The Bacteriological Properties of Bacillus Strain TM-I-3 and Analysis of the Volatile Antifungal Compounds Emitted by this Bacteria.
In this study, we revealed the bacteriological properties of TM-I-3 and evaluated the antifungal activity of the compounds emitted from this bacterium. In addition, we analyzed the antimicrobial substances released from TM-I-3 using GC/MS to elucidate the mechanism of its action. Antimicrobial compounds from strain TM-I-3 were identified as acetic acid, propanoic acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, and benzaldehyde, which are all reported to have antimicrobial activity. TM-I-3 demonstrated possible efficacy in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium expansum, w...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Plant Defense System Activated in Chili Plants by Using Extracts from Eucalyptus citriodora.
Authors: Shafique S, Shafique S, Zameer M, Asif M Abstract Capsicum annuum L. is infected by Fusarium Wilt and causes significant yield losses in Pakistan. Biological control is an excellent and environment friendly way. Presently, the biocontrol assays were conducted in pot trials using methanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora L. where spray of extract prior to infection provided better protection from pathogen with maximum disease control. Further, Native page electrophoresis was performed to find out difference in expression profile of enzyme which revealed that control and T2 (Plant sprayed with Eucalyp...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Kuma Bamboo Grass (Sasa veitchii) Extracts Exhibit Protective Effects Against Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida Infection in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).
Authors: Asakura H, Makino SI, Watanabe K, Tuchida Y, Kawabe M, Sakurai D Abstract Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida ( i.e. subsp. achromogenes and subsp. masoucida) are one of the major opportunistic pathogens that cause ulcer diseases in a variety of fishes, in which this pathogen has become a worldwide economic threat in sectors that handle of particular high-priced ornamental fishes like varicolored carp and goldfish due to appearance damages. Here we reported that the kuma bamboo grass (Sasa veitchii) extracts (KBGE) that contained a variety of fatty acids, exhibited antibacterial activity against nine Aeromonas ...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Investigation of the Effective Concentration of Ozonated Water for Disinfection in the Presence of Protein Contaminants.
Authors: Hirai K, Ando N, Komada H, Sounai A, Murakami M, Nakayama H Abstract Ozonated water (OW) is presently used as a chemical disinfectant in many fields, due to its versatile antimicrobial properties. As ozone rapidly decomposes to oxygen, especially in the presence of organic matter, it is important to estimate the authentic antimicrobial activity of OW in the presence of contaminants. However, the effect of contaminants on the antimicrobial activity of OW has not been fully investigated. To address this, we evaluated the effect of protein contaminants on the antimicrobial activity of OW. The survival rate of...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Microflora of Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Rice Grains in Kyushu Region of Japan and Their Changes during Storage under non-Controlled Conditions.
In this study, the fungal microflora of brown rice grains cultivated in Kyushu region in the southern part of Japan was investigated. A total of 75% of rice samples examined in this study showed less than 30% of fungal contamination rates with a median rate of 12.5%. Some isolates of Aspergillus flavus showed the ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) (AFB1 production was 62.5-70.4 ng/mL) . Furthermore, AF-producing Aspergillus flavus survived during storage and Aspergillus creber, which produced sterigmatocystin, was detected in a stored rice sample. Although AFs or sterigmatocystin-contamination was not detected in any rice...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Effects of Solution pH and Ions on Suicidal Germination of  Bacillus subtilis Spores Induced by Medium High Temperature-Medium High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment.
Effects of Solution pH and Ions on Suicidal Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores Induced by Medium High Temperature-Medium High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment. Biocontrol Sci. 2019;24(3):167-172 Authors: Morimatsu K, Nakaura Y, Inaoka T, Kimura K, Yamamoto K Abstract Spores of Bacillus subtilis suspended in water or aqueous solution of NaCl, CaCl2, sodium lactate, or calcium lactate at pH 4 - 7 was subjected to spore inactivation by simultaneous combination of medium high hydrostatic pressure (MHHP; 100 MPa) treatment for germination and medium high temperature (MHT; 65℃) treatment for p...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Antibiotic-resistance of Fecal Coliforms at the Bottom of the Tama River, Tokyo.
Authors: Okai M, Aoki H, Ishida M, Urano N Abstract We investigated the midstream bottom of the Tama River, which flows through Tokyo, to evaluate the occurrence and degree of antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms including multidrug-resistant fecal coliforms. The genera Klebsiella and Escherichia were the major isolates among the fecal coliforms. For the genus Klebsiella, the highest antibiotic resistance was observed for ampicillin (100%) , followed by kanamycin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, and cefoxitin. The highest resistance to E. coli was found for kanamycin (44.4%) , followed by ampicillin, tetracycline, chlora...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Effects of UV Irradiation on  Penicillium Strains Isolated from a Bread Plant and the Application to Bakery Products.
Effects of UV Irradiation on Penicillium Strains Isolated from a Bread Plant and the Application to Bakery Products. Biocontrol Sci. 2019;24(3):179-183 Authors: Kawaguchi M, Kani A, Takatori K Abstract We tested treatement with UV irradiation for controlling the growth of bread mold. First, we analyzed the sterilizing effect of a dose of approximately 25 mJ/cm2 radiation on nine Penicillium and two Talaromyces strains that were isolated from a bread-manufacturing plant. The P. chermesinum and P. paneum strains were sterilized completely at that dose, while it was only partially effective agai...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Comparison of Various Disinfectants on Bactericidal  Activity Under Organic Matter Contaminated Environments.
Comparison of Various Disinfectants on Bactericidal Activity Under Organic Matter Contaminated Environments. Biocontrol Sci. 2019;24(2):103-108 Authors: Sato Y, Ishihara M, Nakamura S, Fukuda K, Kuwabara M, Takayama T, Hiruma S, Murakami K, Fujita M, Yokoe H Abstract The bactericidal activity of heated bio-shell calcium oxide (BiSCaO) powder suspension (pH 12.4) , hypochlorous acid (HClO; pH 6), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO; pH 8) , povidone-iodine (Isodine solution®) , and chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibiscrub®) under organic matter contaminated environments were compared for tests conducted o...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

In vitro Antifungal Activity of Japanese Folk Herb Extracts  against Trichophyton rubrum.
In vitro Antifungal Activity of Japanese Folk Herb Extracts against Trichophyton rubrum. Biocontrol Sci. 2019;24(2):109-116 Authors: Xia DA, Duerna T, Murata S, Morita E Abstract Folk herbs are vital to the Japanese health care system, with some being used to treat fungal skin infections. We tested folk herbs used in traditional Japanese medicine for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, the most common pathogen in patients with superficial dermatitis. Acetone, ethanol, methanol, water, and acetic acid extracts from 15 species of Japanese folk herbs (Bi-wa, Aka-me-gashiwa, Ta-m...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

A survey of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) in Japanese Dental Clinics.
This study was to survey the capturing rate in Japanese dental clinics of the Lasioderma serricorne (cigarette beetles) , and to evaluate the beetle's potential as a carrier for transmission of nosocomial pathogens. L. serricorne imagoes were captured in pheromone traps in 14 Japanese dental clinics in August and September 2012 and 2013, and their numbers recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the bacterial antibiotic-resistant genes mecA, vanA, vanB, blaIMP, and blaVIM was performed on the captured L. serricorne imagoes. Bacterial species in the captured specimens were identified by 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing anal...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

New Insight on Fumigation Action of Essential Oil, Commercial Fungicide and Low Oxygen Microenvironment on Museum Mold, Alternaria alternata.
In this study, as fumigants, ethanol 70%, deltamethrin (commercial pesticide (CP) ) , essential oil (EO) from Pinus regida, and low oxygen microenvironment (0.1%, (LOM) ) were tested individually and jointly against museum fungal strain Alternaria alternata. Three concentrations of each CP and EO were chosen for evaluating the individual effect. In the joint action fumigation process, three lower concentrations of CP and EO were tested in LOM. The rate of mycelial growth inhibition at each fumigation process was determined by two steps: 1) directly after the fumigation process and 2) after 7 d of the inoculation of the fum...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Antimycotic Activity of Seaweed Extracts ( Caulerpa lentillifera and Eucheuma cottonii) against Two Genera of Marine Oomycetes, Lagenidium spp. and Haliphthoros spp.
This study does not only show potential alternative control method for crab larvae health management, it may also contribute to the sustainable development and food security of aquaculture industry. PMID: 31204358 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biocontrol Science)
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Analysis of Antagonistic Potential of Secondary Metabolites and Organic Fractions of Trichoderma Species against Alternaria Alternata.
Authors: Shafique S, Shafique S, Javed A, Akhtar N, Bibi S Abstract Role of Trichoderma species is well documented as antagonists as well as plant growth enhancers. Presently, the fungicidal potential of three Trichoderma species namely, T. koningii (FCBP769) , T. viride (FCBP904) , and T. harzianum (FCBP1277) was assessed against Alternaria alternata that causes leaf necrotic spots of Syzygium cumini and broad range of other plants using 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75% dilutions of filtrates. There was a significant reduction of around 40-95%, 22-86% and 52-91% in fungal biomass by T. koningii, T. viride and T. harzianu...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Genetic Identification of Dematiaceous Fungi Isolated from Washing Machine in Japan, and Considering of Fungal Removal Methods.
Authors: Hashimoto K, Fujii H, Kawakami Y Abstract In 2017, 2 household washing machines which were used at a house in Saitama prefecture were tested for fungal flora sampling. The fungi were identified in detail via genetic analysis of the ITS region. The number of fungi which were isolated were 8.7×106~6.1×107 cfu/100cm2 and dematiaceous fungi such as Ochroconis musae, Exophiala, Cyphellophora, Knufia epidermidis were dominant. As for Knufia epidermidis, this is the first report for identification from a Japanese household. The number of isolated Cladosporium, which is common in the environment, was...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Bactericidal Effects of Oxidative Stress Generated by  EDTA-Fe and Hydrogen Peroxide.
Bactericidal Effects of Oxidative Stress Generated by EDTA-Fe and Hydrogen Peroxide. Biocontrol Sci. 2019;24(2):97-101 Authors: DU WN, Chen ST Abstract Hydrogen peroxide is widely used as a disinfectant by generating oxidative stress. The chelate of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ferrous iron (EDTA-Fe) was used to increase oxidative stress and bactericidal effects. The Escherichia coli (E. coli) was added to a beef extract culture medium and treated with various doses of test reagents, including hydrogen peroxide, EDTA-Fe chelate, and antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E) . All reagen...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Identification, Growth Profile and Probiotic Properties of Autochthonous Intestinal Bacteria of Sagor catfish (Hexanematichthys sagor).
This study isolated bacteria from the intestine of Sagor catfish (Hexanematichthys sagor) and screened it for antagonistic properties. Five out of 334 bacterial isolates inhibited growth of fish pathogens. The 5 bacterial strains included relatives of Shewanella haliotis, Myroides odoratimimus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Alcaligenes faecalis. The growth profiles and probiotic properties of these bacteria were examined. The results showed that the isolate 9 (3) 7.5.2.1, whose closest relative was S. haliotis exhibited growth and probiotic advantage compared to the other bacterial strains, such as highest doubl...
Source: Biocontrol Science - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Susceptibility of Oral Streptococci to Chlorhexidine and Cetylpyridinium Chloride.
Authors: So Yeon L, Si Young L Abstract Although the most common bacteria in the supragingival plaque are Gram-positive streptococci, no extensive investigations have been conducted into the susceptibility of these species to chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the susceptibility of 80 streptococcal strains in planktonic or biofilm states to these two antimicrobial agents. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the planktonic streptococci were measured using the microdilution method, as were the minimum biofilm inh...
Source: Biocontrol Science - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Selection of Phages to Control Aeromonas hydrophila - An Infectious Agent in Striped Catfish.
In this study, isolation and selection of the phages for control in vitro Aeromonas hydrophila were conducted. 24 phages were isolated from 100 striped catfish pond water samples. Next, lytic activity of these phages was clarified. Four phages with short latent period (about 25 to 40 min) and/or high burst size (about 67 to 94 PFU/ cell) were selected to evaluate their infection activity to different phage-resistant A. hydrophila strains. Two phages termed as TG25P and CT45P were subjected to the phage cocktail to inactivate A. hydrophila. Re-growth of the host bacteria appeared about eight hours after treatment. Usage of ...
Source: Biocontrol Science - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Rapid Single Cell Detection of Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Beer Using Bioluminescence Method.
In this study, we developed a system, known as MicroStarTM Rapid Microbe Detection System (RMDS) , to detect Lactobacillus brevis, which usually requires 2-4 days for examination by the conventional plate count procedure, for beer quality control using a bioluminescence method within 24 hr and also aimed to develop a technology to detect bacterial growth without the need for cultivation. We used a highly sensitive luminous reagent that increased the activity of the luciferin- luciferase reaction to 2.5×10-18 mol ATP/0.2 μl and could detect even a single lactic acid bacterial cell. The limitation of the method wa...
Source: Biocontrol Science - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Phylogenetic Characterization of Viable but-not-yet Cultured Legionella Groups Grown in Amoebic Cocultures: A Case Study using Various Cooling Tower Water Samples.
Authors: Inoue H, Agata K, Ohta H Abstract  Legionella spp. exist naturally in association with amoeba in water environments and are known to be the etiological agent of a severe form of pneumonia. To detect diverse Legionella populations in cooling tower water systems, amoebic coculturing was performed for 15 water samples obtained from five different kinds of facilities in six geographically different locations. The growth of Legionella in coculture with Acanthamoeba sp. cells was monitored by quantitative PCR targeting Legionella-specific 16S rRNA genes. Seven out of the 15 samples were positive for Legionella...
Source: Biocontrol Science - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Solid-liquid Interface Screening System ーApplication to the Screening of Antibiotic and Cytotoxic Substance-producing Fungi.
Solid-liquid Interface Screening SystemーApplication to the Screening of Antibiotic and Cytotoxic Substance-producing Fungi. Biocontrol Sci. 2019;24(1):47-56 Authors: Oda S, Nomura S, Nakagawa M, Shin-Ya K, Kagaya N, Kawahara T Abstract  A useful tool for the screening of fungi producing biologically active secondary metabolites such as antibiotics and cytotoxic substances has been developed. An agar plate-organic solvent interface cultivation (A/S-IFC) system, which comprised a hydrophobic organic solvent (upper phase) , a fungal mat (middle phase) and an agar plate (lower phase) , was constructed....
Source: Biocontrol Science - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Construction of Its Evaluation System in Originally Designed Test-Chamber System and Sporicidal Activity of Aerosolized Hypochlorite Solution to Bacillus subtilis Spores.
This study indicated that our test-chamber system can provide reproducible test data under a homogeneous air condition, and, thereby, that the data obtained by the chamber system should contribute to predicting the AC-required dose to disinfect a whole building. PMID: 30880314 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biocontrol Science)
Source: Biocontrol Science - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Low-concentration Sorbic Acid Promotes the Induction of Escherichia coli into a Viable but Nonculturable State.
Authors: Ogane H, Sato TA, Shinokawa C, Sawai J Abstract  The effect of food preservatives and sanitizers at low concentrations on the induction of Escherichia coli into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state was investigated. When E. coli was incubated in physiological saline at 37℃, the viable cell count measured by plate counting was approximately 3-logs lower than that measured by flow cytometry after 30 days. This difference, and morphological changes in cells, confirmed the transition of E. coli into a VBNC state. Adding 10 μg/l of sorbic acid significantly promoted the induction of E. coli into a VBN...
Source: Biocontrol Science - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Sorbitol Minimizes Calcium Carbonate Scale Generation While Maintaining the Disinfection Effect of Heated Scallop-Shell Powder for Fresh Produce.
In this study, we thus investigated whether the addition of sugar to HSSP slurry suppressed CaCO3 scale generation and whether the sugar-supplemented HSSP could be applied to the disinfection and preservation of fresh lettuce. The results showed that glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol could suppress the scale generation in HSSP slurry. However, glucose and sucrose decreased the antibacterial activity of HSSP. Since the addition of sorbitol did not affect the antibacterial activity of HSSP slurry, it was used for subsequent experiments because of its low bioavailability. Sorbitol effectively suppressed scale formation by dissol...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Influence of Gas Temperature in Atmospheric Non-Equilibrium Plasma on Bactericidal Effect.
In this study, the relationship between plasma gas temperature and the bactericidal effects on five of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus (spore)) in liquid was investigated using a temperature-controllable plasma source. We determined that the bactericidal ability improved as the plasma gas temperature increased. Specifically, the bactericidal ability on E. coli of 80-℃ plasma was enhanced by as much as 6.3 times compared to that of 10-℃ plasma. The relationship between plasma gas temperature and the amount of hydroxyl radical, singlet o...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Fungicidal Effects of Ultraviolet Light (254 nm) Irradiation on Contaminated Museum Packing and Storing Materials.
In this study, fungicidal effects of UV light irradiation on the materials such as archival board and Japanese tissue paper contaminated with Penicilliun commune and Chaetomium globosum were tested. The analyzed materials were divided into two groups; Group 1 was examined with 20 μl of spore suspensions of fungi (106 cfu/ml) ; and Group 2 was tested on Czapek- Dox agar medium modified without sugar and inoculated with 100 μl of the spore suspensions of fungi (106 cfu/ml) . Six doses of UV irradiation were examined on Group 1 and five doses on Group 2 in addition to control. The assessment was done by using 1) adenosi...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Molecular and Biological Differences Among Ochroconis Strains Collected from Indoor and Outdoor Environments.
Authors: Hamada N, Abe N Abstract The molecular, morphological, and physiological characters of 55 Ochroconis strains collected from indoor and outdoor environments were studied. In Japan, Ochroconis species are often found in indoor detergent-rich environments, such as bathrooms and washing machines, and the predominant species have been identified as O. humicola, similar to that in other Asian and European countries. Although Ochroconis species have rarely been found in outdoor environments such as mountains, forests, and agricultural fields, in the present study, Ochroconis strains were specifically isolated fro...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Viability of Chlorine-injured Escherichia Coli O157:H7 on Fresh-cut Cabbage during Cold Storage in High CO2 Atmospheres.
Authors: Izumi H, Inoue A Abstract Viability of chlorine-injured E. coli O157:H7 inoculated onto shredded cabbage was evaluated during storage in air or high CO2 controlled atmospheres (CA) of 5%, 10%, and 15% at 10℃ and in a modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 5℃ and 10℃. When shredded cabbage was inoculated with chlorine-injured E. coli O157:H7 (% injury = 65%) and then stored in air or CA at 10℃, counts of E. coli O157:H7 increased during storage and injured E. coli O157:H7 (% injury = 34-66%) were detected on samples throughout the storage regardless of the CO2 atmosphere. When shredded cabbage inocu...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Characteristics of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Production and Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Shaking and Stationary Cultures.
Authors: Elahi S, Tsuchiaka S, Mizutani T, Fujikawa H Abstract Staphylococcal food poisoning, which is still a serious health problem worldwide, is caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) . Among many types of SE, staphylococcal enterotoxin type A (SEA) is known to be the most responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning. Production by SEA-producing strains in shaking culture has been studied by many investigators, whereas the kinetical differences between shaking and stationary cultures have not been studied intensively. Therefore, this difference was studied at various temperatures from 14℃ to 46℃ in the p...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Airborne Fungi Removal by using a HEPA Air Purifier Fan in Houses.
Authors: Hashimoto K, Kawakami Y Abstract Few studies have evaluated the performance of air purifiers in removing airborne fungi in houses. Here, we evaluated the ability of a HEPA air purifier fan to remove airborne fungi in six houses in Japan. In each house, the number of airborne fungi decreased more rapidly when the air purifier fan was on (test measurement) than when it was off (control) , demonstrating its ability to decrease the fungal concentration. The number of airborne fungi decreased between 1.5 and 6 times faster when the air purifier fan was on than when it was off (spontaneous decrease) . Clean air ...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Application of Potassium Myristate as an Antifungal and a Dough Improving in Bread-Making.
In this study, we investigated the mold-proofing activity and baking property with fatty acid salts. We examined the influence of fatty acid salts with different lengths of carbon chains on the dough expansion ability and found that the dough expansion ability increased significantly in the presence of more than 5% potassium myristate (C14K) . No significant difference was observed in the dough fermentation abilities between the control dough and C14K-treated dough, indicating of the absence of any effect of C14K on the fermentation ability. The antifungal test showed that C14K effectively inhibited fungal growth. Thus, C1...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Novel Chromogenic Selective Medium for the Improved Detection of Campylobacter from Stool Samples.
Authors: Teramura H, Ogura A, Yasuda E, Furuhata K Abstract BD mCCDA Clear-HT (CCHT; Nippon Becton Dickinson Company, Ltd.) , a novel chromogenic selective medium was evaluated for its superior capacity to isolate Campylobacter jejuni/ coli. When CCHT was assessed using 142 microbes including 42 Campylobacter jejuni/ coli strains, all Campylobacter strains were found to form purple-colored colonies on CCHT whereas all the other microbes failed to grow. CCTH was then compared with commercially available selective media using 100 stool samples including 40 Campylobacter positive samples. CCHT detected Campylobacter j...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Novel Dry Sheet Culture Method for the Enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae.
Authors: Ogura A, Iwasaki M, Ogihara H, Teramura H Abstract MC-Media PadTM EB (MMP-EB) , a novel sheet culture method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae, has been evaluated. When both inclusivity and exclusivity of MMP-EB were assessed using 104 microbes including 51 Enterobacteriaceae strains, all tested Enterobacteriaceae strains grew and formed obvious red-colored colonies and all tested non-Enterobacteriaceae strains were shown different appearance from Enterobacteriaceae strains. For the comparison study of the method, MMP-EB was compared with violet red bile glucose agar (VRBG) according to ISO 21528-2...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Effects of Fragrance Ingredients on the Uptake of Legionella pneumophila into Acanthamoeba castellanii.
Authors: Nomura H, Takahashi S, Tohara Y, Isshiki Y, Sakuda K, Sakuma K, Kondo S Abstract Acanthamoeba castellanii, a ubiquitous organism in water environments, is pathogenic toward humans and also is a host for bacteria of the genus Legionella, a causative agent of legionellosis. Fragrance ingredients were investigated for their antibacterial activity against planktonic Legionella pneumophila, amoebicidal activity against A. castellanii, and inhibitory effect against L. pneumophila uptake into A. castellanii. Helional® exhibited relatively high antibacterial activity [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) , 3...
Source: Biocontrol Science - December 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Characteristics of Biofilms Formed by Co-Culture of  Listeria monocytogenes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa at Low Temperatures and Their Sensitivity to Antibacterial Substances.
Characteristics of Biofilms Formed by Co-Culture of Listeria monocytogenes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa at Low Temperatures and Their Sensitivity to Antibacterial Substances. Biocontrol Sci. 2018;23(3):107-119 Authors: Yamakawa T, Tomita K, Sawai J Abstract We assessed the properties of biofilms (BFs) formed by mono- and co-cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (L+P-BF) at low temperatures and examined their sensitivity to several antibacterial substances. L. monocytogenes viable counts comprised only 1-10% of total L+P-BF viable counts at 10℃ and 15℃, ind...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effect of Spice Powders on the Development of Heated and Irradiated Bacillus subtilis Spores as Evaluated by Calorimetry.
Authors: Sakai T, Tsuchido T, Furuta M Abstract Inhibitory effects of the powders of paprika, red pepper, black pepper, sage, oregano and thyme in a solid medium after heat treatment and gamma-irradiation on the development from spore of Bacillus subtilis were examined using calorimetry. Based on the f(t) curve (Antoce et al., 1996) from the thermogram obtained, two parameters, the growth rate constant and the growth retardation time, were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effects of paprika and red pepper powders were enhanced by the spore pretreatment with heat, but not significantly with irr...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Antibacterial Activity of Epoxy Resins Mixed with Polyelectrolyte/Silver Nanoparticle Composite Filler.
In this study, antibacterial polyelectrolyte/silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) composite powder was mixed with epoxy resins as fillers to impart antibacterial activity. Either an anhydride-type or a polyamideamine-type curing agent was applied to a bisphenol A-type base compound to prepare the epoxy resins. Antibacterial assays of these resins against Escherichia coli were performed using the shake tube technique; suppression of antibacterial activity was found for the anhydride-type resin, although the polyamideamine-type resin did exhibit antibacterial activity. The anhydride-type resin is considered to have suppressed antibac...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus Reveals More Tolerance to Heat Shock than the Brewery Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Matsumoto I, Arai T, Nishimoto Y, Leelavatcharamas V, Furuta M, Kishida M Abstract The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, growing at high temperature (45℃) , showed stronger survival under heat shock at 50℃ than the brewing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was unable to grow at 45℃. The survival rate of K. marxianus decreased to 10% during heat shock at 50℃ for 20 min, and to less than 0.01% at 60℃ for 20 min. Cells with damaged cellular membranes were infrequently observed at 50℃ and had decreased significantly from heat shock at 60℃. The metabolic activity of K. marxianus wa...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Behavior of Nitrate-Nitrogen and Nitrite-Nitrogen in Drinking Water.
In this study, we verified the effect of microorganisms and ultraviolet (UV) to increase of NO2-N in water. First, all tested drinking-waters including tap water and commercial mineral water in PET bottles had
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Eligibility of Feline Calicivirus for a Surrogate of Human Norovirus in Comparison with Murine Norovirus, Poliovirus and Coxsackievirus.
Authors: Ohmine T, Narai S, Matsubara T, Nomura T, Oda K, Fukushi M, Irie T, Komatsu T, Tohya Y, Sakaguchi T Abstract Feline calicivirus (FCV) is frequently used as a surrogate of human norovirus. We investigated eligibility of FCV for anti-viral assay by investigating the stability of infectivity and pH sensitivity in comparison with other viruses. We found that infectivities of FCV and murine norovirus (MNV) are relatively unstable in infected cells compared with those of coxsackievirus (CoV) and poliovirus (PoV) , suggesting that FCV and MNV have vulnerability. Western blotting indicated that inactivation of FCV...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Discovery of Terbinafine Low Susceptibility Trichophyton rubrum strain in Japan.
Authors: Suzuki S, Mano Y, Furuya N, Fujitani K Abstract This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine low susceptibility Trichophyton rubrum, BGUTR13, in Japan collected from the whole sole of the elderly over 65s with cotton swab sampling method at the special nursing care-home in 2016. We revealed BGUTR13 showed low susceptibility (MIC,>128 μg/mL) against terbinafine. But, BGUTR13 exhibited normal susceptibility to itraconazole, did not showed cross-resistance. Also, the squalene epoxidase gene of terbinafine low susceptibility strain BGUTR13 which is the target of terbinafine contained newly confirmed...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Control of Aliivibrio fischeri Luminescence and Decrease in Bioluminescence by Fungicides.
Authors: Kuwahara H, Ninomiya J, Morita H Abstract Studies have reported that cell density, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and redox reactions, can induce bioluminescence in bacteria. Conversely, the relationship between seawater components and luminescence is not well understood. The efficacy of marine luminous bacteria as biosensors, and their reactivity to fungicides (for example postharvest pesticides) are also unknown. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the luminescence of Aliivibrio fischeri and the composition of artificial seawater media and analyzed the toxicity of fungicides using A. fischeri g...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Antibacterial Properties of Silicone Membranes after a Simple Two-Step Immersion Process in Iodine and Silver Nitrate Solutions.
This study describes the preparation of silver (Ag)/silicone composite membranes through a simple two-step immersion process, utilizing an iodine solution followed by a silver nitrate solution at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that particles with sizes of several nanometers to several tens of nanometers were present on the silicone membrane surface; these particles were identified as silver iodide using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) . The Ag/silicone membrane possessed excellent antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the antiba...
Source: Biocontrol Science - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of Low Molecular Weight Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus in Batch Fermentation and In-Vitro Assay.
Authors: Dutta D, Debnath DAS M Abstract  In present study, Taguchi's design of experiment L9 orthogonal array was created using Qualitek-4 software with four most critical factors namely, K2HPO4, MgSO4, CaCl2 and culture pH. Production of a new intracellular antifungal protein in submerged fermentation was optimized with yield of 0.98±0.1 mg/gram dry cell weight mycelia from Aspergillus giganteus MTCC 8408. The average molecular mass of the purified protein was figured as 5.122 kDa using Electro Spray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry. Scanning electron microscopy was used to correlate the effect of selected f...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Positive Selection in F-Box Domain (lpp0233) Encoded in Legionella pneumophila Strains.
In this study, we examined the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate of eukaryotic like domain encoding genes among L. pneumophila strains. In silico analysis revealed that the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate in F-box domain gene (lpp0233) was higher than those in other eukaryotic like domain and protein encoding genes and housekeeping genes. The F-box domain gene sequences in L. pneumophila strains isolated from a natural hot spring were more diversified than those of previously known strains, owing to preferential positive selection. PMID: 29910209 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biocontrol Science)
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Comparison of the Filter Efficiency of Medical Nonwoven Fabrics against Three Different Microbe Aerosols.
In this study, we used three different microbial aerosols of phi-X174 phage, influenza virus, and S. aureus and tested the filter efficiency by capturing microbial aerosols for two medical nonwoven fabrics. We compared the filter efficiency against each airborne microbe to analyze the dependency of filter efficiency on the microbial particle size. Our results showed that against the three types of spherical microbe particles, the filter efficiencies against influenza virus particles were the lowest and those against phi-X174 phages were the highest for both types of nonwoven fabrics. The experimental results mostly corresp...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Stable Antimicrobial Activity Achieved via Immobilization of Quaternary Ammonium Chloride on Hair.
Authors: Kim JI, Son SK Abstract  Dandruff and underarm malodor are caused by microorganisms. Personal hygiene products that contain various types of antimicrobial agents are available and are used for the prevention and alleviation of these conditions. However, their effects are not significant and often do not last long. Working toward a solution, hair was treated with thioglycolic acid, a reducing agent, and then with [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride to covalently bond and immobilize quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC) to hair shafts. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the bonding of...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Inhibitory Activity of Hydroxytyrosol against Streptolysin O-Induced Hemolysis.
In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory activity of water-soluble polyphenols in olives (Olea europaea) against SLO-induced hemolysis. Hydroxytyrosol inhibited SLO-induced hemolytic activity, and the amount required for 50% inhibition of hemolysis was 1.30 µg. These findings suggest that the water-soluble polyphenols contained in olives have inhibitory activity against SLO-induced hemolysis. PMID: 29910212 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biocontrol Science)
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research

Anti-Ice Nucleation Activities of Tyrosine Peptide.
Authors: Tagawa E, Ura M, Nakatsuka E, Hirono Y, Kawahara H Abstract  We investigated whether trimers of serine, threonine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine which may interact with water molecules and ice, show anti-ice nucleation activity. Only tyrosine trimer had high levels of anti-ice nucleation activity (10.10±0.74℃) at a final concentration of 0.2 mM. This was constant at an activity of 2.0℃ between the 0.01-0.1 mM concentrations, and rapidly increased at 0.1 mM or more. At the final concentration of 0.2 mM or more, the activity of the tyrosine trimer was almost constant (from 9.2℃ to 10.2℃). Alth...
Source: Biocontrol Science - June 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Biocontrol Sci Source Type: research