Orexin A and B in the rat superior salivatory nucleus.
In this study, the distribution of OXA and OXB was examined in the rat superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) using retrograde tracing and immunohistochemical and methods. OXA- and OXB-immunoreactive (-ir) nerve fibers were seen throughout the SSN. These nerve fibers surrounded SSN neurons retrogradely labeled with Fast blue (FB) from the corda-lingual nerve. FB-positive neurons had pericellular OXA- (47.5%) and OXB-ir (49.0%) nerve fibers. Immunohistochemistry for OX receptors also demonstrated the presence of OX1R and OX2R in FB-positive SSN neurons. The majority of FB-positive SSN neurons contained OX1R- (69.7%) or OX2R-immu...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sato T, Yajima T, Fujita M, Kobashi M, Ichikawa H, Yoshida R, Mitoh Y Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Morphological and neurochemical characterisation of anterogradely labelled spinal sensory and autonomic nerve endings in the mouse bladder.
The objective was to characterise anatomically and immunohistochemically the terminal endings of sensory and autonomic motor nerve endings in wholemount preparations of the mouse bladder. We used both anterograde labelling of pelvic and hypogastric nerves ex vivo and anterograde labelling from lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in vivo in male and female mice. These were combined with immunohistochemistry for major markers of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Selective labelling of spinal afferent endings following dextran biotin-labelling from DRGs in vivo showed no co-localisation of VAChT or TH in sens...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sharma H, Kyloh M, Brookes SJH, Costa M, Spencer NJ, Zagorodnyuk VP Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Association between reduced heart rate variability components and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with a systemic right ventricle.
CONCLUSION: In patients with a systemic right ventricle, HRV is lower compared with controls and (SDANN) is independently associated with supraventricular arrhythmias. PMID: 32623323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zandstra T, Kiès P, Maan A, Man SC, Bootsma M, Vliegen H, Egorova A, Mertens B, Holman E, Schalij M, Jongbloed M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Utility of salivary gland biopsy in diagnosing Sjogren's syndrome in a POTS patient population.
CONCLUSION: A positive ANA and skin biopsy for SFN are two helpful features in selecting POTS patients for LSGB. PMID: 32570139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pasadyn SR, Warren CB, Wilson RG Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Functional atropine sensitive purinergic responses in the healthy rat bladder.
Abstract While acetylcholine is regarded to be the main directly contractile transmitter substance in the urinary bladder, interactions with other transmitters likely occur. Presently, the interplay between purinergic and cholinergic signalling was investigated to unravel the involvement of the urothelium and efferent neurons in the functionally important purinergically evoked release of acetylcholine in vitro. Functional characterization of receptor subtypes involved in this interplay was also performed. In vitro organ bath experiments with electrical field stimulation (EFS) or administration of agonist were perf...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stenqvist J, Carlsson T, Winder M, Aronsson P Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in the heart failure patient.
Abstract Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is a common comorbidity in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. It is associated with an increased risk of falls, incident cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. There are over 5 million individuals in the U.S. with heart failure (HF) with an associated 50% mortality rate at 5 years. The prevalence of nOH and HF increase with age and, as the population continues to age, will be increasingly common comorbid conditions. Thus, the effective management of these conditions has important implications for public health. The management of orthostatic hy...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dixon DD, Muldowney JAS Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Psychological correlates of patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).
Abstract Psychological symptoms are frequently reported in patients with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS); however, the nature of these symptoms is not well understood. The current study described baseline psychological symptoms in patients with POTS, and examined associations between psychological and self-report autonomic symptoms. Participants reported mild anxiety symptoms, moderate depressive symptoms, severe somatization, and elevated anxiety sensitivity. Depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing were significantly associated with autonomic symptoms. The current study adds to the literatur...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fisher CJ, Katzan I, Heinberg LJ, Schuster AT, Thompson NR, Wilson R Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Attention and executive function are impaired during active standing in postural tachycardia syndrome.
Abstract Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic form of orthostatic intolerance associated with cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesized executive function and attention is impaired in POTS during active standing. Eighty-seven POTS participants and 39 healthy controls of similar age, sex, and education level completed executive function (Stroop word-color) and attention (CogState Identification) tests in supine and standing postures in a cross-sectional study. POTS participants had lower executive function (t-score: 48 ± 11 vs. 55 ± 10 control; p = 0.009) and wo...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miller AJ, Sheehan T, Bourne KM, Feeley M, Arnold AC Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

State-dependent modulation of sympathetic firing by α1-adrenoceptors requires constitutive PKC activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord.
State-dependent modulation of sympathetic firing by α1-adrenoceptors requires constitutive PKC activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord. Auton Neurosci. 2020 May 23;227:102688 Authors: Su CK Abstract The central adrenergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems diffusively affect the operation of the spinal neural network and dynamically gauge central sympathetic outflow. Using in vitro splanchnic nerve-thoracic spinal cord preparations as an experimental model, this study examined the intraspinal α1-adrenoceptor-meidated modulation of sympathetic firing behaviors. Several sympathetic ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Su CK Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

In vivo paracrine effects of ATP-induced urothelial acetylcholine in the rat urinary bladder.
Abstract Mechanical stretch of the urothelium induces the release of ATP that activates bladder afferent nerves. In the rat urinary bladder, ATP is also a contractile co-transmitter in the parasympathetic innervation. In isolated preparations, ATP evokes a urothelial release of acetylcholine that substantially contributes to ATP-evoked contractile responses. Currently we aimed to further examine the interactions of ATP and acetylcholine in the rat urinary bladder in two in vivo models. In the whole bladder preparation, atropine reduced ATP-evoked responses by about 50% in intact but denervated bladders, while atro...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stenqvist J, Aronsson P, Carlsson T, Winder M, Tobin G Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Effect of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on isolated jejunum: A very useful tool to study the interaction between neurons in the enteric nervous system.
atilde;o IM Abstract Scorpion envenomation is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. In Brazil, Tityus serrulatus is the biggest cause of accidents with venomous animals. Tityus serrulatus venom causes symptoms related to a great activation of the autonomic system attributed to a massive release of sympathetic and parasympathetic mediators. This effect is attributed to the presence of toxins acting in Na+ and K+ ion channels, leading to an increase in cell excitability. Although gastrointestinal symptoms, like diarrhoea and sialorrhea, is observed in moderate to severe cases, little attention i...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Louza GSG, Carmo LLGD, Conceição IM Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Selective abolition of Mayer waves in conscious endotoxemic rats.
In conclusion, the amplitude of Mayer waves cannot be used indiscriminately as an index of vascular sympathetic tone. PMID: 32417667 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - April 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Julien C, Chapuis B, Barrès C Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Transecting the hypogastric nerve to uncover the bladder-inhibitory pathways involved with saphenous nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats.
Abstract Saphenous (SAFN) nerve stimulation was recently shown in anesthetized rats to elicit bladder-inhibitory responses in a frequency-dependent manner; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential role of the hypogastric nerve (HGN) in this inhibitory pathway by examining stimulation-evoked changes in bladder function under four different experimental conditions: (1) HGN intact, saline infusion (HGNi-s), (2) HGN transected, saline infusion (HGNt-s), (3) HGN intact, acetic acid (AA) infusion (HGNi-a), and (4) HGN transected, AA infusion (HGNt-a). Experimen...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - April 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Franz KS, Yoo PB Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Intracerebroventricularly injected nesfatin-1 activates central cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways.
In conclusion, these findings report that while nesfatin-1 is generating its autonomic effects, it also might be using central prostaglandins and leukotrienes by activating central COX and LOX pathways. PMID: 32334147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - April 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guvenc-Bayram G, Altinbas B, Iqbal A, Cerci E, Udum D, Yilmaz MS, Erdost H, Yalcin-Ulger E, Ilhan T, Ersoy F, Uz E, Yalcin M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Renal iodine123-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy relates to muscle sympathetic nervous activity in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Renal denervation is effective for modulating augmented sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We have demonstrated that renal iodine123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy is associated with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in patients with hypertension. However, it is unclear whether renal 123I-MIBG scintigraphy is useful for assessment of SNA in HFrEF. METHODS: The study population consisted of 24 HFrEF patients and 11 healthy subjects as controls. Patients with HFrEF underwent 123I-MIBG scintigraphy and hemodynami...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Okabe Y, Murai H, Tokuhisa H, Hamaoka T, Mukai Y, Sugimoto H, Takashima SI, Kato T, Matsuo S, Usui S, Furusho H, Takamura M, Kaneko S Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Treatment induced neuropathy of diabetes.
CONCLUSION: TIND is more common than previously suspected. The number of cases reported over the past 10 years is much greater than historical literature predicted. Increased attention to target glucose control as a physician metric could suggest a possible explanation for the increased in TIND cases reported in recent years. At present, supportive care is the only recommended treatment. Future research is necessary to define the underlying mechanism, prevent development and to guide treatment recommendations. PMID: 32247944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gibbons CH Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Cardiovagal baroreflex gain relates to sensory loss after spinal cord injury.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to autonomic nervous system damage, resulting in loss of sympathetic control to the vasculature and the heart proportional to injury level. Given maintained cardiac parasympathetic control, we hypothesized that SCI demonstrates a compensatory, higher baroreflex gain compared to able-bodied that relates to injury level (neurological and/or sensory). We compared baroreflex gain (average and across 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 mmHg input stimuli) derived from neck chamber technique in SCI (N = 29; neurological level C1-T10, sensory zone of partial preservation C4-S4/5...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Draghici AE, Taylor JA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Real-world droxidopa or midodrine treatment persistence in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension or orthostatic hypotension.
In this study, we compared the treatment persistence of droxidopa and midodrine. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients prescribed either droxidopa or midodrine was conducted using the Symphony Health Solutions database (Symphony Health Solutions, Phoenix, AZ, USA). Inclusion criteria were (1) a pharmacy insurance claim in at least 16 consecutive quarters from mid-2014 to 2018 and (2) an active prescription for droxidopa or midodrine of ≥30 days' duration during that period. Treatment persistence was defined as the time to the first break in drug coverage of ≥45 days and was capped at 365 days. ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kymes SM, Sullivan C, Jackson K, Raj SR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Serotonin and substance P: Synergy or competition in the control of breathing.
Abstract Numerous neurotransmitters identified in the central nervous system play role in ventilatory control. This mini-review focuses on the respiratory effects of two neurotransmitters: serotonin (5-HT) and substance P (SP). We discuss their co-localization in medullary raphe nuclei, expression of proper receptors within the specific regions of respiratory related structures and contribution to respiratory rhythmogenesis. PMID: 32145695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Szereda-Przestaszewska M, Kaczyńska K Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Threshold and saturation pressures of baroreflex-mediated myocardial interstitial acetylcholine release in rats.
Abstract Cardiac microdialysis allows the assessment of cardiac efferent vagal nerve activity from myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels with minimal influence on the neural control of the heart; however, a total picture of the baroreflex-mediated myocardial interstitial ACh release including the threshold and saturation pressures has yet to be quantified. In eight anesthetized Wistar-Kyoto rats, we implanted microdialysis probes in the left ventricular free wall and measured the myocardial interstitial ACh release simultaneously with efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during a carotid sinus ba...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawada T, Sata Y, Akiyama T, Shimizu S, Sonobe T, Pearson JT, Sugimachi M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Attenuated baroreflex in a Parkinson's disease animal model coincides with impaired activation of non-C1 neurons.
Abstract Orthostatic hypotension is one of the most common symptoms observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and it is associated with denervation of the heart and impairment of the baroreflex. Here, we aimed to investigate if the impaired baroreflex was associated with lower activation of cardiovascular brainstem areas in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of PD. The PD model was generated with male Wistar rats by injection of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the striatum. After 20 or 60 days, the femor...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cabral LM, Moreira TS, Takakura AC, Falquetto B Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

A novel role of cardiac inwardly rectifying potassium channels explaining autonomic cardiovascular dysfunctions in a cuprizone-induced mouse model of multiple sclerosis.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), believed to have an autoimmune etiology. MS patients showed an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk probably related to an impairment in the autonomic control of CV functions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely elucidated. Inwardly-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play a key role in cardiac excitability by contributing to the repolarization phase of action potential and were recently identified as target of the autoantibody response in MS patients. The...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Akyuz E, Villa C Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Quantitative sudomotor abnormalities in clinically isolated rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.
DISCUSSION: Sudomotor abnormalities are common in patients with iRBD, supporting the concept that peripheral autonomic impairment occurs early in the course of disease. PMID: 32062418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zitser J, Muppidi S, Sinn DI, Jaradeh S, Miglis MG Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Muscle vasodilator response via potential adrenaline secretion to L-cysteine microinjected in rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats.
Abstract We previously found that the thiol amino acid L-cysteine microinjected into rat medullary autonomic areas produces changes in arterial blood pressure (AP) via ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors (iEAAr), but its effect on vascular beds is still unknown. Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) pressor area includes adrenal and lumbar presympathetic neurons which activation could cause opposite muscle vascular responses: vasodilation versus vasoconstriction. However, there are few data on the vasodilator response in rats. Ionotropic EAAr activation alone with L-cysteine may be effective to differentiate...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takemoto Y Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

A 12-month lifestyle intervention does not improve cardiac autonomic function in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a high risk of future autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-month lifestyle intervention (LI) involving regular aerobic exercise on cardiac autonomic function in CKD patients. DESIGN: Pooled exploratory analysis. METHODS: 113 eligible patients with stage 3-4 CKD (eGFR 25-60 ml/min/1.75m2) participated in a LI program, including an 8-week individualised gym-based exercise program followed by a 10-month home-based program. The control (CON) group underwent standar...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huppertz N, Beetham KS, Howden EJ, Leicht AS, Isbel NM, Coombes JS Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Rostral ventrolateral medulla neuron activity is suppressed by Klotho and stimulated by FGF23 in newborn Wistar rats.
Abstract Hypertension often occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Considering the decrease in serum Klotho and increase in serum FGF23 levels in such patients, decreased Klotho and increased FGF23 levels were thought to be associated with hypertension. Presympathetic neurons at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contribute to sympathetic activity and regulation of blood pressure. Therefore, we hypothesized that Klotho would reduce the activities of RVLM neurons and FGF23 would stimulate them. Accordingly, this study examined the effects of Klotho and FGF23 on bulbospinal neurons in the RVLM. ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Oshima N, Onimaru H, Yamagata A, Ito S, Imakiire T, Kumagai H Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Severing the ventral funiculus in chronic spinal cord injury has the most deteriorating effect on spermatogenesis in rats.
Abstract Sexual dysfunction, following spinal cord injury (SCI), is highly dependent on the extent of injury. SCI disrupts the supraspinal innervation of the reproductive organs; resulting in structural and functional deficits. Relating the extent of SCI to these changes could eventually improve diagnoses and treatment planning of sexual dysfunction following SCI. In the present study, following chronic SCI of different severities (1/3 dorsal SCI (1/3 SCI), 2/3 dorsal SCI (2/3 SCI), and complete transection (Tx)) at T8 spinal level, histological changes of seminiferous tubules parameters in testis were examined. T...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kaddumi EG, Omoush SA, Shuqair DA, Abdel-Razaq W, Alkhateeb HH, Kanaan RA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Autonomic impairment in sleep: An introduction to the special edition.
PMID: 31978844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Calandra-Buonaura G, Cortelli P, Miglis M, Palma JA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Prevalence of hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.
Abstract Despite well-established clinical associations between Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), the precise prevalence is unknown. We therefore evaluated for hEDS in 91 POTS participants using the 2017 hEDS diagnostic checklist, which has three major criteria: 1) generalized joint hypermobility (Beighton score), 2) systemic features, family history, and 3) absence of exclusion criteria. Overall, 28 out of 91 POTS participants (31%) met clinical criteria for hEDS. An additional 24% of participants had generalized joint hypermobility without meeting hED...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miller AJ, Stiles LE, Sheehan T, Bascom R, Levy HP, Francomano CA, Arnold AC Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and autonomic disorders: a position statement from the American Autonomic Society.
CONCLUSIONS: Certain conditions are prevalent in the same patient populations that are vaccinated with the HPV vaccine (peri-pubertal males and females). This association, however, is insufficient proof of causality. PMID: 31928708 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barboi A, Gibbons CH, Axelrod F, Benarroch EE, Biaggioni I, Chapleau MW, Chelimsky G, Chelimsky T, Cheshire WP, Claydon VE, Freeman R, Goldstein DS, Joyner MJ, Kaufmann H, Low PA, Norcliffe-Kaufmann L, Robertson D, Shibao CA, Singer W, Snapper H, Vernino Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Dynamic monitoring of single-terminal norepinephrine transporter rate in the rodent cardiovascular system: A novel fluorescence imaging method.
Abstract Here, we validate the use of a novel fluorescent norepinephrine transporter (NET) substrate for dynamic measurements of transporter function in rodent cardiovascular tissue; this technique avoids the use of radiotracers and provides single-terminal resolution. Rodent (Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice) hearts and mesenteric arteries (MA) were isolated, loaded with NET substrate Neurotransmitter Transporter Uptake Assay (NTUA) ex vivo and imaged with confocal microscopy. NTUA labelled noradrenergic nerve terminals in all four chambers of the heart and on the surface of MA. In all tissues, a temperature-dependen...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cao LL, Holmes AP, Marshall JM, Fabritz L, Brain KL Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Activation of bradykinin-sensitive pericardial afferents increases systemic venous tone in conscious rats.
Abstract Our understanding of reflex regulation of veins lags behind that of the arterial system. While the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) exerts control over sympathetic outflow, its effect on venous tone is not known. We tested the hypothesis that activation of pericardial bradykinin sensitive afferents elicits systemic venoconstriction. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were chronically instrumented for measurement of arterial pressure and mean circulatory filling pressure, an index of venous tone, and with an indwelling pericardial catheter. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and mean circulatory...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Martin DS, Vogel E, Freeling J, Reihe C Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Sympathetic overactivation predicts body weight loss in patients with heart failure.
Abstract Neurohumoral activation is frequently observed in chronic heart failure (HF) patients who develop body weight (BW) loss. We therefore hypothesized that sympathetic overactivation can predict progression of BW loss in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction. We prospectively evaluated BW loss in 108 non-edematous HF in whom muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was measured. Follow-up began on the day of first MSNA measurement. Patients with BW loss of ≥5% of baseline BW during the first year of follow-up were considered to be experiencing BW loss. Maximal BW loss (%) and time to first BW loss (i....
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joho S, Ushijima R, Nakagaito M, Kinugawa K Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of high-fat diet on sympathetic neurotransmission in mesenteric arteries from Dahl salt-sensitive rat.
In conclusion, HFD-induced hypertension is not driven by increased sympathetic neurotransmission to MA in male and female Dahl ss rats. PMID: 31731103 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alula KM, Biltz R, Xu H, Garver H, Laimon-Thomson EL, Fink GD, Galligan JJ Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Blood pressure and orthostatic hypotension as measures of autonomic dysfunction in patients from the transthyretin amyloidosis outcomes survey (THAOS).
DISCUSSION: BP variability is a useful tool for assessing disease onset and severity in ATTR amyloidosis, particularly in patients with OH. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00628745. PMID: 31726319 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - October 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: González-Duarte A, Barroso F, Mundayat R, Shapiro B Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Elimination of spurious absent sweat response in QSWEAT recordings.
DISCUSSION: Skin abrasion restores QSWEAT volumes in previously absent/markedly reduced site suggesting that skin preparation using abrasion is more effective. PMID: 31706219 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - October 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Corfits J, Singer W, Sandroni P, Fealey RD, Coon EA, Benarroch EE, Berini SE, Mauermann ML, Sletten DM, Cutsforth-Gregory JK, Schmelzer JD, Low PA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in type 2 diabetes: Potential role of oxidative stress.
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) leads to exaggerated cardiovascular responses to exercise, in part due to an exaggerated exercise pressor reflex. Accumulating data suggest excessive oxidative stress contributes to an exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in cardiovascular-related diseases. Excessive oxidative stress is also a primary underlying mechanism for the development and progression of T2DM. However, whether oxidative stress plays a role in mediating the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in T2DM is not known. Therefore, this review explores the potential role of oxidative stress leading to increase...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - October 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Grotle AK, Stone AJ Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

The effects of varying Mg2+ ion concentrations on contractions to the cotransmitters ATP and noradrenaline in the rat vas deferens.
This study aimed to determine the effect of Mg2+ concentration on nerve cotransmitter-mediated contractions. Rat vasa deferentia were sequentially bathed in increasing (0, 1.2, 3 mM) or decreasing (3, 1.2, 0 mM) Mg2+ concentrations. At each concentration a single field pulse was applied, and the biphasic contraction recorded. Contractions to exogenous noradrenaline 10 μM and ATP 100 μM were also determined. The biphasic nerve-mediated contraction was elicited by ATP and noradrenaline as NF449 (10 μM) and prazosin (100 nM) completely prevented the respective peaks. Taking the contractions in normal PSS ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - October 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mazeh AC, Angus JA, Wright CE Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Study of baicalin on sympathoexcitation induced bymyocardial ischemia via P2X3 receptor in superior cervical ganglia" [Auton. Neurosci. 189, May 2015, 8-15].
Corrigendum to "Study of baicalin on sympathoexcitation induced bymyocardial ischemia via P2X3 receptor in superior cervical ganglia" [Auton. Neurosci. 189, May 2015, 8-15]. Auton Neurosci. 2019 Sep 05;:102586 Authors: Zhang J, Liu S, Xu B, Li G, Li G, Huang A, Wu B, Peng L, Song M, Xie Q, Lin W, Xie W, Wen S, Zhang Z, Xu X, Liang S PMID: 31495673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang J, Liu S, Xu B, Li G, Li G, Huang A, Wu B, Peng L, Song M, Xie Q, Lin W, Xie W, Wen S, Zhang Z, Xu X, Liang S Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Role of P2X3 receptor in myocardial ischemia injury and nociceptive sensory transmission" [Auton. Neurosci.: Basic Clin. volume 139, (issues 1-2), (30 May 2008), pages 30-37].
Corrigendum to "Role of P2X3 receptor in myocardial ischemia injury and nociceptive sensory transmission" [Auton. Neurosci.: Basic Clin. volume 139, (issues 1-2), (30 May 2008), pages 30-37]. Auton Neurosci. 2019 Sep 05;:102587 Authors: Wang Y, Li G, Liang S, Zhang A, Xu C, Gao Y, Zhang C, Wan F PMID: 31495674 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang Y, Li G, Liang S, Zhang A, Xu C, Gao Y, Zhang C, Wan F Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Insomnia and cardiovascular autonomic control.
Abstract Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder, particularly among middle and older aged adults, and is associated with a variety of negative health consequences, including higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, the mechanisms linking insomnia with cardiovascular risk remain largely unknown, thus limiting targeted therapeutic interventions. The hyperarousal hypothesis has attracted the most support, positing that insomnia is a result of multisystem over-activation, including sympathetic hyperactivity, which promotes wakefulness and blocks the occurrence of sleep at the desired time. The res...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Grimaldi D, Goldstein MR, Carter JR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Repeated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation of nonspecific acupoints of the upper body attenuates stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in rats.
Abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common stress-related gastrointestinal disorder and visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is characteristically found in IBS patients. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied to certain acupoints has been shown to benefit IBS patients. Here, we investigated whether nonspecific acupoint is involved in the efficacy of TENS treatment for IBS. Twenty-five male rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups and one sham-control group. The four experimental groups were defined as TENS-RR, TENS-RL, TENS-LR, and TENS-LL based on the location of the two TENS...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang CS, Sun YH, Wang YT, Pan YH, Huang YC, Hsu CM, Tsai YF Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Reduced heart rate variability and lower cerebral blood flow associated with poor cognition during recovery following concussion.
Abstract Although physiological deficits such as altered cerebral blood flow (CBF), and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation have been reported following a concussion, the relationship between CBF and ANS with functional outcome post-injury remains unclear. Our present study was designed to examine heart-rate variability (HRV) using percentage of successive NN intervals (pNN50) and CBF on day-3 (T1), day-21 (T2), and day-90 (T3) following a concussion in collegiate athletes (N = 31) in comparison to non-injured controls (N = 31). Continuous RR-interval (3-lead electrocardiogram), middle cerebral ar...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Purkayastha S, Williams B, Murphy M, Lyng S, Sabo T, Bell KR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Somatosensory regulation of resting muscle blood flow and physical therapy.
Abstract Somatosensory stimulation can affect skeletal muscle blood flow (MBF) at rest in anesthetized animals via pressor reflex response or antidromic and local vasodilation. Increase in MBF due to reflex pressor response occurs generally in the skeletal muscles of the entire body, while antidromic and local vasodilation are limited to the peripheral stimulation site. Since increased MBF improves several disorders (muscle stiffness, pain, etc.), it is reasonable to further explore the effective use of somatic stimulation in physical therapies, such as massage, acupuncture, anma, and shiatsu or acupressure, in tr...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sato-Suzuki I, Kagitani F, Uchida S Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Changes in excitability and ion channel expression in neurons of the major pelvic ganglion in female type II diabetic mice.
Abstract Bladder cystopathy and autonomic dysfunction are common complications of diabetes, and have been associated with changes in ganglionic transmission and some measures of neuronal excitability in male mice. To determine whether type II diabetes also impacts excitability of ganglionic neurons in females, we investigated neuronal excitability and firing properties, as well as underlying ion channel expression, in major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons in control, 10-week, and 21-week Leprdb/db mice. Type II diabetes in Leprdb/db animals caused a non-linear change in excitability and firing properties of MPG neur...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gray M, Lett KM, Garcia VB, Kyi CW, Pennington KA, Schulz LC, Schulz DJ Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Special issue, 'Circadian Rhythms: Autonomic & Endocrine Function in Health and Disease'.
Special issue, 'Circadian Rhythms: Autonomic & Endocrine Function in Health and Disease'. Auton Neurosci. 2019 Sep;220:102562 Authors: Gilbey MP PMID: 31331693 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gilbey MP Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements during sleep and cardiovascular risk.
Abstract Multiple mechanisms may modulate an association between restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including chronic sleep deprivation, intermittent, periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS)-related autonomic fluctuations and possible autonomic dysfunction intrinsically associated with RLS per se. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing RLS/WED literature focusing on the pathophysiologic evidence for possible associations between RLS/WED and PLMS with CVD and events (CVE). Specific intrinsic dysautonomic aspects of the disease, which may contribute t...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chiaro G, Manconi M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Impaired hemodynamic response to tilt, handgrip and Valsalva manoeuvre in patients with takotsubo syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that despite apparent resolution of the immediate effects of TTS, impaired response to cardiovascular challenge, similar to that in STEMI patients, persisted. As the manoeuvres applied mimic daily life situations, causes of impairment should be searched for and potential health risk evaluated. PMID: 31331695 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stępniewska A, Budnik M, Krzemiński K, Niewiadomski W, Gąsiorowska A, Opolski G, Kochanowski J, Mieczkowska K, Żukowska K, Szepietowska K, Kowalik R Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Pure autonomic failure presenting as Harlequin syndrome.
We present a patient with unilateral anhidrosis, contralateral facial flushing and hyperhidrosis consistent with Harlequin syndrome that, over 6 years, progressed to PAF, suggesting that PAF may present with focal autonomic impairment prior to generalized autonomic failure. PMID: 31331696 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Triplett JD, Benarroch EE, Cutsforth-Gregory JK Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Cardiac autonomic function and its association with cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Black South African children.
CONCLUSION: Elevated resting parasympathetic activity in children is associated with lower CMD risk factors and an elevation in the protective HDL. PMID: 31122596 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: van Biljon A, McKune AJ, DuBose KD, Kolanisi U, Semple SJ Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research