Corrigendum to "Study of baicalin on sympathoexcitation induced bymyocardial ischemia via P2X3 receptor in superior cervical ganglia" [Auton. Neurosci. 189, May 2015, 8-15].
Corrigendum to "Study of baicalin on sympathoexcitation induced bymyocardial ischemia via P2X3 receptor in superior cervical ganglia" [Auton. Neurosci. 189, May 2015, 8-15]. Auton Neurosci. 2019 Sep 05;:102586 Authors: Zhang J, Liu S, Xu B, Li G, Li G, Huang A, Wu B, Peng L, Song M, Xie Q, Lin W, Xie W, Wen S, Zhang Z, Xu X, Liang S PMID: 31495673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang J, Liu S, Xu B, Li G, Li G, Huang A, Wu B, Peng L, Song M, Xie Q, Lin W, Xie W, Wen S, Zhang Z, Xu X, Liang S Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Role of P2X3 receptor in myocardial ischemia injury and nociceptive sensory transmission" [Auton. Neurosci.: Basic Clin. volume 139, (issues 1-2), (30 May 2008), pages 30-37].
Corrigendum to "Role of P2X3 receptor in myocardial ischemia injury and nociceptive sensory transmission" [Auton. Neurosci.: Basic Clin. volume 139, (issues 1-2), (30 May 2008), pages 30-37]. Auton Neurosci. 2019 Sep 05;:102587 Authors: Wang Y, Li G, Liang S, Zhang A, Xu C, Gao Y, Zhang C, Wan F PMID: 31495674 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang Y, Li G, Liang S, Zhang A, Xu C, Gao Y, Zhang C, Wan F Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Insomnia and cardiovascular autonomic control.
Abstract Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder, particularly among middle and older aged adults, and is associated with a variety of negative health consequences, including higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, the mechanisms linking insomnia with cardiovascular risk remain largely unknown, thus limiting targeted therapeutic interventions. The hyperarousal hypothesis has attracted the most support, positing that insomnia is a result of multisystem over-activation, including sympathetic hyperactivity, which promotes wakefulness and blocks the occurrence of sleep at the desired time. The res...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Grimaldi D, Goldstein MR, Carter JR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Repeated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation of nonspecific acupoints of the upper body attenuates stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in rats.
Abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common stress-related gastrointestinal disorder and visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is characteristically found in IBS patients. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied to certain acupoints has been shown to benefit IBS patients. Here, we investigated whether nonspecific acupoint is involved in the efficacy of TENS treatment for IBS. Twenty-five male rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups and one sham-control group. The four experimental groups were defined as TENS-RR, TENS-RL, TENS-LR, and TENS-LL based on the location of the two TENS...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang CS, Sun YH, Wang YT, Pan YH, Huang YC, Hsu CM, Tsai YF Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Reduced heart rate variability and lower cerebral blood flow associated with poor cognition during recovery following concussion.
Abstract Although physiological deficits such as altered cerebral blood flow (CBF), and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation have been reported following a concussion, the relationship between CBF and ANS with functional outcome post-injury remains unclear. Our present study was designed to examine heart-rate variability (HRV) using percentage of successive NN intervals (pNN50) and CBF on day-3 (T1), day-21 (T2), and day-90 (T3) following a concussion in collegiate athletes (N = 31) in comparison to non-injured controls (N = 31). Continuous RR-interval (3-lead electrocardiogram), middle cerebral ar...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Purkayastha S, Williams B, Murphy M, Lyng S, Sabo T, Bell KR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Somatosensory regulation of resting muscle blood flow and physical therapy.
Abstract Somatosensory stimulation can affect skeletal muscle blood flow (MBF) at rest in anesthetized animals via pressor reflex response or antidromic and local vasodilation. Increase in MBF due to reflex pressor response occurs generally in the skeletal muscles of the entire body, while antidromic and local vasodilation are limited to the peripheral stimulation site. Since increased MBF improves several disorders (muscle stiffness, pain, etc.), it is reasonable to further explore the effective use of somatic stimulation in physical therapies, such as massage, acupuncture, anma, and shiatsu or acupressure, in tr...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sato-Suzuki I, Kagitani F, Uchida S Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Changes in excitability and ion channel expression in neurons of the major pelvic ganglion in female type II diabetic mice.
Abstract Bladder cystopathy and autonomic dysfunction are common complications of diabetes, and have been associated with changes in ganglionic transmission and some measures of neuronal excitability in male mice. To determine whether type II diabetes also impacts excitability of ganglionic neurons in females, we investigated neuronal excitability and firing properties, as well as underlying ion channel expression, in major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons in control, 10-week, and 21-week Leprdb/db mice. Type II diabetes in Leprdb/db animals caused a non-linear change in excitability and firing properties of MPG neur...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gray M, Lett KM, Garcia VB, Kyi CW, Pennington KA, Schulz LC, Schulz DJ Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Special issue, 'Circadian Rhythms: Autonomic & Endocrine Function in Health and Disease'.
Special issue, 'Circadian Rhythms: Autonomic & Endocrine Function in Health and Disease'. Auton Neurosci. 2019 Sep;220:102562 Authors: Gilbey MP PMID: 31331693 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gilbey MP Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements during sleep and cardiovascular risk.
Abstract Multiple mechanisms may modulate an association between restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including chronic sleep deprivation, intermittent, periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS)-related autonomic fluctuations and possible autonomic dysfunction intrinsically associated with RLS per se. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing RLS/WED literature focusing on the pathophysiologic evidence for possible associations between RLS/WED and PLMS with CVD and events (CVE). Specific intrinsic dysautonomic aspects of the disease, which may contribute t...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chiaro G, Manconi M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Impaired hemodynamic response to tilt, handgrip and Valsalva manoeuvre in patients with takotsubo syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that despite apparent resolution of the immediate effects of TTS, impaired response to cardiovascular challenge, similar to that in STEMI patients, persisted. As the manoeuvres applied mimic daily life situations, causes of impairment should be searched for and potential health risk evaluated. PMID: 31331695 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stępniewska A, Budnik M, Krzemiński K, Niewiadomski W, Gąsiorowska A, Opolski G, Kochanowski J, Mieczkowska K, Żukowska K, Szepietowska K, Kowalik R Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Pure autonomic failure presenting as Harlequin syndrome.
We present a patient with unilateral anhidrosis, contralateral facial flushing and hyperhidrosis consistent with Harlequin syndrome that, over 6 years, progressed to PAF, suggesting that PAF may present with focal autonomic impairment prior to generalized autonomic failure. PMID: 31331696 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Triplett JD, Benarroch EE, Cutsforth-Gregory JK Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Cardiac autonomic function and its association with cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Black South African children.
CONCLUSION: Elevated resting parasympathetic activity in children is associated with lower CMD risk factors and an elevation in the protective HDL. PMID: 31122596 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: van Biljon A, McKune AJ, DuBose KD, Kolanisi U, Semple SJ Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Region specific differences in the effect of propofol on the murine colon result in dysmotility.
Abstract Propofol is the most widely used intravenous anaesthetic agent for maintenance of anaesthesia and sedation. Studies in varying regions of the bowel have shown conflicting differences on the effects of propofol on motility. There the aim of this study was to understand the influence of propofol on colonic function and explore by which mechanism any changes occur. Functional studies were conducted using isolated colonic tissue from C57BL6 mice which were exposed to 5 μM propofol. Faecal pellet motility, colonic migratory motor complexes (CMMCs) and functional bioassays were utilised to monitor colonic ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Diss LB, Villeneuve S, Pearce KR, Yeoman MS, Patel BA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Regional variations in the number distribution of intrinsic myenteric neurons and coinnervated motor endplates on the striated muscles in the rat esophagus.
This study suggests that regional variations in the number of intrinsic neurons and coinnervated striated muscles in the rat esophagus may be involved in local regulations of esophageal motility, and that the rat esophageal intrinsic neurons may contain, at least, motor neurons and interneurons. PMID: 31122598 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kuramoto H, Yoshimura R, Sakamoto H, Kadowaki M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of chronic lead exposure on the sympathoexcitatory response associated with the P2X7 receptor in rat superior cervical ganglia.
In this study, a rat model of chronic lead exposure was used to explore the changes in sympathoexcitatory response and possible involvement of P2X7 receptor in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Rats were divided into three groups called control, low lead and high lead groups according to daily lead exposure levels, i.e. 0, 0.5 and 2 g/L respectively. One year later, changes in P2X7 receptor expression in SCG, sympathetic nerve activity and myocardial function were measured for these rats. Our results showed that increased blood pressure and heart rate, decreased heart rate variability, enhanced cervical sympathetic n...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhu G, Dai B, Chen Z, He L, Guo J, Dan Y, Liang S, Li G Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Quality of life improves in vasovagal syncope patients after clinical trial enrollment regardless of fainting in follow-up.
CONCLUSION: HRQoL of VVS patients improves over time after enrolling in a clinical trial, even with recurrent faints or randomization to placebo. Improvements may result from alternative factors, such as interaction with experts or patient adjustment. PMID: 31122600 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ng J, Sheldon RS, Maxey C, Ritchie D, Raj V, Exner DV, Raj SR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Sex and gender influence symptom manifestation and survival in multiple system atrophy.
In conclusion, our data show longer survival from diagnosis in females and slight overall survival benefit which may be related to initial motor manifestations. PMID: 31122601 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Coon EA, Nelson RM, Sletten DM, Suarez MD, Ahlskog JE, Benarroch EE, Sandroni P, Mandrekar JN, Low PA, Singer W Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

The negative effects of social bond disruption are partially ameliorated by sertraline administration in prairie voles.
Abstract Negative social experiences influence both depression and cardiovascular dysfunction. Many individuals who experience negative mood states or cardiovascular conditions have limited social support. Therefore, investigation of drug treatments that may protect against the consequences of social stress will aid in designing effective treatment strategies. The current study used an animal model to evaluate the protective effect of sertraline administration on behavioral and cardiovascular consequences of social stress. Specifically, male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), which are socially monogamous roden...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: McNeal N, Watanasriyakul WT, Normann MC, Akinbo OI, Dagner A, Ihm E, Wardwell J, Grippo AJ Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Diagnostic performance of resting and post-exercise heart rate variability for detecting cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSION: Post-exercise HRV measures such as TP, RMSSD and pNN50 were found to be more accurate diagnostic tests for detecting CAN than resting HRV. Hence, monitoring of the HRV measures proposed here during exercise testing protocols may provide important diagnostic information regarding CAN in T2DM. PMID: 31122603 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bhati P, Moiz JA, Naqvi IH, Hussain ME Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

The circadian clock control of adipose tissue physiology and metabolism.
Abstract The circadian clock organizes the timing of physiological processes in anticipation of diurnal environmental changes that originate from the rotation of the Earth. Several of the metabolic functions of adipose tissues are under regulation by the circadian clock to achieve temporal coordination and whole body homeostasis. Adipose tissues, once believed to only express physiological phenotypes that are downstream of central nervous system regulation, are now well described to communicate not only to other peripheral tissues, but also to the central nervous system for temporal orchestration of metabolism. In...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lekkas D, Paschos GK Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Correlation between sonographic morphology and function of the cervical vagus nerves.
Abstract The heart receives parasympathetic and to a lesser degree sympathetic input via the vagus nerve. Here, we investigated whether morphological changes of the cervical vagus nerves (VN) as assessed by high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) correlated with the autonomic cardiac innervation. Measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) and HRUS of the VNs were performed in 88 healthy subjects (50 female; mean age 56 ± 18 years). HRV parameters and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the VNs correlated both inversely with age. We also found an inverse correlation between the left VN-CSA and HRV as well as ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pelz JO, Belau E, Menze I, Woost TB, Classen J, Weise D Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Early ovarian hormone deprivation increases cardiac contractility in old female rats-Role of physical training.
CONCLUSION: Early ovarian hormones deprivation associated with aging, promotes discrete changes in cardiac morphology and increasing cardiac contractility. Aerobic training decreases β-adrenergic receptors expression, influencing the cardiac contractility. PMID: 30890342 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Felix ACS, Gastaldi AC, Dutra SGV, de Freitas ACS, Philbois SV, de Paula Facioli T, Da Silva VJD, Fares TH, de Souza HCD Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Chemoreflex failure and sleep-disordered breathing in familial dysautonomia: Implications for sudden death during sleep.
Abstract Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by impaired development of primary sensory and autonomic neurons resulting in a severe neurological phenotype, which includes arterial baroreflex and chemoreflex failure with high frequency of sleep-disordered breathing and sudden death during sleep. Although a rare disease, familial dysautonomia represents a unique template to study the interactions between sleep-disordered breathing and abnormal chemo- and baroreflex function. In patients with familial dysa...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Palma JA, Gileles-Hillel A, Norcliffe-Kaufmann L, Kaufmann H Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Thoracic sympathetic chain stimulation modulates and entrains the respiratory pattern.
Abstract Stimulation of thoracic sympathetic chain (TSC) afferents has been shown to slow the respiratory rhythm in dogs, monkeys and humans. However, sparse information exists about the physiological role of TSC afferents in modulating respiration or the central pathways of these afferents. Here, we sought to investigate whether the perfused preparation of juvenile rats is a suitable experimental model to study the role of TSC-afferents in the modulation of respiration. We show that tonic (30s) TSC stimulation initially triggered either prolonged post-inspiratory vagal nerve discharge, or when the stimulus onset ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dhingra RR, Kola G, Lewis SJ, Dutschmann M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Accentuated antagonism of vagal heart rate control and less potent prejunctional inhibition of vagal acetylcholine release during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the rat.
Abstract Complex interactions are known to occur between the sympathetic and parasympathetic controls of the heart. Although sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) usually augments the heart rate (HR) response to vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), exogenously administered norepinephrine (NE) can attenuate the HR response as well as the myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) release during VNS. To provide a basis for an integrative knowledge about the opposing adrenergic effects on the vagal control of the heart, we examined whether SNS significantly attenuates VNS-induced myocardial interstitial ACh release in the i...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawada T, Sonobe T, Hayama Y, Nishikawa T, Miyamoto T, Akiyama T, Pearson JT, Sugimachi M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Sleep disorders, nocturnal blood pressure, and cardiovascular risk: A translational perspective.
Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the first cause of death globally. The nighttime is generally a period of relative protection from CVD events such as myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and stroke, at least compared to the early morning period. The nighttime also generally entails lower values of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) and higher cardiac parasympathetic modulation. These day-night cardiovascular rhythms are ultimately driven by circadian molecular oscillators in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and in peripheral cells, including those in the heart, blood...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Silvani A Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

The suprachiasmatic nucleus; a responsive clock regulating homeostasis by daily changing the setpoints of physiological parameters.
ríguez Cortés B Abstract The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is responsible for determining circadian variations in physiological setpoints. The SCN achieves such control through projections to different target structures within and outside the hypothalamus. Thus the SCN prepares the physiology of the body every 24 h via hormones and autonomic nervous system (ANS), to coming changes in behavior. Resulting rhythms in hormones and ANS activity transmit a precise message to selective organs, adapting their sensitivity to coming hormones, metabolites or other essentials. Thus the SCN as autonomous clock ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Buijs RM, Guzmán Ruiz MA, Méndez Hernández R, Rodríguez Cortés B Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of tanezumab on satellite glial cells in the cervicothoracic ganglion of cynomolgus monkeys: A 26-week toxicity study followed by an 8-week recovery period.
Abstract Tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, has demonstrated efficacy and safety profiles in Phase III clinical trials of chronic pain. In a 24-week study in non-human primates, morphological observations of sympathetic ganglia showed decreased ganglia volume, decreased neuronal size, and increased glial cell density compared with controls after 3 tanezumab treatments. Using stereological techniques to quantify glial cells, the present 26-week study found no significant difference after weekly treatments in total cervicothoracic ganglia satellite glial cell number between placebo- or tanezumab-tr...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Evans M, Butt M, Belanger P, Cummings T, Gremminger JL, Zorbas M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Control of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during sleep.
Abstract Sleep and arousal from sleep are associated with profound changes in cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Fluctuations of arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), and respiration occur both during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep and during transitions between sleep and behavioral arousal. These changes reflect complex, state-dependent interactions among several neuronal groups in the hypothalamus and brainstem. These neurons utilize the excitatory amino-acid L-glutamate or the inhibitory amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and are modulated in a state-dependent manner by in...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Benarroch EE Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Takotsubo syndrome and left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy: Casualty or causality?
Abstract Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is a condition of transient regional ventricular systolic dysfunction, usually presenting with acute chest pain and/or dyspnea, that is increasingly recognized especially in post-menopausal women following a psychological or physical stress. Initially considered as a benign condition with an isolated and self-limiting episode, it is now recognized that it is associated with a significant risk of in-hospital mortality and of recurrence. We herein describe a case of a 61-year-old female with left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) who experienced a recurrence of TS, hig...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Del Buono MG, Montone RA, Camilli M, Gurgoglione FL, Ingrasciotta G, Meucci MC, Fracassi F, Niccoli G, Crea F Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Fatal familial insomnia and Agrypnia Excitata: Autonomic dysfunctions and pathophysiological implications.
Abstract Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) is a hereditary prion disease caused by a mutation at codon 178 of the prion-protein gene leading to a D178N substitution in the protein determining severe and selective atrophy of mediodorsal and anteroventral thalamic nuclei. FFI is characterized by physiological sleep loss, which polygraphically appears to be a slow wave sleep loss, autonomic and motor hyperactivation with peculiar episodes of oneiric stupor. Alteration of autonomic functions is a great burden for FFI patients consisting in sympathetic overactivation, dysregulation of its physiological responses and disrup...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Baldelli L, Provini F Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Clinical features of prolonged tilt-induced hypotension with an apparent vasovagal mechanism, but without syncope.
Abstract BACKGROUND: A previous study of electroencephalography (EEG) changes with syncope led to a finding that some young patients develop prolonged periods of tilt-induced hypotension, but they do not lose consciousness. The present study aim was to compare patterns of hemodynamic changes, measures of duration, and sweating between these patients and patients with tilt-induced vasovagal syncope. METHODS: In an observational study, qualitative changes in hemodynamic parameters were compared between patients with prolonged hypotension (n = 30) and with syncope (n = 30). To demonstrate that periods of...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Heyer GL Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

The influence of aerobic fitness on electrocardiographic and heart rate variability parameters in young and older adults.
Abstract Long-term endurance training is associated with an increased risk of atrial arrhythmia in older adults (OA). We tested the hypothesis that Aerobically-Fit OA would have prolonged indices related to atrial arrhythmias (e.g. PR-intervals and P durations) compared to younger adults (YA) and Aerobically-Unfit OA. 10-minute stable supine electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were collected at 1000 Hz in 15 YA (4F, 22 ± 2 years, 50.7 ± 8.5 ml/kg/min), 11 Aerobically-Unfit OA (6♀, 63 ± 7 years, 25.2 ± 2.3 ml/kg/min) and 10 Aerobically-Fit OA (4F, 64 ±...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dorey TW, O'Brien MW, Kimmerly DS Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

How reliable is cerebral blood flow to map changes in neuronal activity?
Abstract Neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI, map brain activity through hemodynamic-based signals, and are invaluable diagnostic tools in several neurological disorders such as stroke and dementia. Hemodynamic signals are normally precisely related to the underlying neuronal activity through neurovascular coupling mechanisms that ensure the supply of blood, glucose and oxygen to neurons at work. The knowledge of neurovascular coupling has greatly advanced over the last 30 years, it involves multifaceted interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, astrocytes, and the microvessels. While t...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lecrux C, Bourourou M, Hamel E Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

The location and characteristics of the thermal sudomotor pathways in the human brainstem: A reappraisal.
Abstract To elucidate location and characteristics of the central thermoregulatory sudomotor pathway in the human brainstem, thermoregulatory sweating (TS) in 91 patients with focal brainstem lesions was studied. TS was symmetric or minimally asymmetric in 40 subjects (Group S), and was apparently asymmetric in 51 patients (Group AS). In Group AS, the main abnormality was ipsilateral segmental hypohidrosis with a varying extent, involving predominantly the upper half of the body. Lesion locations, correlations between thermoregulatory sweat test results, and other autonomic and somatic functions were compared betw...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Saito H Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Circadian rhythms of cardiovascular autonomic function: Physiology and clinical implications in neurodegenerative diseases.
Abstract Circadian rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate are regulated by a biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which modulates the autonomic nervous system activity directed to the heart and blood vessels. Humoral mediators released with periodicity induced by the SCN as well as sleep are also important factors. Disruption of physiological cardiovascular circadian rhythms has important clinical implications, as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, firstly we will give an overview on the neuroanatomic and physiologic aspects of c...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Baschieri F, Cortelli P Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Autonomic nerves and circadian control of renal function.
Abstract Cardiovascular and renal physiology follow strong circadian rhythms. For instance, renal excretion of solutes and water is higher during the active period compared to the inactive period, and blood pressure peaks early in the beginning of the active period of both diurnal and nocturnal animals. The control of these rhythms is largely dependent on the expression of clock genes both in the central nervous system and within peripheral organs themselves. Although it is understood that the central and peripheral clocks interact and communicate, few studies have explored the specific mechanism by which various ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Becker BK, Zhang D, Soliman R, Pollock DM Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Microglia and brain angiotensin type 1 receptors are involved in desensitising baroreflex by intracerebroventricular hypertonic saline in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
Abstract High salt diet alters cardiovascular control by increasing concentration of sodium ions (Na+) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is a risk factor for hypertension. Hypernatremic conditions activate microglia and upregulate renin-angiotensin system in the brain. Thus, we checked if chronic elevation of CSF Na+ affects neural control of circulatory system via microglia and brain angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1Rs). Normotensive adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received two-week intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of either isoosmotic saline (0.9% NaCl); hyperosmotic saline (5% NaCl); 5% NaCl with minocyclin...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Żera T, Nowiński A, Segiet A, Smykiewicz P Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Cortical morphometric predictors of autonomic dysfunction in generalized anxiety disorder.
Abstract Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with both autonomic dysfunction, notably decreased vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), and neurostructural abnormalities. Regional differences in brain morphometry correlate with vmHRV in healthy individuals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific focal abnormalities in cortical structure in GAD underpin decreased vmHRV. Adult female patients with GAD (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 18) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging after characterization of symptoms and quantification of resting vmHRV derived from continuous ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Carnevali L, Mancini M, Koenig J, Makovac E, Watson DR, Meeten F, Critchley HD, Ottaviani C Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Circadian regulation of endocrine systems.
Abstract Hormones are major systemic regulators of homeostatic functions. Not surprisingly, most endocrine signals show some extent of variation across the day. This holds true for the three major hormonal axes of the body originating from the hypothalamus, relayed by the pituitary and terminating in the adrenal (HPA axis), the thyroid (HPT axis), and the gonads (HPG axis), respectively. The rhythmicity of endocrine axis formation has important functions for the maintenance of homeostasis and stabilizes physiological functions against external perturbations. In some cases, such as cortisol, hormonal signals are th...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Neumann AM, Schmidt CX, Brockmann RM, Oster H Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Interaction between baroreflex and chemoreflex in the cardiorespiratory responses to stimulation of the carotid sinus/nerve in conscious rats.
In conclusion, the present study showed that the electrical stimulation of the CS, in conscious rats, activates both the carotid baroreflex and the carotid chemoreflex driving an increase in ventilation and a decrease in AP. These findings further contribute to our understanding of the electrical stimulation of CS. PMID: 30598121 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Katayama PL, Castania JA, Fazan R, Salgado HC Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Microglia in the RVLM of SHR have reduced P2Y12R and CX3CR1 expression, shorter processes, and lower cell density.
Abstract The RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) contains over-active C1 neurons, which model the pathology of essential hypertension. Hypertension involves chronic low-grade neuroinflammation. Inflammation in the brain is produced and maintained primarily by microglia. We assessed microglial gene expression (P2Y12R and CX3CR1) and morphology in the RVLM of SHR compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The gene expression of the metabotropic purinergic receptor P2Y12 and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 was downregulated in the RVLM of SHR compared to WKY (by 37.3% and 30.9% respectively). P2Y12R ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cohen EM, Mohammed S, Kavurma M, Nedoboy PE, Cartland S, Farnham MMJ, Pilowsky PM Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Moving from the present to the future of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome - What we need.
Abstract Our understanding about Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) has advanced significantly over the last 25 years. Despite the significant advances that have been made in defining the syndrome and finding some treatments for our patients, there is much work to be done to significantly improve our understanding of the disorder and improve therapeutics. In this article, 5 NEEDS are identified that will be required over the next several years if we want future care to move beyond where we are in the present. These include: (1) a NEED for better administrative data to track POTS diagnoses and the impact of the...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Raj SR, Robertson D Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Response to the letter to the editor: "Is metabolic syndrome related to exercise autonomic modulation in obese adults? (Lopes et al., 2018)".
Response to the letter to the editor: "Is metabolic syndrome related to exercise autonomic modulation in obese adults? (Lopes et al., 2018)". Auton Neurosci. 2018 Nov 14;: Authors: Carvalho LP, Di Thommazo-Luporini L, Mendes RG, Cabiddu R, Ricci PA, Basso-Vanelli RP, Oliveira-Junior MC, Vieira RP, Bonjorno-Junior JC, Oliveira CR, Luporini RL, Borghi-Silva A PMID: 30501953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Carvalho LP, Di Thommazo-Luporini L, Mendes RG, Cabiddu R, Ricci PA, Basso-Vanelli RP, Oliveira-Junior MC, Vieira RP, Bonjorno-Junior JC, Oliveira CR, Luporini RL, Borghi-Silva A Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Is metabolic syndrome related to exercise cardiac autonomic modulation in obese adults?
PMID: 30501954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lopes WA, Locateli JC, Reck HB, Porto FE Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Clinical and experimental aspects of breathing modulation by inflammation.
ega F Abstract Neuroinflammation is produced by local or systemic alterations and mediated mainly by glia, affecting the activity of various neural circuits including those involved in breathing rhythm generation and control. Several pathological conditions, such as sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and asthma exert an inflammatory influence on breathing-related circuits. Consequently breathing (both resting and ventilatory responses to physiological challenges), is affected; e.g., responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia are compromised. Moreover, inflammation can induce long-lasting changes in br...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peña-Ortega F Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Cardiac and behavioral effects of social isolation and experimental manipulation of autonomic balance.
Abstract Improved understanding of how depression and social isolation interact to increase cardiac morbidity and mortality will improve public health. This experiment evaluated the effect of pharmacological autonomic blockade on cardiac and behavioral reactivity following social isolation in prairie voles. Experiment 1 validated the dose and time course of pharmacological autonomic antagonism of peripheral β-adrenergic (atenolol) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (atropine methyl nitrate), and Experiment 2 used a novel protocol to investigate behavioral responses in the tail suspension test during pharmac...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Grippo AJ, Scotti ML, Wardwell J, McNeal N, Bates SL, Chandler DL, Ihm E, Jadia N Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Inconsistent relation of nonlinear heart rate variability indices to increasing vagal tone in healthy humans.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest an inconsistent relationship between responses of nonlinear HRV indices and RR interval to changes in cardiac vagal tone. Therefore, nonlinear HRV indices may not be reliable indices of cardiac vagal control in healthy humans. PMID: 30005735 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cepeda FX, Lapointe M, Tan CO, Andrew Taylor J Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Effect of electroacupuncture on porcine cardiac excitability induced by left stellate ganglion stimulation.
Abstract Augmentation of cardiac sympathetic tone has been shown to induce ventricular arrhythmias. Acupuncture has been clinically used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and atrial arrhythmias. However, the effects of acupuncture on ventricular electrophysiology and autonomic tone remain unknown. We hypothesized that acupuncture attenuates cardiac excitability and corrects the imbalance of autonomic tone during sympathetic hyperactivity. Fourteen Yorkshire pigs were randomized to electroacupuncture (EA, 2 Hz, 0.3-0.5 mA, 0.5 ms duration) or control (without EA) groups. Animals were sedated with terazo...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takamiya T, Kubo Y, Benharash P, Zhou W Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Heart rate variability in individuals with Down syndrome - A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: There is autonomic dysfunction in individuals with DS, which may or may not be expressed at rest, but it is usually demonstrated in an autonomic task. Meta-analysis specified that there was no significant alteration between DS and the controls during rest, except RMSSD index which was lower in DS than controls. PROSPERO: CRD42017068647. PMID: 30005737 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Carvalho TD, Massetti T, Silva TDD, Crocetta TB, Guarnieri R, Vanderlei LCM, Monteiro CBM, Garner DM, Ferreira C Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research