Investigation of a mortality cluster in wild adult yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) at Otago Peninsula, New Zealand.
Abstract We investigated an epidemic mortality cluster of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) that involved 67 moribund or dead birds found on various beaches of the Otago Peninsula, New Zealand, between January 21 and March 20, 2013. Twenty-four carcases were examined postmortem. Histological lesions of pulmonary, hepatic and splenic erythrophagocytosis and haemosiderosis were found in 23 of 24 birds. Fifteen birds also had haemoglobin-like protein droplets within renal tubular epithelial cells. Despite consistent histological lesions, a cause of death could not be established. Virology, bacteriology and ...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 6, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Gartrell B, Agnew D, Alley M, Carpenter T, Ha HJ, Howe L, Hunter S, McInnes K, Munday R, Wendi R, Melanie Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A chicken intestinal ligated loop model to study the virulence of Clostridium perfringens isolates recovered from antibiotic-free chicken flocks.
The objective of this study was to develop a chicken intestinal ligated loop model in order to compare the virulence of various C. perfringens strains recovered from consecutive ABF flocks with and without NE. Intestinal loops were surgically prepared in 10 anaesthetized specific-pathogen-free chickens and alternately inoculated with C. perfringens isolates or brain heart infusion (BHI) media. Histological lesion scoring was performed for each loop. All strains from NE-affected flocks induced histological lesions compatible with NE whereas inoculation of loops with a commensal C. perfringens strain or BHI did not. Among in...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 5, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Parent E, Archambault M, Charlebois A, Bernier-Lachance J, Boulianne M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Infectious bronchitis vaccine virus detection and part-S1 genetic variation following single or dual inoculation in broiler chicks.
Abstract An investigation was undertaken of the extent of genetic variation occurring within infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine strains following vaccination of day-old broiler chicks. Chicks were divided into seven groups, with two groups receiving single Massachusetts (Mass) vaccinations and the other four were inoculated with combinations of different IBV serotypes; Mass, 793B, D274, and Arkansas (Ark). The remaining group was maintained as an unvaccinated control. Following vaccination, swabs and tissues collected at intervals were pooled and RNA was extracted for detection of IBV by reverse transcripti...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 5, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Ball C, Awad F, Hutton S, Forrester A, Baylis M, Ganapathy K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Necrotizing and haemorrhagic hepatitis and enteritis in commercial layer pullets.
Abstract This case report describes an episode of recurring severe necrotizing and haemorrhagic hepatitis and enteritis experienced in a flock of commercial layer pullets at 12 weeks of age and again at 18 weeks of age in Indiana. Pullets had been vaccinated at 10 weeks old using a trivalent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)/Newcastle disease/infectious bronchitis oil-emulsion-inactivated vaccine. The pullets were found dead at 12 weeks with firm but friable, enlarged, haemorrhagic livers, enlarged spleens, and necrohaemorrhagic intestines. Histopathologic findings were consistent with a necrotizing and haemorrhagic ent...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 2, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Sato Y, Wigle WL, Lin TL, Gingerich E, Wakenell PS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Early infection with Marek's disease virus can jeopardize protection conferred by laryngotracheitis vaccines: a method to study MDV-induced immunosuppression.
Abstract Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphomas and immunosuppression in chickens. MDV-induced immunosuppression (MDV-IS) is divided into two phases: early-MDV-IS occurring mainly in chickens lacking maternal antibodies (MAb) against MDV and associated with lymphoid organ atrophy; and late-MDV-IS occurring once MDV enters latency and during tumour development. Our objectives were to document the impact of late-MDV-IS on commercial poultry (meat-type chickens bearing MAb against MDV and that were vaccinated or unvaccinated against MD) and to optimize a model to study late-MDV-IS under l...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Faiz NM, Cortes AL, Guy JS, Fletcher OJ, West M, Montiel E, Gimeno IM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A metagenomic comparison of endemic viruses from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome and from normal birds.
This study has identified historically significant viruses associated with the disease such as chicken astrovirus, avian nephritis virus, chicken parvovirus, and chicken calicivirus along with relatively novel viruses such as chicken megrivirus and sicinivirus 1 and will help expand the knowledge related to enteric disease in broiler chickens, provide insights into the viral constituents of a healthy avian gut, and identify a variety of enteric viruses and viral communities appropriate for further study. PMID: 27215546 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Devaney R, Trudgett J, Trudgett A, Meharg C, Smyth V Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Cytokine expression in three chicken host systems infected with H9N2 influenza viruses with different pathogenicities.
Abstract SD/818 and SD/196 are H9N2 influenza virus strains isolated from chickens from the same farm at different times that exhibited similar genetic evolution. However, strain SD/818 exhibited higher pathogenicity in chickens than strain SD/196 and other H9N2 influenza virus epidemic strains from China. The expression of cytokines is an important host defence mechanism following viral infection and their intensity is a major determinant of viral pathogenicity. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the increased pathogenicity of strain SD/818 from the host's perspective, viral replication and cytokine expression...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang J, Cao Z, Guo X, Zhang Y, Wang D, Xu S, Yin Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Protective efficacy of a recombinant bacterial artificial chromosome clone of a very virulent Marek's disease virus containing a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat.
Abstract Marek's disease virus (MDV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes Marek's disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in poultry characterized by T-cell lymphomas, nerve lesions, and mortality. Vaccination is used worldwide to control MD, but increasingly virulent field strains can overcome this protection, driving a need to create new vaccines. Previous studies revealed that insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of MDV, Md5, rendered the resultant recombinant virus, rMd5 REV-LTR BAC, fully attenuated i...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Mays JK, Black-Pyrkosz A, Spatz S, Fadly AM, Dunn JR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effect of litter quality on foot pad dermatitis, hock burns and breast blisters in broiler breeders during the production period.
In conclusion, maintaining good litter quality alone is not enough to ensure healthy foot pads in broiler breeders. PMID: 27258732 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Kaukonen E, Norring M, Valros A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of different chemical adjuvants on an avian influenza H6 DNA vaccine in chickens.
This study assessed the ability of three adjuvants (aluminium hydroxide, Essai (microparticle) and Phema (nanoparticle)) to enhance the immune response of chickens to an H6N2 avian influenza DNA vaccine. No haemagglutination inhibition antibody was detected following two intramuscular immunizations with the adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted pCAG-HAk vaccine, which has previously been shown to induce moderate H6 haemagglutinin antibody response in SPF chickens. Following virus challenge, neither the vaccinated group without adjuvant nor the Essai-adjuvanted group showed a statistically significant reduction in virus shedding in...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Shan S, Fenwick S, Ellis T, Poinern E, Edwards J, Le X, Jiang Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Vertebral osteomyelitis associated with single and mixed bacterial infection in broilers.
This study suggests that there are geographical differences between Brazil and other countries concerning the frequency and aetiology of VO. PMID: 27315453 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Braga JF, Silva CC, Teixeira MP, Martins NR, Ecco R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Editorial.
PMID: 27805432 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Bradbury JM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Reviewer Acknowledgements.
Authors: PMID: 27805433 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International meetings, wvpa matters, announcements.
INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS, WVPA MATTERS, ANNOUNCEMENTS. Avian Pathol. 2016 Dec;45(6):686 Authors: PMID: 27805434 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Professor Pete Kaiser 1964-2016.
PMID: 27805435 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Stevens M, Vervelde L, Hume D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 60-3 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 27805436 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum: addressing fundamental questions in bacteriology sixty years on from the 9R vaccine.
Abstract Sixty years on from Smith's seminal work on Fowl Typhoid vaccines, there is renewed interest in experimental avian salmonellosis and in particular the use of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum as a tool to understand key features of bacterial evolution and host adaptation. In this short review we outline some of the recent advances in avian salmonellosis research that have coupled both the power of whole genome analysis and new tools to understand the host response to existing experimental infection models. These approaches are underpinning a fundamental understanding of Salmonella biology relevant to...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 28, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Wigley P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A novel variant of the infectious bronchitis virus resulting from recombination events in Italy and Spain.
ecchinato M Abstract Infectious bronchitis is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases in poultry. Control of its spread is typically attempted through biosecurity measures and extensive vaccination. However, the remarkable genetic and antigenic variability of the virus, which originate from both mutations and recombination events, represents an unsolved challenge for this disease. The present study reports on the emergence and spread of recombinant clusters detected in Italy and Spain between 2012 and 2014. A total of 36 Spanish and Italian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) field strains were investi...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Moreno A, Franzo G, Massi P, Tosi G, Blanco A, Antilles N, Biarnes M, Majó N, Nofrarías M, Dolz R, Lelli D, Sozzi E, Lavazza A, Cecchinato M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Occurrence and genotypes of Campylobacter species in broilers during the rearing period.
Abstract Poultry is the main source of Campylobacter infection worldwide. To obtain information on Campylobacter-infected flocks and create a reference for preventing and controlling Campylobacter at the farm level, Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broilers, and the environments of 9 chicken flocks in 2 farms during their growth process were observed. The genetic relationship between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The flocks were colonized as early as 3 weeks after introduction to the farm. The highest colonization rate was more than 90%, which occurred...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 21, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Zhang X, Yin T, Du X, Yang W, Huang J, Jiao X Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathogenicity, tissue distribution, shedding and environmental detection of two strains of IBDV following infection of chickens at 0 and 14 days of age.
We report the results of infection experiments with Australian classical strain 06/95 and variant strain 02/95 in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. We tested the effects of strain and age of infection on bursal atrophy, viral RNA (vRNA) load in bursa of Fabricius (bursa), spleen, thymus, caecal tonsils, faeces, litter and exhaust dust as determined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The two IBDV strains did not differ in the degree of bursal atrophy induced, lymphoid organ distribution and faecal shedding but variant strain 02/95 induced a greater antibody response to the infection...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 21, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Jayasundara JM, Walkden-Brown SW, Katz ME, Islam AF, Renz KG, McNally J, Hunt P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Six-year surveillance of Newcastle disease virus in wild birds in north-eastern Spain (Catalonia).
The objective is to provide an early warning system to prevent the infection of poultry. Since 2010, 35 episodes of mortality in wild birds were attributed to NDV infection. Throughout this period there was a progressive expansion of NDV to new areas, with an increase in the episodes of mortality, although it is not clear whether they were the result of the spread of the virus, or of the improvement of the surveillance. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that two distinct sublineages of NDV, 4a and 4b, were circulating in Catalonia. Both sublineages seem to be endemic in the wild bird population, affecting mainly Eurasian-coll...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 18, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Napp S, Alba A, Rocha AI, Sánchez A, Rivas R, Majó N, Perarnau M, Massot C, Miguel ES, Soler M, Busquets N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from wild birds in a veterinary hospital.
la FA Abstract Wild birds are carriers of Escherichia coli. However, little is known about their role as reservoirs for extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). In this work we investigated E. coli strains carrying virulence genes related to human and animal ExPEC isolated from free-living wild birds treated in a veterinary hospital. Multidrug resistance was found in 47.4% of the strains, but none of them were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Not only the virulence genes, but also the serogroups (e.g. O1 and O2) detected in the isolates of E. coli have already been implicated in human and bird disea...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 18, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Borges CA, Beraldo LG, Maluta RP, Cardozo MV, Barboza KB, Guastalli EA, Kariyawasam S, DebRoy C, Ávila FA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Co-circulation of genetically distinct groups of avian paramyxovirus type 1 in pigeon Newcastle disease in Iran.
In this study, the partial sequence of fusion protein gene of 17 pigeon-origin ND viruses (NDVs) isolated during 2012-2013 in Iran was analysed. Since the studied isolates showed F0 protein cleavage sites compatible with velogenic NDVs, all were considered as virulent NDVs. Two isolates carried 112RRQKRF117 as the cleavage site motif, whereas the rest demonstrated 112KRQKRF117 motif which just recently has been reported among Iranian virulent NDVs. Phylogenetic analysis divided all these diverse isolates in two distinct clusters within class II genotype VI. Based on the partial fusion protein gene sequence, 15 out of 17 is...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 17, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Rezaei Far A, Peighambari SM, Pourbakhsh SA, Ashtari A, Soltani M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Staphylococcus simulans associated with endocarditis in broiler chickens.
This report suggests a strong association between coagulase-negative Staphylococcus simulans and endocarditis in broiler chickens of a single flock. Clinical signs included increased mortality and lameness, and some dead chickens were found on their backs. Lesions included cauliflower-like, fibrinous vegetative lesions on the left atrioventricular valve; cream-coloured, necrotic foci of varying size in the liver; and necrosis of the femoral head. Histopathological examination of the heart revealed multifocal conglomerates of bacterial colonies attached to the valvular endocardium, threads of fibrin, and inflammatory cells ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 17, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Stępień-Pyśniak D, Wilczyński J, Marek A, Śmiech A, Kosikowska U, Hauschild T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Protection of chickens vaccinated with combinations of commercial live infectious bronchitis vaccines containing Massachusetts, Dutch and QX-like serotypes against challenge with virulent infectious bronchitis viruses 793B and IS/1494/06 Israel variant 2.
Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus which affects chickens of all ages. IBV mainly causes respiratory disease but can also result in reduced weight gain, reduced egg production, increased frequency of abnormal eggs and increased rates of mortality. Vaccination is the most important way to control the disease. Nevertheless, novel strains of infectious bronchitis (IB) continue to emerge in the field. In order to respond promptly, combinations of existing IB vaccines are frequently tested to see whether they can provide cross-protection. The efficacy of a combination of vaccines based on Massa...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 17, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Bru T, Vila R, Cabana M, Geerligs HJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Identification of a European interserotypic reassortant strain of infectious bursal disease virus.
Abstract Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, family Birnaviridae) is a bi-segmented double-stranded RNA virus for which two serotypes are described. Serotype 1 replicates in the bursa of Fabricius and causes an immunosuppressive and potentially fatal disease in young chickens. Serotype 2 is apathogenic in poultry species. Up to now, only one natural event of interserotypic reassortment has been described after the introduction of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) in the USA in 2009, resulting in an IBDV strain with its segment A related to vvIBDV and its segment B related to US serotype 2 strain OH. Here, we present ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 17, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Soubies SM, Courtillon C, Briand FX, Queguiner-Leroux M, Courtois D, Amelot M, Grousson K, Morillon P, Herin JB, Eterradossi N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Influence of Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum pathogenicity island 2 on type III secretion system effetor gene expression in chicken macrophage HD11 cells.
Abstract Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) can encode type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) which plays an important role in systemic disease development through delivering different effector proteins into host cells. Here, the influence of Salmonella Pullorum pathogenicity island 2 on T3SS2 effetor gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. Our results showed that all the detected genes (including pseudogenes sifB, sspH2 and steC) can express in HD11 cells of Salmonella Pullorum infection, deletion of SPI2 of Salmonella Pullorum did not significantly affect the expression o...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Yin J, Chen Y, Xie X, Xia J, Li Q, Geng S, Jiao X Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization, isolation, pathology and pathotyping of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) origin Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from disease outbreaks in three states of India.
Abstract Disease outbreak investigations were carried out in three states of Northern India namely Haryana (Rewari), Uttar Pradesh (Noida) and Delhi, where a total of 110 Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus) showed sudden onset of nervous signs and died within a period of two weeks during June, 2012. The F (fusion) gene-based RT-PCR detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in affected tissues confirmed the presence of the virus. Three NDV isolates were selected (one from each area under investigation) and further characterized. They were found to be of virulent pathotype (velogenic NDV) based on both pathogenicity a...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 11, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Desingu PA, Singh SD, Dhama K, Vinodhkumar OR, Barathidasan R, Malik YS, Singh R, Singh RK Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The role of MIF, cyclinD1 and ERK in the development of pulmonary hypertension in broilers.
This study investigated the role of cyclinD1 in the development of PH in broilers, and which bioactivators and signalling pathway are involved in the pathological process. The PH group contained 3-4 week-old broilers with clinical PH, and the healthy group broilers from the same flock without PH. Histopathology indicated pulmonary arterial walls were thicker in the PH group compared with the healthy group. Target gene expressions of MIF, ERK, and cyclinD1 detected by quantitative real-time PCR were up-regulated in the PH group compared with the healthy group. Immunohistochemistry showed MIF, p-ERK and cyclinD1 were present...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 6, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Li H, Wang Y, Chen L, Han L, Li L, He H, Li Y, Huang N, Ren H, Pei F, Li G, Cheng J, Wang W Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Recommendations for a standardized avian coronavirus (AvCoV) nomenclature: outcome from discussions within the framework of the European Union COST Action FA1207: "towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for vaccination, diagnosis and surveillance".
Recommendations for a standardized avian coronavirus (AvCoV) nomenclature: outcome from discussions within the framework of the European Union COST Action FA1207: "towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for vaccination, diagnosis and surveillance". Avian Pathol. 2016 Oct;45(5):602-3 Authors: Ducatez MF, European Union COST Action FA1207 Abstract Viruses within the Coronaviridae family show variations within their genome sequences, especially within the major structural protein the Spike (S) glycoprotein gene. Therefore, many different antigenic forms, serotypes or variant strains...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Ducatez MF, European Union COST Action FA1207 Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International meetings, wvpa matters, announcements.
INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS, WVPA MATTERS, ANNOUNCEMENTS. Avian Pathol. 2016 Oct;45(5):604 Authors: PMID: 27647351 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - September 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A Survey For Selected Avian Viral Pathogens In Backyard Chicken Farms In Finland.
n A Abstract Backyard poultry is regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious animal diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious ane...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Pohjola L, Tammiranta N, Ek-Kommonen C, Soveri T, Hänninen ML, Fredriksson-Ahomaa M, Huovilainen A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Histomonosis in poultry: previous and current strategies for prevention and therapy.
Abstract Histomonosis is a parasitic disease of poultry with worldwide prevalence. The disease can cause morbidity and mortality in chicken and turkey flocks entailing severe economic losses. In the first half of the last century there was a high demand to control histomonosis as the turkey industry was severely affected by the disease. Consequently, numerous chemical compounds were tested for their efficacy against H. meleagridis with varying outcomes, altogether summarized and specified in this review. At the same time, preliminary attempts to protect birds with cultured histomonads indicated the possibility of ...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Liebhart D, Ganas P, Sulejmanovic T, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Selection of reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time qPCR in avian cells infected with infectious bronchitis virus.
Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes infectious bronchitis in poultry, a respiratory disease that is a source of major economic loss to the poultry industry. Detection and the study of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus often involves the use of real-time quantitative PCR assays (qPCR). To account for error within the experiments, the levels of target gene transcription are normalised to that of suitable reference genes. Despite publication of the MIQE guidelines in 2009, single un-tested reference genes are often used for normalization of qPCR assays in avian research studies. Here we use the ge...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Batra A, Maier HJ, Fife MS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Prevalence of histopathological intestinal lesions and enteric pathogens in Dutch commercial broilers with time.
Abstract Intestinal disease has a major impact on the broiler industry due to economic and welfare reasons. Intestinal disease might occur due to a large number of reasons varying from well-defined pathogens to non-specific enteritis and complex syndromes. However, knowledge about the nature or intestinal disease and presence of enteric viruses in the Dutch broiler industry is largely absent. Therefore, a large scale field study, in which 98 broiler flocks from 86 farms were sampled weekly, was started to assess the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the jejunum, a number of enterotropic viruses by real-ti...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Ter Veen C, de Bruijn ND, Dijkman R, de Wit JJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of a selected lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens.
lez G Abstract Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic (FloraMax-B11(®)) against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis intestinal colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens. Experiment 1 consisted of two independent trials. In each trial, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of two groups; control + S. Enteritidis; or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post- S. Enteritidis challenge, hematology and ceca content were evaluated for S. Enteritidis colonization. In Experiment 2, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of four g...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Prado-Rebolledo OF, Delgado-Machuca JJ, Macedo-Barragan RJ, Garcia-Márquez LJ, Morales-Barrera JE, Latorre JD, Hernandez-Velasco X, Tellez G Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a recently identified circovirus in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) associated with immunosuppression and opportunistic infections.
l R Abstract A recently identified circovirus (family Circoviridae) was detected in 14 zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) from seven aviaries and hobbyist breeders using PCR followed by sequencing. Full genome sequences of virus strains from six zebra finches consistently revealed characteristic circoviral genomic features like a stem-loop structure and two major open reading frames encoding the replication-associated protein and the putative capsid protein. One further open reading frame encoding a protein of unknown function was additionally identified in all six genomes. Based on full genome nucleotide compari...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Rinder M, Schmitz A, Peschel A, Wörle B, Gerlach H, Korbel R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Observation on Salmonella contamination of commercial duck farms before and after cleaning and disinfection.
In this study, fourteen Salmonella positive duck farms were sampled before and after cleaning and disinfection, and once the houses had been restocked with a new flock. The cleaning and disinfection programmes used were subdivided into two main categories: ones in which a final formaldehyde disinfection step was included (1) and ones in which it was not included (2). Several types of samples were collected during the study and faecal sample were those more frequently positive (62% percent of samples from faeces were positive for Salmonella in comparison to 2-23% of samples from all the other sample categories) (p
Source: Avian Pathology - August 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Martelli F, Gosling RJ, Callaby R, Davies R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings.
Authors: PMID: 27449826 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - July 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases.
Authors: PMID: 27449827 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - July 29, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Protection of chickens vaccinated with combinations of commercial live infectious bronchitis vaccines containing Massachusetts, Dutch and QX-like serotypes against challenge with virulent infectious bronchitis viruses 793B and IS/1494/06 Israel variant 2.
Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus which affects chickens of all ages. IBV mainly causes respiratory disease but can also result in reduced weight, reduced egg production, increased frequency of abnormal eggs and increased rates of mortality. Vaccination is the most important way to control the disease. Nevertheless, novel strains of IB continue to emerge in the field. In order to promptly respond, combinations of existing IB vaccines are frequently tested whether can provide cross-protection. The efficacy of a combination of vaccines based on Massachusetts, Dutch and QX-like IB strains ag...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 11, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Bru T, Vila R, Cabana M, Geerligs HJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Identification of a European interserotypic reassortant strain of IBDV.
Abstract Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, family Birnaviridae) is a bi-segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus for which two serotypes are described. Serotype 1 replicates in the bursa of Fabricius and causes an immunosuppressive and potentially fatal disease in young chickens. Serotype 2 is apathogenic in poultry species. Up to now, only one natural event of interserotypic reassortment has been described after the introduction of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) in the USA in 2009, resulting in an IBDV strain with its segment A related to vvIBDV and its segment B related to US serotype 2 strain OH. Here we p...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 11, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Soubies SM, Courtillon C, Briand FX, Queguiner-Leroux M, Courtois D, Amelot M, Grousson K, Morillon P, Herin JB, Eterradossi N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Detection of transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP) and Chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV) in the United Kingdom.
M, Majó N Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that a new birnavirus, named Chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV), is the aetiological agent of transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP). The present work aimed to explore the possible presence of both TVP and CPNV in the UK. Forty-four chickens showing TVP-compatible gross lesions were classified into 3 groups based on the histological lesions: i) TVP-affected chickens: lymphocytic infiltration and glandular necrosis (n=15); ii) lymphocytic proventriculitis (LP)-affected chickens: lymphocytic infiltration without necrosis (n=18); and iii) without p...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 11, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Grau-Roma L, Reid K, de Brot S, Jennison R, Barrow P, Sánchez R, Nofrarías M, Clark M, Majó N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A novel variant of the infectious bronchitis virus resulting from recombination events in Italy and Spain.
ecchinato M Abstract Infectious bronchitis (IB) is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases in poultry. Control of its spread is typically attempted through biosecurity measures and extensive vaccination. However, the remarkable genetic and antigenic variability of the virus, which originate from both mutations and recombination events, represents an unsolved challenge for this disease. The present study reports on the emergence and spread of recombinant clusters detected in Italy and Spain between 2012 and 2014. A total of 36 Spanish and Italian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) field strains were in...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Moreno A, Franzo G, Massi P, Tosi G, Blanco A, Antilles N, Biarnes M, Majó N, Nofrarías M, Dolz R, Lelli D, Sozzi E, Lavazza A, Cecchinato M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Staphylococcus simulans associated with endocarditis in broiler chickens.
This report suggests a strong association between coagulase-negative Staphylococcus  simulans and endocarditis in broiler chickens of a single flock. Clinical signs included increased mortality and lameness, and some dead chickens were found on their backs. Lesions included cauliflower-like, fibrinous vegetative lesions on the left atrioventricular (AV) valve; cream-coloured, necrotic foci of varying size in the liver, and necrosis of the femoral head. Histopathological examination of the heart revealed multifocal conglomerates of bacterial colonies attached to the valvular endocardium, threads of fibrin, inflammatory...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 22, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Stępień-Pyśniak D, Wilczyński J, Marek A, Śmiech A, Kosikowska U, Hauschild T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of different chemical adjuvants on an avian influenza H6 DNA vaccine in chickens.
This study assessed the ability of three adjuvants (aluminum hydroxide, Essai (microparticle) and Phema (nanoparticle)) to enhance the immune response of chickens to an H6N2 avian influenza DNA vaccine. No hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody was detected following two intramuscular immunizations with the adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted pCAG-HAk vaccine, which has previously been shown to induce moderate H6 HA antibody response in SPF chickens. Following virus challenge, neither the vaccinated group without adjuvant nor the Essai adjuvanted group showed a statistically significant reduction in virus shedding in orophary...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 17, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Shan S, Fenwick S, Ellis T, Poinern E, Edwards J, Le X, Jiang Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Co-circulation of genetically distinct groups of avian paramyxovirus type 1 in pigeon Newcastle disease in Iran.
In this study, the partial sequence of F gene of 17 pigeon-origin ND viruses (NDVs) isolated during 2012-2013 in Iran was analysed. Since the studied isolates showed F0 protein cleavage sites compatible with velogenic NDVs, all were considered as virulent NDVs. Two isolates carried 112RRQKRF117 as the cleavage site motif, whereas the rest demonstrated 112KRQKRF117 motif which just recently has been reported among Iranian virulent NDVs. Phylogenetic analysis divided all these diverse isolates in two distinct clusters within class II genotype VI. Based on the partial fusion protein gene sequence, 15 out of 17 isolates showed...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 17, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Rezaei Far A, Peighambari SM, Pourbakhsh SA, Ashtari A, Soltani M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Vertebral osteomyelitis associated with single and mixed bacterial infection in broilers.
Abstract Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is a worldwide emerging disease that affects broilers. In Brazil, there are no studies on the frequency of VO, therefore the objective of this study was to determine the frequency and aetiology of VO in broilers in a highly productive broiler region. For this, 608 broilers with locomotory problems were analysed from 18 commercial farms. Clinical signs were recorded, necropsy was performed and samples were collected from vertebral bodies with gross changes for molecular and histopathological analysis and for bacterial isolation. From broilers with locomotory changes, 5.1% (31/6...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 17, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Braga JF, Silva CC, de Paula Ferreira Teixeira M, da Silva Martins NR, Ecco R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Protective Efficacy of a Recombinant Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone of a Very Virulent Marek's Disease Virus Containing a Reticuloendothelial Virus Long Terminal Repeat.
Abstract Marek's disease virus (MDV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes Marek's disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in poultry characterized by T-cell lymphomas, nerve lesions and mortality. Vaccination is used worldwide to control MD, but increasingly virulent field strains can overcome this protection, driving a need to create new vaccines. Previous studies revealed that insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long-terminal repeat (LTR) into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of MDV, Md5 rendered the resultant recombinant virus, rMd5 REV-LTR BAC, fully attenuated in ...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 3, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Mays JK, Black-Pyrkosz A, Spatz S, Fadly AM, Dunn JR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effect of litter quality on foot pad dermatitis, hock burns and breast blisters in broiler breeders during the production period.
In conclusion, maintaining good litter quality alone is not enough to ensure healthy foot pads in broiler breeders. PMID: 27258732 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 3, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Kaukonen E, Norring M, Valros A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research