Challenges and recent advancements in infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines.
Abstract Over the past 80 years, biosecurity measures and vaccines have been used to prevent the occurrence of outbreaks of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Despite these control strategies, ILT continues to have an impact on intensive poultry industries. Attenuated vaccines, particularly those derived by passage in chicken embryos, have been associated with a number of side effects, including residual virulence, transmission to naïve birds, establishment of latent infections with subsequent reactivation and shedding of virus, and reversion to virulence after in vivo passage. Most recently, recombination b...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Coppo MJ, Noormohammadi AH, Browning GF, Devlin JM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

No protection in chickens immunized by the oral or intra-muscular immunization route with Ascaridia galli soluble antigen.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the induction of protective immune responses to A. galli soluble antigen by different immunization routes. Chickens were immunized with a crude extract of A. galli via an oral or intra-muscular route using cholera toxin B subunit as adjuvant and subsequently challenged with A. galli. Only chickens immunized via the intra-muscular route developed a specific A. galli antibody response. Frequencies of γδ T cells in spleen were higher 7 days after the first immunization in both groups but only significantly so in the intra-muscularly immunized group. In addition, systemic...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Andersen JP, Norup LR, Dalgaard TS, Rothwell L, Kaiser P, Permin A, Schou TW, Fink DR, Jungersen G, Sørensen P, Juul-Madsen HR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Reproduction of the Escherichia coli peritonitis syndrome in laying hens.
PMID: 23718809 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Landman WJ, Heuvelink A, van Eck JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

First report of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in common swifts (Apus apus).
Abstract Forty common swifts (Apus apus), synanthropic birds living in an urban environment closely with humans and other animals, were hospitalized in the public veterinary hospital of the Regional Reference Center of Urban Veterinary Hygiene located in Naples, Campania Region, Italy. Each bird was sampled for bacteriological analyses. Out of 40 common swifts examined, eight were found positive for Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis although no sign of salmonellosis (e.g. diarrhoea) was shown. This is believed to be the first report of Salmonella spp. infection in common swifts. Our results suggest this avian s...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 30, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Borrelli L, Fioretti A, Russo TP, Barco L, Raia P, De Luca Bossa LM, Sensale M, Menna LF, Dipineto L Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Announcements, International Meetings, WVPA Matters.
Authors: PMID: 23656630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - May 9, 2013 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of H9N2 virus in Chukar partridges.
In this study the clinical signs, antibody response, viral shedding and efficacy of oil emulsion vaccines in Chukar partridges were investigated until 9 days post inoculation (d.p.i.). Seventy-five Chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) were divided randomly in three groups of challenged (Group C), vaccinated and challenged (Group VC) and control (non-vaccinated and non-challenged [Group NC]), 25 birds/group. Groups C and VC were inoculated with 0.4 ml allantoic fluid containing 10(7) median embryo infective dose/bird of A/Chicken/Iran/772/1998(H9N2) avian influenza virus. Clinical signs, antibody response, viral shedding an...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 30, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Nili H, Mohammadi A, Habibi H, Firouzi S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

In vivo screening of five phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against colibacillosis in broilers.
In conclusion, none of the tested phytochemicals/extracts and the FIP significantly reduced the E. coli-induced mortality and generalized colibacillosis, and nor did they improve recovery from colibacillosis lesions. PMID: 23627727 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 29, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Peek HW, Halkes SB, Tomassen MM, Mes JJ, Landman WJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Differential transcription patterns in wild-type and glycoprotein G-deleted infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.
This study has provided insights into the interactions between gG and other ILTV genes that may have a role in virulence. PMID: 23611157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 24, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Mahmoudian A, Markham PF, Noormohammadi AH, Devlin JM, Browning GF Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Assessment of the anti-Salmonella activity of commercial formulations of organic acid products.
Abstract Organic acid products are widely used in the UK poultry industry as feed or water additives. Claims for Salmonella control are made for some of these products, but there are few studies comparing the anti-Salmonella effect of the various products in tests that reflect field application. The present studies examined the effects of 13 commercial blends (four water products and nine feed products) on Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium strains. Initial screening, in nutrient broth, of all products with all strains revealed little variation between strains in respect of maximum inhibitory and bactericidal ...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 22, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Wales A, McLaren I, Rabie A, Gosling RJ, Martelli F, Sayers R, Davies R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

An experimental study of the survival of turkey coronavirus at room temperature and +4°C.
An experimental study of the survival of turkey coronavirus at room temperature and +4°C. Avian Pathol. 2013 Apr 22; Authors: Guionie O, Courtillon C, Allee C, Maurel S, Queguiner M, Eterradossi N Abstract Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) is a gammacoronavirus (Coronaviridae, Nidovirales) responsible for digestive disorders in young turkeys. TCoV has been associated with poult enteritis complex, a syndrome that severely affects turkey production. No medical prophylaxis exists to control TCoV, therefore sanitary measures such as cleaning and disinfection are essential. It is thus important to evaluate temperat...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 22, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Guionie O, Courtillon C, Allee C, Maurel S, Queguiner M, Eterradossi N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Booster responses by oral vaccination with transgenic plants against chicken leucocytozoonosis.
This study demonstrates the use of a plant-based oral vaccine to boost immunity against a protozoan disease. PMID: 23607580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 22, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Ito A, Gotanda T, Himeno N, Itchoda N, Tabayashi N, Ike K, Sugimoto C, Matsumura T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

An in vivo experimental model to determine antigenic variations among infectious bursal disease viruses.
In this study, an in vivo experimental model was developed to differentiate a new antigenic variant of IBDV. To this end, a hyper-immune serum to IBDV E/Del-type virus was generated in specific pathogen-free chickens and a standard volume of the hyper-immune serum was serially diluted and injected in specific pathogen-free birds via intravenous, subcutaneous, or intramuscular routes. The chickens were bled at different time points in order to evaluate the dynamics of virus neutralization titres. Based on the results, chickens were injected with different serum dilutions by the subcutaneous route. Twenty-four hours later, c...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 17, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Durairaj V, Linnemann E, Icard AH, Williams SM, Sellers HS, Mundt E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Real-time PCR-based quantification of Eimeria genomes: a method to outweigh underestimation of genome numbers due to PCR inhibition.
Abstract Eimeria species parasites can cause the disease coccidiosis in all livestock species, most notably poultry. Traditional diagnostics such as faecal microscopy have now been supplemented by molecular assays including genus-specific and species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), although DNA extracted from faecal samples is commonly affected by PCR inhibition. This was confirmed when genomic DNA extracted from chicken faeces inhibited the threshold cycle value of internal positive control (IPC) DNA amplification by 15.33%. Hence, the objective of the present study was to use IPC qPCR to ...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 16, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Raj GD, Aarthi S, Selvabharathi R, Raman M, Blake DP, Tomley FM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous identification, quantitation and differentiation of avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B.
Abstract In recent years, special attention has been paid to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) diagnosis, due to its numerous advantages over classical PCR. A new multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) with molecular beacon probe assay, designed to target the SH gene, was developed. The test was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, and compared with conventional RT nested-PCR based on the G gene. All of the AMPV subtype A and B strains tested were amplified and specifically detected while no amplification occurred w...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 14, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Cecchinato M, Lupini C, Munoz Pogoreltseva OS, Listorti V, Mondin A, Drigo M, Catelli E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance, presence of integrons and biofilm formation of Salmonella Pullorum isolates from eastern China (1962-2010).
Abstract Three hundred and thirty-seven isolates of Salmonella Pullorum from eastern China between 1962 and 2010 were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility (disk diffusion method), the presence of integrons (polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing) and the ability to form biofilms (semi-quantitative adherence assay). Two hundred and fifty-eight isolates (76.6%) exhibited multiple drug resistance (MDR; resistant to at least three different classes of antimicrobials), and the level of drug resistance is increasing with time. There were three isolates (9.4%) exhibiting MDR from 1962 to 1968. MDR rat...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 14, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Gong J, Xu M, Zhu C, Miao J, Liu X, Xu B, Zhang J, Yu Y, Jia X Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Editorial.
PMID: 23581434 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Bradbury JM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Dual infections with low virulent chicken infectious anaemia virus (lvCIAV) and intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (iIBDV) in young chicks increase lvCIAV in thymus and bursa while decreasing lymphocyte disorders induced by iIBDV.
Abstract The use of attenuated vaccines or the occurrence of low virulent T-lymphotropic or B-lymphotropic viruses in flocks may alter the immune responses of young chicks in spite of the absence of clinical signs. Infections with a low virulent T-lymphotropic chicken infectious anaemia virus (lvCIAV) followed by infection with an intermediate B-lymphotropic infectious bursal disease virus (iIBDV) were conducted in specific pathogen free chicks. Thirty-six 1-day-old chicks were infected with the lvCIAV strain (CAV-VAC®) and a similar number of chicks were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. At 14 days a...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Vaziry A, Silim A, Bleau C, Frenette D, Lamontagne L Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Validation of a previously developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the detection and quantification of Mycoplasma synoviae in chicken joint specimens.
Abstract A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was validated for the detection of Mycoplasma synoviae (PCR equivalents of colony-forming units [CFU eq.]) in chicken joint specimens with time and compared with direct mycoplasma culture. Joint specimens were obtained from 70 layer pullets inoculated intravenously with M. synoviae at 6 weeks of age. Ten control birds were injected intra-articularly with Freund's complete adjuvant. Macroscopic joint lesions were observed in 54 infected birds, of which 11 showed positive M. synoviae culture. The specificity of direct mycoplasma culture was high (100%, 95% con...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Dijkman R, Feberwee A, Landman WJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of the chicken anaemia viruses isolated from broiler farms of west Azerbaijan, Iran.
Abstract Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) is an economically important pathogen of chickens with worldwide distribution. CAV is the causative agent of chicken anaemia disease, causing severe anaemia, lymphoid atrophy and immunosuppression in young birds. In the present study, the genetic variation of circulating CAVs in west Azerbaijan broiler farms was investigated and compared with CAVs from other countries. Extracted viral DNA from livers of chickens positive for CAV (46 out of 100) was used and a fragment of the VP1 gene 1390 base pairs in size was amplified. The purified products were subjected to restriction frag...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Nayabian H, Mardani K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathology and diagnosis of avian bornavirus infection in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) and mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Canada: a retrospective study.
Abstract Nine hundred and fifty-five pathology cases collected in Ontario between 1992 and 2011 from wild free-ranging Canada geese, trumpeter swans and mute swans were retrospectively evaluated for the pathology associated with avian bornavirus (ABV) infection. Cases were selected based on the presence of upper gastrointestinal impaction, central nervous system histopathology or clinical history suggestive of ABV infection. The proportion of birds meeting at least one of these criteria was significantly higher at the Toronto Zoo (30/132) than elsewhere in Ontario (21/823). Central, peripheral and autonomic nervou...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Delnatte P, Ojkic D, Delay J, Campbell D, Crawshaw G, Smith DA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Gene expression responses to Riemerella anatipestifer infection in the liver of ducks.
Abstract Riemerella anatipestifer is one of the most economically important pathogens of farm ducks worldwide. The molecular mechanisms that underlie its pathogenesis, particularly the host response to R. anatipestifer infection, are poorly understood. The differentially expressed gene profile of duck livers at 24 h following R. anatipestifer infection was therefore investigated using suppression subtractive hybridizaton analysis. A total of 45 differentially expressed genes were identified, which primarily included genes for proteins involved in acute-phase response, inflammatory response, immune response, wound ...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Zhou Z, Li X, Xiao Y, Wang X, Tian W, Peng X, Bi D, Sun M, Li Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Extra-intestinal coccidiosis in the kiwi (Apteryx spp.).
This study used archived histological tissues and reports from routine necropsies to describe the pathology of naturally occurring extra-intestinal coccidiosis. At least 4.5% of all kiwi necropsied during 1991 to 2011 (n=558) were affected by extra-intestinal coccidiosis, and it is estimated that it caused death in 0.9 to 1.2% of kiwi in the study group. Four forms were recognized: renal, hepatic, and, less commonly, splenic and pulmonary. At necropsy, renal coccidiosis was associated with miliary white streaks and foci through the kidneys, renomegaly, and renal pallor or congestion. Renal meronts and gametocytes were conf...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Morgan KJ, Alley MR, Pomroy WE, Gartrell BD, Castro I, Howe L Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian pox in crimson rosellas (Platycercus elegans) in southern Australia.
Abstract Poxviral infection was identified in a crimson rosella presented to the Australian Wildlife Health Centre (Victoria) in 2002, and from a second crimson rosella in 2008. Both cases were characterized by proliferative lesions on non-feathered skin. Routine histopathology identified intra-lesional epidermal changes consistent with those caused by poxvirus. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of poxvirus in inclusions in the first case, and genetic analysis of DNA extracted from both cases found an identical viral genome that differs from all other known poxviruses. We conclude that this infection in c...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Slocombe RF, McCowan C, Wang J, Holz P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Riemerella anatipestifer outbreaks in commercial goose flocks and identification of isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
Abstract Several outbreaks of Riemerella anatipestifer in commercial geese occurred within a short time period. A serious disease was recognized in the affected birds, mainly characterized by depression and severe neurologic disturbances. The morbidity ranged from 20 to 30% and the mortality from 5 to 20%. Generally, the clinical signs started at the age of 8 to 10 days. Post-mortem examination revealed fibrinous pericarditis, perihepatitis and airsacculitis in all birds. Some of the birds also had synovitis of the tibio-tarsal joints and oedematous swelling of the subcutaneous tissues around these joints and meta...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Hess C, Enichlmayr H, Jandreski-Cvetkovic D, Liebhart D, Bilic I, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Reproduction of the Escherichia coli peritonitis syndrome in laying hens.
Abstract In five experiments, each consisting of four or six groups with seven or 14 brown laying hens per group, birds were inoculated with an Escherichia coli strain, isolated from a layer with the E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS) by different routes between 23 and 33 weeks of age. Aerosol-exposed hens inhaled 10(5.1) to 10(6.2) colony-forming units per hen; hens inoculated by other routes received 10(7.6) to 10(9.1) colony-forming units per hen. In one experiment, one-half of the birds of each group were injected intraperitoneally with sterile egg yolk simultaneously with E. coli. Dead and surviving birds wer...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Landman WJ, Heuvelink A, van Eck JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The role of an attenuated anticoccidial vaccine on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of an attenuated anticoccidial vaccination on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broiler chickens were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimental design: control Group N; Group PN, where birds were vaccinated with anticoccidial vaccine; Group M, where birds were challenged with Clostridium perfringens and with Eimeria maxima; and Group PM, where birds were both vaccinated and challenged. From each bird, t...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Tsiouris V, Georgopoulou I, Batzios C, Pappaioannou N, Diakou A, Petridou E, Ducatelle R, Fortomaris P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Demonstration of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) with pneumonia and airsacculitis.
Abstract Outbreaks of respiratory disease were investigated in reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) aged approximately 18 to 32 weeks, released into the semi-wild on four shooting estates in southern England. The clinical signs in the affected birds included swelling of the face and eyes, loss of condition, gasping respirations and coughing. The gross pathology findings included sinusitis, airsacculitis, pleural oedema and lung lesions. The histopathological findings in the affected lungs were characterized by a granulomatous pneumonia. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) was isolated from respiratory tract ti...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Welchman Dde B, Ainsworth HL, Jensen TK, Boye M, King SA, Koylass MS, Whatmore AM, Manvell RJ, Ayling RD, Dalton JR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Day-of-hatch vaccination is not protective against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.
Abstract Necrotic enteritis, caused by netB toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A, is an important disease in broiler chickens worldwide. Earlier attempts to prevent necrotic enteritis by vaccination have not sufficiently taken into account the practical limitations of broiler vaccination. In most published studies on vaccination against necrotic enteritis, multiple doses at different ages are administered, which is not practical for broilers. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subcutaneous single vaccination at day 1 or day 3 and double vaccination at day 3 and day 12, using crude super...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Mot D, Timbermont L, Delezie E, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R, Van Immerseel F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Combination of differential growth at two different temperatures with a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine temperature-sensitive phenotype of Mycoplasma synoviae.
Abstract Mycoplasma synoviae infections result in significant economic losses in the chicken and turkey industries. A commercially available live temperature-sensitive (ts (+)) vaccine strain MS-H has been found to be effective in controlling M. synoviae infections in commercial layer and broiler breeder farms in various countries, including Australia. Detection and differentiation of MS-H from field strains (ts (-)) and from ts (-) MS-H reisolates in vaccinated flocks is vital in routine flock status monitoring. At present microtitration is the only available technique to determine the ts phenotype of M. synoviae...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Shahid MA, Ghorashi SA, Agnew-Crumpton R, Markham PF, Marenda MS, Noormohammadi AH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Vicco von bülow (1930-2013).
Vicco von bülow (1930-2013). Avian Pathol. 2013 Apr;42(2):192-3 Authors: Kaleta EF, Hafez HM, Vielitz E PMID: 23581448 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Kaleta EF, Hafez HM, Vielitz E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Announcements, International Meetings, WVPA Matters.
Authors: PMID: 23581449 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Chimaeric VP2 proteins from infectious bursal disease virus containing the N-terminal M2e of H9 subtype avian influenza virus induce neutralizing antibody responses to both viruses.
Abstract Subunit vaccines capable of inducing antibody against both infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and H9 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) were developed. The VP2 protein of IBDV was used as a cargo protein to display a 12-amino-acid immunodominant epitope derived from the N-terminal M2 extracellular domain (nM2e) of the H9 subtype AIV. Two chimaeric proteins were constructed by insertion of one copy of the nM2e into the PBC region (VP2BCnM2e(H9)) or by fusing four copies of nM2e to the carboxyl terminal (VP2-4nM2e(H9)) of VP2. Genes that encoded the VP2 chimaeras were subsequently cloned into a baculov...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 12, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Tang Y, Gong Y, Wang Y, Wu P, Liu Y, Lu J, Gao F, Chen T, Hou F, Hou J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Serological investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 in ostriches (Struthio camelus).
Abstract An ostrich farm of 929 birds that tested polymerase chain reaction-positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 in a single sample was designated for culling, despite no evidence of sero-conversion as assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. A month later and immediately prior to culling, all birds were bled and tested with an IDEXX avian influenza virus (AIV) nucleoprotein (NP)-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a high sero-prevalence was detected. To address the question of whether the NP-specific antibodies detected indicated exposure to H5 or non-H5 subtypes (H6N...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Abolnik C, Fehrsen J, Olivier A, van Wyngaardt W, Fosgate G, Ellis C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Prevalence and characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Salmonella isolated from poultry in Korea.
This report is the first to describe the detection of qnr genes in Salmonella spp. isolated from poultry in Korea. Widespread horizontal transfer of these genes among bacteria may be a serious public health concern because these can rapidly increase fluoroquinolone resistance. To ensure the public health, it is essential to continuously survey and carefully monitor the spread of PMQR genes in Salmonella from poultry. PMID: 23607509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - March 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Kim JH, Cho JK, Kim KS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Identification and typing of Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) farms in Benin during four laying seasons (2007 to 2010).
Abstract The main problem for the local guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) traditional farming and raising system in north-east Benin is the high mortality rate of the keets (up to 70%) due to a combination of climatic, nutritional, hygienic and infectious causes. The present study was carried out to identify and compare the isolates of Salmonella enterica from necropsied keets, laying guinea fowl, surrogate hen mothers, other contact animal species and farmers during four laying seasons (2007 to 2010). S. enterica belonging to eight different serotypes (Adelaide, Farakan, Kingston, Legon, Luke, Oakland, Sangalkam and...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Boko CK, Kpodekon TM, Duprez JN, Imberechts H, Taminiau B, Bertrand S, Mainil JG Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The required sample size in vaccination-challenge experiments with infectious bronchitis virus, a meta-analysis.
Abstract For statistical, animal welfare and financial reasons the choice of the number of chickens per group in experiments is important. This estimation, together with the number of tracheal organ cultures (TOCs) that need to be examined from each chicken in order to assess protection, should be based on the difference in level of protection that one would like to be able to detect (effect size), the expected variability of the results between and within the chickens, the desired confidence level and the power of the study. To obtain data that would facilitate this estimation, a meta-analysis was performed on th...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: de Wit JJ, Boelm GJ, van Gerwe TJ, Swart WA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of different diagnostic tools for the detection and identification of Riemerella anatipestifer.
n S Abstract Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is an important avian pathogen with considerable impact on poultry production worldwide. However, the diagnosis of RA infections may be difficult, mainly due to problems with unequivocal differentiation of RA from other Flavobacteriaceae and a lack of standardized methods and reagents. The aim of the present study was therefore to complement the routine diagnostic strategies for RA by design and evaluation of alternative diagnostic tools. We designed and validated a new RA-specific polymerase chain reaction assay, which proved to be a valuable tool for the identification ...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Rubbenstroth D, Ryll M, Knobloch JK, Köhler B, Rautenschlein S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A study of Newcastle disease virus obtained from exotic caged birds in Tehran between 2009 and 2010.
In this study, the PCR test was found to be a more sensitive and powerful method than the HA and HI tests for detection of NDV reservoirs and carrier status in exotic birds. Also, the frequency of infection with the virulent type showed that the exotic birds should probably be considered one of the main causes of recurrent annual epidemics of Newcastle disease in endemic regions. PMID: 23391178 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Madadgar O, Karimi V, Nazaktabar A, Kazemimanesh M, Ghafari MM, Azimi Dezfouli SM, Hojjati P Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Exogenous ARC down-regulates caspase-3 expression and inhibits apoptosis of broiler chicken cardiomyocytes exposed to hydrogen peroxide.
Abstract Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is highly involved in apoptosis induced by oxidative stress or ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Furthermore, even though the exact mechanism is still unknown, some studies suggest that exogenous ARC also possesses anti-apoptotic ability. The study investigated whether mouse-derived ARC acquires anti-apoptotic ability and the pathway of regulation in chick embryo cardiomyocytes. To evaluate whether mouse-derived ARC can inhibit chick embryo cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide, recombinant pcDNA3.1/ARC plasmid was acquired and transfect...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Wu L, Xi Z, Guo R, Liu S, Yang S, Liu D, Dong S, Guo D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

PCR-based diagnosis, molecular characterization and detection of atypical strains of avian Chlamydia psittaci in companion and wild birds.
In this study, 253 clinical samples were taken from 27 bird species belonging to seven orders. Thirty-two (12.6%) samples were positive for Chlamydia psittaci major outer membrane gene (ompA) DNA by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve nested PCR-positive specimens were typed by ompA gene-based PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism, using CTU/CTL primers and AluI restriction enzyme. Four restriction patterns were identified, including genotype A (two specimens from an African grey parrot [Psittacus erithacus] and a lorikeet [Trichoglossus haematodus]), genotype B (two specimens from a rock dove [Columbia ...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Madani SA, Peighambari SM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparison of antimicrobial resistance patterns in enterococci from intensive and free range chickens in Australia.
This study was conducted to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic profile of enterococcal isolates of intensive (indoor) and free range chickens from 2008/09 and 2000 in order to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance associated with different management systems. The minimum inhibitory concentrations in faecal enterococci isolates were determined by agar dilution. Resistance to bacitracin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, lincomycin, tylosin and tetracycline was more common among meat chickens (free range and intensive) than free range egg layers (P
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Obeng AS, Rickard H, Ndi O, Sexton M, Barton M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Success rates of intrauterine inoculations of layers via the vagina.
Abstract Intrauterine inoculation of layer hens has been documented previously in the literature; however, its efficiency has only been assessed on a very small scale. Attempts were therefore made to inoculate 14 experimental groups each consisting of 10 commercial table egg-producing hens intrauterinely with methylene blue. The effect of four variables-oviposition (natural, hormonally induced or not), position of the hen at inoculation (vertical/horizontal), technique to access the uterus (three methods) and inoculation device (four types)-on the success rate of intrauterine inoculation of layers of different bre...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Landman WJ, Matthijs MG, van Eck JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Expression and distribution of sialic acid influenza virus receptors in wild birds.
th EW Abstract Avian influenza (AI) viruses have been detected in more than 105 wild bird species from 12 different orders but species-related differences in susceptibility to AI viruses exist. Expression of α2,3-linked (avian-type) and α2,6-linked (human-type) sialic acid (SA) influenza virus receptors in tissues is considered one of the determinants of the host range and tissue tropism of influenza viruses. We investigated the expression of these SA receptors in 37 wild bird species from 11 different orders by lectin histochemistry. Two isoforms of Maackia amurensis (MAA) lectin, MAA1 and MAA2, were ...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: França M, Stallknecht DE, Howerth EW Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Identification of the lic1ABCD operon that controls the phase-variable expression of phosphorylcholine on lipopolysaccharide from Avibacterium paragallinarum.
Abstract Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) is an important virulence factor found on the surface of many mucosal pathogens and its expression enhances bacterial colonization on mucous membranes and reduces susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides. Whole-genome sequencing analyses showed that Avibacterium paragallinarum contained an operon with strong sequence similarity to the lic1ABCD operon from Haemophilus influenzae and the pcgDABC operon from Pasteurella multocida; both operons are involved in metabolism and addition of ChoP on bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Western immunoblot analysis with ChoP-specific monoclon...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Chiang YT, Shien JH, Tan DH, Shieh MK, Liu CC, Chen YS, Chang PC Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Vaccination against histomonosis prevents a drop in egg production in layers following challenge.
Abstract The effect of attenuated Histomonas meleagridis on pullets was investigated and the protection of vaccinated adult laying hens against a severe challenge was studied in the same experimental setting. Four groups of 25 pullets were set up at 18 weeks of life and birds in two groups were vaccinated with in vitro-attenuated H. meleagridis. Chickens in two groups (vaccinated and non-vaccinated) were challenged 5 weeks later with virulent histomonads, while the remaining groups were retained until termination of the study 11 weeks post vaccination. Vaccination of pullets did not have any impact on their subseq...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Liebhart D, Sulejmanovic T, Grafl B, Tichy A, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International meetings, wvpa matters and announcements.
Authors: PMID: 23391186 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 1, 2013 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research