Intraspecific variation in facultative symbiont infection among native and exotic pest populations: potential implications for biological control
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Nicolas Desneux, Mark K. Asplen, Cristina M. Brady, George E. Heimpel, Keith R. Hopper, Chen Luo, Lucie Monticelli, Kerry M. Oliver, Jennifer A. White Facultative bacterial symbionts can provide their host insects with protection from natural enemies. These symbionts are often found at low to intermediate frequencies among hosts in native populations, suggesting that fewer symbiont taxa (and their corresponding defensive properties) may be present in exotic populations, due to founder effects and drift in newly established populations. We...
Source: Biological Control - June 28, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana with fungicides in vitro and on zucchini plants infested with Trialeurodes vaporariorum
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Roberta Roberti, Hillary Righini, Antonio Masetti, Stefano Maini The effect of fungicides on the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain ATCC 74040 (Naturalis®) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The formulated fungicides Cantus® (boscalid), Frupica (mepanipyrim), Galben (benalaxyl), Melody® Compact (iprovalicarb+Cu oxychloride), Oracle™ (fenamidone+Cu), Prosper® 300 CS (spiroxamine), Signum® (boscalid+pyraclostrobin), Switch® (cyprodinil+fludioxonil) and Talendo® (proquinazid) were tested on f...
Source: Biological Control - June 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Burkholderia isolates from a sand dune leaf litter display biocontrol activity against the bole rot disease of Agave sisalana
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Valter Cruz Magalhães, Leonardo de Oliveira Barbosa, Jackeline Pereira Andrade, Ana Cristina Fermino Soares, Jorge Teodoro de Souza, Phellippe Arthur Santos Marbach Sisal (Agave sisalana) is an important source of biodegradable hard fiber for diverse industrial uses. The disease known as sisal bole rot leads to plant death and is caused by black aspergilli, including Aspergillus niger, A. brasiliensis and A. tubingensis. Bole rot is among the factors responsible for the decline of sisal production in Brazil. The potential of 16 Bur...
Source: Biological Control - June 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Volatile molecules of Fusarium oxysporum strain 21 are retained in water and control Meloidogyne incognita
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Willian César Terra, Vicente Paulo Campos, Márcio Pozzobon Pedroso, Alisson Lucrécio da Costa, Eduardo Souza Freire, Iohana Pinto de Pinto, Júlio Carlos Pereira da Silva, Liliana Estupiñan Lopez, Thaisa Conrado Nunes Santos Dissolution in water of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by microorganisms may explain, in part, the distribution of VOCs throughout the soil, and thus the process of exposure of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) to these molecules. Water was exposed for short periods (0.5 to 2...
Source: Biological Control - June 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Genetic analysis of native and introduced populations of the aquatic weed Sagittaria platyphylla – Implications for biological control in Australia and South Africa
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Biological Control, Volume 112 Author(s): Raelene M. Kwong, Linda M. Broadhurst, Brian R. Keener, Julie A. Coetzee, Nunzio Knerr, Grant D. Martin Sagittaria platyphylla (Engelm.) J.G. Sm. (Alismataceae) is an emergent aquatic plant native to southern USA. Imported into Australia and South Africa as an ornamental and aquarium plant, the species is now a serious invader of shallow freshwater wetlands, slow-flowing rivers, irrigation channels, drains and along the margins of lakes and reservoirs. As a first step towards initiating a classical biological control program, a population ge...
Source: Biological Control - June 16, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comparative life history traits of indigenous Italian parasitoids of Drosophila suzukii and their effectiveness at different temperatures
This study aims to provide a range of baseline information on the developmental parameters and parasitisation efficacy of three Italian populations of D. suzukii parasitoids at different temperatures. The species tested were a larval parasitoid, Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson), and two pupal parasitoids, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) and Trichopria drosophilae (Perkins). Two comparative experiments were set up: the first assessing longevity and the lifetime fecundity of each species at 23°C, and the second investigating the effect of temperature on parasitisation efficacy, developmental time and sex-ratio. The r...
Source: Biological Control - June 14, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Genetic analysis of native and introduced populations of the aquatic weed Sagittaria platyphylla - implications for biological control in Australia and South Africa
Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Raelene M. Kwong, Linda M. Broadhurst, Brian R. Keener, Julie A. Coetzee, Nunzio Knerr, Grant D. Martin Sagittaria platyphylla (Engelm.) J.G. Sm. (Alismataceae) is an emergent aquatic plant native to southern USA. Imported into Australia and South Africa as an ornamental and aquarium plant, the species is now a serious invader of shallow freshwater wetlands, slow-flowing rivers, irrigation channels, drains and along the margins of lakes and reservoirs. As a first step towards initiating a classical biological control program, a population ...
Source: Biological Control - June 8, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Oxalic Acid Produced by Aspergillus niger Y-1 Is Effective for Suppression of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon Seedlings
This study was performed to detect the antibacterial activity of the cultural filtrate (CF) of the saprophytic fungus Aspergillus niger Y-1 against Ac. The six-day-old CF, citric acid (CA, 4 mmol/L) and oxalic acid (OA, 60 mmol/L) were determined for in vitro antibacterial activity against Ac. CF and OA were determined as seed disinfectants for suppression of seedborne infection by Ac. Results showed that production of CA and OA by A. niger in potato dextrose broth was consistently detected by HPLC. The CF, CA and OA inhibited growth of Ac and their inhibitory effect disappeared when the pH values of the three solutions wa...
Source: Biological Control - June 8, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The defensive aphid symbiont Hamiltonella defensa affects host quality differently for Aphelinus glycinis versus Aphelinus atriplicis
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Keith R. Hopper, Kristen L. Kuhn, Kathryn Lanier, Joshua H. Rhoades, Kerry M. Oliver, Jennifer A. White, Mark K. Asplen, George E. Heimpel Endosymbiont interactions with hosts have important effects on fitness, including the fitness of many pest and beneficial species. Among these interactions, facultative endosymbiotic bacteria can protect aphids from parasitoids. Aphis craccivora and Acyrthosiphon pisum can harbor the symbiotic bacteria Hamiltonella defensa and its bacteriophage APSE. Infection by H. defensa defends these aphids against ...
Source: Biological Control - June 1, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effect of biocontrol agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SN16-1 and plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum on tomato rhizosphere bacterial community composition
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Tingting Wan, Huihui Zhao, Wei Wang The fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes tomato plant wilt, which lead to economic losses worldwide. Bacillus spp. has been widely used as a biological control agent against tomato wilt; in a previous study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SN16-1 showed great potential for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). However, little is known about the effects of SN16-1 and FOL on tomato rhizosphere bacterial community composition. To address this issue, the present study investigated changes in community di...
Source: Biological Control - June 1, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biocontrol potential of vermicompost through antifungal volatiles produced by indigenous bacteria
In this study, ten plant pathogenic fungi were used to screen antagonistic bacteria from vermicompost. Then, the antagonistic bacteria were identified based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, the strain M29 which belongs to Bacillus subtilis showed the broadest spectrum of antifungal ability was selected. The antagonistic effect of the mixed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by M29 showed significant inhibitory activity against Botrytis cinerea (BC). Based on the GC-MS analysis, eleven VOCs including alcohols, acids, ketones, esters, ethers and...
Source: Biological Control - May 28, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Induction of defense responses in longkong fruit (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.) against fruit rot fungi by Metarhizium guizhouense
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Thanunchanok Chairin, Vasun Petcharat The defense responses of longkong fruit were induced by an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium guizhouense. The longkong fruits were dipped in a spore suspension of M. guizhouense PSUM04 at concentration of 104 spore mL -1 for 5 sec, then an enzyme assay, a protein assay and Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) were done. It was found that the longkong fruit presented small necrotic spots on their peels within 24 hours. β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase were detected in peel extracts at 1.33 &pl...
Source: Biological Control - May 28, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Hybridization affects life-history traits and host specificity in Diorhabda spp.
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): E.V. Bitume, D. Bean, A.R. Stahlke, R.A. Hufbauer Hybridization is an influential evolutionary process that has been viewed alternatively as an evolutionary dead-end or as an important creative evolutionary force. In colonizing species, such as introduced biological control agents, hybridization can offset losses in genetic variation due to population bottlenecks and genetic drift. Increased genetic variation associated with hybridization could benefit biological control programs, by increasing the chances of establishment success. However...
Source: Biological Control - May 27, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Plant growth-promoting abilities and biocontrol efficacy of Streptomyces sp. UPMRS4 against Pyricularia oryzae
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Hayman Kakakhan Awla, Tavga Sulaiman Rashid, Sathyapriya Hamid, Mui-Yun Wong The Streptomyces strain UPMRS4 was selected as a potential biocontrol agent for rice blast disease based on its strong antagonistic activity against Pyricularia oryzae strain UPMPo in vitro. It was further identified as a novel Streptomyces sp. through 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Biochemical characterization indicated that UPMRS4 was positive for ammonia, urea and siderophore production, as well as amylase, protease and lipase enzymatic tests. Treatment w...
Source: Biological Control - May 26, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A qualitative binary risk assessment model for regulating the biosecurity and environmental risk of endophytes
We present a model for the regulation of endophytes that focuses on the hazard identification and risk assessment components. The goal was to develop a model that can identify and characterise risk, and quantify the level of risk. Our model takes a binary approach, either categorising risk into ‘acceptable’ or ‘unacceptable’ levels, as regulators are often left with a choice of approving or declining a proposal when an organism is unable to be contained after it is released. This model provides a framework for practitioners to use in order to identify and quantify the risks and benefits to be derive...
Source: Biological Control - May 25, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression associated with changes in the morphology and stress tolerance of the biocontrol yeast, Pichia cecembensis
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Jia Liu, Yuan Sui, Zhigang Xie, Mengshan Chi A considerable amount of research is being conducted on the utilization of antagonistic yeasts for the biological control of pre- and postharvest fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Previously, we found an increase in the stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of two biofilm-forming yeasts, Pichia kudriavzevii and Candida diversa, associated with the transition from a yeast-like to pseudohyphal morphology. In the present study, the biocontrol yeast, Pichia cecembensis was also found to exh...
Source: Biological Control - May 24, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Autoinoculation trap for management of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) with Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) in coffee crops
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Luiz Henrique Costa Mota, Weliton D. Silva, Renata Alcarde Sermarini, Clarice Garcia Borges Demétrio, José Maurício S. Bento, Italo Delalibera An autoinoculation trap containing the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was developed for the management of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). The trap is composed of a plastic cylindrical jar with inlet holes in the upper part and outlet holes at the bottom. Within the upper part of the trap, we placed a diffusion vial filled with a 1:1 mix...
Source: Biological Control - May 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Encapsulation of Metarhizium brunneum enhances endophytism in tomato plants
This study provides the first evidence of endophytic establishment of M. brunneum in the stem of tomato plants after application of mycelium to roots as well as on increased endophytism by encapsulation. These results might provide the basis for future work on increasing endophytism by formulation technologies. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - May 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of entomopathogenic nematodes and thiamethoxam in controlling Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang (Diptera: Sciaridae)
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Haibin Wu, Qingtao Gong, Kun Fan, Ruihong Sun, Yongyu Xu, Kunpeng Zhang Six entomopathogenic nematode species (EPNs) (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 (H06), Steinernema carpocapsae NC116 (NC116), Steinernema carpocapsae All (All), Steinernema longicaudum X-7 (X-7), Steinernema feltiae SF-SN (Sf) and Heterorhabditis indica LN2 (LN2) were tested for virulence against 3rd instar Bradysia odoriphaga, and their interactions with thiamethoxam against 3rd instar B. odoriphaga under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. S. fe...
Source: Biological Control - May 13, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Spatial and temporal variation of biological control agents associated with Eichhornia crassipes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): J.V. Hopper, P.D. Pratt, K.F. McCue, M.J. Pitcairn, P.J. Moran, J.D. Madsen The invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) severely limits the ecosystem services provided by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in California, USA. As part of the biological control program in the Delta, two weevils, Neochetina bruchi and N. eichhorniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and a moth, Niphograpta albiguttalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were released in the 1980s. An additional planthopper, Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was relea...
Source: Biological Control - May 13, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Encapsulation of Metarhiziumbrunneum enhances endophytism in tomato plants
This study provides the first evidence of endophytic establishment of M.brunneum in the stem of tomato plants after application of mycelium to roots as well as on increased endophytism by encapsulation. These results might provide the basis for future work on increasing endophytism by formulation technologies. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - May 12, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Bio-suppression of turmeric rhizome rot disease and understanding the molecular basis of tripartite interaction among Curcuma longa, Pythium aphanidermatum and Pseudomonas fluorescens
This study provides an initial insight into the molecular mechanism of tripartite interaction between host-pathogen-bioagent in turmeric plants. (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - May 11, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and the effect of Metarhizium brunneum on the predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): YagmurOyku Dogan, Selcuk Hazir, Ayhan Yildiz, Tariq M. Butt, Ibrahim Cakmak The efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Metarhizium brunneum (strains ARSEF 4556 and V275), Metarhizium flavoviride UPH-0288, Lecanicillium lecanii UPH-0241, and Beauveria bassiana UPH-1103 against the different developmental stages of the two spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae, was investigated at 1 x 107 conidia/ml concentration in detached leaf Petri dish and whole plant pot assays. One of the most virulent strains, M. brunneum V275 (= Novo...
Source: Biological Control - May 10, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Functional and numerical responses of Stethorus tridens Gordon (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) preying on Tetranychus bastosi Tuttle, Baker & amp; Sales (Acari: Tetranychidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas)
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Jessica F. Costa, Cláudia H.C. Matos, Carlos R.F. de Oliveira, Thieres G.F. da Silva, Ibsen F.A. Lima Neto Coccinellids of the tribe Stethorini specialize in preying on mites, especially tetranychids, and are widely studied for control of pest mites in various crops around the world. The present study determined the functional and numerical responses of female Stethorus tridens Gordon (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to various densities of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults of the pest mite Tetranychus bastosi Tuttle, Baker & Sal...
Source: Biological Control - April 30, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) attracts and benefits the green lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana Hagen
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Michela Costa Batista, Maira Christina Marques Fonseca, Adenir Vieira Teodoro, Elem Fialho Martins, Angelo Pallini, Madelaine Venzon Aromatic plants can affect arthropod community composition and reduce herbivore populations by attracting beneficial insects such as generalist predators. To investigate the possible mechanisms underlying the attraction of aromatic plant species to natural enemies in the field, we assessed the attractiveness of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), Mentha piperita L. (peppermint), Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm)...
Source: Biological Control - April 27, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Using of endophytic Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and thyme oil for management of gray mold rot of guava fruits
In conclusion, our study confirmed that thyme oil and S. fibuligera individually may be applied as future ecofriendly alternatives to synthetic fungicides for controlling the disease. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - April 27, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Extracellular polysaccharide from Ralstonia solanacearum; a strong inducer of eggplant defense against bacterial wilt
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Avinash Prakasha, I. Darren Grice, K.S. Vinay Kumar, M.P. Sadashiva, H.N. Shankar, S. Umesha Ralstonia solanacearum a phytopathogenic bacterium produces virulence factor via production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). We have isolated EPS from R. solanacearum and characterized by AFM, SEM, FTIR, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, the result showed pore size distribution, topology, rheological and pseudoplastic behaviour of EPS and three major monosaccharides, glucuronic acid, N-acetylglucosamine and glucose associated with...
Source: Biological Control - April 26, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comparing the utility of host and primary endosymbiont loci for predicting global invasive insect genetic structuring and migration patterns
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Alejandro Otero-Bravo, Zakee L. Sabree Halyomorpha halys, commonly known as the Brown Marmorated Stinkbug, is a highly polyphagous invasive pest introduced from East Asia into North America and Europe. It harbors ‘Candidatus Pantoea carbekii’, an obligately-associated, vertically-inherited gamma-proteobacterial mutualist. We evaluated the use of this symbiont as a proxy for measuring host diversity, distribution, and phylogeography. Despite the symbiont’s accelerated molecular evolution, the symbiont genome shows relativ...
Source: Biological Control - April 25, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Individual variation in stage duration in matrix population models: problems and solutions
This study discusses problems associated with the existing methods and describes approaches to deal with the problems. (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - April 25, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Response of Bactrocera oleae to different photoperiods and temperatures using a novel method for continuous laboratory rearing
Conclusion In earlier and recent literature, most of the rearing procedures adopted long-day photophase and high temperature, but scarce investigation was performed on the effects of the photoperiod on the olive fly. In the present work, we developed a novel method for continuous laboratory rearing of the olive fly on its natural host, which allowed to demonstrate a clear effect of the photoperiod on the effectiveness of the rearing procedures. Laboratory colonies with access to olive fruits showed a short-day photoperiodic response: the optimal combination of climatic parameters was photoperiod 8:16 LD and temperature 16&...
Source: Biological Control - April 24, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Digital gene expression profiling of the pathogen-resistance mechanism of Oryza sativa 9311 in response to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 induction
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Yongli Xie, Liming Wu, Bichun Zhu, Huijun Wu, Qin Gu, Faheem Rajer, Xuewen Gao Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial soil microorganisms that colonize plant roots for nutritional purposes and benefit plants by increasing plant growth or reducing plant disease. To clarify the complex mechanisms underlying plant-PGPR interactions, transcriptomic analyses of the response of rice (Oryza sativa) 9311 to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 were carried out using RNA-Seq technology. This resulted in the identification of 379 d...
Source: Biological Control - April 19, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Beneficial effect of Trichoderma harzianum strain Ths97 in biocontrolling Fusarium solani causal agent of root rot disease in olive trees
The objective of this work was to analyze the biocontrol behavior of a Tunisian strain of T. harzianum (Ths97) on olive trees against Fso14 by assessing both mycoparasitic activity (in planta and in vitro) and ability to locally modulate different gene-related defenses of the plant. Ths97 was found to inhibit Fso14 growth in vitro. Optical microscopic analysis at the confrontation zone between hyphae showed that Ths97 grew alongside Fso14 with numerous contact points suggesting parasitic activity. On olive trees, Ths97 developed a strong protective role against root infestation by Fso14, whether inoculated before or after ...
Source: Biological Control - April 13, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Use of the Brown Marmorated Stinkbug ’s primary symbiont for population genetic analyses
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Alejandro Otero-Bravo, Zakee L. Sabree Halyomorpha halys, commonly known as the Brown Marmorated Stinkbug, is a highly polyphagous invasive pest introduced from East Asia into North America and Europe. It harbors ‘Candidatus Pantoea carbekii’, an obligately-associated, vertically-inherited gamma-proteobacterial mutualist. We evaluated the use of this symbiont as a proxy for measuring host diversity, distribution, and phylogeography. Despite the symbiont’s accelerated molecular evolution, the symbiont genome shows relativ...
Source: Biological Control - April 10, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interactions among endophytic fungal entomopathogens (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae), and the aphid endoparasitoid Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
This study presents one of very few reports of the compatible use of endophytic fungal entomopathogens with other biological control agents, particularly parasitoids, for aphid suppression under controlled greenhouse conditions as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - April 10, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biocontrol potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from corn silages against some plant pathogenic fungi
The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize effective lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with antifungal activities from some corn silages in Iran. The corn biomass was harvested from fields of three different regions, chopped, and ensiled in the lab silos. From 200 LABs isolates, 18 isolates with the highest acidic pH resistance (up to pH 3), salt resistance (up to 8%) and growth at 15-45°C were selected for the next experiments. The highest (11.31 mg/ml) and the lowest (1.9 mg/ml) lactic acid production among the selected strains were belonged to the isolates E4 and G1, respectively. The antifungal pro...
Source: Biological Control - April 10, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Pupation behavior and larval and pupal biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii in the field
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): J. Megan Woltz, Jana C. Lee Biocontrol may play an important role in IPM of D. suzukii, a worldwide fruit crops pest. Predation on D. suzukii has been observed in the field, but rates have not been measured. Additionally, targeting juveniles may be more effective than targeting adults for reducing population sizes. The first objective of this study was to measure naturally-occurring levels of biocontrol on D. suzukii juveniles. Furthermore, D. suzukii may either pupate inside of fruit or emerge to pupate in the soil. Knowing the location ...
Source: Biological Control - April 10, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Foraging strategy for mosquito parasitic nematodes Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Limin Dong, Yi Wang, Manar Sanad, Yanli Xu, Randy Gaugler To understand the infection strategies of the mosquito parasitic mermithid nematodes Romanomermis iyengari (Welch, 1964) and Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Poinar and Camino, 1986), we have investigated the foraging behaviors of the pre-parasites of both species. Romanomermis iyengari with body length of 0.99 ± 0.071mm (twice as S. spiculatus 0.55 ± 0.01mm) swims faster (2.76 ± 0.13cm/min) than S. spiculatus (1.61 ± 0.09cm/min). The nematode pre-parasites o...
Source: Biological Control - April 10, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Antifungal potential of Corallococcus sp. strain EGB against plant pathogenic fungi
In this study, strain EGB, which was identified as a Corallococcus sp. with excellent antifungal activity, was selected as a biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungi from 41 myxobacterial isolates in previous research. Efficient biocontrol activity of Corallococcus sp. EGB was observed on plate assays and pot experiments. Corallococcus sp. strain EGB exhibited efficient biological control of Fusarium oxysporum, significantly decreasing the incidence of Fusarium wilt to 7.7% and the disease severity from 61.2% to 7.5%. Microscopic observations of hyphae as well as periodate oxidation analysis and HPLC analysis of the ...
Source: Biological Control - April 5, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Isolation, identification and in vitro screening of Chongqing orangery yeasts for the biocontrol of Penicillium digitatum on citrus fruit
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Ye Liu, Weihao Wang, Yahan Zhou, Shixiang Yao, Lili Deng, Kaifang Zeng The aim of this study was to explore the diversity of yeasts in the orangery of Beibei Chongqing and their potential for biological control of Penicillium digitatum on oranges. Yeasts were isolated from the surface of fruit, leaves and soil in three citrus orchards in this district. The yeasts were identified by PCR amplification and partial sequencing of internally transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The 71 yeast isolates belonged to 8 gene...
Source: Biological Control - April 4, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Combining entomopathogenic fungi and parasitoids to control the green peach aphid Myzus persicae
This study, therefore, was conducted to determine the most effective timing of application of this fungal strain in combination with either naturally occurring or introduced parasitoids to control Myzus persicae in the laboratory and controlled field environments. In the laboratory, mummification, emergence of parasitoid adults from mummified aphids and female sex ratio of the emerging adults, were not affected when the fungus was applied 6 or 7 days after the parasitoids were added, compared with treatment with A. colemani only. Although a 40% reduction in the female sex ratio of emerging parasitoid adults was recorded wh...
Source: Biological Control - April 1, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Fungal community in olive fruits of cultivars with different susceptibilities to anthracnose and selection of isolates to be used as biocontrol agents
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Gilda Preto, Fátima Martins, José Alberto Pereira, Paula Baptista Olive anthracnose is an important fruit disease in olive crop worldwide. Because of the importance of microbial phyllosphere to plant health, this work evaluated the effect of cultivar on endophytic and epiphytic fungal communities by studying their diversity in olives of two cultivars with different susceptibilities to anthracnose. The biocontrol potency of native isolates against Colletotrichum acutatum, the main causal agent of this disease, was further ev...
Source: Biological Control - March 31, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

qPCR assessment of aurofusarin gene expression in mycotoxigenic Fusarium species challenged with mycoparasitic and chemical control agents
This study focuses on aurofusarin (AUR) as a poorly studied dimeric polyketide-derived mycotoxin synthesized by the polyketide synthases (PKS). AUR provides a red pigmentation to the Fusarium’s cell wall. It is a proven contaminant in food and feed posing a health risk to consumers. To determine if the production and/or expression level of PKS genes influence the changes in mycelia coloration, AUR-red pigmented Fusarium spp. were co-cultured with S. mycoparasitica and Trichoderma harzianum mycoparasitic biocontrol agents compared to tebuconazole (Folicur®) fungicide, as a control. In this study, a set of six spec...
Source: Biological Control - March 28, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of cold storage on the chemical composition of Corcyra cephalonica eggs by 1H NMR spectroscopy
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Yan-Chang Huang, Han Wu, Zi-Wei Song, Dun-Song Li, Gu-Ren Zhang Rice moth Corcyra cephalonica eggs, frequently utilized as factitious hosts of Trichogramma wasps, are usually cold-stored for a period of time in order to meet the need of Trichogramma mass rearing. However, compounds in cold stored C. cephalonica eggs can influence the quality and quantity of Trichogramma. In the present study, we used Hydrogen-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the effect of cold storage...
Source: Biological Control - March 25, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

New EST-SSR markers reveal strong genetic differentiation in native and introduced populations of the mealybug destroyer Cryptolaemus montrouzieri
Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Hao-Sen Li, Xin-Yu Liang, Shang-Jun Zou, Yang Liu, Patrick De Clercq, Adam Ślipiński, Hong Pang Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer) is a predatory ladybird of Australian origin and has been introduced worldwide to control mealybugs. However, no simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker has been developed for C. montrouzieri, hampering study of its population genetics. We developed and characterized 12 novel SSR markers from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in C. montrouzieri, which proved to be sufficiently polymorphic for populatio...
Source: Biological Control - March 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of the rootknot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica (Chitwood) using Bacillus isolates, on soybean
In this study, the biocontrol potential of Bacillus isolates was investigated in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Five out of 70 bacterial isolates from the root-zone of crops and a goat pasture caused second stage juvenile (J2) mortality greater than 50% in vitro after 24 hours. Three of the five selected isolates (BC27, BC29 and BC31) which were isolated from the root-zone of a goat pasture caused J2 mortality greater than 80% at 108spores ml-1 in vitro after 24 hours, with BC27 causing 100% J2 mortality after 3 hours. Seed treatment of soybean with Isolates BC27 and BC29 caused a reduction in rootknot galling and ...
Source: Biological Control - March 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biocontrol of grapevine aerial and root pathogens by Paenibacillus sp. strain B2 and paenimyxin in vitro and in planta
In this study, the effects of Paenibacillus sp. strain B2 and paenimyxin were analyzed in vitro or in planta on the aerial or root pathogens of grapevine Botrytis cinerea, Plasmopara viticola and Xiphinema index. The bacterium significantly reduced B. cinerea development in vitro, and substantially decreased X. index numbers in soil and gall formation in the root system of grapevine plants. In vitro, paenimyxin inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea, the mobility of the zoospores of P. viticola and X. index activity. Supplying paenimyxin at the time of inoculation of leaf tissue with P. viticola decreased infection si...
Source: Biological Control - March 12, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Using matrix population models to inform biological control management of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus
In this study, we constructed a matrix population model to assess the potential effectiveness of biological controls against the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, a major pest of wheat in North America. We calculated the sensitivity of C. cinctus population growth to changes in stage-specific survivorship, to identify the stage at which parasitoid attack would have the largest impact on pest population growth. We also calculated the stage-specific rate of mortality needed to reduce C. cinctus population growth rate to zero, to set targets for conservation biological control approaches. Our model indicates that C. cinctus ...
Source: Biological Control - March 11, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Antifungal activity of native yeasts from different microenvironments against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on ripe olive fruits
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate in vitro biocontrol strategies against C. gloeosporioides, in order to select native antagonistic yeasts isolated from different microenvironments, and to verify the in vivo biocontrol activity on ripe olive fruits. The potential human pathogenicity of the antagonistic yeasts was also considered. A total of 241 wild yeasts from diverse olive cultures and vitivinicultural microenvironments were assayed in vitro and in vivo for their antagonistic effect against the pathogen C. gloeosporioides. Ninety-two yeasts with in vitro characteristics of competitiveness such as niche...
Source: Biological Control - March 9, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Rhizosphere Actinobacteria for combating Phytophthora capsici and Sclerotium rolfsii, the major soil borne pathogens of black pepper (Piper nigrum L)
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): T. Anusree, R. Suseela Bhai The experiment was conducted with an objective to survey potential black pepper growing tracts of Kerala and Karnataka for the isolation and characterization of rhizosphere actinobacterial strains for exploiting its antagonistic potential against major pathogens of black pepper as well as for growth promotion. Accordingly fifty actinobacterial strains were isolated and were morphologically characterized and studied for its antagonism against major soil borne pathogens of black pepper viz., Phytophthora capsici ...
Source: Biological Control - March 9, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, using endophytic bacteria recovered from a medicinal plant
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2017 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Wisnu Adi Wicaksono, E. Eirian Jones, Seona Casonato, Jana Monk, Hayley J. Ridgway Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is the causal agent of bacterial canker in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) is a New Zealand medicinal shrub that produces essential oils with antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to determine whether endophytes from L. scoparium could be transferred to A. deliciosa and maintain their biocontrol activity. Five endophytic bacteria showed antagonism against Psa in vitro....
Source: Biological Control - March 5, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research