Role of aflatoxin toxicity on transmissibility and pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza virus in turkeys.
Abstract The study was conducted to investigate the role of aflatoxin on the infectivity and transmissibility of H9N2 AI virus. The experiment was performed on 80 non-vaccinated turkeys, divided into four groups of 20 birds each. Group A was kept as non-infected and a non-treated negative control; group B was inoculated intratracheally with H9N2 AI virus (1 × 10(7) EID50) at 4 week of age; group C was fed on a diet containing 0.5 ppm aflatoxin from day one through the entire experiment period and group D was fed on diet containing 0.5 ppm aflatoxin like Group C but inoculated intratracheally with H9N2 AI vir...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Umar S, Younus M, Rehman MU, Aslam A, Shah MA, Munir MT, Hussain S, Iqbal F, Fiaz M, Ullah S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Evaluation of the egg transmission and pathogenicity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates genotyped as ts-11.
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the rate of egg transmission and pathogenicity of ts-11 vaccine and isolates recovered from ts-11-vaccinated breeders (K6222B) and their broiler progeny (K6216D) which had been genotyped as ts-11. Groups of 28-week-old specific pathogen free chickens at 87% average weekly egg production were inoculated with sterile broth media (negative controls), ts-11 vaccine, K6222B, K6216D or R strain (positive controls) by eye-drop and aerosol. K6216D transmitted via the egg at an average rate of 4.0% in the third and fourth weeks post infection, while egg transmission of K6222B and t...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 30, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Armour NK, Ferguson-Noel N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Prevalence and molecular characterization of avian infectious bronchitis virus in poultry flocks in Morocco from 2010 to 2014 and first detection of Italy 02 in Africa.
This study highlights the high prevalence of IBV in poultry farms in Morocco and confirms its continuous dynamic changes and evolution. PMID: 25925561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 30, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Fellahi S, Ducatez M, Harrak ME, Guerin JL, Touil N, Sebbar G, Bouaiti EA, Khataby K, Ennaji MM, El-Houadfi M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Outbreak of encephalitic listeriosis in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa).
Abstract An outbreak of neurological disease was investigated in red-legged partridges between 8 and 28 days of age. Clinical signs included torticollis, head tilt and incoordination and over an initial 8 day period approximately 30-40 fatalities occurred per day. No significant gross post mortem findings were detected. Histopathological examination of the brain and bacterial cultures followed by partial sequencing confirmed a diagnosis of encephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes. Further isolates were obtained from follow-up carcasses, environmental samples and pooled tissue samples of newly imported day-old ch...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 29, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Jeckel S, Wood A, Grant K, Amur C, King SA, Whatmore AM, Koylass M, Anjum M, James J, Welchman DB Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Characterization of the M2e antibody response following highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection and reliability of M2e ELISA for identifying infected among vaccinated chickens.
In this study, the M2e antibody response was characterised in layer birds vaccinated and challenged with an Indonesian H5N1 virus isolate, using a single M2e peptide (sp-M2e) or four-branched-multiple-antigenic form of M2e (MAP-M2e) as antigens in two separate ELISAs. Anti-M2e antibodies were absent in chicks with high level of maternal haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies and also in all layers vaccinated once, twice or three times with an inactivated commercial H5N1 vaccine. In contrast, anti-M2e antibodies were detected in vaccinated layers challenged with H5N1 virus and their presence was associated with virus ...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 27, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Tarigan S, Indriani R, Durr PA, Ignjatovic J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Understanding the biology & control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae: a review.
Understanding the biology & control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae: a review. Avian Pathol. 2015 Apr 21;:1-42 Authors: Pritchard J, Kuster T, Sparagano O, Tomley F Abstract Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite (PRM), is a blood feeding ectoparasite capable of causing pathology in birds, amongst other animals. It is an increasingly important pathogen in egg-layers and is responsible for substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Even though PRM poses a serious problem, very little is known about the basic biology of the mite. Here we review the current body o...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 21, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Pritchard J, Kuster T, Sparagano O, Tomley F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Characterization of two pigeon paramyxoviruses type 1 isolates in China.
In this study, two PPMV-1 strains, SD12 and BJ13, obtained from diseased pigeons in China, were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete sequences allowed characterization of both strains as genotype VI, class II. Further phylogenetic analysis of a 374-nucleotide section of the fusion gene showed that SD12 fell into lineage VIbii-d and BJ13 into VIbii-f. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion protein confirmed that both isolates contained the virulent motif (112)K/RRQKR↓F(117) at the cleavage site. Nevertheless, the values of ICPI showed the SD12 isolate to be a velogenic stra...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 4, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Awu A, Shao MY, Liu MM, Hu YX, Qin ZM, Tian FL, Zhang GZ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Pathological changes in the immune organs of broiler chickens fed on corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the underlying basis for aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression in the broiler chicken by detecting pathological lesions and apoptosis in thymus, bursa of Fabricius (BF) and spleen. COBB500™ male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to two groups. The control group was fed on a basal corn-based diet while the other group (the AFB group) was fed on a similar diet but the corn was naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2. Histopathological examination revealed that in the AFB group there was more nuclear debris in the three immune organs and obvious con...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 3, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Peng X, Bai S, Ding X, Zeng Q, Zhang K, Fang J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Analysis of the complete genomic sequences of two virus subpopulations of the Australian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine VicS.
This study suggests the potential role of the TM domain in nsp6, the integrity of the S2 protein and the B-TRS 3, and the putative accessory protein 4b, as well as the 3' UTR region, in the virulence and replication of IBV and has provided a better understanding of relationships between the Australian vaccine strain of IBV and those used elsewhere. PMID: 25721384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 27, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Quinteros JA, Markham PF, Lee SW, Hewson KA, Hartley CA, Legione AR, Coppo MJ, Vaz PK, Browning GF Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Analysis of signs and pathology of H5N1-infected ducks from 2010-2011 Korean highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak suggests the influence of age and management practices on severity of disease.
Abstract We compared the clinical signs, histopathological lesions, and viral antigens distribution among the infected young (meat-type) and older (breeder) ducks that were naturally infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus during the 2010-2011 Korean outbreak. The meat-type ducks had a high mortality rate (30%) and showed severe neurologic signs such as head tremors and paresis. In contrast, HPAI-infected breeder ducks had minimal clinical symptoms but a decreased egg production rate. The histopathological characteristics of infected meat-type ducks included necrotic lesions of heart and b...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 23, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Rhyoo MY, Lee KH, Moon OK, Park WH, Bae YC, Jung JY, Yoon SS, Kim HR, Lee MH, Lee EJ, Ki MR, Jeong KS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) as potential reservoirs for avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses.
Abstract Influenza A viruses (IAVs) and avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are important pathogens of poultry worldwide and both commonly occur in wild waterfowl, especially ducks in the family Anatidae. Although wood ducks (Aix sponsa) are members of the Anatidae, their behavior differs from most other species in this family, which could affect the transmission of IAVs and APMVs. We collected cloacal and oropharyngeal swab and blood samples from more than 700 wood ducks across nine states in the eastern United States of America. No IAVs were isolated, and based on blocking ELISA results, antibodies to IAVs were only d...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 19, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Kistler WM, Gibbs SE, Stallknecht DE, Yabsley MJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Identification of ribosomal RNA methyltranferase gene ermf in Riemerella anatipestifer.
We report for the first time the identification of a macrolide resistance mechanism in R. anatipestifer that is mediated by the ribosomal RNA methyltransferase ermF. We identified the presence of the ermF gene in 64/206 (31%) R. anatipestifer isolates from different regions in China. An ermF deletion strain was constructed to investigate the function of the ermF gene on the resistance to high-levels of macrolides. The ermF mutant strain showed significantly decreased resistance to macrolide and lincosamide, exhibiting 1024-, 1024-, 4-, and>2048-fold reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations for erythromycin, az...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 18, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Luo H, Liu M, Wang L, Zhou W, Wang M, Cheng A, Jia R, Chen S, Sun K, Yang Q, Chen X, Zhu D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Quantification of rhvt-F genome load in feather follicles by specific real-time qpcr as indicator of NDV-specific humoral immunity induced by day-old vaccination in SPF chickens.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to look for a reliable molecular method for confirmation of recombinant turkey herpesvirus vaccine against Newcastle disease (rHVT-F) vaccine up-take and a valuable prediction tool of NDV-specific immune response in chickens deprived of maternally-derived antibody (MDA). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) specific to rHVT-F was developed. The method was applied to various tissue samples from SPF chickens experimentally inoculated at day-old with one dose of rHVT-F vaccine throughout a 6 week period. Among the tested tissues, the rHVT-F vaccine...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 17, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Rauw F, Van Borm S, Welby S, Ngabirano E, Gardin Y, Palya V, Lambrecht B Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Assessment of anti-Salmonella activity of boot dip samples.
This study showed that boot dips that are in use on poultry farms are frequently ineffective. PMID: 25650744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 4, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Rabie AJ, McLaren IM, Breslin MF, Sayers R, Davies RH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Comparison of Newcastle disease vaccine administered as powder or liquid in relation to the serum antibody response and adverse vaccinal reactions in broilers.
Abstract Liquid spray and aerosol mass vaccination of poultry have several drawbacks, such as uncontrolled deposition of vaccine particles in the respiratory tract and vaccine virus inactivation by formation and evaporation of droplets. These may be addressed by using dry powder vaccines with defined particle size distribution targeting the upper (primary vaccination) or the entire respiratory tract (booster vaccination). Therefore, a coarse Newcastle Disease (LZ58 strain) powder vaccine was administered to SPF broiler hens to compare the antibody response and adverse vaccinal reactions with those induced by a coa...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 15, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Landman WJ, Huyge K, Remon JP, Vervaet C, van Eck JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Assessment of two different matrices for the early detection and isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter in broiler farms.
cute;llar M Abstract In order to assess the optimal method for the early detection and isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter in broilers at farm level, two types of samples were compared: caecal contents obtained by necropsy and cloacal swabs transported in charcoal Amies medium. The study was conducted in five batches of broilers from five different farms, where weekly samples (caecal contents and cloacal swabs) from 30 birds were obtained. Samples were plated onto selective agar (mCCDA) for Campylobacter isolation. Four out of five batches were positive for Campylobacter. No marked differences in sensitivity o...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 15, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Urdaneta S, Dolz R, Cerdà-Cuéllar M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Isolation and genome characterization of a novel duck Tembusu virus with 74 nucleotides insertion in the 3' non-translated region.
Abstract During investigations into the outbreak of duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection in 2011 in China, a DTMUV strain (DTMUV-AH2011) was isolated from the affected ducks. The length of the genome of the DTMUV-AH2011 strain was found to be 11,064 nucleotides and to possess 10,278 nucleotides of one open reading frame (ORF), flanked by 94 nucleotides of the 5'non-translated region (NTR) and 692 nucleotides of the 3' non-translated region (NTR). In comparison with 5 fully sequenced TMUV genomes, the genome of DTMUV-AH2011 had 74 nucleotides insertion in the 3' NTR. Comparison of the DTMUV-AH2011 fully deduced ami...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang J, Liu W, Meng G, Zhao K, Gu J, Chen P, Cao R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Inflammatory responses to a Clostridium perfringens type A strain and α-toxin in primary intestinal epithelial cells of chicken embryos.
Inflammatory responses to a Clostridium perfringens type A strain and α-toxin in primary intestinal epithelial cells of chicken embryos. Avian Pathol. 2015 Jan 13;:1-37 Authors: Guo S, Li C, Liu D, Guo Y Abstract The causative pathogen of necrotic enteritis is Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Its main cell wall component, peptidoglycan (PGN), can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD). Consequently, immune response is initiated via activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κB) signaling pathway. An in vitro study was conduc...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Guo S, Li C, Liu D, Guo Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
The Efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain live vaccine in broiler and layer chickens.
Abstract The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, 3-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at 6 weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P
Source: Avian Pathology - January 9, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Ferguson-Noel NM, Williams SM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
High stocking density as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.
Abstract Stocking density is a management factor which has critical implications for the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high stocking density as a predisposing factor in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Two hundred and forty as hatched day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimen...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 7, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Tsiouris V, Georgopoulou I, Batzios C, Pappaioannou N, Ducatelle R, Fortomaris P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Molecular analysis of cecal and tracheal microbiome of heat-stressed broilers supplemented with prebiotic and probiotic.
Abstract The gastrointestinal tract commensal microbiome is important for host nutrition, health and immunity. Little information is available regarding the role of these commensals at other mucosal surfaces in poultry. Tracheal mucosal surfaces offer sites for first-line health and immunity promotion in broilers, especially under stress-related conditions. The present study is aimed at elucidating effects of feed supplementations with mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) prebiotic and a probiotic mixture (PM) on cecal and tracheal microbiome of broilers kept under chronic heat-stress (HS; 35 ± 2°C). Day-old c...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 7, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Sohail MU, Hume ME, Byrd JA, Nisbet DJ, Shabbir MZ, Ijaz A, Rehman H Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Genetic characterization of three novel chicken parvovirus strains based on analysis of their coding sequences.
In this study, we obtained the nucleotide (nt) sequences of all genomic coding regions of three ChPVs by PCR using 13 primer sets, and deduced the amino acid (aa) sequences from the nt sequences. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) gene of the three ChPVs showed 95.0 to 95.5% nt sequence identity and 96.5 to 98.1% aa sequence identity to those of NS1 from the ABU-P1 strain, respectively, and even higher nt and aa similarities to one another. The viral proteins (VP) gene was more divergent between the three ChPV Korean strains and ABU-P1, with 88.1 to 88.3% nt identity and 93.0% aa identity. Analysis of the putative tertiary...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 15, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Koo BS, Lee HR, Jeon EO, Han MS, Min KC, Lee SB, Bae YJ, Cho SH, Mo JS, Kwon HM, Sung HW, Kim JN, Mo IP Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Synergistic pathogenic effects of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus in broiler chickens.
Abstract To study interactions between avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and the effects of co-infection on pathogenicity of these viruses, one-day-old broiler chicks were infected with ALV-J, REV or both ALV-J and REV. The results indicated that co-infection of ALV-J and REV induced more growth retardation and higher mortality rate than ALV-J or REV single infection (P
Source: Avian Pathology - December 6, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Dong X, Zhao P, Chang S, Ju S, Li Y, Meng F, Sun P, Cui Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.
This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom. PMID: 25469538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 3, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Frutos MC, Monetti MS, Vaulet LG, Cadario ME, Rodríguez Fermepín M, Ré VE, Cuffini CG Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Development of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection model in turkeys.
Abstract Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and is also highly pathogenic in turkeys. Several live attenuated M. gallisepticum vaccines are available for prevention of disease in chickens but they are considered to be either not safe or not efficacious in turkeys. The studies presented here aimed to develop a suitable infection model in turkeys, a prerequisite for development of a M. gallisepticum vaccine for turkeys. Two wild type Australian M. gallisepticum strains, Ap3AS and 100809/31, were used and their capacity to induce lesions was evaluated in 5 to 6-week-old turkeys ex...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 28, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Wijesurendra DS, Kanci A, Tivendale KA, Bacci B, Noormohammadi AH, Browning GF, Markham PF Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Quantitative histo-morphometric analysis of heat-stress related damage in the small intestines of broiler chickens.
Abstract The aim of the current research was to present a methodological approach allowing reproducible morphometric and morphological (Chiu/Park scale) analyses of the alterations in the intestines of broilers exposed to heat stress. Ross broilers were exposed over four consecutive days to a high temperature regime in controlled climate rooms, with a day temperature of 39°C (±1°C) and night temperature of 25°C (±1°C), respectively. A control group was kept at an ambient temperature of 25°C (±1°C) during the entire experimental period. At the end of the exposure period,...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 20, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Santos RR, Awati A, Roubos-van den Hil PJ, Tersteeg-Zijderveld MH, Koolmees PA, Fink-Gremmels J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Further observations on serotype 2 Marek's disease virus-induced enhancement of spontaneous avian leukosis virus-like bursal lymphomas in ALVA6 transgenic chickens.
Abstract Breeders of 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 MD viruses (MDV) and were maintained under pathogen-free conditions from the day of hatch until 75 weeks of age. Spontaneous ALV-like bursal lymphomas also termed lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like lymphomas were detected in 7% of the ALVA6 breeders. There was no evidence of infection with exogenous and endogenous ALV as...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 19, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Cao W, Mays J, Kulkarni G, Dunn J, Fulton RM, Fadly A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Differential expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147) in avian tibial dyschondroplasia.
Abstract Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an avian bone disorder of different aetiologies that may be associated with lameness. It is characterized by focal disruption of endochondral bone formation, with a lack of matrix proteolysis and an accumulation of non-mineralized avascular cartilage. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147) in normal, thiram-induced TD lesions and in the process of recovery from TD in broiler chickens. An extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzyme [matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)] was selected to investigate...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 17, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Shahzad M, Liu J, Gao J, Wang Z, Zhang D, Nabi F, Li K, Li J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Parasite distribution and early stage encephalitis in Sarcocystis calchasi infections in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica).
Abstract Pigeon protozoal encephalitis (PPE) is a biphasic, neurologic disease of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi. Despite severe inflammatory lesions of the brain, associated parasitic stages have only rarely been identified and the cause of the lesions is still unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the tissue distribution of S. calchasi within pigeons between the two clinical phases and during the occurrence of neurological signs. For this purpose, a semi-quantitative real-time PCR was developed. Forty-five domestic pigeons ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 22, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Maier K, Olias P, Enderlein D, Klopfleisch R, Mayr SL, Gruber AD, Lierz M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Factors influencing the outcome of infections bronchitis vaccination and challenge experiments.
Abstract The factors influencing the outcome of infectious bronchitis vaccination and challenge experiments regarding the respiratory and renal systems are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of the available techniques for measuring protection against an IBV challenge are discussed, including the definition of protection itself. Suggestions are made regarding some ways in which progress towards standardisation of a recognised protocol for performing experimental challenge studies can be made and areas where more work is needed are indicated. PMID: 25338230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 22, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: de Wit JJ, Cook JK Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Differential diagnosis of fowlpox and infectious laryngotracheitis viruses in chicken diphtheritic manifestations by mono and duplex real-time PCR.
Abstract Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILTV) and fowlpox (FPV) viruses cause diphtheritic lesion in chicken tracheas and can simultaneously infect the same bird. A differential molecular diagnostic test, the duplex real-time PCR is now reported using ILTV and FPV vaccine viruses and clinical samples from chickens, either uninfected, or naturally-infected with ILTV, or FPV, or with both viruses. The dual virus amplification by real-time PCR was demonstrated to behave similarly to monoplex amplification, in spite of the fact that the real time exponential amplification plots of the vaccine viruses were more illustra...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 15, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Irit D, Raibstein I, Altory A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Tembusu-like flavivirus (Perak virus) as the cause of neurological disease outbreaks in young Pekin duck.
, Tatár-Kis T, Palya V Abstract A neurological disease of young Pekin ducks characterized by ataxia, lameness and paralysis was observed at several duck farms in Malaysia in 2012. Gross pathological lesions were absent or inconsistent in most of the cases, but microscopically severe and consistent lesions were found in the brain and spinal cord, characterized by non-purulent panencephalomyelitis. Several virus isolates were obtained in embryonated duck eggs and in cell cultures (Vero and DF-1) inoculated with the brain homogenates of affected ducks. After exclusion of other viruses, the isolates were identi...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 9, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Homonnay ZG, Kovács EW, Bányai K, Albert M, Fehér E, Mató T, Tatár-Kis T, Palya V Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Egg sampling as a possible alternative to blood sampling when monitoring the exposure of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) to avian influenza viruses.
Abstract We explored whether antibody detection in egg yolks could serve as an alternative to antibody detection in plasma samples when monitoring yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) for exposure to avian influenza viruses (AIVs). We tested female plasma and eggs for anti-AIV antibodies and used the data we obtained to: (1) check whether the two sample types yielded the same antibody status (positive or negative) and (2) compare the antibody prevalence estimated from the blood data with that estimated from the yolk data. Our results showed that sampling one egg per clutch, regardless of that egg's position in ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 2, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Hammouda A, Pearce-Duvet J, Boulinier T, Selmi S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Genetic characterization of oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates from wild birds indicates that genotype is associated with host species, diet and presence of pathognomonic lesions.
o-Toledo MM, Gómez-Muñoz MT Abstract Oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates of wild birds from Spain were studied. A total of 1688 samples (1214 of predator birds and 474 of prey species) from wildlife recovery centers and scientific bird ringing campaigns were analyzed from 2011 to 2013. The overall infection prevalence was 20.3% (11.4% in predator birds and 43.3% in prey species). Pathognomonic lesions were present in 26% of the infected birds (57.3% in predator birds and 4.9% in prey species). The most commonly parasitized species were the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, 74.5%) and the rock pigeon (Colum...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 29, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Martínez-Herrero MC, Sansano-Maestre J, López Márquez I, Obón E, Ponce C, González J, Garijo-Toledo MM, Gómez-Muñoz MT Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in common quail (coturnix coturnix).
Abstract The study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter spp., shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.) in common quail (coturnix coturnix). To achieve this goal, 70 common quails were collected during the hunting season in the Campania region (southern Italy). From each bird, cloacal swab samples were collected and subjected to culture methods, PCR, and serotyping. The results of the present study showed a prevalence of 21.4% and 5.7% for Campylobacter spp. and shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli, respectively. In contrast, no Salmonella spp. was ...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Dipineto L, Russo TP, Gargiulo A, Borrelli L, De Luca Bossa LM, Santaniello A, Buonocore P, Menna LF, Fioretti A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Protection conferred by recombinant HVT avian influenza (rHVT-H5) vaccine in rearing period in two commercial layer chicken breeds in Egypt.
Abstract The effectiveness of recombinant turkey herpes virus with avian influenza (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006(H5N1)) clade 2.2 virus (rHVT-H5) vaccine was evaluated in two layer chicken breeds (WB and BS). One dose of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered at day 1 and birds serologically (HI test) and virologically monitored for 19 weeks. Maternally-derived antibody (MDA) and post-vaccination H5 antibody titers were measured using the Chinese (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) and the Egyptian (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1)) HAs as antigens. The challenge was conducted at 19 weeks of age and on six experimental groups (I(...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Kilany W, Dauphin G, Selim A, Tripodi A, Samy M, Sobhy H, VonDobschuetz S, Safwat M, Saad M, Erfan A, Hassan M, Lubroth J, Jobre Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Characterization of a Salmonella Typhimurium ghost carrying an adjuvant protein as a vaccine candidate for the protection of chickens against virulent challenge.
In this study we describe the generation of a safe, immunogenic, genetically inactivated Salmonella Typhimurium ghost vaccine candidate carrying the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein as an adjuvant molecule. An asd+ p15A ori- plasmid pJHL187-LTB harboring the E lysis gene cassette and a foreign antigen delivery cassette containing the eltB gene was used to transform a Δasd Salmonella Typhimurium (JOL1311) strain to construct the ghost strain, JOL1499. Incubation of mid-logarithmic phase grown JOL1499 cultures at 42°C resulted in co-expression of the eltB and E lysis genes, leading t...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Jawale CV, Lee JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Pathogenesis of Gallibacterium anatis in a natural infection model fulfils Koch's postulates: 2. Epididymitis and decreased semen quality are the predominant effects in specific pathogen free roosters.
In conclusion, the present study provides novel data on the impact of a G. anatis infection in roosters in a natural infection model elucidating on bacterial distribution, pathological lesions as well as influences on semen quality. PMID: 25246024 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - September 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Paudea S, Liebhart D, Aurich C, Hess M, Hess C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Intestinal spirochaetes (Brachyspira spp.) colonizing flocks of layer and breeder chickens in Malaysia.
Abstract Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) causes problems including delayed onset of lay and wet litter in adult chickens, and results from colonization of the caecae/rectum with pathogenic intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira). As AIS has not previously been studied in South-East Asia, this investigation was undertaken in Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 25 farms and a questionnaire was administered. Brachyspira species were detected by PCR in 198 of 500 (39%) faecal samples from 20 (80%) farms, including 16 (94%) layer and four (50%) breeder farms. Pathogenic B. pilosicoli was identified i...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Amin MM, Phillips ND, La T, Robertson ID, Hampson DJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Detection and phylogenetic characterization of Columbid circoviruses in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran.
In this study a nested PCR was applied to investigate prevalence of circoviruses in pigeons in the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. A total of 50 fecal samples were subjected to nucleic acid extraction, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Nested PCR primers were designed to amplify a 508 bp segment of the pigeon circoviruses (PiCV) capsid (Cap) gene. Of the 50 fecal samples examined, 12 (24%) have produced the expected DNA amplicons with identical DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis has grouped the viruses with those classified as group A circoviruses. The viruses were closely related to PiCVs found in Poland, N...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Mahzounieh M, Khoei HH, Shamsabadi MG, Dastjerdi A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Efficient MDV & HVT Infection of QM7 cell line that does not contain latent MDV genome.
In this report, we demonstrated that QM7 cells were susceptible to infection with either MDV or HVT (Herpesvirus of turkey, also known as Meleagrid herpesvirus 1, MeHV-1, MDV- 3). PCR analysis with primers amplifying selected MDV genes revealed that QM7 cells did not contain these sequences. However, MDV genes were detected in QT35 cells, which have been reported to harbor latent MDV virus. Transfection of naked MDV DNA initiated efficient infection of QM7 cells. In addition, QM7 cell lysate, clarified supernatant, and QM7 cell pellet infected with MDV were negative for reverse transcriptase activity, indicating absence of...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 10, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Rong S, Wheeler D, Weber F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Variable lipoprotein haemagglutinin gene (vlhA) sequence typing of mainly dutch Mycoplasma synoviae isolates: comparison with vlhA sequences from genbank and with AFLP analysis.
Abstract Molecular typing techniques with sufficient discriminatory power are required to better understand the transmission of Mycoplasma synoviae, a poultry pathogen with increasing clinical and economic relevance. A promising molecular technique is a PCR and subsequent sequencing based on the conserved 5' region of the M. synoviae variable lipoprotein and haemagglutinin (vlhA) gene. It was used for genotyping 27 mainly Dutch M. synoviae isolates from different organs of various categories of poultry housed on different farms and collected during a period of 10 years. Obtained vlhA sequences were compared with t...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 5, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Dijkman R, Feberwee A, Landman WJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Investigation of Clostridium botulinum in commercial poultry farms in France between 2011 and 2013.
uin S Abstract Between 2011 and 2013, 17 poultry botulism outbreaks were investigated in France. All cases were associated with C. botulinum type C-D. Presence of C. botulinum was studied in 7 areas: poultry house, changing room, ventilation system, surroundings, animal reservoirs, water and feed. Swabs, litter, soil, darkling beetles, rodents and wild bird droppings, feed and water samples were collected. The presence of C. botulinum type C-D in the environment of affected flocks was detected in 39.5% of the 185 samples analyzed by real-time PCR. C. botulinum type C-D was reported in each area. Four areas were mo...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 30, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Souillard R, Woudstra C, Le Maréchal C, Dia M, Bayon-Auboyer MH, Chemaly M, Fach P, Le Bouquin S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
A single strain of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum causes fatal typhlohepatitis in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) to be distinguished from histomonosis.
Abstract Typhlohepatitis was observed in a flock of 2500 red-legged partridges in Great Britain, characterized by the sudden deaths of 15 birds within two days. Necropsy of 5 dead birds revealed severe lesions in the caeca with thickened caecal walls, a reddened lining and bloody contents. The livers contained multiple miliary lesions and similar pathological changes were found in the spleens of some birds. Microscopic examination of intestinal contents showed the occurrence of coccidial oocysts in two partridges. Different methods for the detection of bacteria from liver and intestine samples were conducted witho...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 30, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Liebhart D, Neale S, Garcia-Rueda C, Wood AM, Bilic I, Wernsdorf P, Jaskulska B, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
The replication characteristics of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in the respiratory and conjunctival mucosa.
Abstract Avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus of poultry that is spread worldwide. ILTV enters its host via the respiratory tract and the eyes. Although ILTV has been known for a long time, the replication characteristics of the virus in the respiratory and conjunctival mucosa are still poorly studied. To study this, two in vitro explant models were developed. Light microscopy and a fluorescent terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were used to evaluate the viability of mucosal explants, which were found to be viable up to the end o...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 21, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Reddy VR, Steukers L, Li Y, Fuchs W, Vanderplasschen A, Nauwynck HJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Pathogenesis of Gallibacterium anatis in a natural infection model fulfils Koch's postulates: folliculitis and drop in egg production are the predominant effects in specific pathogen free layers.
Abstract Abstract Pathogenicity of Gallibacterium anatis was studied in specific pathogen free layers in a controlled environment applying the intranasal route for experimental infection. At 30 weeks, 37 hens were infected with 0.4 ml of 1.53 × 10(8) CFU/ml suspension of G. anatis strain 07990 whereas the equal numbers of hens were left uninfected for control. Following experimental infection, clinical symptoms, number and weight of the eggs were recorded daily until five weeks post infection. Besides, three birds from each group were killed at 3, 7, 10, 28 and 38 days post infection (dpi) for necropsy and s...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 21, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Paudel S, Liebhart D, Hess M, Hess C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research