Spatial and temporal dispersal patterns of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Maria Gisely Camargos, Clarice Diniz Alvarenga, Ronaldo Reis Júnior, Julio Marcos Melges Walder, Jefferson Castro Novais The dispersal and parasitism abilities of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, reared on the larval hosts Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, were evaluated in a guava orchard. Eleven releases of approximately 3,000 parasitoids were conducted in a 15-ha orchard and wasp dispersal was monitored from 6 to 272 m away from a central release point. At each monitoring point, larvae of C. capitata and A. fraterculu...
Source: Biological Control - April 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Negative effect of global warming on biological control is mitigated by direct competition between sympatric parasitoids
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Ruth Cebolla, Alberto Urbaneja, Joan van Baaren, Alejandro Tena Parasitoids are among the most important and successful groups of natural enemies used in the biological control of insect pests. In most systems, several parasitoid species can parasitize the same pest. The coexistence of parasitoids in agroecosystems and their efficacy as biological control agents may be disrupted by global warming. An increase of approximately 3°C is predicted by the end of the twenty-first century in the Mediterranean basin (IPCC, 2014). In this cont...
Source: Biological Control - April 12, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Developmental stage affects the interaction of Steinernema carpocapsae and abamectin for the control of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera, Gelechidae)
Publication date: July 2018 Source:Biological Control, Volume 122 Author(s): Naser Eivazian Kary, Zahra Sanatipour, Davoud Mohammadi, Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the interactions between an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae), and the insecticide abamectin against the Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella, one of the key insect pests of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Steinernema carpocapsae was highly virulent against pre-pupae but significantly less virulent against pupae with respective LC50 values of 10.5 and 10...
Source: Biological Control - April 12, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) in a zoological park by using saprophytic fungi
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): J.A. Hernández, C.F. Cazapal-Monteiro, F.L. Arroyo, M.I. Silva, A.M. Palomero, A. Paz-Silva, R. Sánchez-Andrade, M.S. Arias Toxascaris leonina and Trichuris sp. are soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infecting domestic and wild mammals. The antagonistic effect of the saprophytic filamentous fungi Mucor circinelloides and Verticillium sp. was examined on eggs of T. leonina passed in the feces of captive lynxes (Lynx lynx) kept in a zoological park. The activity of M. circinelloides and Trichoderma atrobrunneum was tested on e...
Source: Biological Control - April 11, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Bacillus spp. to biocontrol of anthracnose and enhance plant growth on Andean lupin seeds by lipopeptide production
The objective of this study was to evaluate four Bacillus strains with demonstrated abilities to control anthracnose on lupin seed to elucidate its mechanisms of antifungal activity. First, antifungal activity assays using living cells and cell-free compounds showed a strong ability to inhibit mycelial growth and conidial germination of C.acutatum. Based on these results, the two Bacillus strains that showed the highest antifungal activities were further screened for lipopeptide identification and the presence of lipopeptide genes. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) of butanolic extracts from cell-free compounds showed that b...
Source: Biological Control - April 11, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Evaluation of mycoparasitic efficacy of nematode-trapping fungi against Rhizoctonia solani inciting sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Dharmendra Kumar, S. Amaresh Gouda Sheath blight incited by Rhizoctonia solani is an important rice disease that constitutes a major challenge to rice production worldwide. Nematode-trapping fungi possess the ability to capture, kill and digest the nematodes. However, the ability of many nematode-trapping fungi parasitizing the soil borne plant pathogens may fillip the gap towards maximum exploitation of these fungi in biological control strategy. In present study, we have investigated the mycoparasitc potential of Arthobotrys conoides, ...
Source: Biological Control - April 10, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The response of four braconid parasitoid species to methyl eugenol: optimization of a biocontrol tactic to suppress Bactrocera dorsalis
This study evaluated the effects of ME on braconid parasitoids. Based on the results from olfactometer bioassays, all parasitoid species were significantly repelled by undiluted ME. Furthermore, attractant-influenced behavioral activities occurred at relatively low concentrations of ME (e.g., 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μl/ml), whereas the effects of the repellent increased to significant levels as the concentration increased. There were no significant differences in electroantennogram (EAG) responses among different doses of ME, but the number of F. arisanus parasitoids attracted to traps containing host eggs decreased significan...
Source: Biological Control - April 8, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Increasing the utility of barcode databases through high-throughput sequencing of amplicons from dried museum specimens, an example on parasitic Hymenoptera (Braconidae)
In this study, we explored the potential of a two-step PCR approach combined with Illumina sequencing to recover mitochondrial protein coding genes (COI and Cytb) from dry specimens from a reference collection, whose DNA was extracted non-destructively. We studied 18 species of afrotropical Braconidae (Microgastrinae, Opiinae and Braconinae) collected 10 to 35 years ago. Depending on the target region, sequences were obtained from 61 to 90 % of the specimens. The full barcode was reconstructed in ca 90% of the species. A customized analysis pipeline allowed us to manage the high rate of contamination and to identify co-amp...
Source: Biological Control - April 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ostrinia nubilalis Parasitoids in Northern Italy: Past and Present
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Giuseppe Camerini, Stefano Maini, Matthias Riedel Agroecosystems are constantly evolving due to ever changing agricultural patterns. In addition, the ongoing climate changes and the evolution of landscape structures due to human activities tend to modify living communities, including the ones of pest natural enemies. Therefore our knowledge about their evolution and transformation needs a constant updating. Here we retrace the evolution of European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, 1796 - Lepidoptera Crambidae- ECB) natural enem...
Source: Biological Control - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Implications of changes in land cover and landscape structure for the biocontrol potential of stemborers in Ethiopia
Publication date: July 2018 Source:Biological Control, Volume 122 Author(s): Yodit Kebede, Felix Bianchi, Frédéric Baudron, Kristin Abraham, Anne de Valença, Pablo Tittonell The land cover and structure of agricultural landscapes may influence the abundance and diversity of natural enemies of crop pests. However, these landscapes are continuously evolving due to changing land uses and agricultural practices. Here we assess changes in land use and landscape structure in a landscape in the Rift Valley region of Ethiopia, and explore the impact these changes are likely to have on the capacity of the land...
Source: Biological Control - April 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Enhancing the pathogenicity of Arthrobotrys conoides and A. oligospora against Meloidogyne javanica J2 by transferring of protease (AcI) gene and evaluation of antagonistic capability of transgenic isolates
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Seyedeh Lavin Nourani, Ebrahim Mohammadi Goltapeh, Naser Safaie, Mokhtar Jalali Javaran, Ebrahim Pourjam Antagonistic fungi are well-known as viable alternatives to chemical control of root-knot nematodes. In this paper, serine protease Ac1 as an important pathogenicity factor was used to enhance the antagonistic activity of Arthrobotrys conoides and A. oligospora against Meloidogyne javanica J2 (second stage juveniles). Ac1 gene was extracted from A. conoides and cloned in pCAMBIA1304 vector. The recombinant plasmid was then transferred...
Source: Biological Control - March 31, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Selection of flowering plants to enhance the biological control of Tuta absoluta using parasitoids
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Judit Arnó, Marta F. Oveja, Rosa Gabarra The tomato moth Tuta absoluta is an important pest of tomato crops. To enhance biological control services, our study aims to ascertain the effect of potential insectary plants (Achillea millefolium, Calendula officinalis, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lobularia maritima, Ononis natrix, Sinapis alba, and Tagetes patula) as nutrient-providers to facilitate the installation of T. absoluta parasitoids (Necremnus tutae, Stenomesius nr. japonicus, and Bracon nr. nigricans) without encouraging the pest. ...
Source: Biological Control - March 30, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Bioinoculants and AM fungus colonized nursery improved management of complex root disease of Coleus forskohlii Briq. under field conditions
Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Rakshapal Singh, Sudeep Tiwari, R.P. Patel, Sumit K. Soni, Alok Kalra Nursery treatment with efficient microbial inoculants, using vermicompost as rooting medium, is not popular technique and underutilized for the management of complex root diseases (involved phyto-pathogens: Fusarium, Ralstonia and Meloidogyne) of Coleus forskohlii. To find a probable profound solution of the above problem we designed an experiment to study the potential of efficient bioinoculants and AM fungus as nursery treatment, where the vermicompost was added as r...
Source: Biological Control - March 28, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Isolation, characterization and comparative analysis of plant-associated bacteria for suppression of soil-borne diseases of field-grown groundnut in Vietnam
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): C.N. Le, T.K. Hoang, T.H. Thai, T.L. Tran, T.P.N. Phan, J.M. Raaijmakers Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil seed crop worldwide and used extensively for feed and food. In Vietnam, groundnut cultivation is hampered by several soil-borne fungal pathogens, in particular Sclerotium rolfsii. To develop sustainable measures to control stem rot disease caused by S. rolfsii, plant-associated bacteria were isolated from the stem base and roots of groundnut plants grown in farmer fields in central Vietnam and tested for activity a...
Source: Biological Control - March 27, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Changes in mycoparasite-Fusarium hosts interfaces in response to hostile environment as revealed by water contact angle and atomic force microscopy
This study presents detailed methods to study fungal cell surface texture or roughness under atomic force microscopy (AFM) and hydrophobicity measured by water contact angle (WCA). The differential expression of the WCA depicted a hydrophilic nature of S. mycoparasitica mycoparasite compared to highly hydrophobic F. proliferatum and low hydrophobic F. redolens plant pathogens showing antagonistic and biotrophic interactions, respectively. A shift in WCA induced by potato dextrose agar (PDA) versus nitrogen rich synthetic-ICI medium greatly affected a level of mycoparasitism as measured by the changes in fungal radial growt...
Source: Biological Control - March 27, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Performance of the biocontrol agent Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) on its target host, Senecio madagascariensis (Madagascar fireweed), on an alternate host, Delairea odorata (Cape ivy), and on non-target plants, in Hawaii.
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Paul D. Krushelnycky, Forest Starr, Kim Starr, Melelani Abran, Mark Thorne, James Leary, Mach Fukada, Daniel Rubinoff The lepidopteran herbivore Secusio extensa (Erebidae: Arctiinae) was purposefully released in Hawaii in 2013 to control Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), an invasive weed of rangelands and other open areas. In conjunction with this biocontrol effort, we conducted pre- and post-release monitoring of S. madagascariensis in field plots, and post-release monitoring of non-target plants. ...
Source: Biological Control - March 23, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Combining biological and mechanical tactics to suppress Melaleuca quinquenervia
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Philip W. Tipping, Melissa R. Martin, Min B. Rayamajhi, Paul D. Pratt, Lyn A. Gettys A four y common garden study was initiated using once-cut Melaleuca quinquenervia trees that were subsequently subjected to a full factorial of treatments that included reduced versus unrestricted herbivory from biological control agents, a mechanical treatment (trees were not cut or were cut every 6 m), and an irrigation treatment (trees were irrigated or not). Repeated cutting reduced the total tree biomass by 76.4%, herbivory alone reduced total bioma...
Source: Biological Control - March 22, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Characterization of the killer toxin KTCf20 from Wickerhamomyces anomalus, a potential biocontrol agent against wine spoilage yeasts
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Miguel Fernández de Ullivarri, Lucía M. Mendoza, Raúl R. Raya Wickerhamomyces anomalus Cf20 secretes the killer toxin KTCf20 that inhibits several wine spoilage yeasts of the species Pichia guilliermondii, P. membranifaciens, Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Dekkera anomala. KTCf20 binds cell wall extracts from the sensitive target P. guilliermondii Cd6; however, this capacity was lost when cell wall extracts were pre-treated with fungal β-glucanase. Pustulan and laminarin inhibited killer activity, suggesting tha...
Source: Biological Control - March 21, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

DNA sequencing to help identify crop pests and their natural enemies in agro-ecosystems: The case of the millet head miner Heliocheilus albipunctella (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sub-Saharan Africa
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Biological Control, Volume 121 Author(s): Ahmadou Sow, Thierry Brévault, Gérard Delvare, Julien Haran, Laure Benoit, Armelle Cœur d'Acier, Maxime Galan, Cheikh Thiaw, Valérie Soti, Mbacké Sembène Better knowledge of natural enemy communities and their relative contribution to biological control is needed to design ecology-based pest management in agro-ecosystems. Here, we investigated the arthropod communities of pearl millet-based agro-ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa (Senegal), with a focus on natural enemies of the millet head miner (MHM), Heli...
Source: Biological Control - March 20, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Isolation of indigenous antagonistic microorganism to inhibit Rigidoporus microporus and other plant pathogens and analysis of the bioactive compounds
This study indicates that T. asperellum F14 can be used to inhibit white root rot disease and other plant diseases. (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - March 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

DNA sequencing to help identify crop pests and their natural enemies in agro –ecosystems: the case of the millet head miner Heliocheilus albipunctella (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sub-Saharan Africa
Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Ahmadou Sow, Thierry Brévault, Gérard Delvare, Julien Haran, Laure Benoit, Armelle Coeur d'Acier, Maxime Galan, Cheikh Thiaw, Valérie Soti, Mbacké Sembène Better knowledge of natural enemy communities and their relative contribution to biological control is needed to design ecology-based pest management in agro-ecosystems. Here, we investigated the arthropod communities of pearl millet-based agro-ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa (Senegal), with a focus on natural enemies of the millet head miner (MHM), ...
Source: Biological Control - March 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Abundance across seasons and early impact of the florivorous weevil Anthonomus santacruzi (Curculionidae) on Solanum mauritianum (Solanaceae) in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Kelby English, Terence Olckers The florivorous weevil Anthonomus santacruzi Hustache (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was first released in South Africa in 2009 to reduce fruiting by the invasive Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae). Additional releases during 2011-2014 achieved widespread establishment in KwaZulu-Natal Province, notably in its warmer coastal regions. The aims of this study were to determine whether A. santacruzi abundance: (i) varied monthly at coastal versus inland sites; (ii) was influenced by floral availability and th...
Source: Biological Control - March 8, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The effectiveness of a combined bacterial larvicide for mosquito control in an endemic urban area in Brazil
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Eloína Maria de Mendonça Santos, Lêda Narcisa Regis, Maria Helena Neves Lobo Silva-Filha, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues Barbosa, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo-Santos, Tatiane Cibele Souza Gomes, Cláudia Maria Fontes de Oliveira Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Lsp) and Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis (Bti) based biolarvicides have been applied in Culex or Aedes breeding sites in Água Fria, a neighborhood in Recife City (Brazil), to control these vectors. The effectiveness of a single Bti/Lsp conjugated ...
Source: Biological Control - March 8, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Intraspecific variations on thermal susceptibility in the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae): responding to long-term heat acclimations and frequent heat hardenings
In this study, a high temperature adapted strain (HTAS) of the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes was selected from its conventional strain (CS) via a long-term heat acclimation (maintained at 35 °C) and frequent heat hardenings (exposed at 45 °C for 2 hours every 15−25 days) over multiple generations. As expected, heat acclimation greatly improved the survival probabilities of N. barkeri when a single heat stress event occurred, with a median lethal time (e.g., at 45 °C) calculated as 15.2 h for HTAS females and 1.9 h for CS ones, respectively. After the heat acclimatory, HTAS showed a faster growt...
Source: Biological Control - March 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comparative biocontrol potential of three predatory mirids when preying on sweet pepper key pests
This study was carried out with two different temperature regimes, 20 °C and 27 °C, which simulated the mean temperatures registered in the two main crop cycles in Spain (the winter and summer planting period). Both, N. tenuis and M. pygmaeus were able to establish on sweet pepper and significantly reduced the number of F. occidentalis and B. tabaci adults, larvae and nymphs. Macrolophus pygmaeus had the highest density at 20 °C, whereas N. tenuis was more abundant at 27 °C. In contrast, D. maroccanus was less abundant under both temperatures studied; and did not reduce neither F. occidentalis nor B. tabaci...
Source: Biological Control - March 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Enhancing the efficacy of yeast biocontrol agents against postharvest pathogens through nutrient profiling and the use of other additives.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different nutrient or additives on the growth of the two antagonist yeasts and of the two fungal pathogens in order to develop a rational selection based on nutritional profiles to be used in biocontrol enhancement of decay in pear fruits. Twenty-six different nutrient sources including 18 amino acids, five sugars, three inorganic nitrogen and one iron source were tested in vitro for their effect on the growth of the two yeasts and the two pathogens. Nutrients that promoted the growth of the yeasts and inhibited the growth of pathogens were applied with the antago...
Source: Biological Control - March 3, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The potential use of Debaryomyces hansenii for the biological control of pathogenic fungi in food
Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Noé Medina-Córdova, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel, Carlos Angulo The yeast Debaryomyces hansenii has proven high efficiency against several pathogenic fungi in a variety of niches. Several terrestrial and marine D. hansenii strains have been tested for their prospective use in biological control of fungal contamination in foods. Herein, the potential application of D. hansenii in the biological control of fungal pathogens in fruits, dairy products, processed meats, and cereals are reviewed a...
Source: Biological Control - March 3, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The inhibitory role of dark septate endophytic fungus Phialocephala fortinii against Fusarium disease on the Asparagus officinalis growth in organic source conditions
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Surono, Kazuhiko Narisawa Five of eight selected dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungal isolates had the ability to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in a dual culture test. We demonstrated that Asparagus officinalis inoculated with DSE fungi could survive and grow healthily without any typical disease symptoms after Fusarium disease challenge in inorganic or organic conditions in vitro. Phialocepahala fortinii isolate CKG.I.11 most effectively promoted the growth of A. officinalis after Fusarium disease challenge...
Source: Biological Control - February 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Predation and parasitism by native and exotic natural enemies of Halyomorpha halys (St ål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs augmented with semiochemicals and differing host stimuli
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): William R. Morrison, Brett R. Blaauw, Anne L. Nielsen, Elijah Talamas, Tracy C. Leskey Escape from the natural enemy community by invasive species in their introduced range is a key determinant to their success. Historically in North America, there have been only low levels of predation and parasitism for Halyomorpha halys (Stål), the brown marmorated stink bug. In our study, we sought to determine whether prey-, predator-, or plant-associated stimuli increase mortality of H. halys egg masses, and whether the exotic parasitoid T...
Source: Biological Control - February 19, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Perennial fallow strips support biological pest control in spring cereal in Northern Europe
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Marjaana Toivonen, Erja Huusela-Veistola, Irina Herzon Fallow strips are promoted through agri-climate-environment schemes to enhance farmland biodiversity, but their effects on biodiversity-mediated ecosystem services remain poorly studied in different cropping systems. The effects of fallow strips on biological control of bird cherry-oat aphids in spring barley were examined in a field experiment in Finland in 2014–2016. Two types of sown perennial fallow strips – grass strip and wildflower strip – were compared. T...
Source: Biological Control - February 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The impact and production of the Brazilian peppertree biological control agent Pseudophilothrips ichini (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is affected by the level of host-plant fertilization
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): G.S. Wheeler, E. Jones, E. Broggi, D. Halbritter Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is an invasive weed of natural and agricultural areas of Florida, Hawaii, and Texas (USA). A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini (Hood) is being developed as a potential agent for biological control of this invasive weed. As field releases are planned, methods are needed for the mass production and to predict the impact of the thrips. Brazilian peppertree seedlings were grown in potting media amended with three fertilizer ...
Source: Biological Control - February 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interspecific variation, habitat complexity and ovipositional responses modulate the efficacy of cyclopoid copepods in disease vector control
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Ross N. Cuthbert, Jaimie T.A. Dick, Amanda Callaghan The use of predatory biological control agents can form an effective component in the management of vectors of parasitic diseases and arboviruses. However, we require predictive methods to assess the efficacies of potential biocontrol agents under relevant environmental contexts. Here, we applied functional responses (FRs) and reproductive effort as a proxy of numerical responses (NRs) to compare the Relative Control Potential (RCP) of three cyclopoid copepods, Macrocyclops albidus,...
Source: Biological Control - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Landscape context does not constrain biological control of Phenacoccus manihoti in intensified cassava systems of southern Vietnam
In this study, we contrasted temporal population fluctuations of P. manihoti, A. lopezi, and associated hyperparasitoids within low- and high-diversity landscapes in Tay Ninh (Vietnam). Across years and landscape types we found 24.8 ± 17.7% (mean ± SD) plants infected with P. manihoti and on average 5.6 ± 5.3 mealybugs per cassava tip. High parasitism levels were attained across both years, with season-long averages of 49.9-52.1% in either low- or high-diversity settings. Hyperparasitism levels were on average 2.8 ± 5.4%, and a total of three hyperparasitoid species were recorded. Cassava age wa...
Source: Biological Control - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

In planta bioassay on the effects of endophytic Beauveria strains against larvae of horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella)
In this study, laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the ability of local Beauveria strains to colonize horse-chestnut leaves endophytically and test their antagonistic activity against C. ohridella in colonized leaves. Two strains of Beauveria bassiana (AM_EF0111 isolated from horse-chestnut leaf tissue and AM_EP0715 isolated from a C. ohridella pupa) and one strain of B. pseudobassiana (AM_SO1015 obtained from soil) were used for in planta bioassays. The selected strains demonstrated high virulence to leaf miner pupae after a topical treatment with spore suspensions. LC50 ranged between 2.49 and 3.19 × 1...
Source: Biological Control - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control agent selection under environmental change using functional responses, abundances and fecundities; the Relative Control Potential (RCP) metric
We present RCP calculations and biplots that represent the comparative efficacies of the two biological control agents across temperatures. The Relative Control Potential (RCP) metric thus provides a new tool for practitioners to better assess the potential efficacy of biocontrol agents before their integration into management approaches for pests, vectors and invasive species. (Source: Biological Control)
Source: Biological Control - February 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Aspects of the biology and reproductive strategy of two Asian larval parasitoids evaluated for classical biological control of Drosophila suzukii
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Xin-Geng Wang, Alexandra H. Nance, John M.L. Jones, Kim A. Hoelmer, Kent M. Daane Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is native to eastern Asia, but has established in Europe, North and South America, where it is a pest of numerous berry and other small fruit crops. As a part of a classical biological control program, two larval D. suzukii parasitoids, Ganaspis brasiliensis Ihering and Leptopilina japonica Novković & Kimura (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), were imported from South Korea to a California quarantine f...
Source: Biological Control - February 11, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato isolate NJBb2101 on biological fitness and insecticide sensitivity of parental and offspring generations of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Biological Control, Volume 121 Author(s): Yunchao Wang, Na Yu, Fuhua Chu, Shakal Khan Korai, Zewen Liu Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (s. l.) have been developed for biological control of sucking insect pests such as Nilaparvata lugens. However, the sublethal effects of B. bassiana s. l. on N. lugens remain unclear, and were investigated in the present study. N. lugens 3rd instar nymphs were inoculated with a sublethal concentration of B. bassiana s. l. isolate NJBb2101 conidia and then reared until they developed into adults. The resultant adults (parental ...
Source: Biological Control - February 11, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Host specificity of an encyrtid parasitoid: historical records and field-based tests in the native region to predict introduction risk
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Gabor Neumann, Dennis J. O'Dowd, Peter T. Green Host range estimation using historical records and field-based host specificity tests was performed with Tachardiaephagus somervilli, an encyrtid parasitoid selected for the biological control of the invasive lac scale Tachardina aurantiaca on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. T. aurantiaca is tended by the invasive ant Anoplolepis gracilipes and its honeydew supply is implicated in formation of ant supercolonies that threaten native biodiversity and disrupt ecosystem processes in island fo...
Source: Biological Control - February 10, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interspecific competition between Fopius arisanus and Psyttalia incisi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitoids of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)
This study investigated the interspecific competition between these two parasitoids in the oriental fruit fly and the parasitic effect of P. incisi on hosts that have previously been parasitized by F. arisanus. The results showed that P. incisi did not discriminate against hosts that had been parasitized by F. arisanus at the egg stage. The parasitism percentage by P. incisi was lower on hosts previously parasitized by F. arisanus (75.3%) than on non-parasitized hosts (83.3%). Successive parasitization by F. arisanus and P. incisi resulted in the mass mortality of host larvae and pupae, with the death of 50.8% of the host ...
Source: Biological Control - February 10, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Autoclaved yeast enhances the resistance against Penicillium expansum in postharvest pear fruit and its possible mechanisms of action
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Biological Control, Volume 119 Author(s): Cui Sun, Da Fu, Huangping Lu, Jiahui Zhang, Xiaodong Zheng, Ting Yu The study investigated the effect of autoclaved yeast on the control of blue mold in pear fruit and the possible mechanisms involved. The results demonstrated that autoclaved yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum could stimulate remarkable resistance to the blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Autoclaved yeast had no direct antifungal activity against P. expansum in vitro and in vivo while it reduced germination of P. expansum in fruit wounds after 24 h of treatm...
Source: Biological Control - February 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ladybird beetle trails reduce host acceptance by Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Meeja Seo, Monique J. Rivera, Lukasz L. Stelinski, Xavier Martini We investigated the behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, to the trail of the convergent ladybird beetle, Hippodamia convergens. We tested the hypothesis that H. convergens trails reduce D. citri host acceptance using choice tests. Citrus plants previously exposed to ladybird beetle larvae and adult trails were avoided by D. citri compared to untreated controls. Female D. citri settling on H. convergens-exposed plants decreased as the densit...
Source: Biological Control - February 3, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Molecular gut-content analysis reveals high frequency of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) consumption by Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in sweet corn
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Julie A. Peterson, Eric C. Burkness, James D. Harwood, W.D. Hutchison Management of corn earworm Helicoverpa zea in sweet corn grown for processing can be challenging due to the lack of effective transgenic and chemical control options. However, biological control by generalist predators can provide a significant impact on pests in this cropping system. One of the most ubiquitous predators of H. zea and other lepidopterans is the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus. This small hemipteran has been observed as an important mortality a...
Source: Biological Control - February 3, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Cryptic east-west divergence and molecular diagnostics for two species of silver flies (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae: Leucopis) from North America being evaluated for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Nathan P. Havill, Stephen D. Gaimari, Adalgisa Caccone Exploring genetic diversity within species of biological control agents can expose previously overlooked beneficial genotypes. This may be the case for two species of silver flies, Leucopis argenticollis and L. piniperda, predators of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in the Pacific Northwest of North America. The same Leucopis species occur in eastern North America, where they feed on other adelgid species, but not on hemlock woolly adelgid, which became a pest in the re...
Source: Biological Control - February 3, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Host-produced Wax Affects the Searching Behavior and Efficacy of Parasitoids of the Giant Whitefly Aleurodicus dugesii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Erich N. Schoeller, Maher Yassin, Richard A. Redak Insects possess a variety of defenses against natural enemies including physical attack, chemical repellency, physiological suppression, and visual camouflage. The hypothesis that wax production by the whitefly Aleurodicus dugesii Cockerell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) functions as a defense against natural enemies was tested using two parasitoid species, Encarsia noyesi Hayat (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Idioporous affinis LaSalle & Polaszek (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Parasito...
Source: Biological Control - February 3, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Exploring the effect of β-glucan on the biocontrol activity of Cryptococcus podzolicus against postharvest decay of apples and the possible mechanisms involved
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Yun Wang, Yulin Li, Weidong Xu, Xiangfeng Zheng, Xiaoyun Zhang, Mandour H. Abdelhai, Lina Zhao, Huifang Li, Junwei Diao, Hongyin Zhang China is one of the largest producers of apples worldwide. Apple decay caused by Penicillium expansum has led to serious economic losses and, therefore, is a major concern. In this work, we investigated the efficacy of Cryptococcus podzolicus enhanced by β-glucan in controlling the postharvest decay of apples and the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Our results showed that β-gluca...
Source: Biological Control - February 3, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Assessment of genetic structuring in the Lygodium fern moths Austromusotima camptozonale and Neomusotima conspurcatalis in their native range: implications for biological control
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Graham A. McCulloch, Jeffrey R. Makinson, Ryan Zonneveld, Matthew F. Purcell, S. Raghu, Gimme H. Walter Assessing the genetic diversity and structuring of potential biological control agents in their native range can be a vital step in developing efficient biological control programs. These assessments, however, are not routinely conducted prior to release of agents. Assessments of these variables after releases have been made may also provide valuable insights into why some agents fail to establish in the introduced range. We therefor...
Source: Biological Control - February 2, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Rizhospheric competence, plant growth promotion and biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain 32a
This study aimed to further define the taxonomic position of strain 32a, previously identified as a B. amyloliquefaciens, to evaluate its rhizosphere competence and its persistence in the rhizoplane of tomato and to assess its potential as growth promoting and biocontrol agent towards crown gall disease. The gyrB gene sequencing of strain 32a classified it as subsp. plantarum. This strain harbored genes related to the production of the dipeptide bacilysin and the polyketides macrolactin, bacillaene and difficidin. When tested in vitro, it was also able to produce siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes and indole-3-acetic acid and...
Source: Biological Control - February 2, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological control of boxwood blight by Pseudomonas protegens recovered from recycling irrigation systems
In this study, 1547 bacterial strains recovered from recycling irrigation systems were evaluated in vitro and in planta for their biological control efficacy against Cps. Three most potent stains 13A3, 14D5, and 34B6 identified all belonged to Pseudomonas protegens. Strains 13A3 and 14D5 reduced Cps mycelial growth by 95 to 100% in two sets of in vitro experiments including a 48-well plate assay and a dual culture assay. Strain 34B6 also reduced Cps growth by 93% in the 48-well plate assay and 66 to 72% in dual culture plates. In planta, strain 14D5 reduced Cps infection by more than 50%, while strains 13D3 and 34B6 by 40 ...
Source: Biological Control - February 2, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Do Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) and agroforestry system affect native parasitoids associated with the Asian chestnut gall wasp?
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Biological Control Author(s): Chiara Ferracini, Sandro Bertolino, Umberto Bernardo, Carmelo P. Bonsignore, Massimo Faccoli, Ester Ferrari, Daniela Lupi, Stefano Maini, Luca Mazzon, Francesco Nugnes, Anna Rocco, Fabrizio Santi, Luciana Tavella The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is one of the most serious pests of Castanea spp. worldwide. Since local parasitoids did not effectively control this exotic pest, the Chinese parasitoid Torymus sinensis Kamijo was released in Japan and Europe resulting in a successful control of the invader. A su...
Source: Biological Control - February 1, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Identification and impact of hyperparasitoids and predators affecting Cyzenis albicans (Tachinidae), a recently introduced biological control agent of winter moth (Operophtera brumata, L.) in the northeastern U.S.A.
This study aimed to determine the rates of mortality from predation by generalist ground predators and hyperparasitism of C. albicans puparia, identify any hyperparasitoids, and assess the impact of predation and hyperparasitism on the potential success of C. albicans in controlling the winter moth. Mortality of C. albicans puparia was primarily due to predation, but there was also hyperparasitism. Predation and parasitism of C. albicans puparia were consistently high across the six study sites and two years of study, but somewhat lower than those reported from British Columbia, where successful establishment of C. albican...
Source: Biological Control - February 1, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research