Pathogenesis of Gallibacterium anatis in a natural infection model fulfils Koch's postulates: 2. Epididymitis and decreased semen quality are the predominant effects in specific pathogen free roosters.
In conclusion, the present study provides novel data on the impact of a G. anatis infection in roosters in a natural infection model elucidating on bacterial distribution, pathological lesions as well as influences on semen quality. PMID: 25246024 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - September 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Paudea S, Liebhart D, Aurich C, Hess M, Hess C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Intestinal spirochaetes (Brachyspira spp.) colonizing flocks of layer and breeder chickens in Malaysia.
Abstract Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) causes problems including delayed onset of lay and wet litter in adult chickens, and results from colonization of the caecae/rectum with pathogenic intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira). As AIS has not previously been studied in South-East Asia, this investigation was undertaken in Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 25 farms and a questionnaire was administered. Brachyspira species were detected by PCR in 198 of 500 (39%) faecal samples from 20 (80%) farms, including 16 (94%) layer and four (50%) breeder farms. Pathogenic B. pilosicoli was identified i...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Amin MM, Phillips ND, La T, Robertson ID, Hampson DJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Detection and phylogenetic characterization of Columbid circoviruses in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran.
In this study a nested PCR was applied to investigate prevalence of circoviruses in pigeons in the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. A total of 50 fecal samples were subjected to nucleic acid extraction, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Nested PCR primers were designed to amplify a 508 bp segment of the pigeon circoviruses (PiCV) capsid (Cap) gene. Of the 50 fecal samples examined, 12 (24%) have produced the expected DNA amplicons with identical DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis has grouped the viruses with those classified as group A circoviruses. The viruses were closely related to PiCVs found in Poland, N...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Mahzounieh M, Khoei HH, Shamsabadi MG, Dastjerdi A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Efficient MDV & HVT Infection of QM7 cell line that does not contain latent MDV genome.
In this report, we demonstrated that QM7 cells were susceptible to infection with either MDV or HVT (Herpesvirus of turkey, also known as Meleagrid herpesvirus 1, MeHV-1, MDV- 3). PCR analysis with primers amplifying selected MDV genes revealed that QM7 cells did not contain these sequences. However, MDV genes were detected in QT35 cells, which have been reported to harbor latent MDV virus. Transfection of naked MDV DNA initiated efficient infection of QM7 cells. In addition, QM7 cell lysate, clarified supernatant, and QM7 cell pellet infected with MDV were negative for reverse transcriptase activity, indicating absence of...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 10, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Rong S, Wheeler D, Weber F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Variable lipoprotein haemagglutinin gene (vlhA) sequence typing of mainly dutch Mycoplasma synoviae isolates: comparison with vlhA sequences from genbank and with AFLP analysis.
Abstract Molecular typing techniques with sufficient discriminatory power are required to better understand the transmission of Mycoplasma synoviae, a poultry pathogen with increasing clinical and economic relevance. A promising molecular technique is a PCR and subsequent sequencing based on the conserved 5' region of the M. synoviae variable lipoprotein and haemagglutinin (vlhA) gene. It was used for genotyping 27 mainly Dutch M. synoviae isolates from different organs of various categories of poultry housed on different farms and collected during a period of 10 years. Obtained vlhA sequences were compared with t...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 5, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Dijkman R, Feberwee A, Landman WJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Investigation of Clostridium botulinum in commercial poultry farms in France between 2011 and 2013.
uin S Abstract Between 2011 and 2013, 17 poultry botulism outbreaks were investigated in France. All cases were associated with C. botulinum type C-D. Presence of C. botulinum was studied in 7 areas: poultry house, changing room, ventilation system, surroundings, animal reservoirs, water and feed. Swabs, litter, soil, darkling beetles, rodents and wild bird droppings, feed and water samples were collected. The presence of C. botulinum type C-D in the environment of affected flocks was detected in 39.5% of the 185 samples analyzed by real-time PCR. C. botulinum type C-D was reported in each area. Four areas were mo...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 30, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Souillard R, Woudstra C, Le Maréchal C, Dia M, Bayon-Auboyer MH, Chemaly M, Fach P, Le Bouquin S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A single strain of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum causes fatal typhlohepatitis in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) to be distinguished from histomonosis.
Abstract Typhlohepatitis was observed in a flock of 2500 red-legged partridges in Great Britain, characterized by the sudden deaths of 15 birds within two days. Necropsy of 5 dead birds revealed severe lesions in the caeca with thickened caecal walls, a reddened lining and bloody contents. The livers contained multiple miliary lesions and similar pathological changes were found in the spleens of some birds. Microscopic examination of intestinal contents showed the occurrence of coccidial oocysts in two partridges. Different methods for the detection of bacteria from liver and intestine samples were conducted witho...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 30, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Liebhart D, Neale S, Garcia-Rueda C, Wood AM, Bilic I, Wernsdorf P, Jaskulska B, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The replication characteristics of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in the respiratory and conjunctival mucosa.
Abstract Avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus of poultry that is spread worldwide. ILTV enters its host via the respiratory tract and the eyes. Although ILTV has been known for a long time, the replication characteristics of the virus in the respiratory and conjunctival mucosa are still poorly studied. To study this, two in vitro explant models were developed. Light microscopy and a fluorescent terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were used to evaluate the viability of mucosal explants, which were found to be viable up to the end o...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 21, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Reddy VR, Steukers L, Li Y, Fuchs W, Vanderplasschen A, Nauwynck HJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of Gallibacterium anatis in a natural infection model fulfils Koch's postulates: folliculitis and drop in egg production are the predominant effects in specific pathogen free layers.
Abstract Abstract Pathogenicity of Gallibacterium anatis was studied in specific pathogen free layers in a controlled environment applying the intranasal route for experimental infection. At 30 weeks, 37 hens were infected with 0.4 ml of 1.53 × 10(8) CFU/ml suspension of G. anatis strain 07990 whereas the equal numbers of hens were left uninfected for control. Following experimental infection, clinical symptoms, number and weight of the eggs were recorded daily until five weeks post infection. Besides, three birds from each group were killed at 3, 7, 10, 28 and 38 days post infection (dpi) for necropsy and s...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 21, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Paudel S, Liebhart D, Hess M, Hess C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian influenza H9N2 subtype in Poland - characterization of the isolates and evidence of concomitant infection.
ła A Abstract In April/May 2013, four outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) infections caused by H9N2 subtype were diagnosed in Poland in fattening turkey flocks exhibiting a drop in feed and water intake, depression, respiratory signs and mortality. The subsequent serological survey carried out on samples collected between June 2012 and September 2013 from 92 poultry flocks detected positive sera in two additional meat turkey flocks located in the same province. The analysis of amino acids in the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins revealed that the detected H9N2 viruses possessed molecular profile...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 18, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Smietanka K, Minta Z, Swiętoń E, Olszewska M, Jóźwiak M, Domańska-Blicharz K, Wyrostek K, Tomczyk G, Pikuła A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Detection and molecular characterization of infectious bronchitis-like viruses in wild bird populations.
We examined 884 wild birds mainly from the Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Galliforme orders for infectious bronchits (IBV)-like coronavirus in Poland between 2008 and 2011. Coronavirus (CoV) was detected in 31 (3.5%) of the tested birds with detection rates of 3.5% in Anseriformes and 2.3% in Charadriiformes and as high as 17.6% in Galliformes. From the 31 positive samples only ten gave positive results in molecular tests aimed at various IBV genome fragments: five samples were positive for the RdRp gene, four for gene 3, eight for gene N and eight for the 3'UTR fragment. All analyzed genome fragments of the CoV strains sh...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 18, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Domanska-Blicharz K, Jacukowicz A, Lisowska A, Wyrostek K, Minta Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Astrocytic growth through the autocrine/paracrine production of IL-1β in the early infectious phase of fowl glioma-inducing virus.
In this study, we investigated the relationship between intracerebral viral replication and astrocytic growth in the early infectious phase. Replication abilities of two ALV strains, Sp-53 (a FGV variant) and ALV-based replication-competent vector RCAS(A) without glioma-inducibility, were compared in the brains of C/O specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 35 days of age. Sp-53 replicated faster than RCAS (A), and the histological score and the level of IL-1β in brains increased depending on the level of intracerebral viral RNA. Up-regulation of IL-1β was also demonstrated in primary cultured astrocytes. These ...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 13, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Nakamura S, Ochiai K, Abe A, Kishi S, Takayama K, Sunden Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effect of vaccination on transmission characteristics of highly virulent Newcastle disease virus in experimentally infected chickens.
Abstract An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vaccines produced in Ethiopia from world-wide used vaccine strains on the transmission characteristics of velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) field strain after different vaccination schemes. Birds were vaccinated by Hitchner B1 (HB1), La Sota, or I-2 via the intraocular and intranasal routes. Vaccine and challenge viruses induced high antibody levels, both in inoculated and contact birds. Prime-boost vaccination protected birds against morbidity and mortality and significantly reduced the incidence of viral shedding from chickens compared ...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 8, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Fentie T, Dadi K, Kassa T, Sahle M, Cattoli G Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Inflammation induced hemostatic response in layer chickens infected with Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus as evaluated by fibrinogen, prothrombin time and thromboelastography.
Abstract Streptococcuszooepidemicus has recently been shown as a severe pathogen in layer chickens where it is able to cause serious lesions in the vascular system. To evaluate the hemostatic response, ten layer chickens were inoculated intravenously with S. zooepidemicus. Four hypotheses were tested: that the infection-induced inflammation would 1) increase plasma fibrinogen (Fbg) concentration, 2) prolong prothrombin time (PT) 3) prompt hypercoagulability or hypocoagulability as assessed by whole-blood thromboelastography (TEG), and 4) that a possible correlation would exist between one of the TEG values and Fbg...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 14, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Roy K, Bertelsen MF, Pors SE, Johansen KW, Kristensen AT, Kjelgaard-Hansen M, Andreasen EB, Christensen JP, Biswas PK, Bojesen AM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Dietary vitamin E in white leghorn layer breeder hens: a strategy to combat aflatoxin B1 induced damage.
This study was designed to investigate the protective activity of Vitamin E (Vit E) in White Leghorn (WL) breeder hens and their progeny against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induced damage. The results indicated a significant decrease in egg production and quality in the groups exposed to dietary AFB1. A detectable amount of AFB1 residue appeared in the eggs during the 1(st) week of mycotoxin exposure at levels ≥ 2.5 mg kg(-1), which reached its peak {0.403± 0.04 ng/g (mean ± SD)} during the 2(nd) week of the experiment (in the group fed 10 mg kg(-1)). Feeding Vit E + AFB1 resulted in higher AFB1 residues (0.467 &p...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 11, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Khan WA, Khan MZ, Khan A, Hassan ZU, Rafique S, Saleemi MK, Ahad A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance and class 1 and 2 integrons in Escherichia coli from meat turkeys in Northern Italy.
This study is aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons in 48 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated from meat turkeys during 3 sequential production cycles. Thirty avian faecal E. coli (AFEC) from the first cycle were also analysed. Strains were tested for AMR against 25 antimicrobials by disk diffusion test and screened for the presence of integrons and associated gene cassettes by PCR followed by sequencing. Genetic relatedness of isolates was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). High levels of resistance were detected to tetracyclin...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 11, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Piccirillo A, Giovanardi D, Dotto G, Grilli G, Montesissa C, Boldrin C, Salata C, Giacomelli M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of avian hepatitis E virus in 2013 outbreaks of hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in two United States layer operations.
Abstract Two commercial Midwestern egg-type chicken flocks experienced significant increases in mortality rates in April 2013 with clinical signs appearing in 17-week-old pullets in Farm A and in 46-week-old hens in Farm B. Average weekly mortality was 0.44% over a 4-week period in Farm A and 0.17% over an 8-week period in Farm B. On Farm A, flocks in the affected house had a 45% decrease in daily egg production from weeks 19 to 27 when compared to standard egg production curves (P
Source: Avian Pathology - July 10, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Gerber PF, Trampel DW, Opriessnig T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Editorial.
PMID: 25010112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - July 10, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Bradbury JM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings.
Authors: PMID: 25005040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - July 8, 2014 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Propagation of viruses infecting waterfowl on continuous cell lines of Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) origin.
cute;n A, Jordan I, Zádori Z Abstract Duck circovirus (DuCV), duck hepatitis A virus 1 (DHAV-1), goose parvovirus (GPV) and goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) are economically damaging pathogens of waterfowl, and replicate poorly or not at all in established cell lines. AGE1.CR, AGE1.CR.pIX and AGE1.CS cell lines, originating from the Muscovy duck, were tested for their suitability to isolate and identify these viruses. Immunofluorescence (IF) and qPCR investigations verified that all cell lines are permissive for all four viruses, however AGE1.CR.pIX proved to be the most productive and most sensitive f...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 3, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Mészáros I, Tóth R, Bálint A, Dán A, Jordan I, Zádori Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The role of avian reoviruses in turkey tenosynovitis/arthritis.
Abstract Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV) has been isolated from the gastrocnemius tendons and tibiotarsal joint fluid of lame,>12-week-old male turkeys in the Midwest. Two experiments were conducted to compare the pathogenicity in turkeys of three TARVs (TARV-MN2, TARV-MN4 and TARV-O'Neil) one turkey enteric reovirus (TERV strain MN1), and one chicken arthritis reovirus (CARV strain MN1). Two hundred ul of virus were inoculated by oral, intratracheal, or footpad route into 6-day-old poults placed in isolator units. Poults were necropsied at 1 and 4 weeks post infection (PI) in Experiment 1 and at 2 and 4 weeks...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 1, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Sharafeldin TA, Mor SK, Bekele AZ, Verma H, Goyal SM, Porter RE Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.
Abstract Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. It is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supe...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 1, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Mot D, Timbermont L, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R, Van Immerseel F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular analysis and associated pathology of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) isolated in Italy from young Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) with an "atypical per acute form" of the disease.
This study is the first Italian report on the genetic and pathogenic characterization of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). Twenty BFDV strains isolated in Italy from juvenile Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) were investigated. Seventeen showed an "atypical peracute form" (aPF) of the disease, and three a chronic form (CF). Usually, the peracute form affected neonatal or fledgling chicks, presenting with hemorrhage and/or multi organ necrosis. The affected birds had been weaned, were independent as far as food and protection were concerned and apparently were without lesions. The gene coding f...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 26, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Robino P, Grego E, Rossi G, Bert E, Tramuta C, Stella MC, Bertoni P, Nebbia P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular typing of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates originating from outbreaks of E. coli peritonitis syndrome in chicken flocks.
Abstract Escherichia coli strains isolated from the bone marrow of fresh dead hens of laying flocks with the E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS) were genotyped using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Mentioned typing is important from an epidemiological point of view and also if the use of (auto)vaccines is considered. Birds with EPS originated from one house of each of three layer farms and one broiler breeder farm. Farms were considered as separate epidemiological units. In total, six flocks were examined including two successive flocks of one layer farm and the broiler breeder farm. E. coli colonies (1 pe...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 19, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Landman WJ, Buter R, Dijkman R, van Eck JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of histopathological changes, viral load and immune function of domestic geese infected with Newcastle disease virus.
Abstract Outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) in flocks of geese with high morbidity and mortality in Southern and Eastern China have been reported frequently since late 1990s which broke the traditional view that geese are considered to be the natural reservoir of ND virus (NDV) and show few or no clinical signs after infection. In this present study, geese were infected intranasally. Clinical disease and gross pathology were observed. Serum and immune organs were collected from geese sequentially euthanized or after disease-associated death. We studied the histopathology of immune organs by haematoxyln hosin (HE)...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 9, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Lu A, Diao Y, Chen H, Wang J, Ge P, Sun X, Hao D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian diseases table of contents.
Authors: PMID: 24893768 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 1, 2014 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Detection, epidemiology and characterization of VP6 and VP7 genes of group D rotavirus in broiler chickens.
Abstract Rotaviruses infect humans and animals and are classified into eight groups (A to H). Group D rotavirus (RVD) has been described in birds, although relatively few reports are available. The present study focused on RVD, including epidemiological and molecular aspects of samples collected from broiler chickens in the state of Pará, Brazil. A total of 85 faecal samples were collected between 2008 and 2011 from 37 chicken farms located in eight different municipalities. The viral double-stranded RNA was extracted from faecal suspensions and analysed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), foll...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 30, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Bezerra DA, da Silva RR, Kaiano JH, de Souza Oliveira D, Gabbay YB, Linhares AC, Mascarenhas JD Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Natural infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in domestic pigeons in Egypt.
In this study, an outbreak in domestic pigeons (1-18 months old) with 50% mortality was investigated. Pigeons exhibited nervous manifestations and greenish diarrhea. Necropsy of the naturally infected pigeons revealed congestion of the internal organs, particularly lungs and brain. A HPAIV subtype H5N1 designated A/Pigeon/Egypt/SHAH-5803/2011 was isolated from 40 days old pigeon. Sequencing of the hemagglutinin gene showed close relation to viruses in group 2.2.1/C. Intravenous inoculation of the isolate in chickens induced 100% mortality within 2 days postinoculation (dpi) and intravenous pathogenicity index was 2.7. Viru...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 27, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Mansour SM, ElBakrey RM, Ali H, Knudsen DE, Eid AA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Subclinical circulation of avian hepatitis E virus within a multiple age rearing and broiler breeder farm indicates persistence and vertical transmission of the virus.
Abstract In a prospective longitudinal study a broiler breeder flock and its progeny were monitored for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and antibodies. The flock was part of a multiple age farm where the presence of avian HEV with clinical symptoms (increased mortality and decreased egg production) was demonstrated in several previous production cycles. Samples were taken twice at the rearing site and several times at the production site from broiler breeders including roosters and day-old chicks. The samples were investigated by conventional and real-time RT-PCR, enzyme linked immunosorbent assa...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 15, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Troxler S, Pać K, Prokofieva I, Liebhart D, Chodakowska B, Furmanek D, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of an aroA-deleted live vaccine against avian colibacillosis in a multicentre field trial in broilers in Morocco.
In conclusion, the vaccine was demonstrated to be both safe and efficacious under field conditions. PMID: 24824589 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - May 13, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Mombarg M, Bouzoubaa K, Andrews S, Vanimisetti HB, Rodenberg J, Karaca K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Fate of Salmonella Senftenberg in broiler chickens evaluated by challenge experiments.
Abstract Experimental and epidemiological evidence have indicated the respiratory route to be a potential portal of entry for salmonellae in poultry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the infectivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg following oral gavage (OR), intratracheal (IT) or intravenous (IV) challenge in chickens. Seven-day-old chicks were challenged with either 104 or 106 CFU of S. Senftenberg /chick, OR, IT or IV, respectively in two independent trials. Chickens were humanely killed 24 h post challenge and S. Senftenberg was cultured and enumerated from cecal contents, ceca-c...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 13, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Kallapura G, Kogut MH, Morgan MJ, Pumford NR, Bielke LR, Wolfenden AD, Faulkner OB, Latorre JD, Menconi A, Hernandez-Velasco X, Kuttappan VA, Hargis BM, Tellez G Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Characterisation of the invasiveness of monophasic and aphasic Salmonella Typhimurium strains in day-old and point-of-lay chickens.
In this study, seven groups of day-old and point-of-lay commercial Hy-line chicken layers were separately challenged with 4 different strains of monophasic ST, one aphasic ST, one biphasic ST and one egg invasive SE strain. Tissue samples and cloacal swabs (point-of-lay chickens only) were collected at regular intervals post-challenge in order to recover the Salmonella challenge strains. In day-old chicks, only the aphasic ST strain and the SE strain were recovered after direct plating, suggesting that the number of salmonellas colonising the tissues of the chicks infected with the other strains was likely to be low. Inter...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 7, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Martelli F, Gosling R, Kennedy E, Rabie A, Reeves H, Clifton-Hadley F, Davies R, La Ragione R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

MALDI-TOF MS confirms difficulties in separating species of the Avibacterium genus.
In conclusion, Av. paragallinarum can be identified by MALDI/Biotyper and not the other species of the genus. PMID: 24802229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - May 7, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Alispahic M, Christensen H, Bisgaard M, Hess M, Hess C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Investigation into the possibility of vertical transmission of avian bornavirus in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta canadensis).
In conclusion, this preliminary investigation demonstrating the presence of ABV RNA in the yolk of a Canada goose egg provides the first evidence for the potential for vertical transmission of ABV in waterfowl. PMID: 24801979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - May 6, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Delnatte P, Nagy E, Ojkic D, Crawshaw G, Smith DA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings, WVPA Matters and Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 24788020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 30, 2014 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Emergence of avian infectious bronchitis in a non-vaccinating country.
Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus of the chicken. It is a highly contagious pathogen and in addition to causing respiratory and kidney diseases, it can affect the reproductive organs, resulting loss of production and poor egg quality. Despite the global distribution of IBV, Finland has been free of clinical cases for almost three decades. Since April 2011, outbreaks involving genotypes QX, D274-like and 4/91-like, have occurred in southern Finland. The clinical samples studied were submitted to the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira from different regions of Finland during 2011-2013 and ...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 25, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Pohjola LK, Ek-Kommonen SC, Tammiranta NE, Kaukonen ES, Rossow LM, Huovilainen TA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Genotyping of infectious bronchitis viruses identified in Canada between 2000 and 2013.
Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was detected in 185 samples originating from chicken flocks of various commodity groups in Canada. Flocks with clinical signs such as respiratory challenge, sudden death, egg production problems, or nephropathogenic conditions, and randomly selected flocks sampled at slaughter as part of an Ontario broiler surveillance project, were included. Most samples were from Ontario and Québec; however, a small number from British Columbia, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador were also analyzed. The nucleotide sequence of the spike (S) protein gene was compared with s...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Martin EA, Brash ML, Hoyland SK, Coventry JM, Sandrock C, Guerin MT, Ojkic D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Obituary.
PMID: 24754647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 23, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Whithear K, Ignjatovic J, Noormohammadi A, Horrox N, Hafez HM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of a novel strain of infectious bronchitis virus emerged as a result of Spike gene recombination between two highly diverged parent strains.
Abstract The emergence of new variant strains of the poultry pathogen infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is continually reported worldwide, owing to the labile nature of the large single-stranded RNA IBV genome. High resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis previously detected a variant strain, N1/08, and the present study confirmed that this strain had emerged as a result of recombination between Australian subgroup 2 and 3 strains in the Spike gene region, in a similar manner reported for Turkey coronaviruses. The S1 gene for N1/08 had highest nucleotide similarity with subgroup 2 strains, which is interesting consid...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 14, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Hewson KA, Noormohammadi AH, Devlin JM, Browning GF, Schultz BK, Ignjatovic J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Generation of a safe Salmonella Gallinarum vaccine candidate that secretes an adjuvant protein with immunogenicity and protective efficacy against fowl typhoid.
Abstract We constructed a live, attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) that secretes heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit protein (LTB), and evaluated this strain as a new vaccine candidate by assessing its safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy against fowl typhoid. An asd(+) p15A ori low-copy plasmid containing eltB encoding LTB was transformed into a ΔlonΔcpxRΔasd SG (JOL967) to construct the candidate, JOL1355. In Experiments 1 and 2, birds were orally immunized with JOL1355 at 4 weeks of age, while control birds were inoculated with sterile phosphate-buffered saline. In Experiment 2, the...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Nandre RM, Lee JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and integrons in Escherichia coli strains isolated from synanthropic birds from Spain.
de;oz MJ, de la Torre A Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance profiles in 164 Escherichia coli strains isolated from birds (feral pigeons, hybrid ducks, house sparrows and spotless starlings) inhabiting urban and rural environments. A total of eight atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strains were identified: one in a house sparrow, four in feral pigeons and three in spotless starlings. Antibiotic resistance was present in 32.9% (54) of E. coli strains. The dominant type of resistance was to tetracycline (21.3%), ampicillin (19.5%) and sulfamethoxaz...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Sacristán C, Esperón F, Herrera-León S, Iglesias I, Neves E, Nogal V, Muñoz MJ, de la Torre A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of quinolone, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance among Campylobacter isolates from initial stages of broiler production.
In conclusion, we showed that Thr86Ile is highly prevalent in quinolone-resistant isolates as well as mutation A2075G in macrolide-resistant isolates of poultry origin. More variability was found for tetO. The possibility of horizontal transmission of tetO among campylobacter isolates is also an issue of concern in public health. PMID: 24689432 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Pérez-Boto D, Herrera-León S, García-Peña FJ, Abad-Moreno JC, Echeita MA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh between 2007 and 2012.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the molecular evolution of H5N1 HPAI viruses during 2007 to 2012. Partial or complete nucleotide sequences of all eight gene segments of two chicken isolates, five gene segments of a duck isolate and the haemagglutinin gene segment of 18 isolates from Bangladesh were established in the present study and subjected to molecular analysis. In addition, full-length sequences of different gene segments of other Bangladeshi H5N1 isolates available in GenBank were included in the analysis. The analysis revealed that the first introduction of clade 2.2 virus in Bangladesh in 200...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Haque ME, Giasuddin M, Chowdhury EH, Islam MR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from poultry: a review of current problems, illustrated with some laboratory findings.
Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from poultry: a review of current problems, illustrated with some laboratory findings. Avian Pathol. 2014 Mar 25; Authors: Olsen RH, Bisgaard M, Löhren U, Robineau B, Christensen H Abstract Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli have been documented in humans as well as in food-producing animals, including chickens, and for unknown reasons, their prevalence has increased significantly during the last decade. With E. coli as a major opportunistic pathogen in chickens and with a potential fo...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 25, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Olsen RH, Bisgaard M, Löhren U, Robineau B, Christensen H Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of turkey enteric reovirus S3 gene.
Abstract The molecular diversity in S3 gene sequences of turkey reovirus (TRV) was determined in poult enteritis syndrome (PES)-affected and apparently healthy turkey poults. Twenty nine TRV positive samples (15 from PES-affected flocks and 14 from apparently healthy flocks) were tested using self-designed primers for the S3 gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the TRV S3 sequences of this study clustered in clade III and formed two different groups in this clade. The avian reoviruses (ARV) from duck and goose formed clade I and those from chickens formed clade II. The clade III TRV sequences had a nucleotide...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 25, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Jindal N, Mor SK, Patnayak DP, Ziegler AF, Marthaler D, Goyal SM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae contamination in the poultry house environment during erysipelas outbreaks in organic laying hen flocks.
This study investigated organic laying hen farms for the presence of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in the house environment, and from potential carriers, i.e. insects and mice, during ongoing erysipelas outbreaks, and compared the obtained isolates with those from laying hens. The samples were investigated by selective culture followed by species-specific PCR on cultures. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, jejunal contents, manure, dust and swabs from water nipples. Three more samples from the house environment tested positive by PCR compared to selective culture alone. Selected isolates were investigated by pul...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Eriksson H, Bagge E, Båverud V, Fellström C, Jansson DS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular detection and isolation of avian metapneumovirus in Mexico.
ute;rez-Mendoza H Abstract We conducted a longitudinal study to detect and isolate avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) in two highly productive poultry areas in Mexico. A total of 968 breeder hens and pullets from 2 to 73 weeks of age were analysed. Serology was performed to detect aMPV antibodies and 105 samples of tracheal tissue were collected, pooled by age, and used for attempted virus isolation and aMPV nested RT-PCR (nRT-PCR). The serological analysis indicated that 100% of the sampled chickens showed aMPV antibodies by 12 weeks of age. Five pools of pullet samples collected at 3 to 8 weeks of age were positive by...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 12, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Rivera-Benitez JF, Martínez-Bautista R, Ríos-Cambre F, Ramírez-Mendoza H Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Trevor Bagust - an appreciation.
PMID: 24617793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - March 12, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Bradbury J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Estimation of the impact of vaccination on faecal shedding, organ and egg contamination for Salmonella Enteritidis, Typhiumurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium.
In this study, the effectiveness of four vaccination programmes currently in use in the UK poultry industry was evaluated against challenge with one SE strain, one ST strain and 2 monophasic ST strains. A Bayesian model was used to estimate the impact of vaccination on the rate of faecal shedding, and on egg contamination. For the majority of vaccine/challenge strain combinations, there was little or no effect of vaccination on the proportion of birds shedding Salmonella for either biphasic or monophasic strains. However, vaccination was effective at reducing egg contamination. A significantly lower proportion of eggshells...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 12, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Arnold ME, Gosling RJ, La Ragione RM, Davies RH, Martelli F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Assessment of probiotics supplementation via feed or water on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chicken after experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella.
In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in comparison to infected control birds and fairly similar improvement to an approved anticoccidial during a mixed Eimeria infection. PMID: 24601749 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - March 6, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Giannenas I, Tsalie E, Triantafillou E, Hessenberger S, Teichmann K, Mohnl M, Tontis D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research