Natural enemy impact on eggs of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (St ål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in organic agroecosystems: A regional assessment
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 101 Author(s): Emily C. Ogburn, Ricardo Bessin, Christine Dieckhoff, Rachelyn Dobson, Matthew Grieshop, Kim A. Hoelmer, Clarissa Mathews, Jennifer Moore, Anne L. Nielsen, Kristin Poley, John M. Pote, Mary Rogers, Celeste Welty, James F. Walgenbach Understanding native natural enemy impacts on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), offers insight into the population dynamics of this invasive pest and the potential for biological control. This two-year study offers a broad-scale assessment of mortality factors a...
Source: Biological Control - July 20, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Constitutive and induced resistance in soybean interact to affect the performance of a herbivore and its parasitoid
This study examined how the induced defenses of soybean cultivars that vary in levels of constitutive resistance affect the developmental performance of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura, and its parasitoid, Meteorus pulchricornis. Both soybean cultivars were injured to induce defenses by either the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, or by the aphid Aphis glycines. Both types of feeding on soybean plants had a negative effect on S. litura development, extending development time, reducing larva-to-pupa survival and decreasing adult body size. The impact of induction treatments increased linearly with increasing levels o...
Source: Biological Control - July 20, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii Coffee
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Peter A. Follett, Andrea Kawabata, Robert Nelson, Glenn Asmus, Jen Burt, Kally Goschke, Curtis Ewing, Julie Gaertner, Eva Brill, Scott Geib Coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp. (75%) and Cathartus quadricollis (21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found inside CBB-infested coffee beans on the tree and molecular marker studies confi...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Native Pseudomonas spp. suppressed the root-knot nematode in in-vitro and in-vivo, and promoted the nodulation and grain yield in the field grown mungbean
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Mujeebur Rahman Khan, Fayaz A. Mohidin, Uzma Khan, Faheem Ahamad The study describes the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. stutzeri and P. striata on root nudulation (Bradyrhizobium sp.), root-knot disease (Meloidogyne incognita), and on the plant growth and yield of field grown mungbean (Vigna radiata). In vitro the Pseudomonas spp. produced hydrogen cyanide (P. fluorescens), ammonia, siderophore and indole acetic acid, and solubilized phosphorus. The bacterial cells and cell free culture filtrate of Pseudomonas ...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Monitoring the establishment and abundance of introduced parasitoids of emerald ash borer larvae in Maryland, U.S.A
In conclusion, T. planipennisi has established populations and dispersed in Maryland, while S. agrili releases have been largely unsuccessful. These findings are a step towards optimizing EAB biological control release and recovery strategies, and are particularly pertinent for other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Differentiation of some indigenous and exotic trichogrammatids (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from India based on Internal transcribed spacer-2 and cytochrome oxidase-I markers and their phylogenetic relationship
This study was carried out to unravel the discrimination success in the two molecular marker loci cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) region of trichogrammatids. In achieving these objectives, the single specimen of 22 trichogrammatids belonging to 19 species were subjected to DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing. Additionally, we obtained homologous sequences from GenBank and sequences in BOLD database to understand internal relationships between the trichogrammatids. Bayesian inference phylogenetic analysis conducted with 84 and 76 sequences of COI and ITS-2 loci respectively...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Tamarix dieback and vegetation patterns following release of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) in western Colorado
We examined relationships between site factors (soil properties, hydrology, and land use history), Tamarix dieback, and vegetation composition. Tamarix mortality was observed at seven of ten sites, where it ranged from 15% to 56% after six years. Overall, Tamarix crown cover decreased by more than half (54%) while crown volume decreased by 63% in the first two years of the study. Neither total plant cover nor fallen woody debris increased under Tamarix trees over the last four years of the study. Combined cover of classified noxious weeds and other non-native species was greater than native plant cover at eight of ten site...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Relationships of decomposability and C/N ratio in different types of organic matter with suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and microbial communities during reductive soil disinfestation
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 101 Author(s): Liangliang Liu, Jijie Kong, Huiling Cui, Jinbo Zhang, Fenghe Wang, Zucong Cai, Xinqi Huang Although reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is an effective method for suppressing Fusarium oxysporum, there is limited information on the relationships among types of organic matter, disinfestation efficiencies (DEs), and changes in soil functional microorganisms during the RSD process. Hence, we performed laboratory experiments using nine different organic materials and used quantitative real-time PCR and MiSeq pyrosequencing to investigate th...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Are avian predators effective biological control agents for rodent pest management in agricultural systems?
In this study, we systematically reviewed research that investigated different aspects of avian predation on rodent pest populations in order to increase our understanding of the impact and effectiveness of avian predation on rodent pests. Several avian predators (Tyto alba, Elanus axillaris, Falco tinnunculus, Falco cenchroides, Bubo bengalensis, Buteo rufinus) were commonly cited in the biological control of rodents; however, barn owls (T. alba) are the most cited species (86% of studies). We found some support that the use of avian predators produced positive, measurable effects where increased presence of avian predato...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The influence of agent rearing success and release size on weed biocontrol programs in New Zealand
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 101 Author(s): Quentin Paynter, Simon V. Fowler, Allan Hugh Gourlay, Paul G. Peterson, Lindsay A. Smith, Chris J. Winks We investigated the influence of biological control agent rearing success on weed biocontrol programs in New Zealand. Difficulties have been experienced in rearing approximately one third of all arthropod species imported into New Zealand containment as candidate weed biocontrol agents, and 16% of species could not be reared at all. Rearing success did not prevent agents from being approved for release because host-range testing of d...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Establishment of classical biological control targeting emerald ash borer is facilitated by use of insecticides, with little effect on native arthropod communities
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 101 Author(s): William Davidson, Lynne K. Rieske Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is rapidly invading North America and has inflicted extensive ash, Fraxinus spp., mortality in affected areas, altering composition and structure of wildland and urban forests. Insecticides can effectively protect ash on a small scale and classical biological control efforts have been implemented. In the U.S. emerald ash borer kills native ash so quickly, and populations are so mobile, that establishing an effective biological control program...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Genetic analyses and occurrence of diploid males in field and laboratory populations of Mastrus ridens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a parasitoid of the codling moth
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 101 Author(s): Romina Retamal, Tania Zaviezo, Thibaut Malausa, Xavier Fauvergue, Isabelle Le Goff, Kazbek Toleubayev The parasitoid wasp Mastrus ridens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a particularly well-suited biological model to document the history and evolution of populations used in classical biological control, repeatedly moved from laboratory to laboratory worldwide and introduced in various environments. This specialist ectoparasitoid of the codling moth was first imported from Kazakhstan to the USA in the 1990’s, and then sent to Argent...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Optimization of the cultural medium and conditions for production of antifungal substances by Streptomyces platensis 3-10 and evaluation of its efficacy in suppression of clubroot disease (Plasmodiophora brassicae) of oilseed rape
This study was conducted to optimize the cultural medium and conditions for production of antifungal substances by Streptomyces platensis 3-10 and to evaluate its efficacy in suppressing Plasmodiophora brassicae (PB), the causal agent for clubroot of oilseed rape. The optimization was done using the one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method, followed by orthogonal designing. The optimized medium contained starch at 3% (w/v), peptone at 0.75%, yeast extract at 0.025%, soybean meal at 1% (w/v) and minor/trace elements (K+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+), initial pH 6.5. After incubation in this medium at 28°C/150rpm for 72h, isolate 3-10 sh...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Food web associations among generalist predators and biological control agents of Melaleuca quinquenervia
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 101 Author(s): Philip W. Tipping, Melissa R. Martin, Kayla R. Nimmo, Matthew D. Smart, Emily W. Wear A partial food web that included two weed biological control species on Melaleuca quinquenervia and their associated generalist predators was examined by monitoring insect densities every two weeks for a year. The data were used to develop a theoretical path model that described directional relationships among predators and the two agents, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae and Oxyops vitiosa. Path analysis indicated that the model provided a good fit to the ob...
Source: Biological Control - July 18, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Multiple Criteria-based Screening of Trichoderma isolates for Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea on Tomato
This study suggests that the multiple criteria-based procedure is rational for screening of Trichoderma isolates against B. cinerea, and T. koningiopsis T-51 is a promising biocontrol agent. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - June 17, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Natural enemy impact on eggs of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in organic agroecosystems: A regional assessment
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Emily C. Ogburn, Ricardo Bessin, Christine Dieckhoff, Rachelyn Dobson, Matthew Grieshop, Kim A. Hoelmer, Clarissa Mathews, Jennifer Moore, Anne L. Nielsen, Kristin Poley, John M. Pote, Mary Rogers, Celeste Welty, James F. Walgenbach Understanding native natural enemy impacts on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), offers insight into the population dynamics of this invasive pest and the potential for biological control. This two-year study offers a broad-scale assessment of mortality fact...
Source: Biological Control - June 16, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Does climate constrain the spread of Anthonomus santacruzi, a biological control agent of Solanum mauritianum, in South Africa?
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that climate, particularly low temperature and low relative humidity, restricts the survival and establishment of A. santacruzi in South Africa. The survival of A. santacruzi adults in relation to low temperatures and relative humidities was assessed in the laboratory. Climate analyses revealed that matches of < 50% were associated with failure to establish and that minimum temperature and relative humidity displayed the greatest discrepancies between South American collection and South African release sites. Thermal assessments on A. santacruzi adults calculated the CTmin and...
Source: Biological Control - June 15, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of ornamental plant diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum: a review
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Charline Lecomte, Claude Alabouvette, Véronique Edel-Hermann, Fabien Robert, Christian Steinberg Ornamentals include all decorative plants suitable for indoor or outdoor uses. A large variety of plants is produced and sold on a worldwide market. One of the most destructive pathogenic microorganisms for ornamental production is the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Many F. oxysporum pathogenic strains can infect numerous ornamental plants during production and/or post harvest storage. Once the disease has broken out, plant...
Source: Biological Control - June 15, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Native rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents of Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and Armillaria mellea infection of Pinus radiata
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Nebai Mesanza, Eugenia Iturritxa, Cheryl L. Patten Biocontrol bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus simplex and two different strains of Erwinia billingiae were isolated from the rhizosphere of a healthy tree located in a Pinus radiata plantation with high presence of fungal pathogens. The bacteria were selected based on a high level of antagonism in vitro against P. radiata pathogens Heterobasidion annosum s.s. (68.6-99.3% area inhibition percent (AIP)) and Armillaria mellea (64.8%-94.2% AIP). None of the bacteria were pathogeni...
Source: Biological Control - June 15, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Trichoderma harzianum and Serratia proteamaculans effect on disease suppression, stimulation of ROS-scavenging enzymes and improving tomato growth infected by Rhizoctonia solani
The objectives of the present study were investigating the effect of the rhizobacteria Serratia proteamaculans against R. solani comparing to Trichoderma harzianum and examining the ability of the two biocontrol agents to induce the plant defence system as a mechanism to suppress R. solani infection. Preliminary screening shown that S. proteamaculans was able to inhibit R. solani in vitro while T. harzianum overgrown the pathogen. The two biocontrol agents were able to suppress R. solani infection by 61.4, 62.6, 61.6% in vivo when plants treated with T. harzianum, S. proteamaculans and their combination respectively. In ad...
Source: Biological Control - June 3, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Use of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) powder to enhance artificial diet formulations for Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
The objectives of this study were to develop a semi-solid insect-free artificial diet, evaluate the diet effects on C. maculata fitness, and determine if adding extracts (consisting of dry powder of whole pupae) of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, could improve the suitability of the diet formulations and the life parameters of C. maculata. Although C. maculata completed development and reproduced on two meridic artificial diet formulations (M1 and M2), neither one was as effective as a control diet mix consisting of Ephestia kuehniella, Artemia sp. Eggs, and bee pollen. Incorporation of T. molitor extracts into the ...
Source: Biological Control - June 2, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Cost effectiveness of biological control of invasive mole crickets in Florida pastures
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Grace J. Mhina, Norman C. Leppla, Michael H. Thomas, Daniel Solís The mole cricket biological control program (MCBCP) is a compelling example of successfully managing alien invasive pests that warrants formal analysis and documentation of its effectiveness and benefits relative to costs for cattlemen in the southeastern U.S. Three biological control agents that parasitize the short-winged mole cricket, Neoscapteriscus abbreviatus (Scudder); tawny mole cricket, N. vicinus (Scudder); and southern mole cricket, N. borellii (Giglio...
Source: Biological Control - June 2, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Gut Content Analysis of Arthropod Predators of Codling Moth in Washington Apple Orchards
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Thomas R. Unruh, Eugene R. Miliczky, David R. Horton, Kelly Thomsen-Archer, Linda Rehfield-Ray, Vincent P. Jones Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of pome fruits in many temperate areas of North America, Eurasia, South Africa, South America and Australia. Many predatory arthropods species are found in organic apple orchards of central Washington; here we use PCR-based gut content analysis of arthropod predators to identify predators that attack codling moth. Predators were sampled from tree canopies, tree trunks an...
Source: Biological Control - June 1, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The effects of alternative host plant species and plant quality on Dicyphus hesperus populations
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Lida Nguyen-Dang, Meghan Vankosky, Sherah VanLaerhoven Biological control can be used to defend important crops against insect pests, including those that are insecticide resistant. Dicyphus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a generalist zoophytophagous predator and biological control agent of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), the greenhouse whitefly. Because D. hesperus is an omnivore, the structure of the plant community and the nutritional value of the plants in the release habitat are likely to af...
Source: Biological Control - May 31, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Multi-generational impacts of the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on growth and survival of the invasive weed Genista monspessulana
This study examined the effects of the prospective agent Arytinnis hakani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on the invasive weed French broom, Genista monspessulana, over three generations of the psyllid (∼150 days) under quarantine conditions. All of the psyllid-free control plants survived to the end of the experiment, whereas 23 out of 28 (82.1%) of the plants infested with psyllids died. Only three plants with psyllids died during the first psyllid generation; plant mortality rate peaked at the transition between the second and third psyllid generations. Plant growth was also reduced on plants with psyllids. Impacts on propor...
Source: Biological Control - May 29, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biocontrol activity of the endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain CEIZ-11 against Pythium aphanidermatum and purification of its bioactive compounds
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Imen Zouari, Lobna Jlaiel, Slim Tounsi, Mohamed Trigui In a pevious study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain CEIZ-11 has been isolated from a compost extract and showed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity against various plant pathogenic fungi. The potential of Bacillus genus to antagonize phytopathogens is due to the production of some metabolites, mainly cyclic lipopeptides. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction was used to screen CEIZ-11 for genes involved in biosynthesis of lipopeptides. Amplicons of expected sizes w...
Source: Biological Control - May 25, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Pesticides Used Against Cydia pomonella Disrupt Biological Control of Secondary Pests of Apple
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Elizabeth H. Beers, David R. Horton, Eugene Miliczky The effects of codling moth (Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) management programs on secondary pests of apple were examined from 2008 to 2011 in five replicated large-plot trials. The orchards were chosen for a history of Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and tetranychid mite outbreaks. Programs covered the first, second, or both generations of C. pomonella, and employed some of the newer insecticides for comparison to older materials. Increas...
Source: Biological Control - May 25, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of entomopathogenic fungi on Encarsia formosa Gahan. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) activity and behavior
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Monica Oreste, Giovanni Bubici, Michele Poliseno, Eustachio Tarasco The effects of a previously selected entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana AL1 strain, and the B. bassiana-based mycoinsecticide Naturalis were evaluated on the Trialeurodes vaporariorum-Encarsia formosa system. The parasitoid’s ability to recognize uninfected and infected hosts was examined by evaluation of E. formosa tropism in fi ‘choice’ conditions and its activity (residence time on leaf, searching time, handling hosts time and hosts accep...
Source: Biological Control - May 24, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of bacterial soft rot in Chinese cabbage by Lactobacillus plantarum strain BY under field conditions
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Kazuhisa Tsuda, Gento Tsuji, Miyako Higashiyama, Hiroshi Ogiyama, Kenji Umemura, Masaaki Mitomi, Yasuyuki Kubo, Yoshitaka Kosaka Bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is one of the most important diseases of Chinese cabbage. To develop a microbial pesticide that is not only safe but also easily acceptable by consumers, we screened strains of lactic acid bacteria for biocontrol potential. One of 1166 isolates, Lactobacillus plantarum strain BY significantly reduced soft rot disease severity in C...
Source: Biological Control - May 21, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Capturing the Economic Value of Biological Control in Western Tree Fruit
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): R. Karina Gallardo, Jay F. Brunner, Steve Castagnoli The economic value of biological control in apple in central Washington and pear in northern Oregon was estimated by comparing pest control programs following practices thought to reduce negative impacts on natural enemies to programs following traditional practices. Pest management costs in three apple orchards that had transitioned to the use of codling moth mating disruption (CMMD) plus reduced-risk or organophosphate-alternative pesticides were compared with four orchards that ha...
Source: Biological Control - May 12, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Genetic improvement of host-seeking ability in the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora toward the Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Velayudhan Satheeja Santhi, Dana Ment, Liora Salame, Victoria Soroker, Itamar Glazer Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (red palm weevil) is highly susceptible to infection by the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. However, to reach and penetrate the insect in its habitat with good efficacy, the nematode infective juveniles (IJs) need to move through the tunnels bored by the feeding insect larvae in the tree trunk. We used a genetic-improvement approach to enhance host-seeking ability (HSA) o...
Source: Biological Control - May 12, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of Phomopsis leaf blight of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with combining phylloplane and rhizosphere colonizing beneficial bacteria
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Rohini, H.G. Gowtham, P. Hariprasad, S. Brijesh Singh, S.R. Niranjana Beneficial phylloplane colonizing bacteria (PCB) and rhizosphere colonizing bacteria (RCB) were evaluated individually and in combinations for plant growth promotion and control of Phomopsis leaf blight of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Bacteria from the leaf surface of brinjal plants were isolated and screened, and four PCBs were selected based on their ability to colonize phylloplane and inhibit the growth of Phomopsis vexans. All PCB and RCB strains were charac...
Source: Biological Control - May 11, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The scale and parasitoid community on native hemlocks in japan
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Kristopher J. Abell, Rodger Gwiazdowski, Benjamin B. Normark, Naoto Kamata, Roy G. Van Driesche Elongate hemlock scale (EHS), Fiorinia externa (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), is an invasive species in the United States of Japanese origin that was first detected in New York in 1908. In the United States, EHS attacks eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana), and has established in most states where these trees occur. Elongate hemlock scale density can be several orders of magnitude higher in the United State...
Source: Biological Control - May 10, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Earthworm mediated dispersal of baculovirus occlusion bodies: experimental evidence from a model system
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Dennis A. Infante-Rodríguez, José J. Berber, Gabriel Mercado, Jorge Valenzuela-González, Delia Muñoz, Trevor Williams The soil is the most important reservoir of baculovirus occlusion bodies (OBs) in the environment. The ability of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to transport OBs of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus was examined in laboratory terraria filled with an artificial soil. OBs were detected in soil samples using a soil - diet incorporation bioassay, for which the 50% lethal concent...
Source: Biological Control - May 8, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Large-plot field studies to assess impacts of newer insecticides on non-target arthropods in Western U.S. orchards
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Peter W. Shearer, Kaushalya G. Amarasekare, Steven P. Castagnoli, Elizabeth H. Beers, Vincent P. Jones, Nicholas J. Mills The non-target impacts of two reduced risk insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram, were evaluated for two years in Oregon pear and California walnut orchards. Experiments were conducted in large replicated plots (approximately 0.25-0.4 ha) to assess the impact of these two insecticides on natural enemies of secondary pests when applied against codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Cumulative insect days (CID) o...
Source: Biological Control - May 6, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Nutrient uptake and allocation capacity during immature development determine reproductive capacity in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae), a parasitoid of tephritid flies
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Alejandro Martínez-Ramírez, Lizette Cicero, Larissa Guillén, John Sivinski, Martín Aluja Fitness in parasitoids is generally influenced by host quality. We measured the effects of three tephritid host species that varied in size, the fruits they developed in, and host nutritional content on some measures of fitness such as egg load, individual egg size, body size, and nutrient composition in the braconid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a widely used fruit fly biological control agent. The host species were: A...
Source: Biological Control - May 6, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biocontrol for environmental control of the human parasite, Strongyloides stercoralis: a necessary next step
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Tara A Garrard, Kirstin E Ross, Michael J Taylor Strongyloides stercoralis is a human parasitic nematode that infects 100-370 million people globally prevalence comparable to malaria. Currently the primary treatment for strongyloidiasis is the anthelminthic drug, ivermectin. The ruminant variant of S. stercoralis (S. papillosus) has been shown to be resistant to ivermectin. Efforts to control S. stercoralis therefore must extend beyond clinical treatment. A similar approach to that taken by integrated pest management systems should be t...
Source: Biological Control - May 5, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Using plant volatile traps to estimate the diversity of natural enemy communities in orchard ecosystems
In this study we used sticky traps baited with plant volatile lures to monitor the biodiversity of natural enemies in orchard ecosystems in the western U.S. We compared the diversity of predator genera from season total trap catches in 37 different orchards (apple, cherry, pear and walnut) over a two-year period (2010-2011) using standardized Hill number biodiversity indices and community similarity profiles. For a subset of 23 of these orchards we were also able to monitor the change in biodiversity of predator genera over the full growing season in the different orchard crops. A total of 37,854 individuals from 31 differ...
Source: Biological Control - May 5, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Predatory gall midges on mealybug pests – Diversity, life history, and feeding behavior in diverse agricultural settings
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Biological Control, Volume 99 Author(s): Idan Hayon, Zvi Mendel, Netta Dorchin Predatory gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are some of the most common natural enemies associated with mealybugs. However, the generally poor knowledge on their life history and taxonomy has obscured their role in the biological-control of these pests. A comprehensive survey in vineyards and in banana, citrus, persimmon and pomegranate orchards throughout Israel, using more than 670 sentinel baits, revealed five species of gall midges. All species fed in the laboratory on Planococcus citri (Risso) an...
Source: Biological Control - May 4, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Influence of crop production practices on Pasteuria penetrans and suppression of Meloidogyne incognita
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Patricia Timper, Chang Liu, Richard F. Davis, Tiehang Wu Pasteuria penetrans is a parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Infected nematodes are not killed by the bacterium, but instead of producing eggs, females produce millions of infectious endospores. In addition to sterilizing females, P. penetrans can reduce nematode infection of roots when spore densities in soil are high because juveniles become so heavily encumbered, movement is restricted. A 4-year field study was conducted to determine 1) if fumigation with 1,...
Source: Biological Control - April 30, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Inhibition of phytopathogens by fungal root endophytes of Norway spruce
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Terhonen Eeva, Sipari Nina, O. Asiegbu Fred Fungal endophytes have been reported to inhibit growth of phytopathogenic microbes and some also are known to promote root growth. If endophytes of conifers can protect their host roots against invaders the screening of endophytes for their biocontrol abilities is relevant. The aim of this research was to screen for the potential inhibitory effects of selected Norway spruce root endophytes during interaction, in vitro, with well-known genera of phytopathogens (Heterobasidion parviporum, Phy...
Source: Biological Control - April 24, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Impacts of geese on weed communities in corn production systems and associated economic benefits
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Yuyang Zhang, Zhipeng Sha, Fachun Guan, Chao Wang, Yajun Li Weed pests directly impact crop quality and yield. We compared three different treatments on weed diversity and structure, and assessed the economic benefits of each on corn (Zea mays) production. The treatments included: raising geese in corn fields (hereinafter referred to as RGICF), conventional corn production with weed management (CCP) and corn fields without weed management (CK).. A Shannon-Wiener diversity index and richness indicated that fields with RGICF and CK h...
Source: Biological Control - April 23, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Nontarget effects of orchard pesticides on natural enemies: Lessons from the field and laboratory
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Elizabeth H. Beers, Nicholas J. Mills, Peter W. Shearer, David R. Horton, Eugene R. Milickzy, Kaushalya G. Amarasekare, Lessando M. Gontijo The nontarget effects of insecticide programs used to control codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were studied in large-plot field trials in apples, pears, and walnuts in the western United States. We assessed the health of the natural enemy community by sampling the abundance of natural enemies and by monitoring for outbreaks of secondary pests. The insecticide...
Source: Biological Control - April 23, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Assessment of a stenophagous weevil, Osphilia tenuipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), as a potential biological control agent for weedy Bryophyllum spp. (Crassulaceae) in Australia
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): W.A. Palmer, K.A.D.W. Senaratne Bryophyllum delagoense (Crassulaceae) is a serious weed in Australia and a target for biological control. Following preliminary testing in South Africa, the host range of a Madagascan conderine weevil, Osphilia tenuipes, was determined within a quarantine facility in Queensland, Australia. The primary test consisted of exposing potted plants, selected from an approved host test list, to attack by the weevil in a no-choice design. Tests of oviposition on cut stems and adult preference in a choice design ...
Source: Biological Control - April 23, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Endophytic bacteria with antagonistic traits inhabit the wood tissues of grapevines from Tunisian vineyards
In this study, the bacterial microflora colonizing the non-necrotic and necrotic wood tissues of Tunisian mature grapevines (cv Muscat d’Italie) was investigated. Both types of tissues were studied in order to decipher microbial communities associated with them and to find a suitable BCA that can be applied to the Tunisian terroir. Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analyses showed that complex bacterial communities specifically colonized both types of wood tissues. The 19 most abundant cultivable strains, selected on their morphology, were isolated from plant samples and assigned to genus Pantoea, Pseudo...
Source: Biological Control - April 20, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Predatory gall midges on mealybug pests - diversity, life history, and feeding behavior in diverse agricultural settings
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Idan Hayon, Zvi Mendel, Netta Dorchin Predatory gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are some of the most common natural enemies associated with mealybugs. However, the generally poor knowledge on their life history and taxonomy has obscured their role in the biological-control of these pests. A comprehensive survey in vineyards and in banana, citrus, persimmon and pomegranate orchards throughout Israel, using more than 670 sentinel baits, revealed five species of gall midges. All species fed in the laboratory on Planococcus citri (R...
Source: Biological Control - April 20, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Secretome analysis of Trichoderma atroviride T17 biocontrol of Guignardia citricarpa
This study aimed to identify extracellular proteins secreted by Trichoderma atroviride T17 that are related to the control of G. citricarpa. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D) was used to study the patterns of proteins secreted by T. atroviride T17 in medium containing glucose (control) and in medium containing G. citricarpa GC3 inactivated mycelium. We identified 59 of the 116 spots differentially expressed (50.86%) by LC-MS/MS. Of these, we highlight the presence of glycoside hydrolases (CAZy families 3, 43, 54, 76 and 93), chitinase, mutanase, α-1,3-glucanase, α-1,2-mannosidase, carboxylic hydrolase es...
Source: Biological Control - April 20, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Dominique Carval, Rémi Resmond, Raphaël Achard, Philippe Tixier Diversification of cropping systems raises new questions in the functioning of arthropod communities and biological control of pests. In banana cropping systems, the addition of a cover crop can increase biodiversity in general and the diversity and abundance of arthropod generalist predators in particular. We measured the abundance of a major pest of bananas, the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, in plots with a cover crop, Paspalum notatum, and in plots...
Source: Biological Control - April 20, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Induction of systemic resistance in Chinese cabbage against black rot by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria
The objectives of this study were to select plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains and to form strain mixtures with the capacity to elicit induced systemic resistance or to increase plant growth in Chinese cabbage. In preliminary screening, 10 of 12 tested individual PGPR strains (AP136, AP188, AP209, AP213, AP217, AP218, AP219, AP282, AP295, and AP305) reduced the number of foliar lesions, and 2 PGPR strains (AP7 and AP18) increased all tested parameters of plant growth promotion, including shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight and plant diameter. In advanced tests, four ind...
Source: Biological Control - April 20, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Parasitoid-induced host egg abortion: an underappreciated component of biological control services provided by egg parasitoids
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Paul K. Abram, Jacques Brodeur, Victor Burte, Guy Boivin Accurate evaluation of the biological control services provided by insect natural enemies requires a consideration of the full diversity of means by which they can cause reductions in host or prey populations. Here, we discuss the fact that host attacks by egg parasitoids often result in failed parasitoid offspring development, while causing the host egg to abort. This parasitoid-induced host egg abortion is rarely considered explicitly, resulting in underestimations of the imp...
Source: Biological Control - April 8, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research