Co-infection of turkeys with E. coli (O78) and H6N1 avian influenza virus.
ez MF Abstract Respiratory diseases are responsible for major economic losses in poultry farms. While in most cases a single pathogen is not alone responsible for the clinical outcome, the impact of co-infections is not well known, especially in turkeys. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible synergism between E.coli (O78) and low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV, H6N1), in the turkey model. Four-week-old commercial turkeys were inoculated with either H6N1, O78 or both agents simultaneously or 3 days apart. We have established an experimental infection model of turkeys using aerosolization tha...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Umar S, Delverdier M, Delpont M, Belkasmi SFZ, Teillaud A, Bleuart C, Pardo I, El Houadfi M, Guérin JL, Ducatez MF Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian coronavirus isolated from a pigeon sample induced clinical disease, tracheal ciliostasis, and a high humoral response in day-old chicks.
s CW, Ferreira HL Abstract The detection of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) in wild birds and the emergence of new AvCoV have been increased in the past few years. In the present study, the pathogenicity of three avian coronavirus (AvCoV) isolates was investigated in day-old chicks. One AvCoV isolated from a pigeon, which clustered with the Massachusetts vaccine serotype, and two AvCoV isolated from chickens, which grouped with a Brazilian genotype lineage, were used. Clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathological changes, ciliary activity, viral RNA detection, and serology were evaluated during 42 days post infecti...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Cavalheiro MM, Caserta LC, Dos Santos MMAB, Barnabé ACS, Durães-Carvalho R, Aiello Padilla M, Simão RM, Rizotto LS, Simas PVM, Bastos JCS, Cardoso TC, Felippe PAN, Arns CW, Ferreira HL Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Achieving sustainable production of eggs.
PMID: 29484894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 27, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Cargill P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Escherichia coli isolates from femoral bone marrow of broilers exhibit diverse pheno- and genotypic characteristics that do not correlate with macroscopic lesions of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO).
el S Abstract The pheno- and genotypic relatedness among Escherichia coli isolates from broilers with and without macroscopic lesions on the femoral head were investigated. In total, 219 isolates obtained from the bone marrow were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance profiles (AMR), phylogenetic grouping, detection of virulence-associated genes (VAG) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serotyping revealed that 48.4% of the isolates were assigned to one of the three serotypes (O78:K80: 21.0%, O2:K1: 18.7%, O1:K1: 8.7%). Substantial phenotypic variation was also noticed in AMR testing as mo...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 16, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Gaußmann B, Hess C, Grafl B, Kovacs M, Troxler S, Stessl B, Hess M, Paudel S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Assessment of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine efficacy in a co-infection challenge model with QX-like infectious bronchitis virus.
Abstract Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the primary cause of chronic respiratory disease in poultry. We investigated the protective efficacy of the live attenuated ts-11 and 6/85 MG vaccines against a local MG strain, and in order to enhance symptoms and mimic a typical field situation, we co-infected birds with a virulent strain of QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Both vaccines showed similar ability to protect infected chickens from clinical signs, although ts-11 performed slightly better. Despite the lower protection against clinical disease, 6/85-vaccinated birds had significantly (P≤0.05) lower...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 16, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Bwala DG, Ponman S, Duncan N, Wandrag DBR, Abolnik C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Ethical review in Avian Pathology.
PMID: 29320272 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - January 11, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Blake D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Detection of Gallibacterium anatis by TaqMan fluorescent quantitative PCR.
Abstract To better understand the prevalence of Gallibacterium anatis in different poultry species, a rapid and accurate method was developed to detect G. anatis using a TaqMan fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Specific primers and a TaqMan probe were designed based on the reference gtxA gene sequence. The qPCR standard curve showed a good linear relationship, and the method showed good reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity, indicating its suitability for G. anatis identification and quantitative analysis. Comparison of the detection results in 160 clinical swab samples showed that...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 15, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Huangfu H, Xu W, Wang H, Dong Q, Guo H, Sun Y, Li Y, Gao W, Wang W, Zhang J, Shi J, Pan H, Li C, Wang L Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: Do we really need to reconsider coligranulomatosis (Hj ärre and Wramby's Disease) in poultry?
Letter to the Editor: Do we really need to reconsider coligranulomatosis (Hjärre and Wramby's Disease) in poultry? Avian Pathol. 2017 Dec 15;:1-4 Authors: Liebhart D, Hess M PMID: 29243957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 15, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Liebhart D, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A rapid method to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum using a specific target gene ipaJ.
In this study, we developed a rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting the specific gene ipaJ to detect S. Pullorum. Among the 650 S. Pullorum strains isolated from 1962 to 2016 all over China, 644 strains were identified to harbor ipaJ gene in the plasmid pSPI12 accounting to a detection rate of 99.08%. Six strains were ipaJ negative because pSPI12 was not found in these strains according to whole genome sequencing results. There was no cross-reaction with other Salmonella serotypes including Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum), which show close genetic relationship with ...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 12, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Xu L, Liu Z, Li Y, Yin C, Hu Y, Xie X, Li Q, Jiao X Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Reviewer acknowledgements.
Authors: PMID: 29069990 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 28, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Wvpa matters and announcements.
WVPA MATTERS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS. Avian Pathol. 2017 Dec;46(6):696 Authors: PMID: 29069991 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 28, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity of commercial organic acid products against Salmonella enterica isolates recovered from egg farm environment.
This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of commercially available organic acid water additives against Salmonella enterica isolates and examined the susceptibility of Salmonella Typhimurium biofilms to these products. Three commercial organic acid products (A, B, and C) were evaluated for minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations against isolates of S. enterica serovars. Three and five day old S. Typhimurium biofilms were formed at 22 ± 2°C using MBEC™ assay system and exposed for 30 and 90 min at 0.2 and 0.4% concentration. No significant difference among serovars for inhibitory and bacte...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 23, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Pande V, McWhorter AR, Chousalkar KK Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Propagation and titration of infectious bursal disease virus, including non-cell-culture-adapted strains, using ex vivo stimulated chicken bursal cells.
i N Abstract Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a Birnaviridae family member of economic importance for poultry. This virus infects and destroys developing B lymphocytes in the cloacal bursa, resulting in a potentially fatal or immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Naturally-occurring viruses and many vaccine strains are not able to grow in in vitro systems without prior adaptation, which process often affects viral properties such as virulence. Primary bursal cells, which are the main target cells of lymphotropic IBDV in vivo, may represent an attractive system for the study of IBDV. Unfortunately, bursal...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 17, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Soubies SM, Courtillon C, Abed M, Amelot M, Keita A, Broadbent A, Härtle S, Kaspers B, Eterradossi N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Adherence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale to chicken embryo lung cells as a pathogenic mechanism.
stro-Escarpulli G Abstract Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (O.rhinotracheale), is a bacterium that causes respiratory disease in birds and it has been isolated in countries with a large poultry production, including Mexico. The pathogenicity mechanisms of this bacterium have not been completely elucidated yet. The capacity of the bacterium to adhere to epithelial cells of chicken in vitro has been evidenced, and since this bacterium has been isolated from the lungs and air sacs of several avian species, the aim of this study was to determine if this bacterium can adhere to chicken lung cells. We used five O.rhinot...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 10, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: De la Rosa-Ramos MA, Muñoz-Solís K, Palma-Zepeda M, Gutierrez-Castillo AC, López Villegas EO, Guerra-Infante FM, Castro-Escarpulli G Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Prevalence of mites and their impact on laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) farm facilities in Egypt, with an analysis of deltamethrin residues in eggs and tissue.
This study was carried out on six laying hen farms, 3 mite-infested and 3 mite-free at Dakahlia and Damietta governorates in Egypt to demonstrate (i) prevalence of different species of mites on laying hen farms; (ii) effects of mite infestation in chicken health and production; (iii) efficacy of deltamethrin on mite infestation and (iv) residues of deltamethrin in eggs and meat. The results showed that, 12 species of mites were detected in the mite-infested farms, this is the first record in Egypt, and the Dermanyssus gallinae was the highest identified species from 295 (40.9%) out of 720 samples. There was a significant e...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 4, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Eladl AH, Hamed HR, El-Shafei RA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Prevalence and severity of osteochondrosis of the free thoracic vertebra in three modern broiler strains and the Athens Canadian Random Bred control broiler.
st LB Abstract Osteochondrosis (OCD) results from a disturbance of endochondral ossification in articular cartilage and is an important cause of lameness in several animal species including chickens. OCD lesions in the free thoracic vertebra (FTV) of chickens are essential to the pathogenesis of pathogenic Enterococcus cecorum. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of OCD in the FTV among three modern broiler chicken crosses (strains A/A, A/B, and C/C) and Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, which served as a control group. The effect of sex, age, strain, body weight, and incubation tempe...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 4, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Chen LR, Suyemoto MM, Sarsour AH, Cordova HA, Oviedo-Rondón EO, Barnes HJ, Borst LB Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Detection of different genotypes of infectious bronchitis virus and of infectious bursal disease virus in European broilers during an epidemiological study in 2013 and the consequences for the diagnostic approach.
Abstract To gather recent data regarding the infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) situation in Europe, a large-scale field epidemiological survey using diagnostic samples has been implemented in 2013 for about six months in several European countries: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, the Republic of Ireland, Spain and the United Kingdom. In 234 flocks that were sampled, strains from 10 different IBV genotypes were detected: the 793B genotype was detected most frequently, followed by QX, Massachusetts (Mass) and the Xindadi-like strains. Strains belonging ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: de Wit JJ, Cazaban C, Dijkman R, Ramon G, Gardin Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Wvpa Matters and Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 28834685 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 25, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Thanks to Professor Bradbury, and looking forward to the coming years for Avian Pathology.
PMID: 28834686 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 25, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Blake D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pair-epitopes vaccination: enabling offspring vaccination in the presence of maternal antibodies.
Abstract Maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) are critical for offspring protection during the first days of life. However, due to their short half-life (3-5 days), MDA levels decline rapidly and by 8-15 days post-hatch drop to below protective levels. In addition, MDAs against a specific pathogen often impede the efficient protective immune response to that pathogen by the new-born following vaccination. The combination of these two phenomena generates a gap in protection in the period between loss of MDA protection and development of vaccine-induced protective antibodies. Herein, a concept is presented that ...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Pitcovski J, Pitcovski E, Goldenberg D, Shahar E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Marek's disease virus field strain in broiler chickens in Japan.
Abstract Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease causing a serious threat in poultry production. Field strains of Marek's disease virus (MDVs) are continuously re-emerging, causing great economical losses to the poultry industry worldwide in spite of the intensive vaccination and restrictive management policy used. Histopathological and molecular characterizations of MDVs are essential for monitoring the changes of viruses and evaluating the effectiveness of existing vaccines. During 2016, 190 visceral tumor tissues representing 30 vaccinated chicken flocks from Gifu prefecture, Japan were analyzed. ...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 1, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Abd-Ellatieff HA, Abou Rawash AA, Ellakany HF, Goda WM, Suzuki T, Yanai T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings, WVPA Matters and Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 28721751 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - July 21, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

New Editor-in-Chief for Avian Pathology.
PMID: 28721752 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - July 21, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Bradbury JM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Onset of white striping and progression into wooden breast as defined by myopathic changes underlying Pectoralis major growth. Estimation of growth parameters as predictors for stage of myopathy progression.
This study describes the macroscopic changes associated with WB ontogeny in the development of a ranking system and the contribution of growth parameters in the determination of rank (WB severity). Results suggest that physical measurements, inherent to selection for high yielding broiler genotypes are contributing to the occurrence and severity of WS and WB. PMID: 28714747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - July 17, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Griffin JR, Moraes L, Wick M, Lilburn MS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathological and microbiological investigations into cases of bacterial chondronecrosis and osteomyelitis in broiler poultry.
Abstract Bacterial chondronecrosis and osteomyelitis (BCO) is increasingly recognised as a major cause of lameness in commercial broilers chickens worldwide, but the pathogenesis of the condition is incompletely understood. This was a longitudinal study of 20 commercial broiler farms in Victoria, Australia to investigate the etiology and pathology of BCO. Thorough postmortem examination was performed on culled and dead birds (n=325) from 20 different flocks at either 1 week, 4 weeks or 5 weeks of age and samples were analysed by conventional bacteriology, molecular identification of infectious organisms detected, ...
Source: Avian Pathology - July 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Wijesurendra DS, Chamings AN, Bushell RN, O' Rourke D, Stevenson M, Marenda MS, Noormohammadi AH, Stent A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Variability in biological behaviour, pathogenicity, protectotype and induction of virus neutralizing antibodies by different vaccination programs to infectious bronchitis virus genotype Q1 strains from Chile.
Abstract In the period from July 2008 to 2010 a disease episode resulting in serious economic losses in the major production area of the Chilean poultry industry were reported. These losses were associated with respiratory problems, increase of condemnations, drops in egg production and nephritis in breeders, laying hens and broilers due to infections with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Twenty-five IBV isolates were genotyped and 4 strains were selected for further testing by pathotyping and protectotyping. Twenty-four IBV isolates were of the Q1 genotype. The experiments also included comparing the ability of...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 29, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: de Wit JJ, Dijkman R, Guerrero P, Calvo J, Gonzalez A, Hidalgo H Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of a genetically modified live vaccine in broilers challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg.
o VPD Abstract Salmonellosis ranks among the major diseases of commercial poultry, and its presence in poultry flocks is responsible for economic losses and risks related to public health. Vaccines are an important tool within integrated programs to control salmonellosis. The purpose of this study was to assess cross-protection provided by the Poulvac(®) ST vaccine in the control of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in experimentally challenged 3- and 21-day-old birds. Eighty birds were identified and separated into four treatments (T1: vaccinated and challenged at 3 days of age, T2: unvaccinated and challenged at 3 ...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 29, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Muniz EC, Verdi R, Leão JA, Back A, Nascimento VPD Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The efficacy of inactivated Escherichia coli autovaccines against the E. coli peritonitis syndrome in layers.
Abstract Autogenous Escherichia coli vaccines to prevent the E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS) in laying hens are often used in the field, although their effectiveness has not been demonstrated yet. Therefore, in this study, which consisted of two experiments, their efficacy was assessed. In the first experiment, the EPS inducing ability of three E. coli isolates originating from bone marrow of hens that died due to EPS and with different Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis patterns, was examined by intravenous inoculation of the isolates in 17 week-old brown layers. Based on the results one isolate was chosen for t...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 26, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Landman WJM, van Eck JHH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The first whole genome sequence and pathogenicity characterization of a fowl adenovirus 4 isolated from ducks associated with inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome.
Abstract In June 2015, an infectious disease with high prevalence causing severe hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) first appeared in duck farms of northeast China. The disease showed high morbidity of 35% and mortality of 15% in a commercial duck farm with 200,000 45-day-old ducks. One strain of hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 was identified and designated as HLJDAd15. The whole genome of the duck isolate was sequenced and found to contain the same large deletions as a genotype that has become prevalent in chickens in China recently, indicating that this disease might be transmitted from chickens to ducks. ...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 16, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Pan Q, Liu L, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Qi X, Liu C, Gao Y, Wang X, Cui H Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

An attempt to develop a detection method specific for virulent duck plague virus strains based on the UL2 gene B fragment.
Abstract A comparison of the unique long region 2 (UL2) gene sequences between 10 virulent and 11 attenuated duck plague virus (DPV) strains (including all DPV UL2 gene sequences registered in GenBank) showed that the UL2 genes in the attenuated DPV strains had a 528bp deletion in the B fragment. Primers were designed based on the B fragment sequence of the UL2 gene in an attempt to establish a fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a conventional PCR detection method that could specifically detect virulent DPV strains (i.e. positive detection for virulent DPV strains and negative detection ...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 13, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Xie L, Huang L, Xie Z, Wang S, Huang J, Zhang Y, Zhong C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evidence and Role of Phlebitis and Lipid Infiltration in the Onset and Pathogenesis of Wooden Breast Disease in Modern Broiler Chickens.
This study, therefore, demonstrates that WBD exhibits an earlier onset in modern broilers than when detectable by clinical examination. Further, this study shows that the disease assumes a progressive course with acute vasculitis, lipid deposition and myodegeneration occurring in the earlier stages, followed by a chronic fibrotic phase. PMID: 28609139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 13, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Papah MB, Brannick E, Schmidt CJ, Abasht B Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of a multiplex qPCR in real time for quantification and differential diagnosis of Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum.
Abstract Currently there are 2659 Salmonella serovars. The host-specific biovars Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum, cause systemic infections in food-producing and wild birds. Fast diagnosis is crucial to control the dissemination in avian environments. The present work describes the development of a multiplex qPCR in real time using a low cost DNA dye (SYBr Green) to identify and quantify these biovars. Primers were chosen based on genomic regions of difference (RoD) and optimized to control dimers. Primers pSGP differentiate from other serovars and pSG and pSP differentiate biovars. Three amplicons s...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 7, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Rubio MDS, Penha Filho RAC, Almeida AM, Berchieri Junior A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Validation of a quantitative Eimeria spp. PCR for fresh droppings of broiler chickens.
Abstract A quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) for the seven chicken Eimeria spp. was modified and validated for direct use on fresh droppings. The analytical specificity of the qPCR on droppings was 100%. Its analytical sensitivity (non-sporulated oocysts/g droppings) was 41 for E. acervulina, ≤2,900 for E. brunetti, 710 for E. praecox, 1,500 for E. necatrix, 190 for E. tenella, 640 for E. maxima and 1,100 for E. mitis. Field validation of the qPCR was done using droppings with non-sporulated oocysts from 19 broilers flocks. To reduce the number of qPCR tests five grams of each pooled sample per time...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 5, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Peek HW, Ter Veen C, Dijkman R, Landman WJM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for rapid and specific detection of fowl aviadenovirus serotype 4.
In this study, we aimed to develop a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of FAdV-4. A pair of primers targeting the hexon gene and a TaqMan probe were designed. Using different copy numbers of plasmid DNA carrying the hexon gene as template, we showed the detection limit of this assay was 10(1) copies/reaction, which was 10 times higher than conventional PCR. The assay was highly specific for FAdV-4 and did not cross-detect 11 other serotypes of FAdVs, avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus or subgroup J of the avian leukosis virus. The reproducibility of the ...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 25, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang J, Wang J, Chen P, Liu L, Yuan W Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings, WVPA Matters, Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 28437157 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 25, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

WVPA XXth Congress 2017.
Authors: PMID: 28437158 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 25, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Characterization of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale field isolates from Hungary.
In this study, 37 field isolates of O. rhinotracheale, collected from various locations in Hungary between 1997 and 2015, were identified and molecularly characterized by the analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR assays with the OPG11, OPH19, and M13 primers. Most of the field isolates were serotype A, one was serotype B, and four were serotype D. One isolate could not be typed with antisera against serotypes A-E. In a phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences, the isolates formed two clusters. Thirteen d...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 19, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Szabó R, Wehmann E, Makrai L, Nemes C, Gyuris É, Thuma Á, Magyar T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Cross protection conferred by immunization with a rOmpH-based intranasal fowl cholera vaccine.
Abstract A previous study demonstrated that a recombinant outer membrane protein H (rOmpH)-based intranasal fowl cholera vaccine elicited efficient homologous protection against Pasteurella multocida strain X-73 (A:1) in chickens. The present study aimed to determine the cross protectivity against heterologous P. multocida strains. The rOmpH was purified via electroelution and formulated with two kinds of adjuvants. The vaccine formulations in a total volume of 100 µl were 100 µg rOmpH with 3 µg of Escherichia coli enterotoxin B (LTB) or 10 µg of CpG ODN2007. Chickens were assigned into thr...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 19, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Varinrak T, Poolperm P, Sawada T, Sthitmatee N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Experimental induction of chicken AA amyloidosis in white layer chickens by inoculation with inactivated vaccines.
Abstract We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation, and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4-6 weeks after the first injection. Hepatomegal...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 19, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Habibi WA, Hirai T, Niazmand MH, Okumura N, Yamaguchi R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Synergy or interference of a H9N2 avian influenza virus with a velogenic Newcastle Disease virus in chickens are dose dependent.
Abstract Field observations indicate that the impact of velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) is more severe in countries with concomitant circulation of LPAI virus, as is the case in the Middle East, in particular in Israel, where H9N2 and NDV are endemic. In our study, we evaluated how the exposure of chickens to a H9N2 challenge either favors or interferes with a subsequent vNDV infection and its transmission to sentinels. For this purpose, single vNDV and sequential H9/NDV challenges were performed with increasing doses of vNDV (10(1)-10(6) EID50). The H9N2 challenge made birds more susceptible to the vNDV,...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Bonfante F, Cattoli G, Leardini S, Salomoni A, Mazzetto E, Davidson I, Haddas R, Terregino C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 60-34 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 28235393 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

WVPA XXth Congress 2017.
Authors: PMID: 28235394 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings, WVPA Matters, Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 28235395 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Toxicity of Senna occidentalis seeds in laying hens and its effects on egg production.
This study evaluated the effects on egg production of low-level contamination of the S. occidentalis in the laying hens' diet. Forty-eight one-day-old pullets were randomly allocated into two treatment groups: control, birds that received no experimental treatment; and external and internal tegument (ET/IT), birds that received a diet containing 0.2% of ET/IT of S. occidentalis seeds throughout their life cycle (42 weeks). The birds were monitored for clinical signs of poisoning, and the production and quality of eggs were recorded. Necropsies were conducted at the end of the experimental period. None of the layers showed ...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 6, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Gotardo AT, Haraguchi M, Raspantini PC, Dagli ML, Górniak SL Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of factors influencing the development of late Marek's disease virus-induced immunosuppression: virus pathotype and host sex.
In this study both male and female chickens were equally susceptible to MDV-IS induced by vv+MDV 686. Our findings suggest that late-MDV-IS is a unique feature of vv+ strains. PMID: 28151004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 2, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Faiz NM, Cortes AL, Guy JS, Fletcher OJ, Cimino T, Gimeno IM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International meetings, wvpa matters, announcements.
INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS, WVPA MATTERS, ANNOUNCEMENTS. Avian Pathol. 2017 Feb;46(1):117 Authors: PMID: 28008777 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 24, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of PCR and high resolution melt curve analysis for differentiation of Salmonella isolates.
In this study, oligonucleotide primers were designed from hem-D gene and a PCR followed by high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for rapid differentiation of Salmonella isolates. Amplicons of 228 bp were generated from 16 different Salmonella reference strains and from 65 clinical field isolates mainly from poultry farms. High resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis of the amplicons differentiated Salmonella isolates and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from selected isolates revealed that each melting curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The relationship between reference ...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 21, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Saeidabadi MS, Nili H, Dadras H, Sharifiyazdi H, Connolly J, Valcanis M, Raidal S, Ghorashi SA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the efficacy of an autogenous Escherichia coli vaccine in broiler breeders.
In conclusion, with the use of the present model for ascending infection, significant protection of an autogenous E. coli vaccine against neither a homologous nor a heterologous E. coli challenge could not be documented. PMID: 27982712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 16, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Li L, Thøfner I, Christensen JP, Ronco T, Pedersen K, Olsen RH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Epidemiological and pathological investigation of fowl aviadenovirus serotypes 8b and 11 isolated from chickens with inclusion body hepatitis in Spain (2011-2013).
The objectives of the present work were to carry out the molecular characterization of FAdV strains from Spanish inclusion body hepatitis cases and to study the pathogenicity and viral dynamics of these strains in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. A total of 52 inclusion body hepatitis clinical cases, including 45 from broiler farms and seven from broiler breeder farms, were analysed by conventional polymerase chain reaction and sequencing targeting the FAdV hexon gene. From these, 37 strains were classified as FAdV type 8b, while the remaining 15 were classified as FAdV types 11 (n = 10), 2 (n =&...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Oliver-Ferrando S, Dolz R, Calderón C, Valle R, Rivas R, Pérez M, Biarnés M, Blanco A, Bertran K, Ramis A, Busquets N, Majó N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of an RT-qPCR assay for the specific detection of a distinct genetic lineage of the infectious bursal disease virus.
nzera Y, Pérez R Abstract The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world's poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV. Here, we report the development and valid...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 7, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Tomás G, Hernández M, Marandino A, Techera C, Grecco S, Hernández D, Banda A, Panzera Y, Pérez R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research