MicroRNAs in the thyroid
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Myriem Boufraqech, Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Electron Kebebew The microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA comprising approximately 19–25 nucleotides. miRNAs can act as tumour suppressors or oncogenes, and aberrant expression of miRNAs has been reported in several human cancers and has been associated with cancer initiation and progression. Recent evidence suggests that miRNAs play a major role in thyroid carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the role of miRNAs ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 2, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genetic causes of isolated and combined pituitary hormone deficiency
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Mara Giordano Research over the last 20 years has led to the elucidation of the genetic aetiologies of Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD) and Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency (CPHD). The pituitary plays a central role in growth regulation, coordinating the multitude of central and peripheral signals to maintain the body’s internal balance. Naturally occurring mutation in humans and in mice have demonstrated a role for several factors in the aetiology of IGHD/CP...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 16, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The role of BAT in cardiometabolic disorders and aging
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Denis P. Blondin, André C. Carpentier The demonstration of the presence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans using positron emission tomography (PET) over the past decade has lead to the rapid development of our knowledge regarding the role of BAT in energy metabolism in animal models and in humans. Although animal models continue to provide highly valuable information regarding the mechanisms regulating BAT development, mass and metabolic ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 13, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Browning and thermogenic programing of adipose tissue
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Florian W. Kiefer The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contra...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 13, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The rediscovery of BAT in adult humans using imaging
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Kirsi A. Virtanen Human brown adipose tissue has been acknowledged in newborns and children but in adults the first printed publications are from the beginning of 20th century. Further evidence of the existence of adult brown fat was published throughout the century but only very recently the functionality of active brown adipose tissue in vivo in adulthood was confirmed. This was contributed mainly by advanced imaging technology, namely hybrid positron emission tomography (PE...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 11, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Brown adipose tissue
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): P. Nuutila (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 11, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hormonal and nutritional signalling in the control of brown and beige adipose tissue activation and recruitment
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Marta Giralt, Montserrat Cairó, Francesc Villarroya Recent research has revealed that the activity of adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans is higher than previously thought, and that obese patients show abnormally low levels of brown fat activity. Studies in experimental animals have shown that BAT is a site of energy expenditure, and that BAT activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic diseases. The action of the sympathetic nervous activity on BAT depots i...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 16, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Implications of Thermogenic Adipose Tissues for Metabolic Health
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Christian Schlein, Joerg Heeren Excess and ectopic fat accumulation in obesity is a major risk factor for developing hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The activation of brown and/or beige adipocytes is a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders as the combustion of excess energy by these thermogenic adipocytes may help losing weight and improving plasma parameters including triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose levels. The regulation of ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 14, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Activation and recruitment of brown adipose tissue by cold exposure and food ingredients in humans
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Masayuki Saito, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Mami Matsushita Since the recent re-discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, this thermogenic tissue has attracted increasing interest. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. Cold exposure activates and recruits BAT in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fatness. The ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 14, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Estradiol and brown fat
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Miguel López, Manuel Tena-Sempere Ovarian steroids, such as estradiol (E2), control a vastness of physiological processes, such as puberty, reproduction, growth, development and metabolic rate. In fact, physiological, pathological, pharmacological or genetically-induced estrogen deficiency causes increased appetite and reduced energy expenditure, promoting weight gain and ultimately leading to obesity. Remarkably, estrogen replacement reverts those effects. Interestingly, ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 14, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

MicroRNAs as paracrine signaling mediators in cancers and metabolic diseases
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Akiko Matsuda, Irene K. Yan, Catherine Foye, Mansi Parasramka, Tushar Patel The contribution of microRNAs to the regulation of mRNA expression during physiological and developmental processes are well-recognized. These roles are being expanded by recent observations that emphasize the capability of miRNA to participate in inter-cellular signaling and communication. Several factors support a functional role for miRNA as mediators of cell-to-cell signaling. miRNA are able to exist w...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 7, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for metabolic disease
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Marcelina Párrizas, Anna Novials Incidence of diabetes and other metabolic disorders is increasing worldwide, with almost half the cases remaining undiagnosed. This is cause for concern as poor management of glucose or lipid levels causes tissue damage that may result in micro- or macrovascular complications. Current methods of diagnosing metabolic disorders do not provide any clues on disease aetiology or their posterior evolution and incidence of complications, which are ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 5, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

microRNA-guided diagnostics in clinical samples
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Dakota Gustafson, Kathrin Tyryshkin, Neil Renwick miRNA-guided diagnostics is a powerful molecular approach for evaluating clinical samples through miRNA detection and/or visualization. To date, this approach has been successfully used to diagnose, manage, and/or monitor a wide range of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Despite the promise of miRNA-guided diagnostics, particularly in the field of minimally invasive biomarkers, several knowledge and practical issues confound ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 3, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Strategies to use microRNAs as therapeutic targets
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Jan Krützfeldt MicroRNAs (miRNAs) provide a unique mechanism of gene regulation and play a key role in different pathologies ranging from metabolic diseases to cancer. miRNAs can impact biological function as either suppressors of gene expression when their expression levels are enhanced in a disease state or they can cause upregulation of gene expression when their expression levels are reduced. Therefore both gain- and loss-of- function strategies are needed to fully exploi...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 3, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

miRNAs as paracrine signaling mediators in cancers and metabolic diseases
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Akiko Matsuda, Irene K. Yan, Catherine Foye, Mansi Parasramka, Tushar Patel The contribution of microRNAs to the regulation of mRNA expression during physiological and developmental processes are well-recognized. These roles are being expanded by recent observations that emphasize the capability of miRNA to participate in inter-cellular signaling and communication. Several factors support a functional role for miRNA as mediators of cell-to-cell signaling. miRNA are able to exist w...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 3, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

MicroRNAs: an adaptive mechanism in the pancreatic β-cell…and beyond?
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Matthew N. Poy Recent protocols have been developed to differentiate human stem cells and fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells capable of releasing the hormone in a glucose-stimulated manner. Limitations remain which prevent bringing these protocols to a clinical setting as these models must still undergo complete characterization. Advances in sequencing technologies have driven the identification of several non-coding RNA species including microRNAs (miRNAs). While their dive...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 3, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Copeptin as a biomarker and a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with polyuria –polydipsia and hyponatremia
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 30, Issue 2 Author(s): M. Christ-Crain, N.G. Morgenthaler, W. Fenske Copeptin is part of the 164 amino acid precursor protein preprovasopressin together with vasopressin and neurophysin II. During precursor processing, copeptin is released together with vasopressin. Copeptin concentrations respond as rapidly as vasopressin to changes in osmolality, a decrease in blood pressure or stress and there is a close correlation of vasopressin and copeptin concentrations. For these reasons, copeptin is propag...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 21, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preface – Diabetes prevention and management
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 30, Issue 3 Author(s): Rury R. Holman (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 17, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk of type 2 diabetes
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): S. Lallukka, H. Yki-Järvinen Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of liver disease from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFLD is commonly associated with features of the metabolic/insulin resistance syndrome (‘Metabolic/Obese NAFLD’) and may therefore predict type 2 diabetes (T2DM). For this review, we searched for prospective studies examining whether NAFLD predicts T2DM, and if so, whether this occ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 7, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Potential of Pharmacological Agents
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Susan L. Samson, Alan J. Garber People with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, or ‘pre-diabetes”, are at high risk for progression to type 2 diabetes, as are those with metabolic syndrome or a history of gestational diabetes. Both glucose-lowering and anti-obesity pharmacotherapies have been studied to determine if the onset of type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented. Here we review the available data in the field. The most common theme is th...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 15, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Managing Hypoglycaemia
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Ahmed Iqbal, Simon Heller (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 14, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Optimizing Management of Glycaemia
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Sudesna Chatterjee, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J. Davies The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) continues largely unabated due to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and obesogenic environment. A cost-effective patient-centred approach, incorporating glucose-lowering therapy and modification of cardiovascular risk factors, could help prevent the inevitable development and progression of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Glycaemic optimization requires patient s...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 13, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Detecting people at high risk of type 2 diabetes- How do we find them and who should be treated?
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Alice PS. Kong, Andrea OY. Luk, Juliana CN. Chan Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by its silent and progressive nature. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) increases with age, but there is a worrying trend to an increasingly young age of diagnosis. Compared to their counterparts with late onset of disease, these younger subjects face long disease duration with increased risk of diabetes-related complications. Besides, there is marked phenotypic heterogeneity whi...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 11, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Managing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus
This article reviews the evidence for management of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and provides a recommended treatment strategy based on the available data. (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 11, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Treating young adults with Type 2 Diabetes or Monogenic Diabetes
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Katharine R. Owen It is increasingly recognised that diabetes in young adults has a wide differential diagnosis. There are many monogenic causes, including monogenic beta-cell dysfunction, mitochondrial diabetes and severe insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes in the young is becoming more prevalent, particularly after adolescence. It’s important to understand the clinical features and diagnostic tools available to classify the different forms of young adult diabetes. Classic ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Managing Dyslipidaemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Auryan Szalat, Ronen Durst, Eran Leitersdorf Glucose-control has a modest beneficial effect on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, managing other atherogenic risk factors including hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol levels with increased small dense LDL-cholesterol fraction, is crucial. Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiologic factor in this population. Treatment starts with lifestyle modific...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Type 2 Diabetes: A 21st Century Epidemic
The objectives of this article are three-fold: (1) to present data on the global burden of type 2 diabetes (which makes up 87-91% of the total diabetes burden), both in terms of prevalence and incidence; (2) to give an overview of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and to describe obesity and the developmental origins of disease risk in detail; and (3) to discuss the implications of the global burden and point out important research gaps. (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preventing type 2 diabetes: Changing the food industry
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Barry M. Popkin, W.R. Kenan Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant–food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe—rich and poor, rural ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 24, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preface – Disturbances of water and electrolyte balance
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Peter A. Kopp (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 27, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genetic forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): Vasopressin receptor defect (X-linked) and aquaporin defect (autosomal recessive and dominant)
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Daniel G. Bichet, Detlef Bockenhauer Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopressin V2 r...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 16, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preface – Neuroendocrine tumours
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 30, Issue 1 Author(s): Emanuel Christ (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 12, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Disturbances of water and electrolyte balance
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Peter Kopp (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 10, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypernatremia
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Saif A. Muhsin, David B. Mount Hypernatremia is defined as a serum sodium level above 145 mmol/L. It is a frequently encountered electrolyte disturbance in the hospital setting, with an unappreciated high mortality. Understanding hypernatremia requires a comprehension of body fluid compartments, as well as concepts of the preservation of normal body water balance. The human body maintains a normal osmolality between 280 and 295 mOsm/kg via Arginine Vasopressin (AVP), thirst, and...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 4, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Copeptin as a biomarker and a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with polyuria–polydipsia and hyponatremia
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): M. Christ-Crain, N.G. Morgenthaler, W. Fenske Copeptin is part of the 164 amino acid precursor protein preprovasopressin together with vasopressin and neurophysin II. During precursor processing, copeptin is released together with vasopressin. Copeptin concentrations respond as rapidly as vasopressin to changes in osmolality, a decrease in blood pressure or stress and there is a close correlation of vasopressin and copeptin concentrations. For these reasons, copeptin is pro...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 3, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Renal aquaporins and water balance disorders
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Hanne B. Møller, Cecilia H. Fuglsang, Robert A. Fenton Aquaporins (AQPs) are a 13 member family (AQP0-12) of proteins that act as channels, through which water and, for some family members, glycerol, urea and other small solutes can be transported. Aquaporins are highly abundant in kidney epithelial cells where they play a critical role with respect to water balance. In this review we summarize the current knowledge with respect to the localization and function of AQPs w...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 3, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A copeptin-based classification of the osmoregulatory defects in the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): W. Fenske, B. Sandner, M. Christ-Crain The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), also referred to as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD), is the most common cause of hyponatremia characterized by extracellular hypotonicity and impaired urine dilution in the absence of any recognizable nonosmotic stimuli for the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). Hyponatremia in SIADH is primarily the result of excessive water retention caused ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 3, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genetic Forms of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Vasopressin Receptor Defect (X-linked) and Aquaporin Defect (Autosomal Recessive and Dominant)
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Daniel G. Bichet, Detlef Bockenhauer Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90 percent of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopress...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 3, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Histopathology of NET: Current concepts and new developments
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Anja M. Schmitt, Annika Blank, Ilaria Marinoni, Paul Komminoth, Aurel Perren The diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors is based on their histopathologic appearance and immunohistochemical profile. With the WHO 2010 classification formal staging and grading was introduced for gastro-entero-pancreatic NET, however, the nomenclature for lung neuroendocrine tumors still relies on the carcinoid term. In this review we also focus on the situation of neuroendocrine carcinoma of unk...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis (SIAD)
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Martin Cuesta, C.J. Thompson Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte disturbance encountered in clinical practice and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIADH) is the most frequent underlying disorder. There is a well-recognized relationship between hyponatraemia and increased morbidity and mortality, though it is unknown whether SIADH confers the same mortality as other causes of hyponatraemia. SIADH is the biochemical manifestation of a wide variety of diseases...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetes Insipidus in Infants and Children
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Elizabeth Dabrowski, Rachel Kadakia, Donald Zimmerman Diabetes insipidus, the inability to concentrate urine resulting in polyuria and polydipsia, can have different manifestations and management considerations in infants and children compared to adults. Central diabetes insipidus, secondary to lack of vasopressin production, is more common in children than is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the inability to respond appropriately to vasopressin. The goal of treatment in bot...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of follow-up of neuroendocrine neoplasias
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Ulrich-Frank Pape, Sebastian Maasberg, Henning Jann, René Pschowski, Sandrine Krüger, Vikas Prasad, Timm Denecke, Bertram Wiedenmann, Andreas Pascher Neuroendocrine neoplasias (NEN) comprise heterogeneous epithelial neoplasms with a large variety of clinical presentations, treatment options and outcomes. Since potentially all NEN bear malignant potential it is important for long-term clinical management and improvement of outcome to decide on successful an...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 23, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genetic forms of neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Jonas Rutishauser, Martin Spiess, Peter Kopp Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is characterized by polyuria and polydipsia owing to partial or complete deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Although in most patients non-hereditary causes underlie the disorder, genetic forms have long been recognized and studied both in vivo and in vitro. In most affected families, the disease is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner, whereas autosomal r...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 19, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetes insipidus: Differential diagnosis and management
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Gary L. Robertson Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a syndrome characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine. It can be caused by any of 4 fundamentally different defects that must be distinguished for safe and effective management. They are: (1) pituitary DI, due to inadequate production and secretion of antidiuretic hormone, arginine-vasopressin (AVP); (2) gestational DI due to degradation of AVP by an enzyme made in placenta; (3) primary polydipsia, d...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 19, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Copeptin as a biomarker and a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with polyuria-polydipsia and hyponatremia
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): M. Christ-Crain, N.G. Morgenthaler, P.D.W. Fenske Copeptin is part of the 164 amino acid precursor protein preprovasopressin together with vasopressin and neurophysin II. During precursor processing, copeptin is released together with vasopressin. Copeptin concentrations respond as rapidly as vasopressin to changes in osmolality, a decrease in blood pressure or stress and there is a close correlation of vasopressin and copeptin concentrations. For these reasons, copeptin is...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 17, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Vasopressin receptor antagonists: characteristics and clinical role
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Tomas Berl Hyponatremia, the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients is associated with increased risk of mortality even when mild and apparently asymptomatic. Likewise morbidity manifested as attention deficits, gait disturbances, falls, fractures, and osteoporosis is more prevalent in hyponatremic subjects. Hyponatremia also generates a significant financial burden. Therefore, it is important to explore approaches that effectively ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 16, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetes Insipidus During Pregnancy
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Sonia Ananthakrishnan Diabetes insipidus (DI) in pregnancy is a heterogeneous syndrome, most classically presenting with polyuria and polydipsia that can complicate approximately 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The presentation can involve exacerbation of central or nephrogenic DI during pregnancy, which may have been either overt or subclinical prior to pregnancy. Women without preexisting DI can also be affected by the actions of placental vasopressinase which increases in activit...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 16, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Liver Transplantation for the Treatment of Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Valery Vilchez, Roberto Gedaly (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 29, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours (GEP-NET) – imaging and staging
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Tobias Baumann, Christof Rottenburger, Guillaume Nicolas, Damian Wild Detection of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) and monitoring of treatment response relies mainly on morphological imaging such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Molecular imaging techniques also in combination with CT (hybrid imaging) greatly benefit patient management, including better localization of occult tumours and better staging. Somatostatin ...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 20, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine Tumor Biomarkers: From Monoanalytes to Transcripts and Algorithms
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Irvin M. Modlin, Lisa Bodei, Mark Kidd The management of neuroendocrine neoplasia remains a perplexing problem because of the lack of knowledge of the biology of the disease, its late presentation, the relative insensitivity of imaging modalities and a paucity of predictably effective treatment options. A critical limitation is posed by the lack of accurate biomarkers to guide management, monitor the efficacy of therapy and provide a prognostic assessment of disease progress...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 19, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Specific biology of neuroendocrine tumors: peptide receptors as molecular targets
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Meike Körner Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are characterized by a high over-expression of many different peptide hormone receptors. These receptors represent important molecular targets for imaging and therapy, using either radiolabeled or cold peptide analogs. The clinically best established example is somatostatin receptor targeting. A relatively new application is glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor-targeted imaging of insulinomas, which is highly sensitive. A poten...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 16, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research