Estimation of the impact of vaccination on faecal shedding, organ and egg contamination for Salmonella Enteritidis, Typhiumurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium.
In this study, the effectiveness of four vaccination programmes currently in use in the UK poultry industry was evaluated against challenge with one SE strain, one ST strain and 2 monophasic ST strains. A Bayesian model was used to estimate the impact of vaccination on the rate of faecal shedding, and on egg contamination. For the majority of vaccine/challenge strain combinations, there was little or no effect of vaccination on the proportion of birds shedding Salmonella for either biphasic or monophasic strains. However, vaccination was effective at reducing egg contamination. A significantly lower proportion of eggshells...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 12, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Arnold ME, Gosling RJ, La Ragione RM, Davies RH, Martelli F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Assessment of probiotics supplementation via feed or water on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chicken after experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella.
In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in comparison to infected control birds and fairly similar improvement to an approved anticoccidial during a mixed Eimeria infection. PMID: 24601749 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - March 6, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Giannenas I, Tsalie E, Triantafillou E, Hessenberger S, Teichmann K, Mohnl M, Tontis D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings.
Authors: PMID: 24579776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 28, 2014 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases.
Authors: PMID: 24564571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 25, 2014 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A study of the dynamics of Salmonella infection in turkey breeding, rearing and finishing houses with special reference to elimination, persistence and introduction of Salmonella.
Abstract In this descriptive study, the dynamics of Salmonella infection of turkey flocks were investigated by repeated sampling of houses where Salmonella had been identified. The aim of the study was to identify the most common scenarios involved in elimination, persistence and introduction of Salmonella in the different branches of the turkey industry. Sixty-two houses on 34 turkey farms (comprising of breeding, rearing and finishing farms) were sampled longitudinally, starting with the identification of a positive flock. A total of 117 follow-on flocks were tested and cleaning and disinfection (C&D) was as...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 10, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Mueller-Doblies D, Carrique-Mas JJ, Davies RH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.
In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model. PMID: 24498863 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 5, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Tsiouris V, Georgopoulou I, Batzios C, Pappaioannou N, Ducatelle R, Fortomaris P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Congenital cerebellar dysplasia in White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).
We examined cerebellums with disorganized folia from seven specific-pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Islands of heterotopic cortex were distributed from the deeper cortices to the medulla in the cerebellum. The characteristic lesions were composed of randomly admixed components of the cerebellar cortex, including Purkinje cells, a molecular layer and granular cells. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed Purkinje cells with haphazardly extended dendrites and a lack of Bergmann's glial fibres in the foci. Chicken parvovirus, Aino virus and avian retrovirus were not detected in the affected birds...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 5, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Nakamura S, Ochiai K, Yabushita H, Abe A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Co-infection of mallards with low-virulence Newcastle disease virus and low-pathogenic avian influenza virus.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of co-infections with loNDV and LPAIV on the infectivity and excretion of these viruses in mallards. One-month-old mallards were inoculated intranasally with 10(6) median embryo infectious doses of a wild-bird-origin loNDV and A/Mallard/MN/199106/99 (H3N8) LPAIV on the same day or received the LPAIV 2 or 5 days after loNDV inoculation. All mallards became infected with both viruses based on detection of seroconversion and viral shedding. Co-infection resulted in a higher number of cloacal swabs detected positive for LPAIV and a lower number of cloacal swabs detected...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 27, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: França M, Howerth EW, Carter D, Byas A, Poulson R, Afonso CL, Stallknecht DE Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathobiology of avian influenza virus infection in minor gallinaceous species: a review.
te; N Abstract Susceptibility to avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can vary greatly among bird species. Chickens and turkeys are major avian species that, like ducks, have been extensively studied for avian influenza. To a lesser extent, minor avian species such as quail, partridges, and pheasants have also been investigated for avian influenza. Usually, such game fowl species are highly susceptible to highly pathogenic AIVs and may consistently spread both highly pathogenic AIVs and low-pathogenic AIVs. These findings, together with the fact that game birds are considered bridge species in the poultry-wildlife inter...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 27, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Bertran K, Dolz R, Majó N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

PCR detection of Avipox and avian Papillomavirus in naturally infected wild birds: comparisons of blood, swab and tissue samples.
In this study, three alternative sampling techniques (blood, cutaneous swabs and tissue biopsies) from symptomatic wild birds were examined. PCR was used to detect Avipox virus and avian papillomavirus (which also induces cutaneous lesions in birds). Four out of 14 tissue samples were positive but all 29 blood and 22 swab samples were negative for papillomavirus. All 29 blood samples were negative but 6/22 swabs and 9/14 tissue samples were Avipox positive. The difference between the numbers of positives generated from tissue samples and from swabs was not significant. The difference in the Avipox positive specimens in pai...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 24, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Williams RA, Escudero Duch C, Pérez-Tris J, Benítez L Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of FTA(®) cards for storage and molecular detection of avian metapneumoviruses.
Evaluation of FTA(®) cards for storage and molecular detection of avian metapneumoviruses. Avian Pathol. 2014 Jan 20; Authors: Awad F, Baylis M, Jones R, Ganapathy K Abstract The feasibility of using Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards for the molecular detection of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was investigated. Findings showed that no virus isolation was possible from aMPV-inoculated FTA cards, confirming viral inactivation upon contact with the cards. The detection limits of aMPV from the FTA card and tracheal organ culture medium wer...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 20, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Awad F, Baylis M, Jones R, Ganapathy K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Editorial.
PMID: 24423666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - January 14, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Bradbury JM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Is Mycoplasma synoviae outrunning Mycoplasma gallisepticum? A viewpoint from the Netherlands.
Abstract Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae are the most relevant mycoplasma species for commercial poultry from the clinical and economic point of view. Although the importance of M. gallisepticum was recognized many decades ago, the relevance of M. synoviae has been a matter of debate. Until the turn of the century, only the respiratory and synovitis forms of the disease were reported, while the majority of infections were subclinical. Since the year 2000 M. synoviae strains with oviduct tropism, able to induce eggshell apex abnormalities and egg drops, have been encountered worldwide. A decreasing...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 8, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Landman WJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Rapid detection of subtype B avian metapneumoviruses using RT-PCR restriction endonuclease digestion indicates field circulation of vaccine-derived viruses in older turkeys.
Abstract Live vaccines predominantly control avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in poultry flocks, but vaccine virus can be found for extended periods after application. The most frequently used aMPV vaccine in Italy, VCO3 subtype B, was shown to contain a unique Tru9I restriction endonuclease site within the amplicons produced by a commonly used aMPV diagnostic reverse transcriptase (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of European and database logged subtype B aMPV sequences confirmed that the sequence occurred only in the VC03 vaccine. A subsequent RT-PCR restriction endonuclease study of fi...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 8, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Listorti V, Lupini C, Cecchinato M, Pesente P, Rossi G, Giovanardi D, Naylor CJ, Catelli E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A model for the transfer of passive immunity against Newcastle disease and avian influenza in specific pathogen free chickens.
In this study, a model was developed to offer a faster, more reproducible and cheaper way to study passive immunity in specific pathogen free chickens by injection of a polyclonal serum into the egg yolk at embryonic day 14, combined with an intraperitoneal injection at day 1. A satisfactory model, with consistent and homogeneous antibody titres, as well as persistence close to natural passive immunity, could be obtained for NDV. On the other hand, the application of this optimized protocol in an H5 AI context induced only a low artificial passive immunity compared to that described in the literature for the progeny of AI ...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 8, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Lardinois A, van den Berg T, Lambrecht B, Steensels M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Announcements, International Meetings, WVPA Matters.
Authors: PMID: 24404839 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - January 3, 2014 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Overcrowding stress decreases macrophage activity and increases Salmonella Enteritidis invasion in broiler chickens.
Abstract Overcrowding stress is a reality in the poultry industry. It is known that chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations present a reduction of welfare and immunosuppression. We designed this experiment to analyze the effects from overcrowding stress (Ov) of 16 animals/m(2) on performance parameters, corticosterone serum levels, the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius, IgA and IgG plasma levels, intestinal integrity, macrophage activity and experimental Salmonella Enteritidis invasion. The results of this study indicate that overcrowding stress decreased performance parameters, induced enteriti...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 18, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Gomes AV, Quinteiro-Filho WM, Ribeiro A, Ferraz-de-Paula V, Pinheiro ML, Baskeville E, Akamine AT, Astolfi-Ferreira CS, Ferreira AJ, Palermo-Neto J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The contribution of systemic Escherichia coli infection to the early mortalities of commercial broiler chickens.
Abstract Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are a substantial burden to the global poultry industry. APEC cause a syndromic poultry infection known as colibacillosis, which has been previously associated with broiler chickens over 2 weeks old. We recently reported that the intestinal tract of 1-day-old broilers harbours a rich reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli. Prior infections of the reproductive tract of breeders, egg hygiene and transportation all contribute to early colonization of the neonatal gut. Up to one-half of all flock deaths occur in the first week of production, but few data are avail...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 16, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Kemmett K, Williams NJ, Chaloner G, Humphrey S, Wigley P, Humphrey T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathogenicity of two Toxoplasma gondii strains in chickens of different ages infected via intraperitoneal injection.
Abstract This experiment was conducted to investigate the pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii in broilers of different ages. Chickens at the age of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(8) tachyzoites of RH and JS strains of T. gondii, respectively. The clinical signs and death of chickens were recorded daily post-inoculation. Serum samples were collected at day 0, 4, 11, 18, 25, 32, 39, 46 and 53 post-infection to screen T. gondii circulating antigens (TCA) and antibodies (TCAb). The results showed that T. gondii infection of 7-day-old chickens caused death, even though the mo...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 11, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang S, Zhao G, Wang W, Xie Q, Zhang M, Yuan C, Hassan IA, Liu X, Xu L, Yan R, Song X, Li X Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Histomonas meleagridis infection in chickens targeting the 18S rRNA sequences.
Abstract Histomonas meleagridis is the causative agent of histomonosis, a disease of gallinaceous fowl characterized by necrotic typhlitis, hepatitis, and high mortality. To develop a rapid and sensitive method for specific detection of H. meleagridis, an assay based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the 18S rRNA gene was established. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10 copies for standard plasmids containing an 18S rRNA gene fragment, which was superior to that of a classical PCR method. Specificity tests revealed that there was no cross-reaction with other protozoa such as Trich...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 11, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu J, Qu C, Tao J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Broiler lines divergently selected for digestive efficiency also differ in their susceptibility to colibacillosis.
ler C Abstract Increasing feed efficiency of broiler chickens by selective breeding could lead to decreased feed cost and reduced environmental impact of poultry production. At INRA, two broiler chicken lines (D + /D - ) were divergently selected for their digestive efficiency. Strong differences were shown between both lines for the anatomy and histology of the digestive tract, and for the intestinal microbiota composition. In the present study, we investigated whether this selection had also an effect on the susceptibility to colibacillosis, which is one of the main causes of economic losses in poultry p...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 10, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Calenge F, Mignon-Grasteau S, Chanteloup NK, Brée A, Lalmanach AC, Schouler C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Histomonas meleagridis infection in chickens targeting the 18S rRNA sequences.
Abstract Histomonas meleagridis is the causative agent of histomonosis, a disease of gallinaceous fowl characterized by necrotic typhlitis, hepatitis, and high mortality. To develop a rapid and sensitive method for specific detection of H. meleagridis, an assay based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the 18S rRNA gene was established. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10 copies for standard plasmids containing an 18S rRNA gene fragment, which was superior to that of a classical PCR method. Specificity tests revealed that there was no cross-reaction with other protozoa such as Trich...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 10, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu J, Qu C, Tao J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparison of single day-old chick vaccination using a Newcastle disease virus vector with a prime-boost vaccination scheme against a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 challenge.
Abstract Avian influenza (AI) vaccines should be used as part of a whole comprehensive AI control programme. Vectored vaccines based on Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are very promising, but are licensed in only a few countries so far. In the present study, the immunogenicity and protection against a highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza challenge were evaluated after vaccination with an enterotropic NDV vector expressing an H5 hemagglutinin (rNDV-H5) in day-old SPF chickens inoculated once, twice or once followed by a heterologous boost with an inactivated H5N9 vaccine (iH5N9). The heterologous prime-boost rNDV-H5...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 9, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Ferreira HL, Rauw F, Pirlot JF, Reynard F, van den Berg T, Bublot M, Lambrecht B Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Performance of a commercial Chicken-Ovo-transferrin-ELISA on the serum of brown layer chickens infected with Gallibacterium anatis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus.
Abstract To evaluate Ovo-transferrin (OTF), a positive acute-phase protein in chickens, as a diagnostic bio-marker of selected bacterial infections we checked performance of a commercial Chicken-OTF-ELISA (ICL, Inc.®) by analytical- and overlap-performances using two groups of serum samples obtained from 26 Gallibacterium anatis-infected and 20 Streptococcus zooepidemicus-infected brown layer chickens. In addition, sera from 14 apparently healthy and 19 negative control chickens were analyzed in the Gallibacterium group whereas sera from 20 healthy and 11 negative control chickens from the Streptococcus group ...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 6, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Roy K, Kjelgaard-Hansen M, Pors SE, Christensen JP, Biswas PK, Bojesen AM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Treatment of atoxoplasmosis in the Blue-crowned Laughing Thrush (Dryonastes courtoisi).
F, Modrý D Abstract Passerines are frequently parasitized by coccidia, especially species of the genus Isospora, with extra-intestinal stages that can be highly pathogenic causing serious clinical damage in young birds. Whilst there is still no effective treatment to completely clear isosporoid coccidia with extra-intestinal stages from a host species, our results showed that prolonged treatment with toltrazuril (BAYER AG, Leverkusen, Germany) can decrease the oocysts in faeces and thus reduce the extra-intestinal phase of the infection. The toltrazuril treatment is therefore probably indirectly effective a...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 16, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Jamriška J, Lavilla LA, Thomasson A, Barbon AR, Lopéz JF, Modrý D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Genotyping and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diseased turkeys.
aye P Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile pathogen in a large number of domestic animals, including avian species. To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology and diversity of S. aureus associated with articular disease in domestic turkeys, isolates were collected from infected foot joints of turkeys in Brittany (France). A total of 34 isolates were recovered and characterized by means of antimicrobial resistance, staphylococcal protein A typing, macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and micro-array analysis. Thirty isolates were identified as clonal complex (CC) 398 and methicillin-s...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 16, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Argudín MA, Cariou N, Salandre O, Le Guennec J, Nemeghaire S, Butaye P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Studies on the presence and persistence of Pasteurella multocida serovars and genotypes in fowl cholera outbreaks.
This study has shown that several STs of P. multocida can be present during some outbreaks of fowl cholera, although other outbreaks involve a single ST. Also, the STs present on a property suffering repeated fowl cholera can both persist and change over time. PMID: 24224551 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 16, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Singh R, Blackall PJ, Remington B, Turni C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings, WVPA Matters and Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 24188562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 5, 2013 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Reviewer Acknowledgements.
Authors: PMID: 24188451 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2013 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Inactivation of the infectivity of two highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and a virulent Newcastle disease virus by ultraviolet radiation.
Abstract Exposure of a virulent isolate of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, one of H7N1 subtype and the other H5N1 subtype, to a continuous ultraviolet B flux of approximately 90µW/cm(2), which models solar ultraviolet radiation, resulted in an exponential decline in infectivity with time. The time taken for a reduction in titre of 1 log10 median tissue culture infectious dose for each virus was: NDV, 69 min; H7N1 HPAI virus, 158 min; and H5N1 HPAI, virus 167 min. PMID: 24188498 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Sutton D, Aldous EW, Warren CJ, Fuller CM, Alexander DJ, Brown IH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Epidemiological investigations on the role of clinically healthy racing pigeons as a reservoir for avian paramyxovirus-1 and avian influenza virus.
Abstract Clinically healthy racing pigeons may harbour notifiable pathogens and serve as an unnoticed reservoir. Thus, 3480 healthy racing pigeons from 172 different lofts were monitored over a period of 2 years for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) and avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1). Pharyngeal and cloacal swabs as well as blood samples were collected from juvenile and adult pigeons. Pools of five pharyngeal swabs per loft and age group were initially screened by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Pharyngeal and cloacal samples from lofts that were positive or suspect i...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Teske L, Ryll M, Rautenschlein S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Identification and functional analysis of the cytolethal distending toxin gene from Avibacterium paragallinarum.
Abstract Avibacterium paragallinarum is the causative agent of infectious coryza, an important respiratory disease of chickens. Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are a family of protein cytotoxins that cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in eukaryotic cells. Whole-genome sequencing analysis showed that Av. paragallinarum contains cdtABC genes. Filter-sterilized lysates prepared from Av. paragallinarum or from recombinant Escherichia coli expressing cdtABC genes exhibited CDT activity on HeLa cells and chicken embryo fibroblast (DF-1) cells. In vitro DNase assays showed that purified recombinant CdtB has DNase ...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Chen YC, Tan DH, Shien JH, Hsieh MK, Yen TY, Chang PC Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Experimental reproduction of an Enterococcus cecorum infection in Pekin ducks.
In this study we experimentally reproduced an EC infection in Pekin ducks. At 12 days post hatch, groups of Pekin ducks were infected orally, via the thoracic air sac or intravenously with 1.5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of EC per bird or via the air sac with 8.5 × 10(5) or 8.5 × 10(7) CFU per bird. Ducks of the intravenously infected group showed 100% mortality after 2 days post infection. The air sac inoculated high-dose group exhibited a mortality rate of 67%. Birds that were infected with 8.5 × 10(5) and 8.5 × 10(7) CFU showed 6.7% mortality after 7 days post infection. Dead birds d...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 28, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Jung A, Metzner M, Köhler-Repp D, Rautenschlein S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Two different avipoxviruses associated with pox disease in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) along the Brazilian coast.
e;o-Dias JL Abstract A novel avipoxvirus caused diphtheritic lesions in the oesophagus of five and in the bronchioli of four Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) and also cutaneous lesions in eight Magellanic penguins housed in outdoor enclosures in a Rehabilitation Centre at Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. At the same time, another avipoxvirus strain caused cutaneous lesions in three Magellanic penguins at a geographically distinct Rehabilitation Centre localized at Vila Velha, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology and use of the po...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 28, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Niemeyer C, Favero CM, Kolesnikovas CK, Bhering RC, Brandão P, Catão-Dias JL Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A case of cutaneous angiolipoleiomyoma (angiomyolipoma) in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).
We report a case of cutaneous angiolipoleiomyoma (angiomyolipoma) found on the anterior wall of the ventral part of the abdomen of a three-year-old female budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Histologic examination of the well-circumscribed, surgically removed tumour (1.5 cm in diameter) showed a benign admixed proliferation of blood vessels of different size, smooth muscle bundles, and mature adipose tissue, without evidence of malignancy. Endothelial cells of the haemangioma component were positive for claudin-5 endothelium-specific immunohistochemical marker, and the leiomyoma component was positive for α-smooth ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 10, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Jakab C, Balka G, Szabára A, Csaba C, Pazár P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Assessing pathogenicity of Gallibacterium anatis in a natural infection model: the respiratory and reproductive tracts of chickens are targets for bacterial colonization.
Abstract Two separate bird trials were performed to establish a reliable route of infection for Gallibacterium anatis in chickens, comparing intranasal (i.n.) and intravenous (i.v.) applications. Additionally, three mutually divergent isolates from three geographical locations, as shown by MALDI-TOF-MS and partial rpoB gene sequence analysis, were compared. In the first trial, birds were infected with one of the selected isolates by the i.v. or i.n. route. Subsequently, birds were killed 3, 12 and 24 h post infection following i.v. infection while at 3, 7 and 10 days post infection (dpi) in the case of i.n. infect...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 7, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Paudel S, Alispahic M, Liebhart D, Hess M, Hess C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Vaccination-challenge interval markedly influences protection provided by Rispens CVI988 vaccine against very virulent Marek's disease virus challenge.
Abstract The Rispens (CVI988) vaccine is widely used to vaccinate chickens worldwide. We tested the protective effects of the Rispens vaccine against challenge with very virulent Marek's disease virus (vvMDV) at various intervals at, before or after vaccination. The experiment used commercial ISA Brown layers and vvMDV isolate 02LAR. The protective index (PI) was measured for vaccination challenge intervals (VCI) of -10, -5, 0, 5 and 10 days, with the negative values indicating challenge prior to vaccination. Chickens were challenged by injection with 400 plaque-forming units (PFU) of 02LAR and/or vaccinated with ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 7, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Islam T, Walkden Brown SW, Renz KG, Fakhrul Islam AF, Ralapanawe S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of a commercial vaccine against avian poxvirus in turkeys kept in the backyard system in the state of Yucatan, Mexico.
Puerto-Nájera JL Abstract One hundred and sixty 1-month-old turkey poults were delivered to 40 households in four communities of the State of Yucatan, Mexico. The poults were divided into two populations, one vaccinated and the other non-vaccinated against avian pox. During three months, monthly visits were carried out in order to monitor the appearance of lesions suggesting avian pox in the birds delivered. Each turkey was clinically examined, searching for characteristic avian pox lesions that were classified according to the degree of severity observed. The true incidence rate and the cumulative incidenc...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 7, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Estrella-Tec JE, Gutiérrez-Ruiz EJ, Ramírez-González S, Aranda-Cirerol F, Santos-Ricalde R, Puerto-Nájera JL Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Detection of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, goblet cells and secretory IgA in the intestinal mucosa during Newcastle disease virus infection.
This study was conducted to evaluate the intestinal mucosal immunology in NDV infection. Forty specific-pathogen-free chickens were divided into two groups, 20 birds in each group. Group 1 was inoculated with NDV by the intravenous route. Group 2 was used as the control group and was given sterile phosphate-buffered saline by the same route. At 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post infection (h.p.i.), five chickens from each treatment were killed. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected to quantify intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), goblet cells and secretory IgA (sIgA) by cytochemistry and immunohistoche...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 2, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Sun Q, Shang Y, She R, Jiang T, Wang D, Ding Y, Yin J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Chicken astrovirus capsid proteins produced by recombinant baculoviruses: potential use for diagnosis and vaccination.
Abstract Chicken astroviruses (CAstVs) have been characterized recently. Due to their relatively poor growth in cell culture, virus-specific antigens are not readily available for the development of diagnostic reagents and vaccines. For this purpose two capsid protein antigens, specified by the 11672 isolate of CAstV, were produced in insect cells following infection with recombinant baculoviruses. The GST-11672 capsid protein, a fusion protein comprising the capsid protein and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as an N-terminal affinity tag, and the 11672 capsid protein alone were detected by western blotting as pro...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Lee A, Wylie M, Smyth VJ, Skibinska A, Patterson IA, Forster F, Welsh MD, Todd D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The occurrence of enteric viruses in Light Turkey Syndrome.
Abstract Two studies were conducted to determine the role of enteric viruses in Light Turkey Syndrome (LTS), which is characterized by lower weight in market age turkeys than their standard breed character. In the surveillance study, we selected four LTS and two non-LTS turkey flocks in Minnesota and collected faecal samples at 2, 3, 5 and 8-weeks of age. Astrovirus, rotavirus, and reovirus were detected alone or in various combinations in both LTS and non-LTS flocks. No coronavirus was detected in LTS flocks and no corona- or reovirus was detected in non-LTS flocks. In the second study, 2-week-old turkey poults w...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Mor SK, Sharafeldin TA, Abin M, Kromm M, Porter RE, Goyal SM, Patnayak DP Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Prevalence of IgY antibodies against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a critically endangered parrot (kakapo, Strigops habroptilus) and associated responses to vaccination.
Abstract An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to estimate levels of IgY antibody against the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in serum samples collected from the critically endangered kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, Psittaciformes, Aves) before and after vaccination against this bacterium. Relative IgY antibody titres in pre-vaccination serum samples (n = 71 individual kakapo) were normally distributed with the exception of four outliers which displayed low IgY levels. Notably all four low IgY samples were collected from fledglings 3 - 6 months old. Pre-vaccination serum samples from nine nestlings
Source: Avian Pathology - October 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Livingston M, Fidler A, Mellor D, de Kloet S, Eason D, Elliott G, Moorhouse R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings, WVPA Matters and Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 24066898 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

T-2 toxin impairs antifungal activities of chicken macrophages against Aspergillus fumigatus conidia but promotes the pro-inflammatory responses.
In conclusion, T-2 impaired the antifungal activities of chicken macrophages against A. fumigatus conidia, but might stimulate immune response by upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and T-helper 1 cytokines. PMID: 23930935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 9, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Li SJ, Pasmans F, Croubels S, Verbrugghe E, Van Waeyenberghe L, Yang Z, Haesebrouck F, Martel A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Gizzard erosion and ulceration syndrome in chickens and turkeys: a review of causal or predisposing factors.
Abstract Gizzard erosion and ulceration syndrome (GEU) was described for the first time in the 1930s. The main focus of early studies was on nutritional deficiencies and peroxidation of highly polyunsaturated fatty acids as causative factors. During the 1970s and 1980s the focus was moved towards toxic substances in the feed. Scott's review in 1985 concluded that overproduction of gastric acid induced by gizzerosine was a major cause of GEU. During the last decades, serotype 1 of fowl adenovirus A and Clostridium perfringens have been implicated as important pathogenic agents in the development of GEU in chickens....
Source: Avian Pathology - July 20, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Gjevre AG, Kaldhusdal M, Eriksen GS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Chicken embryo lethality assay for determining the virulence of Riemerella anatipestifer isolates.
Abstract Riemerella anatipestifer is the causative agent of polyserositis and septicaemia in waterfowl. Twenty-one serotypes have been reported, and there is a strong variation in virulence between strains according to serotype or strain. However, little information is available to assess virulence, such as virulence-associated genes; thus, it is difficult to estimate the risk from field strains. Hence, we established a chicken embryo lethality assay (ELA) model to determine the virulence of R. anatipestifer strains. Three virulent strains (RA T1, RA T7, and V-1) and three avirulent strains (Av-1, Av-2, and Av-3),...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 20, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Seo HS, Cha SY, Kang M, Jang HK Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Announcements, International Meetings, WVPA Matters.
Authors: PMID: 23829552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - July 8, 2013 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from poultry in Alberta.
We examined 951 S. Heidelberg poultry isolates obtained during 1996 to 2010 and tested against 18 antibiotics using the Sensititre AVIAN1F system. Temporal resistance patterns were analysed using single-level logistic regression models. Continuous variables were included in the multivariable models. Multivariable models were built and variables and interactions were included in these final models. Data were analysed using Stata 11 Intercooled. Ceftiofur resistance ranged annually from 0 to 10.5% and gentamicin resistance ranged annually from 0 to 33.3%; no isolates were enrofloxacin resistant. Resistance to amoxicillin (an...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 19, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: St Amand JA, Otto SJ, Cassis R, Annett Christianson CB Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the adjuvant effect of Salmonella-based Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunits on the efficacy of a live Salmonella-delivered avian pathogenic Escherichia coli vaccine.
Abstract The present study evaluated the adjuvant effect of live attenuated salmonella organisms expressing the heat-labile toxin of Escherichia coli B subunit (LTB) on the efficacy of an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) vaccine. The Asd(+) (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) plasmid pMMP906 containing the LTB gene was introduced into a Salmonella enterica Typhimurium strain lacking the lon, cpxR and asd genes to generate the adjuvant strain. Live recombinant Salmonella-delivered APEC vaccine candidates were used for this study. The birds were divided into three groups: group A, non-vaccinated controls;...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 11, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Chaudhari AA, Lee JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Differences in highly pathogenic avian influenza viral pathogenesis and associated early inflammatory response in chickens and ducks.
In conclusion, excessive delayed cytokine inflammatory responses but inadequate cellular immune responses may contribute to pathogenesis in chickens, while ducks initiate a fast lower cytokine response followed by the activation of major pattern recognition receptors (TLR7, RIG-I, MDA5) and a persistent cellular response. PMID: 23782222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 11, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Cornelissen JB, Vervelde L, Post J, Rebel JM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research