Protection of Chickens Against Fowl Cholera by Supernatant Proteins of Pasteurella Multocida Cultured in an Iron- Restricted Medium.
Abstract Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida), a causative agent of fowl cholera, is an important pathogen in the poultry industry. In the present study, we found that the inactivated vaccine of P. multocida grown in an iron-restricted medium provided better protection than that grown in normal medium. Thus, we adopted a comparative proteomics approach, by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS), to profile the supernatant proteins associated with P. multocida under both conditions. Eleven upregul...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Luo Q, Kong L, Dong J, Zhang T, Wang H, Zhang R, Lu Q, Chen H, Shao H, Jin M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Deletion of the Riemerella anatipestifer type IX secretion system gene sprA results in differential expression of outer membrane proteins and virulence.
In this study, a sprA deletion mutant was constructed encoding a core protein of T9SS to investigate its influence on outer membrane protein expression and role in virulence. Compared with the wild-type RA-YM strain, the deletion mutant ΔsprA failed to digest gelatin, showed the same growth rate in the logarithmic phase and exhibited greater sensitivity to the bactericidal activity of duck sera, whereas the complemented strain restored these phenotypes. The outer membrane proteome of RA-YM and the ΔsprA mutant were analyzed by Tandem Mass Tags, which revealed 198 proteins with predicted localization to the cell...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Hu D, Guo Y, Guo J, Wang Y, Pan Z, Xiao Y, Wang X, Hu S, Liu M, Li Z, Bi D, Zhou Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Long term protection against a virulent field isolate of Infectious laryngotracheitis virus induced by inactivated, recombinant, and modified live virus vaccines in commercial layers.
The objective of this study was to assess the protection efficacy against ILT induced by recombinants; live-modified attenuated; and inactivated virus vaccines when administered alone or in combination. Commercial layer pullets were vaccinated with one or more vaccines and challenged at 35 (35WCH) or 74 weeks of age (74WCH). Protection was assessed by scoring clinical signs; and by determining the challenge viral load in the trachea at five days post-challenge. The FPV-LT vaccinated birds were not protected when challenged at 35WCH; the HVT-LT and TCO vaccines in combination provided protection similar to that observed in ...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Palomino-Tapia VA, Zavala G, Cheng S, García M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A novel monoclonal antibodies based sandwich ELISA for detection of serotype 4 fowl adenovirus.
Abstract As a major causative agent for hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrom (HPS) in chickens, serotype 4 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-4) has caused huge economic loss in poultry industry globally. However, there is no commercial diagnostics for FAdV-4 antigens. To generate a rapid approach for specific detection of FAdV-4, a monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) based sandwich ELISA was developed. In this ELISA, a purified mAb 4A3 and HRP labeled mAb 3C2 specific to the fiber2 of FAdV-4 was used as the capture antibody and detection antibody respectively. Specificity assay revealed the ELISA only reacted with FAdV-4, not with oth...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 9, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Shao H, Wang P, Wang W, Zhang J, Li T, Liang G, Gao W, Qin A, Ye J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Dose-dependent differential resistance of inbred chicken lines to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli challenge.
Abstract Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) cause severe respiratory and systemic disease. To address the genetic and immunological basis of resistance, inbred chicken lines were used to establish a model of differential resistance to APEC, using strain O1 of serotype O1:K1:H7. Inbred lines 72, 15I and C.B12 and the outbred line Novogen Brown were inoculated via the airsac with a high dose (107 colony-forming units, CFU) or low dose (105 CFU) of APEC O1. Clinical signs, colibacillosis lesion score and bacterial colonisation of tissues after high dose challenge were significantly higher in line 15I and C.B12 birds. Th...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 20, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Alber A, Costa T, Chintoan-Uta C, Bryson KJ, Kaiser P, Stevens MP, Vervelde L Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Early migration pattern of Avibacterium paragallinarum in the nasal passage of experimentally infected chicken and Japanese quail by immunohistochemistry.
In this study, we attempted to investigate the early entrance and migration pattern of A. paragallinarum in chicken and Japanese quail following experimental infection, by employing an in-house developed polyclonal antiserum against this pathogen. Antigenic-specificity of the raised antiserum was subsequently evaluated through immune-dot blot techniques and counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. The resultant antiserum characterized the antigen localization within formalin fixed and partially decalcified nasal tissue sections though immunohistochemistry (IHC). Japanese quail showed prominent localization of bacterial antig...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 20, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Balouria A, Deshmukh S, Banga HS, Ahmad A, Brar RS, Sodhi S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

CT venography and pathological characterization of crus haemorrhage in Pekin ducks.
Abstract The crus haemorrhage was one of the main causes of carcass defects in Pekin duck processing houses. However, its pathologic features are currently unclear. In order to examine the injury to the hind limb veins and illustrate the pathologic characteristics of crus haemorrhage in Pekin ducks, a total of 68 Pekin ducks with crus haemorrhage (test group) and 10 unaffected ducks (control group) were collected in this study. Five ducks randomly selected from each group were determined by computed tomographic venography (CTV) with 2.0 mm thickness, 120 kVp, and 90 mA. Pathological changes were observed under...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Shi Y, Zhang Y, Lin J, Zhu X, Xia Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Chicken endothelial cells are highly responsive to viral innate immune stimuli and are susceptible to infections with various avian pathogens.
ré P Abstract It is well established that the endothelium plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases in mammals. However, little is known about the role of endothelial cells (EC) as targets for avian pathogens and their contribution to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases in galliform birds. First, we explored the innate immune response of primary chicken aortic endothelial cells (pchAEC) obtained from 18 day-old embryos to stimulation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recombinant chicken interferons (type I, II and III IFNs). In spite of the abundant e...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 17, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Lion A, Esnault E, Kut E, Guillory V, Trapp-Fragnet L, Soubies SM, Chanteloup N, Niepceron A, Guabiraba R, Marc D, Eterradossi N, Trapp S, Quéré P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Suspension culture of Marek's disease virus and evaluation of its immunological effects.
In this study, the CVI988 strain of MDV was inoculated into chicken fibroblast cell line UMNSAH/DF-1 (DF-1) cultured by microcarrier suspension for proliferation experiment. Moreover, the effects of culture conditions, such as inoculation method, MOI, microcarrier concentration, and pH value, on the proliferation of MDV were investigated. The results demonstrated that the maximum viral load 64.76 ± 2.64 × 106 PFU/flask in a working volume of 100 mL could be obtained using synchronous cell seeding and inoculation method at an MOI of 0.02 and a microcarrier concentration of 5 g/L at pH 7.2. At ...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 6, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Wen L, Zhang A, Li Y, Lai H, Li H, Luo Q, Jin S, Chen R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Induction of IBV strain-specific neutralising antibodies and broad spectrum protection in layer pullets primed with IBV Massachusetts (Mass) and 793B vaccines prior to injection of inactivated vaccine containing Mass antigen.
Abstract In an initial study in SPF chickens, a heterologous virus neutralising (VN) antibody response to IBV variants Q1, Variant 2 (Var 2), D388/QX (D388), D274 and Arkansas (DPI) was observed using a vaccination programme incorporating two different live-attenuated IBV vaccines, followed by boosting with an inactivated vaccine containing IBV Massachusetts (Mass) antigen. Therefore, a more detailed study was undertaken in SPF layer-type chickens previously primed with IBV Mass and 793B live-attenuated vaccines. The efficacy of single or repeated vaccination with a multivalent inactivated vaccine containing IBV a...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 6, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: de Wit JJS, Malo A, Cook JKA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Spotlight on Avian Pathology: Fowlpox virus.
Abstract Fowlpox virus is the type species of an extensive and poorly-defined group of viruses isolated from more than 200 species of birds, together comprising the avipoxvirus genus of the poxvirus family. Long known as a significant poultry pathogen, vaccines developed in the early and middle years of the 20th century led to its effective eradication as a problem to commercial production in temperate climes in developed western countries (such that vaccination there is now far less common). Transmitted mechanically by biting insects, it remains problematic, causing significant losses to all forms of production (...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 3, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Giotis ES, Skinner MA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Changes in gut bacterial communities in canaries infected by Macrorhabdus ornithogaster.
In this study, 44 fecal samples from individual canaries, with and without M. ornithogaster infection, were analyzed. The detection of the yeast was evaluated by 18S rRNA PCR. In order to evaluate the impact of the Macrorhabdus infection on the bacterial communities, the culture-independent methods by the use of amplicon based sequencing as well as 16S rRNA-DGGE were adopted. The different health status of animals affected the relative abundance of the main OTUs, with a greater diversification of the gut microbiota in healthy animals if compared to the infected. In particular, Lactococcus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Lachn...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 30, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Robino P, Ferrocino I, Rossi G, Dogliero A, Alessandria V, Grosso L, Galosi L, Tramuta C, Cocolin L, Nebbia P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

An avian influenza virus H6N1 outbreak in commercial layers: case report and reproduction of the disease.
Abstract An outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) subtype H6N1 (intravenous pathogenicity index = 0.11) infection occurred in four productive brown layer flocks on three farms in the Netherlands within a period of two months. The farms were located at a maximum distance of 4.6 km from each other. The infections were associated with egg production drops up to 74%, pale eggshells and persisting high mortality up to 3.2% per week. Three flocks were slaughtered prematurely as they were not profitable anymore. Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, egg drop syndrome and Mycoplasma gallise...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 28, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Landman WJM, Germeraad EA, Kense MJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) La Sota expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of genotype VII NDV shows improved protection efficacy against NDV challenge.
Abstract Intensive vaccination strategies against Newcastle disease (ND) have been implemented in many countries for a long time, but ND outbreaks still occur frequently, with most isolates belonging to VII genotype of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Many researchers have revealed that vaccines closely matched to epidemic viruses provide better protection. Therefore, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant NDV vaccine strain (rLa Sota-HN) based on the La Sota vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of genotype VII NDV. The pathogenicity of th...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 22, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Bu YW, Yang HM, Jin JH, Zhao J, Xue J, Zhang GZ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Physiological, biochemical and histopathological changes associated with heatstroke in the Galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and Rock Dove (Columba livia).
In this study, we describe the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, blood biochemistry and histopathological findings in galahs and rock doves after heat exposure under standardized conditions designed to induce heatstroke. Birds in the heat exposed group were exposed to environmental heat stress and compared to control birds. Both groups of birds were under general anaesthesia throughout the experiment and serial blood collections were performed for biochemical analyses, while organs were collected at the end of the experiment for histopathology. No electromyography traces consistent with the onset of heat cramps were...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 9, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Xie S, Nicholson A, Woolford L, McWhorter TJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Biological characteristics and immunological properties in Muscovy ducks of H5N6 virus-like particles composed of HA-TM/HA-TMH3 and M1.
In this study, we composed two H5N6 virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of matrix-1 (M1) and hemagglutinin of wild-type (HA-TM) or hemagglutinin with transmembrane domain replacement (HA-TMH3) (designated as H5N6 VLPs-TM and H5N6 VLPs-TMH3). Biological characteristics of the composed H5N6 VLPs were compared including localization, expression, contents of HA trimers, thermal stability, morphology and immunogenicity in Muscovy ducks. Our results indicate that the H5N6 VLPs-TMH3 contained more HA trimers and presented better thermal stability. Moreover, Muscovy ducks immunized with H5N6 VLPs-TMH3 produced higher titer of HI ...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Qin J, Zhang Y, Shen X, Gong L, Xue C, Cao Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A double recombinant herpes virus of turkeys for the protection of chickens against Newcastle, infectious laryngotracheitis and Marek's Diseases.
Abstract A double recombinant strain of Herpes Virus of Turkeys (HVT) was constructed that contains the fusion (F) gene from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and the gD plus gI genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) inserted into a non-essential region of the HVT genome. Expression of the F protein was controlled by a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) promoter, whereas expression of gD plus gI was driven by an ILTV promoter. The double recombinant vaccine virus (HVT-NDV-ILT) was fully stable genetically and phenotypically following extended passage in cell culture and infection of chickens. Safety of the vac...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Gergen L, Cook S, Ledesma B, Cress W, Higuchi D, Counts D, Cruz-Coy J, Crouch C, Davis P, Tarpey I, Morsey M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Vaccination of chickens with the 34  kDa carboxy-terminus of Bpmp72 reduces colonisation with Brachyspira pilosicoli following experimental infectionRecombinant vaccine for Brachyspira pilosicoli.
This study indicates that recombinant Bmp72 C-terminus has potential to be developed for use as a vaccine component to provide protection against B. pilosicoli infections. PMID: 30404542 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: La T, Phillips ND, Hampson DJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome occurrence in laying hens: impact of production system.
Abstract Surveys were conducted with cage and alternative layer production systems to assess the prevalence of fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS). Commercial caged laying hens of different ages from three farms in Queensland were monitored for 3 months. The mortality rate of flocks ranged from 0.8% (the youngest flock) to 11.6% (the oldest flock). Six hundred and fifty-one birds were necropsied, and approximately 40% of hens died due to FLHS. Hens kept in cages in a controlled environment shed, were at a similar risk of developing FLHS as hens kept in naturally controlled sheds, however the heavier birds in ...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 22, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Shini A, Shini S, Bryden WL Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Genotyping of Riemerella anatipestifer by ERIC-PCR and correlation with serotypes.
, Wehmann E Abstract Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is a widely distributed bacterial pathogen of birds responsible for remarkable losses to poultry production, especially among waterfowl. We characterized the genomic diversity of 166 field isolates of RA collected from geese and ducks using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The field strains and five reference strains showed 17 distinct patterns consisting of five to 12 bands ranging from approximately150-1800bp. The majority of the strains belonged to two closely related ERIC-PCR types (A and B), while the oth...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 17, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Magyar T, Gyuris É, Ujvári B, Metzner M, Wehmann E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Vaccination of breeder hens with a polyvalent killed vaccine for pathogenic Enterococcus cecorum does not protect offspring from enterococcal spondylitis.
Abstract Pathogenic strains of Enterococcus cecorum cause symmetrical paralysis in broilers due to infection of the free thoracic vertebra. The disease caused by pathogenic E. cecorum, known as Enterococcal Spondylitis or 'kinky-back' continues to be responsible for significant losses to the broiler industry worldwide. In outbreaks of pathogenic E. cecorum, gut colonization and sepsis occur in the first 3 weeks of life. Since maternal antibodies are present during this period, we postulated that vaccination of breeders with a polyvalent killed vaccine would protect chicks from challenge. To test this hypothesis, r...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 17, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Borst LB, Mitsu Suyemoto M, Chen LR, John Barnes H Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathology of Clade 2.3.2.1 Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Infection in Quails and Ducks in Bangladesh.
This study records varying clinical and pathological manifestations of HPAI in ducks and quails following natural infection with the same strain of the virus. PMID: 30303027 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 10, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Nooruzzaman M, Haque ME, Chowdhury EH, Islam MR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Construction and Characterization of an OmpH-deficient Mutant of Pasteurella multocida Strain X-73.
In conclusion, the mutant strain PBA129 of P. multocida strain X-73 was completely attenuated, and it was possible to induce sufficient protection against avian P. multocida strains. PMID: 30295061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 7, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Varinrak T, Muenthaisong A, Apinda N, Sawada T, Sthitmatee N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings, WVPA Matters and Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 30240569 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - September 22, 2018 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

B-mode ultrasonographic evaluation of long bones in Falconiformes and Strigiformes birds.
s SFS Abstract Bone fractures in birds are usually diagnosed with the aid of traditional radiography. However, this technique remains limited because of the difficulties associating this examination with real-time procedures. The aim of this study was to describe the use of B-mode ultrasound to assess the long bones of two avian orders. For the study, we used carcasses of birds from the orders Falconiformes (n = 9) and Strigiformes (n = 12), with weights ranging from 108 g to 1,020 g. An ultrasound device with a 5-12 MHz linear probe was employed to produce images of the long bones (hum...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 20, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: González CAG, Albuquerque CT, Teixeira PPM, Santos RR, Domingues SFS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A review on the current situation and challenges of colistin resistance in poultry production.
Abstract Colistin has been re-assessed as a critically important antimicrobial in humans due to its efficacy against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae. The recent discovery of mobile colistin resistance determinants in humans and animals has brought concerns regarding the future of this antimicrobial. In this paper, we aim to highlight the current challenges with colistin resistant bacteria and to summarise reliable global data on colistin resistance in poultry production. In addition, we present and compare data from a screening for colistin ...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 18, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Apostolakos I, Piccirillo A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Heat stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.
Abstract Heat stress is a physical environmental stressor, which can affect performance, health and welfare of poultry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cyclic acute heat stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks in an experimental challenge model. Two hundred and forty broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimental design: group A, was served as negative control (25 oC), group B, birds were subjected to cyclic acute heat stress (35 oC), group C, birds were challenged and group D, birds were both su...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 17, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Tsiouris V, Georgopoulou I, Batzios C, Pappaioannou N, Ducatelle R, Fortomaris P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Field and laboratory findings following the large scale use of intermediate type infectious bursal disease vaccines in Denmark.
Abstract Following a period of clinical outbreaks of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) in Denmark, the histological bursal lesion score (HBLS) was used on a national scale to screen broiler flocks vaccinated with intermediate IBD vaccines for lesions indicative of IBDV challenge. High lesion scores were detected in a high percentage of healthy and well performing flocks despite the lack of other indications of the presence of vvIBDV. RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed the frequent presence of H253Q and H253N IBDV strains that were genetically close to the sequence of the intermediate vacc...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 12, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Olesen L, Dijkman R, Koopman R, van Leeuwen R, Gardin Y, Dwars RM, de Bruijn ND, Boelm GJ, Elattrache J, de Wit JJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica) are susceptible to Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus infections.
cht B Abstract Avian influenza viruses have been isolated from many bird species; however, little is known about the susceptibility of pet birds to low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. To address this research gap, domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica) were experimentally infected with H5 and H7 LPAI viruses to determine susceptibility and evaluate samples for diagnostic purposes. Clinical evidence of infection (eg, ruffled plumage and apathy) and mortality were noted for the canaries inoculated with chicken adapted LPAI viruses. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RR...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 12, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Marché S, van den Berg T, Lambrecht B Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Analysis of alternative splicing in chicken embryo fibroblasts in response to reticuloendotheliosis virus infection.
Abstract Alternative splicing(AS) play a significant role in regulation of genomic expression at transcriptional level and was involved in many important biological functions of cells, thus a gene can be spliced into distinct transcripts variants then translated to many different kinds of protein. Reticuloendotheliosis virus(REV) is a kind of retrovirus that can infect multiple avian species, leading to runting syndrome, immunosuppression and oncogenesis. In this present study, we analyzed AS in REV-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts(CEFs) which were inoculated with the second generation of REV (group VB) compare...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 13, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Gao C, Zhai J, Dang S, Zheng S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A Proposed Nomenclature for Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolates.
Abstract Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was initially identified in the USA. For decades, these viruses were not categorized using a typing system because they were considered to be antigenically and pathogenically similar. In the 1980s, a second major serotype, serotype 2, was found in turkeys. Classification of IBDV became more complex with the discovery of antigenic variant strains called "variants" in the United States and a highly virulent strain known as "very virulent" or vvIBDV identified in Europe. To distinguish the IBDV strains identified prior to this time from the antigenic...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Jackwood DJ, Schat KA, Michel LO, de Wit S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 62-2 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 29920134 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 20, 2018 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

In vitro phagocytosis of opsonised latex beads by HD11 cells as a method to assess the general opsonisation potential of chicken serum.
In conclusion, in vitro opsonophagocytosis assessment and determination of OPp may be of relevance when addressing general innate immunocompetence. PMID: 29920114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 19, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Naghizadeh M, Wattrang E, Kjærup RB, Bakke M, Shih S, Dalgaard TS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to identify potential sources of colonization in commercial turkey farms.
This study aimed at identifying potential sources and transmission routes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in commercial turkey farms. C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from breeders (n = 29, 20 C. jejuni and 9 C. coli) and their progeny (n = 51, 18 C. jejuni and 33 C. coli) reared in two different farms for three sequential production cycles were analysed by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Strains (n = 88, 42 C. jejuni and 46 C. coli) isolated from environmental (i.e. anteroom and in-house overshoes), water (i.e. drinkers and water line), and pest (i.e. flies, Alphitobius diaperinus, and mice) sources were also examined...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 13, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Piccirillo A, Giacomelli M, Niero G, De Luca C, Carraro L, Ortali G, Mughini-Gras L Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Newcastle disease virus: is an updated attenuated vaccine needed?
In conclusion, to confer full protection against NDVs that differ from the vaccine strain at the neutralizing epitopes, very high levels of antibodies should be raised and maintained to compensate for the reduction in the number of effective epitopes; alternatively, an adjusted attenuated vaccine should be developed-a task made possible in the current era of reverse vaccinology. PMID: 29897786 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 13, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Shahar E, Haddas R, Goldenberg D, Lublin A, Bloch I, Bachner Hinenzon N, Pitcovski J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Hot Topics in Avian Pathology: Marek's disease.
Abstract Marek's disease (MD), characterised by rapid-onset lymphoid tumours, immunosuppression and paralysis, is one of the most widespread economically important disease of poultry world-wide. Caused by the highly contagious Marek's disease virus (MDV), control of MD is mainly achieved through vaccination with live attenuated vaccines, although improvements in genetic resistance have also been an important component of disease control. Despite the overall success of the vaccination policy in controlling MD in the last 40 years, continuous evolution of virulence and emergence of hypervirulent pathotypes, remains ...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Nair V Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The effect of a commercial competitive exclusion product on the selection of enrofloxacin resistance in commensal E. coli in broilers.
Abstract The effect of a competitive exclusion product (Aviguard®) on the selection of fluoroquinolone resistance in poultry was assessed in vivo in the absence or presence of fluoroquinolone treatment. Two experiments using a controlled seeder-sentinel animal model (2seeders:4sentinels per group) with one-day-old chicks were used. For both experiments,as soon as the chicks were hatched, the animals of two groups were administered Aviguard® and two groups were left untreated. Three days later, all groups were inoculated with an enrofloxacin-susceptible commensal E. coli strain. Five days after hatching, tw...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 7, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Chantziaras I, Smet A, Filippitzi ME, Damiaans B, Haesebrouck F, Boyen F, Dewulf J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 62-1 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 29714605 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - May 3, 2018 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Construction of pSPI12-cured Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum and Identification of IpaJ as an immune response modulator.
Abstract In Salmonella, plasmids participate in many pathways involved in virulence, metabolism, and antibiotic resistance. To investigate the function of the ipaJ gene in a multi-copy plasmid pSPI12 prevalent in Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum), we established a method to eliminate plasmid and constructed the plasmid-cured bacteria C79-13-ΔpSPI12 by using the suicide vector pDM4. Briefly, a 500 bp fragment ipaJU from pSPI12 was cloned into pDM4 and transformed into S. Pullorum C79-13 by conjugative transfer. After homologous recombination, the suicide vector was inserted into pSPI12 to pro...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Yin C, Xu L, Li Y, Liu Z, Gu D, Li Q, Jiao X Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of full S1 gene sequencing of classical and variant infectious bronchitis viruses extracted from allantoic fluid and FTA cards.
Abstract Sequence variability in the S1 gene determines the genotype of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains. A single RT-PCR assay was developed to amplify and sequence the full S1 gene for six classical and variant IBVs (M41, D274, 793B, IS/885/00, IS/1494/06 and Q1) enriched in allantoic fluid (AF) or the same AF but inoculated onto Flinders Technology Association (FTA) cards. Representative strains from each genotype were grown in SPF eggs and RNA was extracted from AF. Full S1 gene amplification was achieved using primer A and primer 22.51. Products were sequenced using primer A, 1050+, 1380+ and SX3+ to...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 1, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Manswr B, Ball C, Forrester A, Chantrey J, Ganapathy K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 Virus from Egyptian Domestic Waterfowl in 2017.
Abstract In 2016, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was detected in wild birds for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, we identified the HPAI virus H5N8 of clade 2.3.4.4 from domestic waterfowl in Egypt, suggesting its transmission to the domestic poultry from the migratory birds. Based on partial hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequence, this virus has a close genetic relationship with subtype H5N8 viruses circulating in Asia and Europe. Pathologically, H5N8 virus in hybrid duck induced nervous signs accompanied by encephalomalacia, hemorrhages, nonsuppurative encephalitis and nonsuppurat...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 27, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Anis A, AboElkhair M, Ibrahim M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Bacillus spp. as direct-fed microbial antibiotic alternatives to enhance growth, immunity and gut health in poultry.
Abstract The increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria combined with regulatory pressure and consumer demands for foods produced without antibiotics has caused the agricultural industry to restrict its practice of using antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in feed animals. The poultry industry is not immune to this trend, and has been actively seeking natural alternatives to AGP that will improve the health and growth performance of commercial poultry flocks. Bacillus probiotics have been gaining in popularity in recent years as an AGP alternative because of their health promoting benefits and ability to...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 11, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Grant A, Gay CG, Lillehoj HS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathogenicity of a variant goose parvovirus from short beak and dwarfism syndrome of Pekin ducks in goose embryos and goslings.
Abstract The pathogenicity of a variant goose parvovirus (GPV) isolated from short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) of Pekin ducks (strain Cherry Valley) in embryonating goose eggs and goslings was investigated. The virus was easily grown in GPV antibody-free goose embryos and caused high mortality and severe lesions of goose embryos, indicating that the variant GPV shares good adaptation and high pathogenicity to embryonated goose eggs similar to the classical GPV. Like the third egg passage virus (strain H) of a classical GPV, the third egg passage virus (strain JS1) of the variant GPV caused Derzsy's disease i...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 9, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Ning K, Liang T, Wang M, Dong Y, Qu S, Zhang D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of fowl aviadenoviruses species D and E associated with inclusion bodies hepatitis in chickens and falcons indicates possible cross-species transmission.
Abstract During the period from 2015 to 2017, frequent outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) were observed in chicken broilers and falcons in Saudi Arabia. Fifty samples were collected from both species. The histopathological examination and PCR confirmed the IBH infection in eight samples (5 samples from chickens and 3 samples from falcons). The genomic sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide and amino acids sequences of Saudi strains, reference fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) and field viruses available in Genbank revealed that, all investigated FAdVs clustered into FAdV-2 (species D) and FAdV-...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 28, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Mohamed MH, El-Sabagh IM, Abdelaziz AM, Al-Ali AM, Alramadan M, Lebdah MA, Ibrahim AM, Al-Ankari AS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effect of an Enterococcus faecium probiotic on specific IgA following live Salmonella Enteritidis vaccination of layer chickens.
B, Caron LF Abstract Probiotics and immunization are being widely adopted by the poultry industry with the goal of controlling Salmonella enterica. However, the interaction between these two management protocols has been sparsely studied. The present study aimed to understand the role of an Enterococcus faecium probiotic in the production of salmonella-specific IgA in layers immunized with a live vaccine. Four groups were used: 'Control' (no vaccine or probiotic); 'Probiotic' (which received an E. faecium product); 'Vaccine' (immunized with two doses of a live attenuated S. Enteritidis vaccine); and 'Vaccine + pro...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 14, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Beirão BCB, Ingberman M, Fávaro C, Mesa D, Bittencourt LC, Fascina VB, Caron LF Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Eimeria spp. in captive-reared corncrakes (Crex crex): results of GeneScan assay consistent with high prevalence of infection and extra-intestinal life stages.
Abstract Eimeria crecis and Eimeria nenei have been detected in association with enteric disease ('coccidiosis') in the corncrake (Crex crex: Family Rallidae, Order Gruiformes). Both parasite species are common in apparently healthy free-living corncrakes, but captive-bred juvenile birds reared for reintroduction appeared particularly susceptible to clinical coccidiosis. We investigated the occurrence and relative pathogenicity of these Eimeria species in this juvenile corncrake population and developed a diagnostic species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for their identification. PCR amplification and se...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 13, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Serna H, Pocknell A, Sainsbury AW, Peniche G, Blake DP, Beckmann KM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of Reliable Techniques for the Differential Diagnosis of Avian Tumour Viruses by Immunohistochemistry and Polymerase Chain Reaction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections.
Abstract A variety of techniques have been developed as diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of tumours produced by Marek's disease virus (MDV) from those induced by avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). However, most current techniques are unreliable when used in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues, which many times is the only sample type available for definitive diagnosis. A collection of tumours was generated by the inoculation of different strains of MDV, REV or ALV singularly or in combination. FFPE tissue sections from tumour and non-tumour tissues were ana...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 13, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Ahmed H, Mays J, Kiupel M, Dunn JR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Characterization of prevalent bacterial pathogens associated with pododermatitis in table egg layers.
In conclusion, the results suggest that S. aureus is a major pathogen associated with pododermatitis abscesses, which could be from a common source, whereas the diversity among the E. faecalis and E. coli populations suggests that these bacteria might originate from multiple sources. PMID: 29517269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - March 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Heidemann Olsen R, Christensen H, Kabell S, Bisgaard M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Characterization of field infectious bursal disease viruses in Zambia: Evidence of co-circulation of multiple genotypes with predominance of very virulent strains.
This study investigated the genetic characteristics and pathological lesions induced by IBD viruses (IBDVs) that were associated with sixty suspected outbreaks in chickens during 2015-2016 in Lusaka Province, Zambia. Nucleotide sequences of VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) (n=38) and part of VP1 (n=37) of Zambian IBDVs were phylogenetically analysed. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP2-HVR and VP1 revealed that most viruses (n=31 of each genome segment) clustered with the very virulent (vv) strains. The rest of the viruses clustered with the classical strains, with two of the viruses being closely related to attenuated vacc...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Mwenda R, Changula K, Hang'ombe BM, Chidumayo N, Mangani AS, Kaira T, Takada A, Mweene AS, Simulundu E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The role of the outer membrane protein gene ybjX in the pathogenicity of Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.
Abstract Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are important pathogens that cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The PhoP/Q system is essential for APEC pathogenicity, and its mutation leads to a decrease in ybjX gene expression; but whether ybjX regulated by PhoP/Q plays a role in pathogenicity remains unclear. The role of ybjX in APEC pathogenicity was investigated using a ybjX mutant strain constructed from APEC strain AE17 by the Red recombination method. The mutant strain displayed significantly reduced adherence to and invasion of chicken embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1) cell...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 8, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Song X, Li C, Qi K, Tu J, Liu H, Xue T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research