, at least in part, the well-documented correlation between CVC and health. PMID: 32437905 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biological Psychology)
Source: Biological Psychology - May 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Martin JD, Mann FD, Krueger RF Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

The impact of emotion regulation on cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses.
Abstract Emotion regulation (ER) is vital for healthy adaptation and influences how individuals respond to and recover from stress. We investigated whether ER improves cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses, while taking into account the moderating role of habitual ER tendencies. Eighty-six women applied either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression (vs. control) while undergoing a stressor. Reappraisal decreased heart rate variability (HRV) during stress, but also initiated a stronger post-stress HRV-recovery relative to suppression. This reappraisal-induced cardiac-vagal-flexi...
Source: Biological Psychology - May 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jentsch VL, Wolf OT Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Inflexible Autonomic Responses to Sadness Predict Habitual and Real-World Rumination: A Multi-Level, Multi-Wave Study.
Abstract Inflexibility of the autonomic nervous system is relevant to depression vulnerability, but the downstream behavioral consequences of autonomic inflexibility are not well understood. Rumination, a perseverative thinking style that characterizes depression, is one candidate phenotype relevant to autonomic inflexibility. Undergraduates (N = 134) completed a sadness induction while respiratory sinus arrhythmia was measured, and completed four waves of follow-up over twelve weeks during which rumination and stressful events were measured. Individuals with less parasympathetic flexibility had high...
Source: Biological Psychology - May 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stange JP, Hamilton JL, Shepard R, Wu J, Fresco DM, Alloy LB Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Auditory mismatch processing: role of paradigm and stimulus characteristics as detected by fMRI.
Abstract Auditory mismatch processing is accompanied by activation of a distributed brain network which can be detected by fMRI. However, the impact of different experimental designs such as event-related or block designs and different stimulus characteristics on the auditory mismatch response and the activity of this network remains controversial. In the present study, we applied five auditory mismatch paradigms with standard experimental designs and recorded fMRI in 31 healthy participants. Brain activity was analyzed using general linear models as well as classification approaches. The results stress a greater ...
Source: Biological Psychology - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zvyagintsev M, Zweerings J, Sarkheil P, Bergert S, Baqapuri H, Neuner I, Gaebler AJ, Mathiak K Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Saliency and priority modulation in a pop-out paradigm: pupil size and microsaccades.
Abstract A salient stimulus can trigger a coordinated orienting response consisting of a saccade, pupil, and microsaccadic responses. Saliency models predict that the degree of visual conspicuity of all visual stimuli guides visual orienting. By presenting a multiple-item array that included an oddball colored item (pop-out), randomly mixed colored items (mixed-color), or single-color items (single-color), we examined the effects of saliency and priority (saliency + relevancy) on pupil size and microsaccade responses. Larger pupil responses were produced in the pop-out compared to the mixed-color or ...
Source: Biological Psychology - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wang CA, Huang J, Brien DC, Munoz DP Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Attention bias to infant faces in pregnant women predicts maternal sensitivity.
Abstract While research has shown that attention bias to infant faces is linked to parenting, this work is largely cross-sectional and limited to the postpartum period. Because the transition to motherhood from pregnancy to birth constitutes a sensitive period in cortical reorganization linked to the quality of mother-infant interactions, evaluating attention processes in the maternal cortex prior to the experience of mother-infant face-to-face interactions is critical. To assess behavioural attention and neural responses to infant faces in pregnant mothers, behavioral and electrocortical indices were collected us...
Source: Biological Psychology - April 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dudek J, Haley DW Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

The interactive effect of family conflict history and physiological reactivity on different forms of aggression in young women.
This study investigated how sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system (SNS and PNS) responses to social stress were associated with multiple forms of aggression in an ethnically-diverse sample of young adult females; it further examined whether early life exposure to family conflict moderated these relationships. In the context of high levels of family conflict history, greater SNS activation during a social conflict task was associated with more direct proactive aggression and increasing RSA was associated with more direct reactive aggression. Greater SNS activation during the task was associated with more direct rea...
Source: Biological Psychology - April 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hagan MJ, Waters SF, Holley S, Moctezuma L, Gentry M Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Comparable conditioned pain modulation and augmented blood pressure responses to cold pressor test among resistance exercisers compared to healthy controls.
Abstract Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) test examines central pain inhibitory processing. Aerobically-trained individuals show greater CPM. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding CPM among resistance exercise-trained individuals, although regular engagement in resistance exercise may lead to greater CPM via augmented blood pressure (BP) responses during the CPM test. Therefore, the present study compared CPM and BP responses between resistance exercisers (REs) and controls (n = 15 per group). The participants completed the CPM test to evaluate changes in electrical pain ratings to the ...
Source: Biological Psychology - April 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Umeda M, Okifuji A Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Motivated action: Pupil diameter during active coping.
Abstract Pupil diameter is dynamically modulated by a number of factors, including emotion, motor activity, and attention. Here, pupil modulation was examined as it varies with locus of control during aversive processing. Participants could control aversive exposure either by escape (terminating the event) or avoidance (blocking the event entirely), or they had no control. Highly anxious (n = 19), moderately anxious (n = 23), and less anxious (n = 23) participants saw cues that signaled whether a fast button press would terminate, prevent, or not affect subsequent presenta...
Source: Biological Psychology - April 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sege CT, Bradley MM, Lang PJ Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Familiarization increases face individuation measured with fast periodic visual stimulation.
Abstract People are better at recognizing familiar versus unfamiliar faces. The current study investigated whether familiarity would lead to a larger face individuation response as measured via fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS). While electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded, participants viewed oddball sequences of faces made up of more versus less familiarized faces. In each sequence, a single base face was repeated at a rate of 6 Hz and oddball faces with different identities were presented every fifth face (6 Hz/5 = 1.2 Hz). As in previous studies, significant face ind...
Source: Biological Psychology - March 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Verosky SC, Zoner KA, Marble CW, Sammon MM, Babarinsa CO Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Religiosity is associated with less prediction of the typical: an event-related brain potential study.
Abstract Why are some people more religious than others? According to one hypothesis, people who strongly seek definitive explanations for situations with incomplete information are more likely to be religious. According to a different hypothesis, individuals with smaller "prediction error" responses to unexpected stimuli are more likely to discount evidence contradicting religious beliefs, predisposing them to maintain such beliefs. We sought neurophysiological evidence for these hypotheses using the N400 event-related potential (ERP), which is smaller to more contextually expected stimuli, reflecting p...
Source: Biological Psychology - March 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kiang M, Cupid J, Ahmed S, Lepock JR, Girard TA Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Reactivity of Salivary Uric Acid in Response To Social Evaluative Stress in African Americans.
Abstract High uric acid (UA) is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), both of which occur disproportionately among African Americans. High UA also predicts greater blood pressure reactivity responses to acute social stress. However, whether UA itself shows reactivity in response to stress is unknown. We evaluated salivary uric acid (sUA) and blood pressure reactivity in response to acute social stress. Healthy African Americans (N = 103; 32% male; M age = 31.36 years), completed the Trier Social Stress Test. sUA and blood pressure measurements were taken before,...
Source: Biological Psychology - March 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lucas T, Riis JL, Buchalski Z, Drolet CE, Dawadi A, Granger DA Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Muscle activation in semantic processing: An electromyography approach.
In this study, we focus on the spontaneous activity related to manual verbs to determine the extent to which semantic processing of manual verbs affects spontaneous arm muscle activity. For this purpose, we recorded the arm's electromyographic activity while participants read manual and non-manual verbs, focusing their attention on the semantic content or a specific letter. In addition, we manipulated the arm position (in front of the body or behind the back) to observe postural priming effects for spontaneous muscle activity. Our results show that when arms were placed forward and the attention was directed to the semanti...
Source: Biological Psychology - March 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gálvez-García G, Aldunate N, Bascour-Sandoval C, Martínez-Molina A, Peña J, Barramuño M Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Feedback-related Negativity (FRN) and Theta Oscillations: Different Feedback Signals for Non-Conform and Conform Decisions.
Abstract The current study investigated if feedback-related negativity (FRN) and mid-frontal theta oscillations would respond differently during the outcome evaluations of conformity decisions, which were consistent with self vs. others' opinions. Participants first performed a perceptual judgment task, then saw the majority opinion prior to submitting their final decision, and subsequently learned whether their final decision was correct. With incongruent initial self and others' opinions, the incorrect feedback to a non-conform (no-change) final decision elicited larger FRN while the incorrect feedback to a conf...
Source: Biological Psychology - March 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wang Y, Cheung H, Yee LTS, Tse CY Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

The Mediating Impact of PTSD Symptoms on Cortisol Awakening Response in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence.
Abstract Multi-level modeling examined the association between cortisol awakening responses (CAR) and different PTSD symptom clusters in a sample of 158 female participants presenting with intimate partner violence-related PTSD. Results revealed that arousal over the past week and month, respectively ([β = -.124, z = -2.33, p = .028; β = -.147, z = -2.19, p = .028]) significantly moderated the trajectory of cortisol levels, and emotional numbing symptom severity (over the past week [β = -.122, z = -2.07, p = .076]) was found to be trending toward significanc...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Garcia M, Junglen A, Ceroni T, Johnson D, Ciesla J, Delahanty D Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Are Interoceptive Accuracy Scores from the Heartbeat Counting Task Problematic? A Comment on Zamariola et al. (2018).
Abstract In a recently published article, Zamariola and colleagues (2018) listed four problems of interoceptive accuracy (IAcc) scores as measured with Schandry's heartbeat counting task. In this comment, we clarify that IAcc scores are ratio variables, the analyses of which can result in misleading interpretations and incorrect conclusions. We examine the findings of Zamariola et al. (2018) by reanalyzing their data using statistical methods more adequate than the bivariate correlational analyses conducted by Zamariola and colleagues (2018) and by reinterpreting the results taking into account the fact that IAcc ...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zimprich D, Nusser L, Pollatos O Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Error-related Negativity Relates to the Neural Processing of Brief Aversive Bodily Sensations.
Abstract The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential occurring in the electroencephalogram (EEG) within 100 ms after the commission of an error. The ERN is thought to partially reflect emotionally aversive aspects of error commission, however, it has thus far not been related to the neural processing of other aversive events, such as brief aversive bodily sensations. Therefore, the present study investigated the links between the ERN and the N1 amplitudes of respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP). During the acquisition of high-density EEG...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jelinčić V, Torta DM, Van Diest I, von Leupoldt A Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Ability Influence on Effort and Associated Cardiovascular Responses: Nocebo-Placebo Evidence that Perception is Key.
Abstract Studies have documented the predictive utility of an integrative analysis of ability influence on effort and cardiovascular response. An assumption is that influence is driven by perception. We evaluated this altering ability perception through negative (nocebo) or positive (placebo) suggestion. Participants ingested a pill having been told it would reduce or enhance cognitive clarity. They then were presented a math task with the chance to earn an incentive if they met a low- or high performance standard. Analyses indicated higher reports of clarity during work among participants provided positive clarit...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mlynski C, Wright RA, Kelly K Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Does attention bias modification induce structural brain changes? A commentary on Abend et al. (2019).
Abstract The strength of research conclusions must follow from the strength of evidence. In this commentary I raise several issues with a recent paper "Brain structure changes induced by attention bias modification training" (Abend et al., 2019). I follow the paper's five highlights to discuss; the absence of discussion of negative ABM results, the low power of the study itself. Centrally, I raise the concern that the conclusions rest all their weight on a single statistically significant group x time interaction form brain-wide analysis. Most importantly, this test is not internally consistent following...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Parsons S Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

A Time to be Chronically Stressed? Maladaptive Time Perspectives Are Associated with Allostatic Load.
Abstract Living in the past, the present, or the future can affect stress and health. Our group has shown that acute stress (cortisol reactivity) is modulated by time perspectives, the ways we psychologically relate to time. Here, we expand this research with a comprehensive measure of multi-systemic chronic stress (allostatic load). Among 204 healthy adults (60 men; 144 women), we examined whether time perspectives modulate allostatic load measured with 23 neuroendocrine, immune, metabolic, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Five time perspective categories were measured (past negative, past positive, present hedonis...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bourdon O, Raymond C, Marin MF, Olivera-Figueroa L, Lupien SJ, Juster RP Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

A Heartfelt Response to Zimprich et al. (2019), and Ainley et al. (2019)'s Commentaries: Acknowledging issues with the HCT would Benefit Interoception Research.
Abstract In two Commentaries, Zimprich et al. (2019), and Ainley et al. (2019) dispute conclusions raised by Zamariola et al. (2018) in a large sample study that questioned the validity of IAcc scores derived from the Heartbeat Counting Task (HCT). After clarifying the reliability of our procedures and the robustness of our main findings, we address the four points of contention discussed in the Commentaries. In doing so, we spell out why research using the HCT faces important interpretational issues, and we call for a theoretical clarification on the construct. In our conclusion, we provide recommendations for im...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Corneille O, Desmedt O, Zamariola G, Luminet O, Maurage P Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Comment on "Zamariola et al., (2018), Interoceptive Accuracy Scores are Problematic: Evidence from Simple Bivariate Correlations"-The Empirical Data Base, the Conceptual Reasoning and the Analysis behind this Statement are Misconceived and do not Support the Authors' Conclusions.
Conclusions. Biol Psychol. 2020 Feb 12;:107870 Authors: Ainley V, Tsakiris M, Pollatos O, Schulz A, Herbert BM Abstract A recent paper by Zamariola and colleagues is widely cited as an authority on the invalidity of the Heartbeat Counting Task as a measure of interoceptive accuracy. Given the widespread interest in this field, it is essential that papers about methods are conceptually sound. However, only one of the authors' four criticisms appears substantiated - that people count too few heartbeats. Their arguments about "simple bivariate correlations" and their finding that interoceptive ...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Authors' Conclusions. Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

"Does attention bias modification induce structural brain changes? A commentary on Abend et al. (2019)" - Response.
"Does attention bias modification induce structural brain changes? A commentary on Abend et al. (2019)" - Response. Biol Psychol. 2020 Feb 11;:107865 Authors: Abend R, Rosenfelder A, Shamai D, Pine DS, Tavor I, Assaf Y, Bar-Haim Y PMID: 32057843 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biological Psychology)
Source: Biological Psychology - February 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Abend R, Rosenfelder A, Shamai D, Pine DS, Tavor I, Assaf Y, Bar-Haim Y Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

From ear to eye? No effect of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on human pupil dilation: a report of three studies.
Abstract Transcutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (tVNS) has been proposed as a treatment for a spectrum of physical and psychological disorders. One of the proposed working mechanisms of tVNS is a modulatory effect on the locus coeruleus - noradrenaline (LC-NA) network. We tested this hypothesis in humans in a series of three studies: one focusing on high trait worriers, and two in healthy populations. In all three studies, we tested whether tVNS increases resting pupil diameter - as an index of LC-NA network activity. Additionally, we tested whether tVNS affects task performance and ...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Burger AM, Van der Does W, Brosschot JF, Verkuil B Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

A shy heart may benefit from everyday life social interactions with close others: An ecological momentary assessment trial using Bayesian multilevel modeling.
This study aimed to examine if shy individuals show compromised HRV in everyday life and if social interactions with close others (both face to face and computer-mediated) might moderate this association. METHODS: Social interactions and HRV (root mean squared successive differences) were recorded across three consecutive days in 51 participants. FINDINGS: HRV was lower in shy as compared to non-shy individuals. When interacting with close others, HRV in shy individuals increased considerably, while there was no effect for non-shy individuals. Exploratory analyses confirmed that effects were more reliable for fac...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schwerdtfeger AR, Rominger C, Obser PD Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Properties of lower level processing modulate the actions of the norepinephrine system during response inhibition.
e C Abstract We ask whether actions of the norepinephrine (NE) system during response inhibition are affected by properties of lower level sensory stimulus processing. We used a somato-sensory Go/Nogo task and combined ERP recordings with pupil diameter recordings as an index of NE system activity. The Go/Nogo task was designed to achieve processing of tactile stimuli predominantly over primary somatosensory (SI) and secondary somatosensory (SII) areas. The data show that response inhibition was better when stimuli were processed via SII, compared to SI areas. This was reflected by variations in the Nogo-N2/P3 ass...
Source: Biological Psychology - February 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mückschel M, Ziemssen T, Beste C Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Sighs can become learned behaviors via operant learning.
Abstract Sighs have important physiological and psychological regulatory functions. These rewarding effects of a sigh potentially reinforce sighing in situations that require physiological and/or psychological regulation. The present study aimed to investigate whether sighs can become learned behaviors via operant learning. In two studies, we manipulated the effect of spontaneous sighs in response to dyspnea relief, by either punishing a sigh by the onset of dyspnea, or not punishing a sigh by continued dyspnea relief. Results show that sigh rates in response to cues predicting the punishment of sighs are 1.20-1.2...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vlemincx E, Luminet O Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Estimation of frequency difference at which stream segregation precedes temporal integration as reflected by omission mismatch negativity.
Abstract Both stream segregation and temporal integration are considered important for auditory scene analysis in the brain. Several previous studies have indicated that stream segregation may precede temporal integration when both processes are required. In the present study, we utilized mismatch negativity (MMN)-which reflects automatic change detection-to systematically estimate the threshold of the frequency difference at which stream segregation occurs prior to temporal integration when these functions occur together during a state of inattention. Electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded from 22 health...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hikita M, Shiga T, Osakabe Y, Mori Y, Hotsumi H, Nozaki M, Hoshino H, Kanno K, Itagaki S, Matsuoka T, Yabe H Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Electroencephalographic Evidence for a Reinforcement Learning Advantage: During Motor Skill Acquisition.
Abstract The feedback that we receive shapes how we learn. Previous research has demonstrated that quantitative feedback results in better performance than qualitative feedback. However, the data supporting a quantitative feedback advantage are not conclusive and further little work has been done to examine the mechanistic neural differences that underlie the relative benefits of quantitative and qualitative feedback. To address these issues, participants learned a simple motor task in quantitative and qualitative feedback conditions while electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded. We found that participant...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Colino FL, Heath M, Hassall CD, Krigolson OE Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Novel rewards occlude the reward positivity, and what to do about it.
Abstract Both the Reward Positivity (RewP) and the novelty N2 component appear within the same spatio-temporal window. This signal overlap impedes the assessment of the RewP evoked by complex novel rewards like affective or motivational imagery. Here we conducted a series of experiments which successfully isolated signals of reward and novelty through spectral decomposition as well as with experimental manipulations that systematically removed the influence of novelty on the reward-evoking image. Together, these findings help explain the nature of this component overlap and provide methodological and analytic tech...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brown DR, Cavanagh JF Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Autonomic influences on heart rate during marital conflict: Associations with high frequency heart rate variability and cardiac pre-ejection period.
Abstract Psychosocial factors predict the development and course of cardiovascular disease, perhaps through sympathetic and parasympathetic mechanisms. At rest, heart rate (HR) is under parasympathetic control, often measured as high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV). During stress, HR is influenced jointly by parasympathetic and sympathetic processes, the latter often quantified as pre-ejection period (PEP). In studies of cardiovascular risk factors that involve social interaction (e.g. marital conflict), HF-HRV might be altered by speech artifacts, weakening its validity as a measure of parasympathetic a...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cribbet MR, Smith TW, Uchino BN, Baucom BRW, Nealey-Moore JB Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Becoming sexy: Contrapposto pose increases attractiveness ratings and modulates observers' brain activity.
Abstract Previous neurophysiological studies have revealed the neural correlates of human body form perception, as well as those related to the perception of attractive body sizes. In the current study we aimed to extend the neurophysiological studies regarding body perception by investigating the perception of human body posture to provide insights into the cognitive mechanisms responsive to bodily form, and the processing of its attractiveness. To achieve these aims, we used the contrapposto posture which creates an exaggeration of low waist to hip ratio (WHR), an indicator of women's attractiveness. Electroence...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pazhoohi F, Arantes J, Kingstone A, Pinal D Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Sympathetic Contributions to Habituation and Recovery of the Cardiac Defense Response.
This study investigated contributions of sympathetic cardiac control to habituation and recovery of the CDR. Fifty-six healthy subjects were presented with noise stimuli eliciting the CDR. Three stimuli were presented with short and long (2.5 min and 12.5 min) inter-trial intervals (ITIs). The pre-ejection period was recorded as an index of sympathetic cardiac control, in addition to HR. Repeated stimulation at short ITI was associated with marked habituation of the HR and sympathetic responses; both responses exhibited a degree of recovery with long ITI. Regarding the time course, the first acceleration-dece...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Garrido A, Duschek S, Rodríguez Árbol J, González Usera I, Vila J, Mata JL Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Emotional Concordance.
Abstract Emotions involve response synchronization across experiential, physiological, and behavioral systems, referred to as concordance or coherence. Women are thought to be more emotionally aware and expressive than men and may therefore display stronger response concordance; however, research on this topic is scant. Using a random-order film-average design, we assessed concordance among experiential (arousal, valence), autonomic (electrodermal activity, heart rate, preejection-period, respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia), respiratory (respiratory-rate), and behavioral (corrugator and zygomatic electromyography) respo...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rattel JA, Mauss IB, Liedlgruber M, Wilhelm FH Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Chinese College Students' Parental Attachment, Peer Attachment, and Prosocial Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia.
Abstract The goal of this study was to examine whether the links between Chinese college students' parental attachment, peer attachment, and prosocial behaviors were moderated by a physiological factor-baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The simplified version of the Inventory of Parental and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R) and the Chinese version of the Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM-R) were administered to one hundred forty-four undergraduate students (M = 18.96 years, SD = 1.06 years; 30% men) to assess parental and peer attachment and prosocial behaviors. Baseline RSA was calculated by electrocardiogram (...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zhang Y, Yang X, Wang Z, Liu D Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Placebos can change affective contexts: an event-related potential study.
This study attempted to influence this context with a placebo. Sixty-eight women were randomly assigned to three groups: Water, Bitter/No-Placebo, Bitter/Placebo. Participants in the 'bitter groups' first rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea that caused a bitter aftertaste. Subsequently, the placebo group received sham light therapy on the tongue to 'reduce the sensitivity of the taste buds'. All groups viewed disgusting and non-disgusting pictures while their electroencephalogram was recorded. The Bitter/Placebo group reported reduced bitterness and disgust for the aftertaste after the sham treatment. The LPP reduction (3...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schienle A, Gremsl A, Schwab D Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Exposure to Violence and Neglect Images Differentially Influences Fear Learning and Extinction.
Abstract The mechanisms by which exposure to adversity contributes to psychopathology development are poorly understood. Recent models link experiences of threat of harm and deprivation to psychopathology via disruptions in learning mechanisms underlying fear acquisition and extinction. We empirically tested dimensional elements of this model, by examining whether exposure to images of community violence or neglect differentially influenced fear learning and extinction relative to exposure to neutral images. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three exposure conditions: viewing images depicting neglect ...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Modecki KL, Murphy LK, Waters AM Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Effects of working memory training on EEG, cognitive performance, and self-report indices potentially relevant for social anxiety.
Abstract Social anxiety (SA) is quite common and associated with multiple comorbidities. Here, we examined the effects of working memory (WM) training on various indices potentially related to SA. Pre-selected university students with elevated self-reported SA symptoms were assigned to a WM training (n = 21) or an active control treatment condition (n = 21). Pre- and post-treatment assessments were made using questionnaires related to (social) anxiety and depression, and tasks measuring WM, interference control, and attentional biases towards, and event-related potentials (ERPs) elicite...
Source: Biological Psychology - January 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zhao X, Dang C, Maes JHR Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Accuracy of reproduction of physical training load is not associated with resting heartbeat perception in healthy individuals.
In conclusion, perception of heartbeats at rest is related to replication of heart rate during physical activity only at very weak physical load. PMID: 31862275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biological Psychology)
Source: Biological Psychology - December 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Köteles F, Éliás I, Szabolcs Z, Körmendi J, Ferentzi E, Szemerszky R Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Individual differences in ERPs during deception: Observing vs. demonstrating behavior leading to a small social conflict.
Abstract The present study investigated individual differences modulating P300 and MFN amplitudes in a concealed information test (CIT). Some participants were offered candy and either denied (n = 41) or ate it (n = 31), while others witnessed an examiner eating it (informed condition; n = 34). Afterwards it was suggested that the candy was not meant for them. During the CIT, participants saw the candy (probe) and similar unknown items (irrelevants) and indicated that they did not know them. P300 and MFN amplitudes differed for probe and irrelevant items, revealing that kn...
Source: Biological Psychology - December 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Scheuble V, Beauducel A Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Neurophysiological evidence for distinct biases in emotional face processing associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children.
This study utilizes event-related potentials to examine early stages of perceptual attention to threatening (angry or fearful) versus neutral faces among a sample of 200 children ages 6-8 years from a low-income, urban community. Although both internalizing and externalizing symptoms were associated with processing biases, the nature of the bias differed between these two symptom domains. Internalizing symptoms were associated with heightened early attentional selection (P1) and later perceptual processing (P2) of fearful faces. In contrast, externalizing symptoms were associated with reduced early attentional selection (P...
Source: Biological Psychology - November 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Willner CJ, Jetha MK, Segalowitz SJ, Gatzke-Kopp LM Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

An Inverted U-shaped Relationship between Heart Rate Deceleration and Empathic Emotions.
Abstract Previous studies have shown that the high frequency component of heart rate variability is associated with empathic emotions (empathic concern and personal distress) negatively and quadratically-there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between tonic parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity and empathy. However, it is unclear whether the inverted U-shape also applies to the relationship between phasic PNS activity and empathic emotions. Therefore, the present study addressed this issue. Participants were asked to empathize with others' negative states (and neutral states as the control condition), f...
Source: Biological Psychology - November 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Himichi T, Ohtsubo Y Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Human voice attractiveness processing: Electrophysiological evidence.
Abstract Voice attractiveness plays a significant role in social interaction and mate choice. However, how listeners perceive attractive voices and whether this process is mandatory, is poorly understood. The current study explores this question using event-related brain potentials. Participants listened to syllables spoken by male and female voices with high or low attractiveness while completing an implicit (voice un-related) tone detection task or explicitly judging voice attractiveness. In both tasks, attractive male voices elicited a larger N1 than unattractive voices. However, an effect of voice attractivene...
Source: Biological Psychology - November 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zhang H, Liu M, Li W, Sommer W Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research

Biological embedding of maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: The potential role of cortisol and telomere length.
Abstract Although maternal postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) are associated with child behavior problems, the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. Thus, the current study focused on 193 healthy mother-child dyads and investigated child cortisol and telomere length as potential mediating factors. At 3 and 6 months postpartum, mothers reported on PDS. At age 6, children provided saliva and buccal swab samples. At age 10, mothers and children reported on child behavior problems. Structural equation modelling revealed (a) no association between PDS and child behavior problems and thus no possibil...
Source: Biological Psychology - November 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Beijers R, Daehn D, Shalev I, Belsky J, de Weerth C Tags: Biol Psychol Source Type: research