Timing of predisposing factors is important in necrotic enteritis models.
Abstract Since the ban of antimicrobial growth promotors, the importance of necrotic enteritis in broilers increases. Reliable and reproducible infection models are required for pathogenesis studies and product screening. Two major predisposing factors in necrotic enteritis models are fishmeal supplementation to feed and Eimeria infection. However, many unsolved issues regarding these predisposing factors still exist. Therefore, the influence of timepoint of fishmeal administration (onset on day 8 or day 18), timing of coccidiosis challenge (day 15 or day 19) and strain of coccidiosis challenge (field strain vs co...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Van Waeyenberghe L, De Gussem M, Verbeke J, Dewaele I, De Gussem J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 26872436 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 12, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in chickens: What we know and what we need to know. Review.
Abstract This review summarizes advances in understanding the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis (NE) of chickens caused by netB-positive Clostridium perfringens. The discovery of NetB as the essential toxin trigger for the disease was followed by recognition that it forms part of a large plasmid-encoded 42 kb pathogenicity locus (NELoc-1). While the locus is critical for toxin production, it likely has additional functions related to colonization and degradation of the mucus barrier, which are essential both to multiplication and to bringing NetB close to the intestinal epithelium. Two "chitinases" (gly...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 26, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Prescott JF, Parreira VR, Mehdizadeh Gohari I, Lepp D, Gong J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Experimental reproduction of necrotic enteritis in chickens: A review.
Abstract This review discusses key factors important in successful experimental reproduction of necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens, and how these factors can be adjusted to affect the severity of the lesions induced. The critical bacterial factor is the need to use virulent, netB-positive, strains of Clostridium perfringens; disease severity can be enhanced by using netB-positive C. perfringens strains that are also tpeL-positive, by the use of young rather than old broth cultures, and by the number of days of inoculation and the number of bacteria used. Use of cereals rich in non-starch polysaccharides can enhan...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 26, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Prescott JF, Smyth JA, Shojadoost B, Vince A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Variability of tropisms and replicative capacities of naturally occurring viruses of H9N2 influenza A virus in different tissues culture.
We described the results of a comparative analysis of replication efficiency of two naturally occurring H9N2 variants isolated from poultry and wild birds, differing by only two substitutions Q226L and T384N, in the receptor binding site of HA and the 380 loop region of NA proteins, respectively. Considering the overall growth of both viruses, lung cultures ensured the most efficient growth of TUN12L226N384 strain with titers up to 10(9) TCID50/ml. Whereas, small intestine culture was highly susceptible to the TUN51Q226T384 virus reaching a titer of 10(6) TCID50/ml. The lowest replication was shown in liver cells. The addi...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 26, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Tombari W, ElBehi I, Amouna F, Ghram A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effect of phylogenetic diversity of velogenic Newcastle disease virus challenge on virus shedding post homologous and heterologous DNA vaccination in chickens.
This study provides a promising approach for the control of ND in chickens using DNA vaccines, which are phylogenetically closely related to the circulating field strains. PMID: 26813237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - January 26, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Mohamed MH, Abdelaziz AM, Kumar S, Al-Habib MA, Megahed MM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Interaction of a live attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum vaccine candidate with chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.
Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG) is a Gram-negative intracellular host-adapted pathogen that causes fowl typhoid (FT). Attenuated strains of SG are proven and widely used vaccine candidates because of its advantages like induction of strong humoral and cell mediated immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of chicken bone marrow-derived DCs (chBM-DCs) with an attenuated SG (JOL1355) strain that secretes a heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit protein previously shown to successfully vaccinate chickens. ChBM-DCs were isolated and cultured in the presence of recombinant...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 26, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Kamble NM, Jawale CV, Lee JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from passerines and psittacine virds.
R, Knöbl T Abstract Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered one of the most important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens. The contact between humans and birds poses health risks to both. The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance and virulence of K. pneumoniae isolates from psittacines and passerines, seized from illegal trade in Brazil. We analyzed 32 strains isolated from birds of the orders Psittaciformes and Passeriformes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for virulence factor genes. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by disk diffusion assay and PCR. The results indicated that fimH (100%), uge...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 26, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Davies YM, Cunha MP, Oliveira MG, Oliveira MC, Philadelpho N, Romeiro DC, Milanelo L, Guimarães MB, Ferreira AJ, Moreno AM, Sá LR, Knöbl T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Continuous cell lines from the muscovy duck as potential replacement for primary cells in the production of avian vaccines.
Sandig V Abstract Veterinary vaccines contribute to food security, interrupt zoonotic transmissions, and help to maintain overall health in livestock. Although vaccines are usually cost-effective, their adoption depends on a multitude of factors. Because poultry vaccines are usually given to animals with a short life span, very low production cost per dose is one important challenge. Other hurdles are to ensure a consistent and reliable supply of very large number of doses, and to have flexible production processes to accomodate a range of different pathogens and dosage requirements. Most poultry vaccines are cur...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 26, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Jordan I, John K, Höwing K, Lohr V, Penzes Z, Gubucz-Sombor E, Fu Y, Gao P, Harder T, Zádori Z, Sandig V Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathogenicity of the Korean H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial domestic poultry species.
Abstract In 2014, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N8 triggered outbreaks in wild birds and poultry farms in South Korea. In the present study, we investigated the pathogenicity of the H5N8 HPAI virus, belonging to the clade 2.3.4.4, in different species of poultry. Toward this, we examined clinical symptoms and viral shedding levels following intranasal inoculation of the virus in three-week-old commercial layer chickens and quails, 10-week-old Korean native chickens, and eight-week-old Muscovy ducks. Intranasal inoculation with 10(6.0) viruses at 50% egg infective dose resulted in 100% mortal...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 26, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Lee DH, Kwon JH, Noh JY, Park JK, Yuk SS, Erdene-Ochir TO, Lee JB, Park SY, Choi IS, Lee SW, Song CS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in commercial poultry, racing pigeons and wild birds in Belgium.
Abstract Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogenic avian Mycoplasma species and causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry. In addition, the prevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae is of increasing concern in several EU member states. We investigated the prevalence of M. gallisepticum in commercial poultry (5220 layers, 1224 broilers and 1020 meat turkeys), 56 racing pigeons and 890 wild birds (Order Anseriformes, Galliformes, Pelecaniformes, Accipitriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Falconiformes and Passeriformes). Broilers and wild birds were also evaluated for M. s...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 26, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Michiels T, Welby S, Vanrobaeys M, Quinet C, Rouffaer L, Lens L, Martel A, Butaye P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Isolation and detection of duck astrovirus CPH: implications for epidemiology and pathogenicity.
Abstract The transmission routes of duck astrovirus CPH (DAstV/CPH) and its pathogenicity in duck embryos were investigated. Using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) developed in this study, DAstV/CPH was detected in 23/50 fresh droppings of breeder ducks, 39/65 breeding eggs, 26/31 dead embryos and 6/10 newly hatched ducklings, which were taken from a Pekin duck farm where DAstV/CPH had previously been identified. This finding, and the detection of DAstV/CPH in 36/130 dead-in-shell duck embryo samples collected from different hatcheries located in six provinces, suggests that the virus may...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 26, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Liu N, Jiang M, Wang M, Wang F, Zhang B, Zhang D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Hsp90 inhibitor celastrol reinstates growth plate angiogenesis in thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia.
Abstract Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an important long bone defect of broiler chickens that disturbs the proximal growth plate and is characterized by non-vascularized cartilage, a distended growth plate and lameness. Celastrol, a medicinal root extract from the plant Tripterygium wilfordii is reported widely as a well-known heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor. Recently, Hsp90 inhibition in chondrocyte differentiation and growth-plate vascularization were effective in restoring the morphology of the growth plate. The present study was aimed at investigating Hsp90 inhibition in Tibial dyschondroplasia using...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Nabi F, Muhammad S, Liu J, Li K, Han Z, Zhang D, Iqbal MK, Li J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Heterologous Live IBV Vaccination in Day-Old Commercial Broiler Chicks: clinical Signs, Ciliary Health, Immune Responses and Protection Against Variant IBVS.
Abstract Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines; Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274, or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their trachea collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vacci...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Awad F, Hutton S, Forrester A, Baylis M, Ganapathy K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Variable protection against experimental broiler necrotic enteritis after immunisation with the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin and a non-toxic NetB variant.
Abstract Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been shown to play a key role in avian necrotic enteritis (NE), a disease causing significant costs to the poultry production industry worldwide. The aim of this work was to determine whether immunisation with a non-toxic variant of NetB (NetB W262A) and the C-terminal fragment of C. perfringens alpha-toxin (CPA247-370) would provide protection against experimental NE. Immunised animals with either antigen or a combination of antigens developed serum antibody levels against NetB and CPA. When CPA247-370 a...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Fernandes da Costa SP, Mot D, Geeraerts S, Bokori-Brown M, Immerseel FV, Titball RW Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Live Eimeria vaccination success in the face of artificial non-uniform vaccine administration in conventionally reared pullets.
This study tested whether 40% cage floor coverage (CFC) with a durable material could improve protection against challenge in these "contact-vaccinated" or successfully vaccinated pullets. The six treatment groups tested were contact-vaccinated (CV), vaccinated (V) or sham-vaccinated (SV) pullets cage-reared on either 0 or 40% CFC. Oocyst output was measured separately for each group for 30 days following vaccine administration. Lesion scores, body weights and total oocyst outputs were measured to quantify protection at 30 days of age against single or mixed Eimeria species challenge infections. Use of 40% CFC to...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Price KR, Hafeez MA, Bulfon J, Barta JR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Respiratory tract infection caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a black swan (Cygnus atratus).
lar C Abstract A 3-year-old male black swan (Cygnus atratus), belonging to a private collection, died suddenly and was subjected to post mortem examination. At necropsy, caseous exudate was observed in the lungs and air sacs; granulomatous lesions characterized by epithelioid macrophages and abundant mycobacteria were observed microscopically. Avian tuberculosis associated with Mycobacterium bovis was confirmed by bacteriologic isolation, biochemical tests and molecular methods. The organism was identified as spoligotype SB0140, which is frequently found in cattle and people in North America. In this case, intersp...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Sánchez FD, Yela IJ, Alfonseca E, Campuzano J, Morales E, Aguilar C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparison of infectious bursal disease (IBD) live vaccines and a HVT-IBD vector vaccine and their effects on the immune system of commercial layer pullets.
n S Abstract Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an economically important disease affecting poultry production worldwide. Previous experimental studies indicated that IBD-live vaccination may induce transient immunosuppression leading to suboptimal vaccine responses and therefore insufficient protection against other pathogens. Layer pullets are commonly not only vaccinated against IBD within their rearing period but also against a variety of other pathogens. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the effects of different IBD-vaccination regimes on conventionally applied vaccines against other pathogens, and ...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Prandini F, Simon B, Jung A, Pöppel M, Lemiere S, Rautenschlein S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Estimation of the sensitivity of various environmental sampling methods for detection of Salmonella in duck flocks.
Abstract Reports of Salmonella in ducks in the UK currently rely upon voluntary submissions from the industry, and as there is no harmonized statutory monitoring and control programme, it is difficult to compare data from different years in order to evaluate any trends in Salmonella prevalence in relation to sampling methodology. Therefore, the aim of this project was to assess the sensitivity of a selection of environmental sampling methods, including the sampling of faeces, dust and water troughs or bowls for the detection of Salmonella in duck flocks, and a range of sampling methods were applied to 67 duck floc...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Arnold ME, Mueller-Doblies D, Gosling RJ, Martelli F, Davies RH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The effect of cold stress on the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.
Abstract Cold stress is a physical environmental stressor with significant effect on the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cold stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Birds were either challenged or not as described above, and either exposed or not to repeated cold stress (15°C for 12 h/day for 4 days). From each bird, intestinal gros...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Tsiouris V, Georgopoulou I, Batzios C, Pappaioannou N, Ducatelle R, Fortomaris P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Reviewer Acknowledgements.
Authors: PMID: 26642743 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings, WVPA Matters, Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 26642744 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

2016 Poultry Health Course.
Authors: PMID: 26642745 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases.
Authors: PMID: 26642746 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Editorial Board.
Authors: PMID: 26642747 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Clinicopathological characterization and genomic sequence differences observed in a highly virulent fowl aviadenovirus serotype 4.
In this study, we performed the clinicopathological characterization of a FAdV strain SHP95 isolated from a commercial farm and its whole genome sequencing. The study revealed that the isolated strain is a highly virulent serotype 4 FAdV that can cause 100% mortality in day-old SPF chickens with a dose of 2.5 ×10(5) TCID50. At a minor viral dose (1.5×10(4) TCID50), the infection in day-old SPF chickens caused 40% mortality and lesions characteristic for Hepatitis-Hydropericardium syndrome (HHS). The viral strain was detectable by real time PCR in chicken organs, including the lymphoid organs until day 28 after ...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 27, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Vera-Hernández PF, Morales-Garzón A, Cortés-Espinosa DV, Galiote-Flores A, García-Barrera LJ, Rodríguez-Galindo ET, Toscano-Contreras A, Lucio-Decanini E, Absalón AE Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Emergence of Novel Nephropathogenic Infectious Bronchitis Viruses Currently Circulating in Chinese Chicken Flocks.
Abstract The emergence of novel infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) has been reported worldwide. Between 2011 and 2014, eight IBV isolates were identified from disease outbreaks in northeast China. In the current study we analyzed the S1 gene of these eight IBV isolates in addition to the complete genome of five of them. We confirmed that these isolates emerged through the recombination of LX4 and Taiwan group 1 (TW1) viruses at two switch sites, one was in the Nsp 16 region and the other in the spike protein gene. The S1 gene in these viruses exhibited high nucleotide similarity with TW1-like viruses; the TW1 ge...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 9, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu Q, Han Z, Wang Q, Zhang T, Gao M, Zhao Y, Shao Y, Li H, Kong X, Liu S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

An in vitro attenuated strain of Histomonas meleagridis provides cross-protective immunity in turkeys against heterologous virulent isolates.
Abstract In the current study, cross-protective immunity induced by a well-defined clonal strain of Histomonas meleagridis, attenuated by prolonged in vitro cultivation against different clonal heterologous isolates of the same parasite, was investigated. For this purpose, 86 turkey poults were assigned to groups consisting of nine to ten birds. Birds of four groups were vaccinated on their 1st day of life followed by re-vaccination on their 14th day of life when the remaining turkeys were left untreated. The challenge was performed using four strains of H. meleagridis that were isolated from chickens or turkeys f...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 6, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Sulejmanovic T, Bilic I, Hess M, Liebhart D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Astrovirus induced 'white chicks' condition - field observation, virus detection and preliminary characterization.
arz K Abstract Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently indicated as the factor of the 'white chicks' condition associated with increased embryos/chicks mortality but also with weakness and white plumage of hatched chicks. In February 2014, organ samples (livers and kidneys) from dead-in-shell embryos, as well as 1-day-old whitish and normal chicks, were delivered from one hatchery in Poland for disease diagnosis. The samples originated from the same 30-week-old breeder flock in which the only observed anomalous signs were 4-5% decrease in the number of hatched chickens and the presence (about 1%) of weaker chicks ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 30, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Sajewicz-Krukowska J, Pać K, Lisowska A, Minta Z, Króliczewska B, Domańska-Blicharz K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs.
In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or two doses of inactivated LaSota vaccine, followed three weeks later by virulent Newcastle disease virus challenge. Eggs were collected daily and shell, albumen, and yolk were subjected to virus isolation, as were oral and cloacal swabs at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (dpc). A second experiment evaluated the distribution of the virus in the reproductive tract of non-vaccinates. All vaccinated chickens survived challenge, and the levels of virus shed from cloacal swabs were decreased significantly when compared to shams. In non-vaccinated hens, virus was detected in ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 27, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Sá E Silva M, Susta L, Moresco K, Swayne DE Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Protection Provided by Rispens CVI988 Vaccine Against Marek's Disease Virus Isolates of Different Pathotype and Early Prediction of Vaccine Take and MD Outcome.
Abstract We tested the level of protection provided by the Rispens CVI988 (Rispens) vaccine against challenge with a virulent Marek's disease virus (MDV) pathotype (vMDV) and a very virulent pathotype (vvMDV) and the accuracy of a range of predictive measures of MD incidence and vaccine take. Commercial ISA Brown layer chicks (n=236) were vaccinated (or not) with 4000 pfu of Rispens vaccine at hatch and challenged (or not) with 500 pfu of each challenge virus five days post vaccination. The vvMDV pathotype FT158 induced higher MD incidence (65%) and mortality (33%) when compared with the vMDV pathotype MPF57 (39% ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 27, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Ralapanawe S, Walkden-Brown SW, Renz KG, Islam AF Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Genetic differences in ChTLR15 gene polymorphism and expression involved in Salmonella enterica natural and artificial infection respectively of Chinese native chicken breeds, with a focus on sexual dimorphism.
In this study, the correlation between ChTLR15 SNPs and the natural infection status of salmonella in hens, as well as the genetic and sex-specific effects on ChTLR15 mRNA expression in heterophils and the spleen during the acute Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection period (from 1 to 10 days after infection), were studied in two genetically distinct Chinese breeds (Qingyuan Partridge chickens and Baier chickens). Three SNPs (G168A, C726T and A1166G) in a single exon of ChTLR15 were identified in the two breeds, but only C726T showed a significant association with salmonella infection. Compared...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 21, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Hu Y, Chen WW, Liu HX, Shan YJ, Zhu CH, Li HF, Zou JM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pigeons are resistant to experimental infection with H7N9 avian influenza virus.
Abstract To determine the susceptibility of pigeons to the newly emerged avian influenza virus subtype H7N9, we experimentally infected three different types of pigeons (meat, town, and racing) with two different doses (2 × 10(4) or 2 × 10(5) EID50) of H7N9 avian influenza virus A/Chicken/China/2013 by either intranasal and intraocular inoculation (IN + IO) or intravenous injection (IV). In addition, the potential transmission of H7N9 to pigeons by direct close contact with experimentally infected pigeons and chickens was assessed. Results showed that none of t...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Liu Y, Yang Z, Wang X, Chen J, Yao J, Song Y, Lin J, Han C, Duan H, Zhao J, Pan J, Xie J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparison of four molecular assays for the detection of Tembusu virus.
In conclusion, both RT-LAMP and Q-RT-PCR can provide a rapid diagnosis of TMUV infection, but RT-LAMP is more useful in TMUV field situations or poorly equipped laboratories. PMID: 26443062 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Tang Y, Yeh YT, Chen H, Yu C, Gao X, Diao Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Immunogenic and protective efficacy of recombinant protein GtxA-N against Gallibacterium anatis challenge in chickens.
Abstract Gallibacterium anatis is a major cause of reproductive tract infections in chickens. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the recombinant protein GtxA-N at protecting hens, by addressing three objectives; (i) evaluating the antibody response following immunization (ii) scoring and comparing lesions, following challenge with G. anatis, in immunized and non-immunized hens and (iii) investigating if the anti-GtxA-N antibody titre in individual hens correlated with the observed lesions. Two consecutive experiments were performed in hens. In the first experiment hens were immunized with GtxA-N on day 0 a...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Pedersen IJ, Pors SE, Bager Skjerning RJ, Nielsen SS, Bojesen AM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The contribution of aerobic and anaerobic respiration to intestinal colonization and virulence for Salmonella typhimurium in the chicken.
Abstract The basic mechanism whereby Salmonella serovars colonize the chicken intestine remains poorly understood. Previous studies have indicated that proton-translocating proteins utilizing oxygen as terminal electron acceptor do not appear to be of major importance in the gut of the newly hatched chicken and consequently they would be even less significant during intestinal colonization of more mature chickens where the complex gut microflora would trap most of the oxygen in the lumen. Consequently, alternative electron acceptors may be more significant or, in their absence, substrate-level phosphorylation may ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Barrow PA, Berchieri A, Freitas Neto OC, Lovell M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International meetings, wvpa matters, announcements.
INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS, WVPA MATTERS, ANNOUNCEMENTS. Avian Pathol. 2015 Oct;44(5):421 Authors: PMID: 26443065 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of avian rotaviruses circulating in Italian poultry flocks.
This study provides novel data on the prevalence of genetically different avian rotaviruses in Italian poultry flocks. This information is useful to elucidate the epidemiology of avian rotaviruses circulating in Italy. PMID: 26399154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - September 24, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Falcone E, Busi C, Lavazza A, Monini M, Bertoletti M, Canelli E, Vignolo E, Ruggeri FM, Boniotti MB Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effects of cold stress and Salmonella Heidelberg infection on bacterial load and immunity of chickens.
Abstract We analyzed the effects of cold stress (19 ± 1°C, 6 h /day, from the 1(st) to the 7(th) days of life) applied to SPF chickens. On experimental Day 1 (ED1), chicks were divided into four groups: C (not infected and kept under thermoneutral condition); CS (not infected and cold stressed); PC (Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) infected and kept under thermoneutral condition) and PCS (SH infected and cold stressed). High concentrations of corticosterone were found in the cold stressed birds on ED7 and ED21, with a greater increase in birds of the PCS group. Stress or non-stressed SH-infected birds had hig...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 23, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Borsoi A, Quinteiro-Filho WM, Calefi AS, Piantino Ferreira AJ, Astolfi-Ferreira CS, Florio JC, Palermo-Neto J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Modulation of cytokine gene expression by selected Lactobacillus isolates in the ileum, cecal tonsils, and spleen of Salmonella-challenged broilers.
Abstract Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization in the chicken intestine. Recently, we demonstrated that certain selected Lactobacillus isolates were able to reduce Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver as well as down-regulated Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum. To further understand the mechanisms through which Lactobacillus protected chickens from Salmonella infection, the present study has investigated the Lactobacillus isolate(s)-induced host immune response of chickens to Salmonella infection. A thorough examination o...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 22, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Hu JL, Yu H, Kulkarni RR, Sharif S, Cui SW, Xie MY, Nie SP, Gong J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Multidrug therapy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection in experimentally inoculated budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).
Abstract The aim of the study was to determine whether the four-month experimental therapy of mycobacteriosis in budgerigars may cause a complete recovery. A group of nine budgerigars was infected with a Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolate with proven pathogenicity for budgerigars. Five weeks post-inoculation, multidrug therapy was started. Another group comprising six birds received the same treatment without inoculation, and the third group also comprising six birds was kept without treatment as a control. The adopted antibiotic regimen included clarithromycin 61 mg/kg b.w., moxifloxacin 25 mg/kg b.w. and e...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 12, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Ledwoń A, Dolka I, Dolka B, Cegiełkowska M, Czopowicz M, Szeleszczuk P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic lesions in avian influenza A experimentally-infected turkeys showing evidence of pancreatic regeneration.
Abstract In order to investigate the pancreatic lesions caused by the infection with either H7N1 or H7N3 low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses, 28 experimentally-infected turkeys were submitted for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, hematobiochemistry and RRT-PCR after different days post-infection (DPI). The localization of viral antigen and the measurement of insulin and glucagon expression in the pancreas were assessed to verify the progression from pancreatitis to metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. PMID: 26365055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - September 12, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Cavicchioli L, Zappulli V, Beffagna G, Caliari D, Zanetti R, Nordio L, Mainenti M, Frezza F, Bonfante F, Patrono LV, Capua I, Terregino C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

ERIC-PCR genotyping of field isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum.
In this study, we applied the PCR amplification of Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus sequences (ERIC-PCR) to analyze 45 strains of SG and SP, most of which were isolated from diseased poultry of different Brazilian regions over a period of 27 years until 2014. The ERIC-genotypes obtained were used to describe the epidemiological relationship amongst the strains. Our findings showed that there were six ERIC-patterns for SG strains at 80% similarity. In addition, some of the SG isolates recovered from different regions and years clustered with 100% similarity, suggesting that transfer of genotypes between these...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 12, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Secundo de Souza AI, Freitas Neto OC, Batista DF, Estupinan AL, Almeida AM, Barrow PA, Berchieri A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

aMPV infection of chicken and turkey tracheal organ cultures: comparison of virus-host interactions.
Abstract Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, which can cause high economic losses in infected poultry. aMPV mainly causes infection of the upper respiratory tract in both chickens and turkeys, although turkeys seem to be more susceptible. Little is known about virus-host interactions at epithelial surfaces after aMPV infection. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) are a suitable model to investigate virus-host interaction in the respiratory epithelium. Therefore, we investigated virus replication rates and lesion development in chicken and turkey TOC after infection with a virulent aMP...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 12, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Hartmann S, Sid H, Rautenschlein S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

High resolution melt curve analysis to confirm the presence of co-circulating isolates of Avian Nephritis Virus in commercial chicken flocks.
Abstract Avian Nephritis Virus (ANV) has been implicated in poor growth and renal disease of young chickens. This paper describes the development of a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of ANV in commercial meat chickens and the use of High Resolution Melt (HRM) curves to detect the presence of genetically different ANVs. Pooled cloacal swabs from both healthy and ill commercial chicken broiler flocks were tested for the presence of ANV using a combination of PCR, molecular cloning, HRM curve analysis and sequencing. Except for one, all specimens were found to contain two ge...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 12, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Chamings A, Hewson KA, O'Rourke D, Ignjatovic J, Noormohammadi AH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

In vitro characterization of chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells following infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.
This study suggested that BM-DC may serve as another target cells during IBDV infection which require further confirmation via in vivo studies. PMID: 26305169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 25, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Rahaman YA, Yeap SK, Tan SW, Hair-Bejo M, Fakurazi S, Kaiser P, Omar AR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of an indirect ELISA test for detecting antibodies to chicken astrovirus in chicken sera.
Abstract The development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of Group B chicken astrovirus (CAstV) infections is described. The test was based on the use of an affinity-purified capsid antigen, specific to CAstV isolate 11672, produced as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) N-terminal fusion protein by a recombinant baculovirus. Strongly positive ELISA signals were elicited against experimentally produced antisera raised to CAstVs from Group B (subgroups i and ii) but were negative for antisera raised to a Group A CAstV. Using a panel of 240 selected serum samples, ...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 19, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Skibinska A, Lee A, Wylie M, Smyth VJ, Welsh MD, Todd D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Susceptibility of wild passerines to subtype H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.
Abstract Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have spread throughout many areas of Asia, Europe and Africa, and numerous cases of HPAI outbreaks in domestic and wild birds have been reported. Although recent studies suggest that the dissemination of H5N1 viruses is closely linked to the migration of wild birds, information on the potential for viral infection in species other than poultry and waterfowl is relatively limited. To investigate the susceptibility of terrestrial wild birds to infection with H5N1 HPAI viruses, common reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus), pale thrushes (Tur...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Fujimoto Y, Usui T, Ito H, Ono E, Ito T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Influence of avian leukosis virus long terminal repeat on biological activities of Marek's disease virus.
Abstract GX0101 was the first reported field strain of recombinant Marek's disease virus (MDV) that contained a long terminal repeat (LTR) from the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). It is a very virulent MDV strain, with relatively high horizontal transmission ability. The REV LTR in GX0101 genome was proved to decrease the pathogenicity but increase the potential for horizontal transmission of the virus. Here we constructed a recombinant MDV GX0101-ALV-LTR to study stability of avian leukosis virus (ALV) LTR at the REV LTR insertion site in GX0101 genome and its influence on biological activities of the recombin...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Sun P, Cui N, Su S, Chen Z, Li Y, Ding J, Cui Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 59(1).
Authors: PMID: 26274571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 1, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research