Antidepressant activity of Riparin A in murine model
Depression and anxiety are common neuropsychiatric disorders that usually appear as comorbidities. The development of new drugs is crucial for safer and more effective clinical management of both disorders. Riparin A is a synthetic chemical analog of riparins that naturally occur in several medicinal plants. Marked pharmacological effects such as anxiolytic and antidepressant properties characterize this class of compounds. However, little is known about the potential anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of Riparin A. In this work, we showed that, unlike other riparins, Riparin A exerts only a very mild anxiolytic-like ef...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - September 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

The anti-nociceptive activity of naringenin passes through L-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP channel pathway and opioid receptors
In conclusion, naringenin could be a promising antinociceptive agent acting through opioid receptors and L-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP channel pathway. (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - September 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Nicotinic aspects of the discriminative stimulus effects of arecoline
Despite the evidence that the muscarinic agonist arecoline is a drug of abuse throughout Southeast Asia, its stimulus characteristics have not been well studied. The goal of this work was to understand more about the mediation of discriminative stimulus effects of arecoline. Arecoline (1.0 mg/kg s.c.) was trained as a discriminative stimulus in a group of eight rats. The ability of various cholinergic agonists and antagonists to mimic or antagonize the discriminative stimulus effects of arecoline and to modify its rate-suppressing effects was evaluated. A muscarinic antagonist, but neither of two nicotinic antagonists, was...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - September 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute and chronic nociception in subchronically administered MK-801-induced rat model of schizophrenia
In conclusion, MK-801 induced antinociception effects for thermal stimuli in rats that were consistent with the decreased pain sensitivity observed in schizophrenia patients. Additionally, the amplified biphasic response exhibited by the MK-801 group in the formalin-induced spontaneous nociception test affirms the suitability of the test as a model of acute to delayed pain transition. (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - September 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure to valproic acid and treatment with intranasal oxytocin have sex-specific effects on behavior in Long Evans rats
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social behaviors and communication. In rodents and humans, prenatal exposure to antiepileptic valproic acid is associated with an increased risk for autistic-like characteristics. One potential treatment is oxytocin, a prosocial neuropeptide that can be delivered intranasally. However, the sex-specific effects of valproic acid exposure and intranasal oxytocin treatment on behavior have not been fully explored. Pregnant Long Evans rats were administered valproic acid (500 mg/kg) or saline midday on gestational day 12, ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - September 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Assessment of antidepressant-like effects of dextromethorphan on differential reinforcement of low-rate 72-s performance in rats
The effectiveness of ketamine for treatment-resistant depression along with several other clinical advantages, such as rapid onset and reduced adverse effects associated with serotonin transporter inhibition, has garnered interest in other similar acting psychedelics as novel antidepressant drugs. The antitussive dextromethorphan exhibits glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism, sigma-1 receptor agonism, and serotonin reuptake inhibition, which has exhibited antidepressant effects in limited human studies and animal models. The present study sought to further examine dextromethorphan using a differential reinfor...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - September 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Norepinephrine as a spatial memory reset signal
Contextual information is represented in the hippocampus (HPC) partially through the recruitment of distinct neuronal ensembles. It is believed that reactivation of these ensembles underlies memory retrieval processes. Recently, we showed that norepinephrine input from phasic locus coeruleus activation induces hippocampal plasticity resulting in the recruitment of new neurons and disengagement from previously established representations. We hypothesize that norepinephrine may provide a neuromodulatory mnemonic switch signaling the HPC to move from a state of retrieval to encoding in the presence of novelty, and therefore, ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - September 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Characterization of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone discrimination in female Sprague–Dawley rats
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several synthetic cathinones, is a popular constituent of illicit ‘bath salts’. In preclinical studies utilizing drug discrimination methods with male rodents, MDPV has been characterized as similar to both cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-hydrochloride (MDMA). Whereas few drug discrimination studies have utilized female rats, the current study evaluated the discriminative stimulus effects of MDPV in 12 adult female Sprague–Dawley rats trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg MDPV from saline under a fixed ratio 20 schedule of food reinforcement. Stimulu...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - August 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Orexin-2 receptor antagonism in the cornu ammonis 1 region of hippocampus prevented the antinociceptive responses induced by chemical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in the animal model of persistent pain
Orexins are excitatory neuropeptides, mainly produced by neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus, which project to many brain areas. The orexinergic system plays a fundamental role in arousal, sleep/wakefulness, feeding, energy homeostasis, motivation, reward, stress and pain modulation. As a prominent part of the limbic system, the hippocampus has been involved in formalin-induced nociception modulation. Moreover, hippocampus regions express both orexin-1 (OX1) and orexin-2 (OX2) receptors. The present study investigated the role of OX2 receptors (OX2R) within the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus in the...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - August 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Effects of food restriction on the conditioned reinforcing properties of an opioid-associated stimulus
Food restriction promotes drug self-administration; however, the effects of food restriction on the conditioned reinforcing properties of drug-associated stimuli are less clear. We tested the extent to which food restriction modified the conditioned reinforcing properties of a remifentanil-associated stimulus following conditioning with 3.2 or 1.0 μg/kg/infusion of remifentanil. First, we provided restricted (20 g/day standard chow) or ad libitum access to standard chow to rats. Second, within each feeding condition, we exposed rats to 20 intravenous infusions of remifentanil and 20 stimulus presentations that we...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - August 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Nicotine-like discriminative and aversive effects of two α4β2-selective nicotine agonists, ispronicline and metanicotine
An attempt to determine the receptor selective nature of some of nicotine’s behavioral effects was undertaken through the evaluation of the ability of two nicotinic α4β2*-selective receptor agonists to produce nicotine-like effects and modify rates of responding in a discrimination assay and in an aversive stimulus assay. A group of eight rats was trained to discriminate the presence of 1 mg/kg nicotine base. Another group of 4–6 rats was trained to report the aversive effects of nicotine by selecting a lever that produced one food pellet over a second lever that produced two food pellets and ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - August 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Alteration of the PKA-CREB cascade in the mPFC accompanying prepulse inhibition deficits: evidence from adolescent social isolation and chronic SKF38393 injection during early adolescence
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to the inhibition of the startle reflex that occurs when the startling stimulus is preceded by a weak prestimulus. Altered adolescent mPFC circuitry induced by early-life adversity might be a key source of PPI deficits. The current study focused on variations in the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found a negative relationship between PPI and the PKA-CREB cascade during adolescence by employing both developmental and pharmacologic manipulations. Experiment 1, with the early adolescent so...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - August 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Escalating morphine dosage fails to elicit conditioned analgesia in a preclinical chronic neuropathic pain model
Many people with chronic pain escalate their opioid dosage to counteract tolerance effects. A treatment regimen consisting of placebos admixed with opioids has been suggested as a possible therapeutic option that could reduce the harm of long-term opioid use. However, the analgesic efficacy of such a regimen requires further investigation before widespread adoption. We have recently reported that a 4-day pharmacological conditioning procedure, which paired morphine (6 mg/kg) with contextual cues, elicited placebo analgesia in subpopulations of male (35%) and female (25%) rats with sciatic nerve chronic constriction ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - August 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like effects of dezocine in mice: involvement of 5-HT1A and κ opioid receptors
This study examined the potential antidepressant-like activity of dezocine in mice. Male ICR mice were used in the forced swimming test, the tail suspension test, the warm water tail withdrawal test and locomotor activity test to test the effects of dezocine (0.3–3.0 mg/kg). The 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (1 mg/kg), the μ-opioid receptor antagonist β-funaltrexamine (2 mg/kg) and the κ-opioid receptor agonist U50488 (1 mg/kg) were also studied in combination with dezocine. Dezocine produced a dose-dependent decrease in the immobility time in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test at...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - August 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Positive effects of roflumilast on behavior, neuroinflammation, and white matter injury in mice with global cerebral ischemia
Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a promising pharmacological strategy for the treatment of cerebral ischemic conditions. To increase the relevance and increase the translational value of preclinical studies, it is important to conduct experiments using different animal species and strains, different animal models, and to evaluate long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia. In the present study, the effects of the selective PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Balb/c mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and tested during 21 days in multiple...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - August 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Some effects of putative G-protein biased mu-opioid receptor agonists in male rhesus monkeys
G-protein-biased mu-opioid receptor (GPB-MOR) agonists are an emerging class of compounds being evaluated as candidate analgesics and agonist medications for opioid use disorder. Most of the basic pharmacology of GPB-MOR agonists has been conducted in rodents and much less is known how the basic behavioral pharmacology of these compounds translates to nonhuman primates. The present study determined the antinociceptive potency and time course of three putative GPB-MOR agonists: (+)-oliceridine (i.e. TRV130), SR14968, and SR17018 in male rhesus monkeys (n = 3). In addition, the respiratory effects of these comp...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Short Reports Source Type: research

The selective 5-HT2A receptor agonist 25CN-NBOH does not affect reversal learning in mice
Psychedelic 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonists are showing promise in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as treatment-resistant depression and anxiety. Human studies suggest that enhanced cognitive flexibility may contribute to their clinical efficacy. Both improvement and impairment of cognitive flexibility has been reported with 5-HT2AR ligands, making the link between 5-HT2AR pharmacology and cognitive flexibility equivocal. We tested the selective 5-HT2AR agonist 25CN-NBOH in healthy male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice in a touchscreen-based mouse reversal learning test. No effects were observed on acqui...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Short Reports Source Type: research

Reward-enhancing effects of d-amphetamine and its interactions with nicotine were greater in female rats and persisted across schedules of reinforcement
Nicotine enhances the value of environmental stimuli and rewards, and reward enhancement can maintain nicotine consumption. Stimulants such as d-amphetamine are misused more by women and are commonly co-used with nicotine. d-Amphetamine potentiates nicotine’s effects in human and animal research. To date, there are no published studies examining this interaction in a reward-enhancement task. The current study sought to investigate the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine alongside and coadministered with d-amphetamine. Further, we evaluated the persistence of reward enhancement across ratio and temporal schedules of ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Effects of chemotherapy on operant responding for palatable food in male and female mice
Patients treated with cancer chemotherapeutics frequently report chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), changes in mood (depression and anxiety) and functional impairments. Rodent models of CIPN elicit limited alterations in functional behaviors, which pose challenges in developing preclinical models of chemotherapy-induced behavioral depression. The study examined the consequences of chemotherapy-induced mechanical hypersensitivity (paclitaxel: 32 or 64 mg/kg, cumulative; oxaliplatin: 30 mg/kg, cumulative) on behavioral depression, as measured with operant responding for palatable food during per...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Sodium butyrate enhances fear extinction and rescues hippocampal acetylcholinesterase activity in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder
It is believed that impaired extinction of fear memories is an underlying cause for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are enzymes that modulate extinction by changing the chromatin structure and altering protein synthesis in the brain. Studies show that stress modifies both HDAC activity and cerebral cholinergic neurotransmission. The present work aims to evaluate the effect of sodium butyrate (NaBu), an HDAC inhibitor, on behavioral markers of extinction and biochemical changes in HDAC and acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus. NaBu was administered for 7 days ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone reverses an induced prepulse inhibition deficit selectively in maternal immune activation offspring: implications for schizophrenia
Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling has been implicated in schizophrenia endophenotypes, including deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI). Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a widely used neurodevelopmental animal model for schizophrenia but it is unclear if BDNF and its receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), are involved in PPI regulation in this model. Pregnant Long Evans rats were treated with the viral mimetic, polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid (poly I:C; 4 mg/kg i.v.), and nine male offspring from these dams were compared in adulthood to 11 male Long Evans controls. Offspring under...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Opposite genotype-specific effects of serotoninergic treatments on Pavlovian Conditioned Approach in mice of two inbred strains C57 BL/6J and DBA/2J
Individual variability in the response to pharmacological therapies is a major problem in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Comparative studies of phenotypes expressed by mice of the C57BL/6J (C57) and DBA/2J (DBA) inbred strains can help identify neurobiological determinants of this variability at preclinical levels. We have recently demonstrated that whereas young adult mice of both strains develop sign-tracking in a Pavlovian Conditioned Approach (PCA), a trait associated with dysfunctional behavior in rat models, in full adult C57 mice acquisition of this phenotype is inhibited by pre-frontal cortical (PFC) serot...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Effects of 5-HT2A receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine on alcohol consumption in Long–Evans rats
The objectives of this study were to determine alcohol consumption after administration of (R)(-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) or naltrexone in Long–Evans rats, and to assess the effectiveness of these treatments based on individual differences in alcohol consumption. Adult male Long–Evans rats (N = 16) were given opportunities to orally self-administer a 20% (v/v) ethanol (EtOH) solution using an intermittent access, two-bottle (vs. tap water) choice procedure in their home cages. EtOH consumption and preference, total fluid consumption and food intake were measured. Last, we assessed the effects of n...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Anorectic interaction and safety of 5-hydroxytryptophan/carbidopa plus phentermine or diethylpropion in rat
This study was designed to determine the anorectic interaction and safety profile of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)/carbidopa + diethylpropion and 5-HTP/carbidopa + phentermine combinations in rats. The anorectic effect of individual drugs or in combination was evaluated by the sweetened milk test. Isobologram and interaction index were employed to determine the anorectic interaction between 5-HTP/carbidopa and diethylpropion or phentermine. Plasma serotonin (5-HT) was measured by ELISA. Safety of repeated doses of both combinations in rats was evaluated using the tail sphygmomanometer, cardiac ult...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Discriminative stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and structurally related synthetic cathinones
The 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and other structurally related synthetic cathinones, are popular alternatives to prototypical illicit psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine. These drugs are often referred to as ‘bath salts’ and function either as cocaine-like inhibitors of monoamine uptake, or amphetamine-like substrates for dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. These studies used male Sprague–Dawley rats trained to discriminate MDPV from saline to evaluate the substitution profiles of structurally related synthetic cathinones, cocaine, and other direct-acting dopa...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Initial development of a brief assessment of cocaine demand
Cocaine demand is a behavioral economic measure assessing drug reward value and motivation to use drug. The purpose of the current study was to develop a brief assessment of cocaine demand (BACD). Results from the BACD were compared with self-report measures of cocaine use. Participants consisted of treatment-seeking individuals with cocaine use disorder (N = 22). Results revealed that indices of brief demand were significantly associated with various self-report measures of cocaine use. Overall, these results support the utility of a BACD for assessing cocaine demand. (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - May 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Short Reports Source Type: research

Blockade of α1 subtype GABAA receptors attenuates the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of midazolam in rats
This study examined the GABAA receptor subtype mediation of the tolerance to midazolam-induced antinociception in rats. Midazolam (3.2 mg/kg) significantly reduced the locomotion in rats which was prevented by the selective α1-preferring GABAA receptor antagonist β-carboline-3-carboxylate-t-butyl ester (βCCt) (3.2 mg/kg). Midazolam increased the paw withdrawal threshold as tested by the von Frey filament assay in the complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain model in rats, and this effect was not altered by βCCt or another α1-preferring GABAA receptor antagonist 3-propoxy-β-...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - May 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Short Reports Source Type: research

Subanesthetic ketamine with an AMPAkine attenuates motor impulsivity in rats
The concept of ‘impulse control’ has its roots in early psychiatry and today has progressed into a well-described, although poorly understood, multidimensional endophenotype underlying many neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, substance use disorders). There is mounting evidence suggesting that the cognitive and/or behavioral dimensions underlying impulsivity are driven by dysfunctional glutamate (Glu) neurotransmission via targeted ionotropic Glu receptor (GluR) [e.g., N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropio...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - May 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Combined nicotine and ethanol age-dependently alter neural and behavioral responses in male rats
Use of alcohol (EtOH) and nicotine (Nic) typically begins during adolescence. Smoking and drinking often occur together and lead to a higher consumption of alcohol. Although we have shown that Nic+EtOH is reinforcing in self-administration tests in adolescent male rats, whether Nic+EtOH affects other behaviors or neuronal activity in an age-dependent manner is unknown. To address this, adolescent and adult male rats were given intravenous injections of Nic (30 µg/kg)+EtOH (4 mg/kg) and evaluated for locomotor and anxiety-like behaviors. Regional neuronal activity, assessed by cFos mRNA expression, was measured and us...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - May 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Alterations of amygdala-prefrontal cortical coupling and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors induced by neonatal habenula lesion: normalization by Ecklonia stolonifera extract and its active compound fucosterol
In this study, we investigated behavioral and electrophysiological alterations induced by neonatal habenula lesion (NHL) in rats. In NHL rats, age-dependent behavioral alterations relevant to the ADHD symptoms, such as hyperlocomotion, impulsivity, and attention deficit, were observed. Local field potentials (LFPs) in mesocorticolimbic regions of anesthetized rats were examined with in vivo electrophysiological recordings. Abnormally enhanced synchronization of slow (delta) and fast (gamma) LFP oscillations between the amygdala (AMY) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was found in juvenile, but not in adult, NHL rats. We further ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - May 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Valproate selectively suppresses adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggressive behavior: implications for a role of hypothalamic γ-aminobutyric acid neural signaling
This study examined whether valproate would selectively suppress adolescent AAS-induced aggressive behavior and whether GABA neural signaling through GABAA subtype receptors in the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH; an area of convergence for developmental and neuroplastic changes that underlie aggression in hamsters) modulate the aggression-suppressing effect of this anticonvulsant medication. Valproate (1.0–10.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) selectively suppressed the aggressive phenotype in a dose-dependent fashion, with the effective anti-aggressive effects beginning at 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Microin...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - May 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Activation of L-type calcium channels and attenuation of oxidative stress are involved in the improving effect of methyl jasmonate on learning and memory and its anxiolytic property in rats
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of plant bioactive compound methyl jasmonate on learning and memory, anxiety-like behaviors, and brain oxidative stress in rats. It has been indicated that methyl jasmonate stimulates calcium-binding protein expression and increases intracellular calcium (Ca2+). Therefore, we investigated the potential role of L-type calcium channel on methyl jasmonate effects. The animals were intracerebroventriculary (i.c.v.) injected with different doses of methyl jasmonate (0.5, 2.5, and 5 µg/rat). L-type calcium channel blocker (nifedipine 5 µg/rat, i.c.v.) was injected...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - May 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Effects of remifentanil/histamine mixtures in rats responding under a choice procedure
Intravenous drug self-administration remains the ‘gold standard’ for assessing abuse liability. Failure of a drug to maintain self-administration might indicate the absence of positive reinforcing effects but might also indicate the presence of aversive effects. Sensitivity to aversive and punishing effects of drugs (as well as nondrug stimuli) might collectively determine the likelihood of use, abuse and relapse. Using a choice procedure, this study compared the effects of remifentanil (mu opioid receptor agonist; 0.001–0.01 mg/kg/infusion) and histamine (H1-4 receptor agonist; 0.32–3.2 mg/kg/infus...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - May 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, reduces reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior in rats
In this study, we used a reward devaluation model in which rats avoid ingesting a saccharin solution that predicts drug availability to test the effects of 2.4 μg/kg Ex-4 on responding for a natural reward cue (i.e., saccharin) and on cue- and drug-induced heroin seeking. The results showed that treatment with Ex-4 during the 16-day abstinence period and on the test day decreased cue-induced heroin seeking. Drug-induced heroin seeking also was reduced by Ex-4, but only when using a 1 h, but not a 6 h, pretreatment time. Treatment with Ex-4 did not alter intake of the saccharin cue when the drug was on board, but a histo...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - May 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Acute intrathecal administration of quipazine elicits air-stepping behavior
Serotonin plays a pivotal role in the initiation and modulation of locomotor behavior in the intact animal, as well as following spinal cord injury. Quipazine, a serotonin 2 receptor agonist, has been used successfully to initiate and restore motor behavior in rodents. Although evidence suggests that the effects of quipazine are spinally mediated, it is unclear whether intrathecal (IT) quipazine administration alone is enough to activate locomotor-like activity or whether additional stimulation is needed. Thus, the current study examined the effects of IT administration of quipazine in postnatal day 1 rats in two separate ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - May 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Baclofen and naltrexone, but not N-acetylcysteine, affect voluntary alcohol drinking in rats regardless of individual levels of alcohol intake
In humans, there is profound individual variation in the risk of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Because GABA, opioid and glutamate neurotransmission have been implicated in AUD, functional differences in these neural systems may underlie the individual vulnerability to AUD. We therefore determined the effects of drugs affecting GABA, opioid and glutamatergic neurotransmission on alcohol consumption in rats that differed in baseline alcohol intake. Subgroups of low-, medium- and high-alcohol-drinking rats were selected on the basis of alcohol consumption using an intermittent alcohol access procedure. The subgroups were treate...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Short Report Source Type: research

Effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment on ethanol’s rewarding properties and dopaminergic alterations in mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways
Recent reports have shown that N-acetylcysteine (N-AC) has beneficial effects in the treatment of cocaine and nicotine abuse. Considering the similar neurobiologic mechanisms involved in the development of addiction to different drugs, N-AC treatment could be useful in the treatment of ethanol abuse. The rewarding properties of the drugs of abuse plays an important role in the development of addiction and can be studied using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Thus, to study the effects of N-AC treatment in the rewarding effects of ethanol, we investigated the effects of N-AC administration in the ethanol-ind...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Neuroimaging reveals functionally distinct neuronal networks associated with high-level alcohol consumption in two genetic rat models
In conclusion, our data reveal strikingly different brain circuits associated with alcohol drinking in two genetically different rat lines and suggest innately different motivational and behavioral processes driving alcohol drinking. These findings have important implications for the use of these lines in translational alcohol research. (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

The role of opioidergic system in modulating cost/benefit decision-making in alcohol-preferring AA rats and Wistar rats
In this study, Alko Alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the more profitable of two options. Different sized sucrose rewards guided the lever choices, and the probability of gaining rewards changed slowly to a level where choosing the smaller reward was the most profitable option. After training, rats were administered subcutaneously with opioid agonist morphine or opioid antagonist naltrexone to study the impact of opioidergic mechanisms on cost/benefit decisions. No difference was found in the decision-making between AA rats or Wistar rats after the morphi...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Significant association of nicotine reinforcement and cue reactivity: a translational study in humans and rats
Relapse is common amongst smokers attempting to quit and tobacco cue-induced craving is an important relapse mechanism. Preclinical studies commonly use cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking to investigate relapse neurobiology. Previous research suggests dependence severity and nicotine intake history affect smoking resumption and cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. However, behavioural data may be interpreted in terms of nicotine reinforcement. This translational study investigated if individual differences in objectively assessed nicotine reinforcement strength were associated with cue-reactivity in bo...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Effects of olanzapine on anxiety-related behaviour in male and female rats assessed after 21–24 and 42–45 days of chronic treatment
Olanzapine can decrease anxiety and impair memory, but there is limited information about length of treatment or sex differences in its effectiveness. Therefore, effects of 21–24 and 41–45 days of treatment and sex differences on anxiety-related behaviour and spatial memory were assessed in PVG/c (PVG/c is the internationally recognised way of referring to this rat strain) male and female rats. From 70 days after birth (PND70), all rats received no drug or 6, 11 or 15 mg/kg/day olanzapine via drinking water. From PND91, they were given four daily tests in an open field, light–dark box...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Intravenous doxapram administration as a potential model of panic attacks in rats
This study suggests that the cardiorespiratory and behavioral effects of doxapram in rodents serve as an experimental model that can provide insights into the neurobiology of panic attacks. (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Glibenclamide treatment prevents depressive-like behavior and memory impairment induced by chronic unpredictable stress in female mice
Glibenclamide is a second-generation sulfonylurea used in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The primary target of glibenclamide is ATP-sensitive potassium channels inhibition; however, other possible targets include the control of inflammation and blood–brain barrier permeability, which makes this compound potentially interesting for the management of brain-related disorders. Here, we showed that systemic treatment with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, p.o., for 21 days) could prevent the behavioral despair and the cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in mice. In nonhypogl...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Antinociception produced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in female vs male rats
The primary aim of this study was to examine sex differences in acute antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rats. Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was administered to adult Sprague–Dawley rats to induce pain and inflammation in one hindpaw; 2.5 h later, vehicle or a single dose of the NSAIDs ibuprofen (1.0–32 mg/kg) or ketoprofen (0.1–10 mg/kg), or the COX-2-preferring inhibitor celecoxib (1.0–10 mg/kg) was injected i.p. Mechanical allodynia, heat hyperalgesia, biased weight-bearing, and hindpaw thickness w...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

‘Reinventing the wheel’ to advance the development of pain therapeutics
This article reviews the literature using wheel running to assess pain and makes the case for home cage wheel running as an effective and clinically relevant method to screen novel analgesics for therapeutic potential. (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Tetracyclines, a promise for neuropsychiatric disorders: from adjunctive therapy to the discovery of new targets for rational drug design in psychiatry
In conclusion, tetracyclines hold great promise as (ready-to-use) agents for being used as adjunctive therapy for human neuropsychiatric disorders. Hence, the understanding of their molecular mechanisms may contribute to the discovery of new targets for the rational drug design of novel psychoactive agents. (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Interactions between reproductive transitions during aging and addiction: promoting translational crosstalk between different fields of research
Discovery of neural mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders within the aging and addiction fields has been a main focus of the National Institutes of Health. However, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding the biological interactions of aging and addiction, which may have important influences on progression of disease and treatment outcomes in aging individuals with a history of chronic drug use. Thus, there is a large gap in these fields of research, which has slowed progress in understanding and treating substance use disorders (SUDs) as well as age-related diseases, specifically in women who experience precip...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Current rodent models for the study of empathic processes
Empathy is a complex phenomenon critical for group survival and societal bonds. In addition, there is mounting evidence demonstrating empathic behaviors are dysregulated in a multitude of psychiatric disorders ranging from autism spectrum disorder, substance use disorders, and personality disorders. Therefore, understanding the underlying drive and neurobiology of empathy is paramount for improving the treatment outcomes and quality of life for individuals suffering from these psychiatric disorders. While there is a growing list of human studies, there is still much about empathy to understand, likely due to both its compl...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Special Issue on the Behavioural Pharmacology of Cannabinoids
No abstract available (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Announcement Source Type: research

Translational Research in Behavioural Pharmacology
No abstract available (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research