Dynamics of intestinal metabolites and morphology in response to necrotic enteritis challenge in broiler chickens.
Abstract Despite the relatively small contribution to metabolizable energy that volatile fatty acids (VFAs) provide in chickens, these organic acids have been reported to play beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of birds, for example, inhibition of the growth of some pathogenic bacteria. However, information regarding the dynamics of these metabolites in the GIT of chickens is still scarce, especially under disease conditions such as necrotic enteritis (NE). Here, we investigated the dynamics of VFAs and lactic acid, and intestinal morphology in response to NE predisposing factors, that is, excess...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Wu SB, Rodgers NJ, Cui G, Sun Y, Choct M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effect of encapsulated carvacrol on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.
Abstract There is an urgent need to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens in chickens when antibiotics are withdrawn from feed. Carvacrol has strong antimicrobial activity and its delivery to the animal intestine can be significantly enhanced after encapsulation. The present study has investigated the potential of encapsulated carvacrol in controlling NE. In general, micro-encapsulation of carvacrol in an alginate-whey protein matrix showed no adverse effect on its antimicrobial activity towards C. perfringens in either Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth or a simulated gastrointestinal mo...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Liu X, Diarra MS, Zhang Y, Wang Q, Yu H, Nie SP, Xie MY, Gong J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International meetings, wvpa matters, announcements.
INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS, WVPA MATTERS, ANNOUNCEMENTS. Avian Pathol. 2016 Jun;45(3):389-90 Authors: PMID: 27245305 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 60-1 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 27245306 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Severe necrotic dermatitis in the combs of line 6-3 chickens infected with Marek's disease virus.
Abstract Marek's disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disorder of domestic chickens is characterized by bursal-thymic atrophy and rapid onset of T-cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves. Marek's disease virus (MDV), the etiological agent of MD, is a highly cell-associated oncogenic α-herpesvirus that replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. We investigated the possible effect of MDV infection on the exacerbation of necrotic dermatitis in the combs of MD-susceptible (72) and MD-resistant (63) chicken lines at 21...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 23, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Heidari M, Wang D, Fitzgerald SD, Sun S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A metagenomic comparison of endemic viruses from broiler chickens with runting stunting syndrome and from normal birds.
This study has identified historically significant viruses associated with the disease such as chicken astrovirus, avian nephritis virus, chicken parvovirus, and chicken calicivirus along with relatively novel viruses such as chicken megrivirus and sicinivirus 1 and will help expand the knowledge related to enteric disease in broiler chickens, provide insights into the viral constituents of a healthy avian gut, and identify a variety of enteric viruses and viral communities appropriate for further study. PMID: 27215546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - May 23, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Devaney R, Trudgett J, Trudgett A, Meharg C, Smyth V Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Cytokine expression in 3 chicken host systems infected with H9N2 influenza viruses with different pathogenicities.
Abstract SD/818 and SD/196 are H9N2 influenza virus strains isolated from chickens from the same farm at different times that exhibited similar genetic evolution. However, strain SD/818 exhibited higher pathogenicity in chickens than strain SD/196 and other H9N2 influenza virus epidemic strains from China. The expression of cytokines is an important host defense mechanism following viral infection and their intensity is a major determinant of viral pathogenicity. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the increased pathogenicity of strain SD/818 from the host's perspective, viral replication and cytokine expression...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 23, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang J, Cao Z, Guo X, Zhang Y, Wang D, Xu S, Yin Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

An in-vitro investigation into the efficacy of disinfectants used in the duck industry against Salmonella.
Abstract In 2010, 81 confirmed cases of Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 were reported across England and Northern Ireland; an increase of 26% from 2009 and 41% since 2008. Five cases were hospitalized and one death reported, with a strong association found between cases and the consumption of duck eggs. Once present on farms, Salmonella may become persistent and can survive for long periods of time in residual organic matter, increasing risk of infection for follow-on flocks if cleaning and disinfection is not carried out effectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a range of disinfectants use...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 20, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Gosling RJ, Breslin M, Fenner J, Vaughan K, West E, Mawhinney I, Birch C, Davies RH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparative transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium perfringens biofilms and planktonic cells.
This study provides new insights into the transcriptomic response of C. perfringens during biofilm formation. PMID: 27207477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - May 20, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Charlebois A, Jacques M, Archambault M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Early infection with Marek's disease virus can jeopardize protection conferred by laryngotracheitis vaccines: a method to study MDV-induced immunosuppression.
Abstract Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphomas and immunosuppression in chickens. MDV-induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is divided into two phases: early-MDV-IS occurring mainly in chickens lacking maternal antibodies (MAb) against MDV and associated with lymphoid organ atrophy; and late-MDV-IS occurring once MDV enters latency and during tumor development. Our objectives were to document the impact of late-MDV-IS on commercial poultry (meat type chickens bearing MAb against MDV and that were vaccinated or unvaccinated against MD) and to optimize a model to study late-MDV-IS under la...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 20, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Faiz NM, Cortes AL, Guy JS, Fletcher OJ, West M, Montiel E, Gimeno IM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Efficacy of gamithromycin against Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkey poults pre-infected with avian metapneumovirus.
In conclusion, the efficacy of GAM against O. rhinotracheale was demonstrated, especially in the lung tissue. However, the PO bolus administration of the commercially available product was not as efficacious as the SC bolus. PMID: 27171615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - May 12, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Watteyn A, Devreese M, Plessers E, Wyns H, Garmyn A, Reddy VR, Pasmans F, Martel A, Haesebrouck F, De Backer P, Croubels S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Culture-independent identification and quantification of Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) by real-time quantitative PCR.
In conclusion, we have developed a qPCR method that allows species-specific identification of G. anatis. Supplementary data. PMID: 27171757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - May 12, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang C, Robles F, Ramirez S, Riber AB, Bojesen AM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Farm level risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on poultry farms.
Abstract Data on husbandry practices, performance, disease and drug use were collected during a cross-sectional survey of 89 poultry meat farms in England and Wales to provide information on possible risk factors for the occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant bacteria. Faeces samples were used to classify farms as 'affected' or 'not affected' by FQ-resistant E. coli or Campylobacter spp. Risk factor analysis identified the use of FQ on the farms as having by far the strongest association, among the factors considered, with the occurrence of FQ-resistant bacteria. Resistant E. coli and/or Campylobacter spp. w...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 12, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Taylor NM, Wales AD, Ridley AM, Davies RH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Infectious bronchitis virus and brown shell colour: Australian strains of infectious bronchitis virus affect brown eggshell colour in commercial laying hens differently.
Abstract The aim of the current study was to assess any effect of wild and vaccine Australian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains on shell colour in brown shelled eggs. In experiment 1, eggs were collected from day 1 to day 13 post inoculation (p.i.) from unvaccinated laying hens challenged with IBV wild strains T and N1/88 and from a negative control group of hens. In experiment 2, eggs were collected from 2 to 22 days p.i. from unvaccinated and vaccinated laying hens challenged with either a wild or vaccine strain of IBV. In experiment 1, there was a significant effect (P
Source: Avian Pathology - May 10, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Samiullah S, Roberts J, Chousalkar K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Construction and characterization of a cigR deletion mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum.
Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is the causative agent of pullorum disease (PD) and results in severe economic losses to the poultry industry. As a Salmonella type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) effector and predicted membrane protein, CigR is encoded by cigR gene within Salmonella pathogenicity island 3 (SPI3). In order to research the influence of the cigR gene on S. Pullorum, a cigR mutant of S. Pullorum S06004 was constructed by lambda Red recombination system, and then its characterization were analyzed. Lack of cigR did not affect the growth and biochemical properties, but resulte...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 10, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Yin J, Xia J, Tao M, Xu L, Li Q, Geng S, Jiao X Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A Molecular epidemiology study based on VP2 gene sequences reveals that a new genotype of infectious bursal disease virus is dominantly prevalent in Italy.
Abstract A distinctive infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus genotype (ITA) was detected in IBD-live vaccinated broilers in Italy without clinical signs of IBD. It was isolated in specific-pathogen-free eggs and molecularly characterized in the hypervariable region of the virus protein (VP) 2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ITA strains clustered separately from other homologous reference sequences of IBDVs, either classical or very virulent, retrieved from GenBank or previously reported in Italy, and from vaccine strains. The new genotype shows peculiar molecular characteristics in key positions of the VP2 hype...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 25, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Lupini C, Giovanardi D, Pesente P, Bonci M, Felice V, Rossi G, Morandini E, Cecchinato M, Catelli E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Parrot Bornavirus (PaBV)-2 isolate causes different disease patterns in cockatiels than PaBV-4.
Abstract Psittaciform 1 bornavirus (PaBV) has already been shown to be the aetiologic agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a significant disease of birds. However, the pathogenesis of PaBV infection has not yet been resolved and valid data regarding the pathogenicity of different PaBV species are lacking. Thus, the present study was aimed to characterize the influence of two different PaBV species on the course of disease. Eighteen cockatiels were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with a PaBV-2 isolate under the same conditions as in a previous study using PaBV-4. Birds were surveyed...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Piepenbring AK, Enderlein D, Herzog S, Al-Ibadi B, Heffels-Redmann U, Heckmann J, Lange-Herbst H, Herden C, Lierz M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Role of naturally occurring genome segment reassortment in the pathogenicity of IBDV field isolates in Three-Yellow chickens.
Abstract Reassortment among genome segments of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field isolates was reported frequently worldwide, however the pathogenicity of the reassortant field IBDV is poorly understood. In this paper, a pathogenicity study on four representative IBDV field strains isolated from Southern China between 2005 and 2011 was conducted. Twenty-eight-day-old Three-Yellow chickens were divided into four groups and were inoculated intraocularly with one of the four field IBDV strains, namely NN1172, NN1005, GD10111 and JS7, respectively. The mortality and relative weight of bursa and thymus were s...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: He X, Chen G, Yang L, Xuan J, Long H, Wei P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Karyotype analysis of the acute fibrosarcoma from chickens infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus associated with v-src oncogene.
Abstract To understand the cytogenetic characteristics of acute fibrosarcoma in chickens infected with the subgroup J avian leukosis virus associated with the v-src oncogene, we performed a karyotype analysis of fibrosarcoma cell cultures. Twenty-nine of 50 qualified cell culture spreads demonstrated polyploidy of some macrochromosomes, 21 of which were trisomic for chromosome 7, and others were trisomic for chromosomes 3, 4, 5 (sex chromosome w), and 10. In addition, one of them was trisomic for both chromosome 7 and the sex chromosome 5 (w). In contrast, no aneuploidy was found for 10 macrochromosomes of 12 spre...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Dong X, Ju S, Chen J, Meng F, Sun P, Li Y, Wang X, Wang Y, Liu J, Chang S, Zhao P, Cui Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni of broilers.
Abstract An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15% and 30% in maize-based diets. Broilers were orally inoculated with 2 × 10(5) log cfu/ml C. jejuni on day 14. Four birds from each pen were randomly selected and killed by cervical dislocation on days 3, 6, 9, 14 and 21 post infection and intestinal contents from ileum, caeca and rectum as wel...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Ranjitkar S, Engberg RM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Observations on the distribution and control of Salmonella in commercial duck hatcheries in the UK.
Abstract Salmonella infection causes a significant number of cases of gastroenteritis and more serious illnesses in people in the UK and EU. The serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most frequently associated with foodborne illness in Europe. Whilst control programmes exist to monitor these serovars in the chicken and turkey sectors, no regulatory programme is currently in place for the duck sector. A voluntary industry scheme (Duck Assurance Scheme) was launched in the UK in 2010. Hatcheries act as focal points of Salmonella contamination, in particular if Salmonella-contaminated eggs fr...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Martelli F, Birch C, Davies RH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International meetings, wvpa matters, announcements.
INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS, WVPA MATTERS, ANNOUNCEMENTS. Avian Pathol. 2016 Apr;45(2):267-8 Authors: PMID: 27100155 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in newborn chickens and effect of amoxicillin treatment during its growth.
The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 day-old Ross chickens was analyzed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli resistant strains isolated from one day chickens, being the highest rates for beta-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the hi...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Jiménez-Belenguer A, Doménech E, Villagrá A, Fenollar A, Ferrús MA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Selected clinical chemistry analytes correlate with the pathogenesis of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) experimentally induced by fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs).
Abstract In the present study clinical chemistry was applied to assess the pathogenesis and progression of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). For this, five fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) strains from recent IBH field outbreaks were used to orally inoculate different groups of day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, which were weighted, sampled and examined during necropsy by sequential killing. Mortalities of 50% and 30% were recorded in two groups between 6 and 9 days post infection (dpi), along with a decreased weight of 23% and 20%, respectively, compared to the control group. Macroscopic...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Matos M, Grafl B, Liebhart D, Schwendenwein I, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effects of lipopolysacharide on the histomorphology and expression of toll like receptor 4 in the chicken trachea and lung.
Abstract Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure can cause injury to the respiratory airways and in response, the respiratory epithelia express toll like receptors (TLRs) in many species. However, its role in the innate immunity in the avian respiratory system is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of LPS on the chicken trachea and lung. After intra peritoneal LPS or saline injection, the trachea and lungs were harvested at 0, 12, 36 and 72h (n=6 at each time point) and histopathologically analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) s...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Ansari AR, Ge XH, Huang HB, Huang XY, Zhao X, Peng KM, Zhong JM, Liu HZ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Non-Clostridium perfringens infectious agents producing necrotic enteritis-like lesions in poultry.
vaprasad HL Abstract Necrotic enteritis produced by Clostridium perfringens (NE) is amongst the most prevalent enteric diseases of chickens and turkeys. However, several other bacterial, parasitic and viral agents can cause clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions in poultry very similar to those of NE and the diseases produced by those agents need to be differentiated from NE. The main differential diagnoses for C. perfringens NE include bacterial (Clostridium colinum, Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium difficile, Pasteurella multocida, Brachyspira spp.), parasitic (Eimeria spp., Histomonas meleagridis) and ...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Uzal FA, Sentíes-Cué CG, Rimoldi G, Shivaprasad HL Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

NetB and necrotic enteritis: the hole movable story.
Abstract Clostridium perfringens is the primary causative agent of avian necrotic enteritis. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of this economically important disease has been enhanced by the discovery of C. perfringens NetB toxin, which belongs to the α-hemolysin family of β-pore-forming toxins. In a chicken disease model the analysis of an isogenic set of strains comprising the wild type, a netB mutant, and its complemented derivative, fulfilled molecular Koch's postulates and revealed that NetB was essential for disease. These results were consistent with epidemiological surveys, which generally f...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Rood JI, Keyburn AL, Moore RJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Malaria in penguins - current perceptions.
Madeira de Carvalho LM Abstract Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium, and it is considered one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins, both in zoological gardens and rehabilitation centres. Penguins are known to be highly susceptible to this disease, and outbreaks have been associated with mortality as high as 50-80% of affected captive populations within a few weeks. The disease has also been reported in wild penguin populations, however its impacts on the health and fitness of penguins in the wild is not clear. This review pr...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Grilo ML, Vanstreels RE, Wallace R, García-Párraga D, Braga ÉM, Chitty J, Catão-Dias JL, Madeira de Carvalho LM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of a conserved HA274-288 epitope to detect antibodies to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in Indonesian commercial poultry.
Abstract A peptide ELISA based on an epitope in the haemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus H5N1, amino acid positions 274 -288 (HA274-288) was evaluated for detection of H5N1 specific antibodies. An optimised ELISA based on the tetrameric form of the HA274-288 epitope designated MP15 gave low background with non-immune chicken sera and detected vaccinated and infected birds. The HA274-288 epitope was highly conserved in Indonesian H5N1 strains and antibody responses were detected in the majority of the vaccinated chickens regardless of the H5N1 strain used for vaccination. The HA274-288 epitope was also cons...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Wawegama NK, Tarigan S, Indriani R, Selleck P, Adjid RA, Syafriati T, Hardiman, Durr PA, Ignjatovic J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparative pathomorphological, bacteriological and serological examination of broiler breeders and pheasants, experimentally infected with Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.
Abstract The aim of the investigations was to determine the influence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) on the development of pathomorphological lesions in the respiratory organs and on the health status of experimentally infected broiler breeders and pheasants from the rearing stage. There was no evidence of clinical symptoms in infected broiler breeder hens nor in the group of infected pheasants except for one bird in the latter group which exhibited slower movement and gasping. The frequency and intensity of pathomorphological lesions was higher in pheasants. The gross pathology findings were characteriz...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Gavrilović P, Gavrilović A, Vidanović D, Parunović J, Jovanović M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.
This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriacea for broiler chicks. PMID: 27011291 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Mezhoud H, Chantziaras I, Iguer-Ouada M, Moula N, Garmyn A, Martel A, Touati A, Smet A, Haesebrouck F, Boyen F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Recent breakthroughs have unveiled the many knowledge gaps in Clostridium perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis in chickens: the First International Conference on Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry.
PMID: 27003036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - March 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Van Immerseel F, Lyhs U, Pedersen K, Prescott JF Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathology and diagnosis of necrotic enteritis: is it clear-cut?
Abstract The ability to correctly recognize the disease necrotic enteritis (NE) is important not only to those involved in control and treatment of the disease at farm level, but it is also critically important to the search for virulence factors, since a fundamental part of that process is the correct assignation of strains of C. perfringens with respect to virulence. Thus, diagnosticians and investigators need to be able to correctly recognize the lesions of NE. To do this, they must be able to distinguish NE lesions from (1) other enteric diseases such as coccidiosis or viral enteritis, (2) normal features of t...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 16, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Smyth JA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Efficacy of Avilamycin for the Prevention of Necrotic Enteritis Caused by a Pathogenic Strain of Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chickens.
Abstract The efficacy of avilamycin for the prevention of necrotic enteritis (NE) was investigated in a 35-day floor pen study of 2,200 broiler cockerels using a Clostridium perfringens (Cp) feed inoculum challenge model. Treatments consisted of 1) nonmedicated, nonchallenged; 2) nonmedicated, challenged; 3) avilamycin at 15 ppm, challenged; 4) avilamycin at 30 ppm, challenged. Avilamycin was administered in the feed from day 7 to day 30 of the study. Challenge inoculum was administered on day 14 and delivered approximately 10(9) CFU Cp/bird. Necrotic enteritis mortality rates from day 14-35 were significantly (P
Source: Avian Pathology - March 16, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Paradis MA, McMillan E, Bagg R, Vessie G, Zocche A, Thompson M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance and local innate immune response of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens.
This study evaluated the effect of yeast-derived products on growth performance, gut lesion score, intestinal population of Clostridium perfringens, and local innate immunity of broiler chickens challenged with C. perfringens. One-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments providing 6 replicate pens of 55 birds each per treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of Control diets without and with C. perfringens challenge, and diets containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 55 g/tonne), nucleotides (150 g/tonne), yeast cell wall (YCW, 300 g/tonne), and a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus (1 kg...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 9, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Alizadeh M, Rogiewicz A, McMillan E, Rodriguez-Lecompte JC, Patterson R, Slominski BA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Genotyping of infectious laryngotracheitis virus using allelic variations from multiple genomic regions.
In this study, six variable genomic regions were selected and amplified for sequencing. The multi-allelic PCR-sequence genotyping showed better discrimination power than that of previous PCR-sequencing schemes using single or two target regions. The allelic variation patterns yielded 16 strains of ILTV classified into 14 different genotypes. Three Korean field strains, 550/05/Ko, 0010/05/Ko and 40032/08/Ko, were found to have the same genotype as the commercial vaccine strain, Laryngo Vac (Zoetis, United States). Three of Korean field strains, 40798/10/Ko, 12/07/Ko, and 30678/14/Ko showed recombined allelic patterns. The m...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 9, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Choi EJ, La TM, Choi IS, Song CS, Park SY, Lee JB, Lee SW Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Epidemiologic aspects of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens - disease occurrence and production performance.
and A Abstract Since future conventional broiler production can no longer rely upon in-feed antimicrobials (anticoccidials and antibiotic growth promoters), understanding the most important non-antimicrobial factors influencing occurrence of necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry will become urgent. Solid population-based data on NE occurrence are scarce. Additionally, data on cholangiohepatitis (CPH) at slaughter is a useful indirect measurement of NE occurrence. Existing data suggest that coccidiosis and nutritional factors are among the most important determinants of NE occurrence. Dietary cereal contents and dieta...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 9, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Kaldhusdal M, Benestad SL, Løvland A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The impact of Salmonella Enteritidis on lipid accumulation in chicken hepatocytes.
Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a public health concern and infected chickens serve as a reservoir that potentially transmits to humans through food. Although SE seldom causes systemic disease in chickens, virulent SE strains can colonize in intestines and lead a persistent infection of the liver. The liver is the primary organ for lipid metabolism in chickens and the site for production and assembly of main components in yolk. We performed a time-course experiment using LMH-2A cells that were infected with SE and co-incubated with β-estradiol to evaluate if SE infection affected lipi...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 9, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang CL, Fan YC, Wang C, Tsai HJ, Chou CH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The role of host genetic factors and host immunity in necrotic enteritis.
Abstract The increasing number of legislative restrictions and the voluntary withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters worldwide will continue to impact poultry health and production. The rising incidence of Clostridium infections and development of necrotic enteritis (NE) in commercial chickens has been associated with the withdrawal of antibiotics. High-throughput genomic analysis of intestinal tissues from NE-afflicted chickens showed alterations in the local immunity and gut microbiota. Therefore, a better understanding of host- and environmentally-related factors on Clostridium perfringens infections will be ...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 9, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Oh ST, Lillehoj HS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Genomic diversity of necrotic enteritis associated strains of Clostridium perfringens: A review.
Conclusions drawn from these studies include; differential carriage of large conjugative plasmids accounts for a large proportion of inter-strain differences; plasmid-encoded genes are more highly conserved than chromosomal genes, perhaps indicating a relatively recent origin for the plasmids; isolates from NE affected birds fall into two distinct sequence based clades while non-pathogenic isolates from healthy birds tend to be more genomically diverse. Overall, the NE causing strains are closely related to C. perfringens isolates from other animals and other diseases whereas the non-pathogenic poultry strains are generall...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 7, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Lacey JA, Johanesen PA, Lyras D, Moore RJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Microbial shifts associated with necrotic enteritis.
Abstract An outbreak of necrotic enteritis (NE) is a complex process requiring one or a number of predisposing factors rather than just the presence of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens. Examples are dietary influences, such as high levels of non-starch polysaccharides and fishmeal, and factors that evoke epithelial cell damage, such as Fusarium mycotoxins in feed and Eimeria infections. Recent studies have shown that different predisposing factors induce similar shifts in the intestinal microbiota composition. Butyrate-producing strains of the Ruminococcaceae family are decreased in abundance by both fishmeal an...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 7, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Antonissen G, Eeckhaut V, Van Driessche K, Onrust L, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R, Moore RJ, Van Immerseel F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Poultry management: a useful tool for the control of necrotic enteritis in poultry.
Abstract The intestinal ecosystem of poultry has been inevitably changed as a result of the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters. The re-emergence of necrotic enteritis has been the most significant threat for the poultry industry, which in clinical form, causes high mortality and in subclinical forms, affects growth and feed conversion. It is one of the most common and economically devastating bacterial diseases in modern broiler flocks in terms of performance, welfare and mortality. Necrotic enteritis is a multi-factorial disease process, in which a number of co-factors are usually required to precipitate an ou...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 7, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Tsiouris VV Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterisation of a Class I Newcastle disease virus strain isolated from pigeon in China.
This study provides information to elucidate the distribution and evolution of Class I viruses for further NDV prevention. PMID: 26950543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - March 7, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Ren S, Xie X, Wang Y, Tong L, Gao X, Jia Y, Wang H, Fan M, Zhang S, Xiao S, Wang X, Yang Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from diseased turkeys in Italy.
Abstract One hundred and six Clostridium perfringens field strains, isolated from diseased turkeys in Italy between 2006 and 2015, were toxinotyped by PCR. Strains derived from intestines (87), livers (17) and subcutaneous tissues (2). In addition to the four major toxins, strains were also screened for NetB toxin, enterotoxin and beta2 toxin encoding genes. The intestinal gross lesions of turkeys with enteric disorders were statistically studied with respect to the presence of C. perfringens beta2 toxin encoding gene and coccidia in the gut. All the isolates belonged to the toxinotype A and resulted netB negative...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 7, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Giovanardi D, Drigo I, De Vidi B, Agnoletti F, Viel L, Capello K, Berto G, Bano L Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Granuloma disease in flocks of productive layers caused by Tetratrichomonas gallinarum.
Abstract In 2013, seven outbreaks of granuloma disease in Dutch flocks of laying chickens occurred. These outbreaks were characterized by increased mortality and high incidence of granulomas, mainly in ceca (340/408 hens = 83%) and livers (69/408 hens = 17%). Mortality started to increase between 21 and 35 weeks of age and reached 9.2% to 12.4% in periods ranging from nine to 48 weeks. Some flocks also showed decreased egg production and/or loss of mean egg weight. All affected flocks were linked to one rearing farm, which therefore seemed to be the source of the disease. However, no signs of disease had been obse...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 7, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Landman WJ, Molenaar RJ, Cian A, van der Heijden HM, Viscogliosi E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Fluoroquinolone and Macrolide Resistance in Campylobacter Jejuni Isolated from Broiler Slaughterhouses in Southern Brazil.
Abstract Campylobacter jejuni became recognized as a leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The over-use of antimicrobials in the human population and in animal husbandry has led to an increase in antimicrobial-resistant infections, particularly with fluoroquinolones and macrolides. The aim of the present study was to provide information of the current status of antimicrobial resistance patterns in C. jejuni from poultry sources. Fifty strains were recovered from broiler slaughterhouses in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, 2012. The strains were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility aga...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Sierra-Arguello YM, Perdoncini G, B Morgan R, P Salle CT, S Moraes HL, P Gomes MJ, Nascimento VP Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

In Vivo Influence ìf in Vitro Up-Regulated Genes in the Virulence of an Apec Strain Associated with Swollen Head Syndrome.
In Vivo Influence ìf in Vitro Up-Regulated Genes in the Virulence of an Apec Strain Associated with Swollen Head Syndrome. Avian Pathol. 2016 Feb 29;:1-40 Authors: de Paiva JB, Pilatti Mendes da Silva L, Casas MR, Conceição RA, Nakazato G, de Pace F, Sperandio V, da Silveira WD Abstract Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry by causing a range of systemic or localized diseases collectively termed colibacillosis. The virulence mechanisms of these strains that are pathogenic in poultry and possibly pathogenic i...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: de Paiva JB, Pilatti Mendes da Silva L, Casas MR, Conceição RA, Nakazato G, de Pace F, Sperandio V, da Silveira WD Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the transcriptional status of host cytokines and viral genes in the trachea of vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens after challenge with infectious laryngotracheitis virus.
In this study the transcription levels of key host immune genes (IFN-γ, IFN-β, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18) and viral genes (ICP4, ICP27, UL46, UL49), as well as viral genome loads in trachea were quantified at 6 and 12 hours post-challenge of CEO vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens. Immediately after challenge a significant increase in IFN-γ gene expression was followed by a significant reduction in viral replication. In contrast to the rapid induction of IFN-γ, expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and type I IFN β was either slightly reduced or remained at...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Vagnozzi A, Riblet S, Zavala G, Ecco R, Afonso CL, García M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development and evaluation of a multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Mycoplasma synoviae.
Abstract Reproducible molecular Mycoplasma synoviae typing techniques with sufficient discriminatory power may help to expand knowledge on its epidemiology and contribute to the improvement of control and eradication programmes of this mycoplasma species. The present study describes the development and validation of a novel multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. synoviae. Thirteen M. synoviae isolates originating from different poultry categories, farms and lesions, were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Their sequences were compared to that of M. synoviae reference strain MS53. A high number of SNPs...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Dijkman R, Feberwee A, Landman WJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Trichodinosis associated with pathology of the reproductive tract in waterfowl.
, Stoute ST Abstract Trichodinid ciliophorans are opportunistic parasites of many species of fish, amphibians and molluscs, but yet never reported in association with lesions in birds. Postmortem and histopathological evaluation of a commercial adult Toulouse gander and female goose, and a wild Mallard drake revealed the presence of severe pathological parasitic colonization of their reproductive tracts. Histopathological findings included moderate to severe granulocytic inflammation, acanthosis, accentuation of the rete pegs, and proliferative hyperplastic squamous metaplasia of the mucosa of the ejaculatory duct...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Carnaccini S, Lowenstine LJ, Sentíes-Cué CG, Nyaoke A, Bland M, Bickford AA, Shivaprasad HL, Stoute ST Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research