Autonomic response after hemorrhagic stroke in the right insular cortex: What is the common pathophysiology in rat and human?
PMID: 33260055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nagai M, Dote K, Kato M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Purinergic receptor antagonism: A viable strategy for the management of autonomic dysreflexia?
Abstract The purinergic receptor ligand, ATP, may participate in reflex induced vasoconstriction through sympathetic efferent and sensory afferent mechanisms. However, the role of the purinergic system in contributing to autonomic dysreflexia following spinal cord injury is unclear. The present study investigates the involvement of P2X receptors in contributing to pressor responses during autonomic dysreflexia. Twenty rats were subjected to spinal cord injury and 24 h later hemodynamic responses to colorectal distension were recorded. Animals were randomized to receive intravenous administration of the P2X re...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Minic Z, O'Leary DS, Reynolds CA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Inhibition of the dorsomedial hypothalamus substantially decreases brown adipose tissue sympathetic discharge induced by activation of the lateral habenula.
In this study we aimed to test this possibility. In anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, we recorded electrical discharges directly from sympathetic fibres that innervate BAT, as well as BAT temperature. Injections of bicuculline (1 nmol in 100 nl), a neuronal activator by disinhibition, into the LHb increased BAT sympathetic nerve discharge by 4.9 ± 1.4dBμV (n = 7, P
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brizuela M, Ootsuka Y Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Validation of the new index of baroreflex function to identify neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.
CONCLUSION: In our cohort, the ΔHR/ΔSBP ratio had a good sensitivity but a limited specificity to identify NOH. This easily applicable test may represent a valuable screening tool in a clinical setting to identify patients who need further detailed autonomic testing to confirm the neurogenic origin of OH. PMID: 33189018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guaraldi P, Baschieri F, Barletta G, Cecere A, Cortelli P, Calandra-Buonaura G Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Effects of acute hyperglycemia on the exercise pressor reflex in healthy rats.
In conclusion, these findings suggest that acute, local exposure to hyperglycemia does not affect the exercise pressor reflex or either of its components. PMID: 33190039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huo Y, Grotle AK, Ybarbo KM, Lee J, Harrison ML, Stone AJ Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Global REACH 2018: Regional differences in cerebral blood velocity control during normoxic and hypoxic cold pressor tests.
Abstract The impact of oxygen on the cerebral response to the cold pressor test (CPT) remains unknown. In 13 participants, blood pressure, middle and posterior cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv and PCAv, respectively) were measured during an isocapnic normoxic and hypoxic (SpO2 = 85%) CPT. The main findings were: 1) the MCAv response to the CPT was greater compared to the PCAv in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively); and, 2) hypoxia did not alter the cerebral response to the CPT (P = 0.141 and P = 0.150, respectively). The...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tymko MM, Hoiland RL, Ainslie PN Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Adenosine A1 and A2a receptors modulate the nitrergic system in cell culture from dorsomedial medulla oblongata.
In this study we evaluate the interaction between adenosinergic and nitrergic systems in cell culture from the dorsomedial medulla oblongata of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Using quantification of nitrite levels, RT-PCR analysis and RNA interference we demonstrate that adenosine A1 (A1R) and A2a receptor (A2aR) agonists induce a concentration-dependent decrease and increase of nitrite and nNOS mRNA levels in cultured cells from WKY and SHR, respectively. These effects in nitrite levels are attenuated by the administration of A1R and A2aR selective antagonists, CPT and ZM 241385. Furthermore...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - October 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Costa MA, Matsumoto JPP, Carrettiero DC, Fior-Chadi DR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Exaggerated potassium current reduction by oxytocin in visceral sensory neurons following chronic intermittent hypoxia.
This study sought to determine the mechanism (s) by which OT modulates sensory afferent-nTS mediated reflexes normally and after CIH. Nodose ganglia neurons from male Sprague-Dawley rats were examined after 10d CIH (6% O2 every 3 min) or their normoxic (21% O2) control. OTR mRNA and protein were identified in Norm and CIH ganglia and was similar between groups. To examine OTR function, APs and potassium currents (IK) were recorded in dissociated neurons. Compared to Norm, after CIH OT depolarized neurons and reduced current-induced AP discharge. After CIH OT also produced a greater reduction in IK that where tetraethy...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dantzler HA, Kline DD Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Syncope at SARS-CoV-2 onset.
We describe clinical and laboratory findings in 35 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab experiencing one or multiple syncope at disease onset. Clinical neurologic and cardiologic examination, and electrocardiographic findings were normal. Chest computed tomography showed findings consistent with interstitial pneumonia. Arterial blood gas analysis showed low pO2, pCO2, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) indicating hypocapnic hypoxemia. Patients who presented with syncope showed significantly lowe...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Canetta C, Accordino S, Buscarini E, Benelli G, La Piana G, Scartabellati A, Viganò G, Assandri R, Astengo A, Benzoni C, Gaudiano G, Cazzato D, Rossi DS, Usai S, Tramacere I, Lauria G Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Delayed orthostatic hypotension.
Abstract Delayed orthostatic hypotension is a fall in blood pressure beyond 3 min of standing or upright tilt table testing. The prevalence, clinical features and pathophysiology are reviewed. To date, there is little data to support a standardized or recommended treatment. However, the 10-year mortality rates of individuals with delayed orthostatic hypotension are approximately 50%. Despite the fact that delayed orthostatic hypotension carries the same symptoms, risks and high mortality rate as classical orthostatic hypotension, but is under-recognized. The frequency with which delayed orthostatic hypotensio...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gibbons CH, Freeman R Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Autonomic and Cardiac Repolarization Lability in Long QT Syndrome Patients.
CONCLUSION: Autonomic (HRV) and cardiac repolarization (QTVI) ECG measures differ based on LQTS genotype and history of arrhythmias in LQTS1. SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50 were each independent markers for LQTS genotype. PMID: 32942226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: DeMaria N, Selmi A, Kashtan S, Xia X, Wang M, Zareba W, Couderc JP, Auerbach DS Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Lower urinary tract function in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: A preliminary observation.
CONCLUSION: We observed detrusor overactivity in FTLD patients with LUT symptoms. Although a preliminary observation, this LUT feature, which might reflect the frontal/insular cortex pathology typically associated with FTLD, requires appropriate management and care. PMID: 32871389 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - August 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sakakibara R, Shimizu A, Takahashi O, Aiba Y, Tateno F, Sugisaki Y, Suzuki H, Yamamoto T, Uchiyama T, Yamanishi T Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Circadian rhythms of blood pressure and rate pressure product in children with postural tachycardia syndrome.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate circadian rhythms of blood pressure (BP) and rate pressure product (RPP) in children with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) by performing 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM). METHODS: 103 POTS children and 84 age- and gender-matched healthy children were enrolled and they got 24-h ABPM under usual routine of diurnal activity and nocturnal sleep. RESULTS: Although the mean awake systolic BP (SBP), 24-h diastolic BP (DBP), awake DBP, asleep heart rate (HR) did not differ between two groups (P > 0.05), the mean 24-h and asleep SBP, asle...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - August 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cai H, Wang S, Zou R, Wang Y, Wang C Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Sex differences in cardiac vagal reactivation from the end of isometric handgrip exercise and at the onset of muscle metaboreflex isolation.
Abstract A parasympathetic reactivation is an underlying mechanism mediating the rapid fall in heart rate (HR) at the onset of post-exercise ischemia (PEI) in humans. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that, compared to men, women present a slower HR recovery at the cessation of isometric handgrip exercise (i.e., onset of PEI) due to an attenuated cardiac vagal reactivation. Forty-seven (23 women) young and healthy volunteers were recruited. Subjects performed 90s of isometric handgrip exercise at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction followed by 3-min of PEI. The onset of PEI was analyzed over the first 30s in 10s w...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - August 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Samora M, Teixeira AL, Sabino-Carvalho JL, Vianna LC Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Differential diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension.
Abstract Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common clinical manifestation characterized by a significant fall in blood pressure with postural change and is frequently accompanied by debilitating symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. The reported prevalence of OH ranges between 5 and 10% in middle-aged adults with a burden that increases concomitantly with age; in those over 60 years of age, the prevalence is estimated to be over 20%. Unfortunately, the clinical course of OH is not necessarily benign. OH patients are at an increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes including death, falls, cardiovascular and cer...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lei LY, Chew DS, Raj SR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
The ectopy-triggering ganglionated plexuses in atrial fibrillation.
CONCLUSION: ET-GP can be identified by endocardial stimulation and their anatomical distribution, in contrast to AVD-GP, would be more likely to be affected by wide antral circumferential ablation. This may contribute to AF ablation outcomes. PMID: 32769021 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim MY, Sandler B, Sikkel MB, Cantwell CD, Leong KM, Luther V, Malcolme-Lawes L, Koa-Wing M, Ng FS, Qureshi N, Sohaib A, Whinnett ZI, Fudge M, Lim E, Todd M, Wright I, Peters NS, Lim PB, Linton NWF, Kanagaratnam P Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Orexin A and B in the rat superior salivatory nucleus.
In this study, the distribution of OXA and OXB was examined in the rat superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) using retrograde tracing and immunohistochemical and methods. OXA- and OXB-immunoreactive (-ir) nerve fibers were seen throughout the SSN. These nerve fibers surrounded SSN neurons retrogradely labeled with Fast blue (FB) from the corda-lingual nerve. FB-positive neurons had pericellular OXA- (47.5%) and OXB-ir (49.0%) nerve fibers. Immunohistochemistry for OX receptors also demonstrated the presence of OX1R and OX2R in FB-positive SSN neurons. The majority of FB-positive SSN neurons contained OX1R- (69.7%) or OX2R-immu...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sato T, Yajima T, Fujita M, Kobashi M, Ichikawa H, Yoshida R, Mitoh Y Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Morphological and neurochemical characterisation of anterogradely labelled spinal sensory and autonomic nerve endings in the mouse bladder.
The objective was to characterise anatomically and immunohistochemically the terminal endings of sensory and autonomic motor nerve endings in wholemount preparations of the mouse bladder. We used both anterograde labelling of pelvic and hypogastric nerves ex vivo and anterograde labelling from lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in vivo in male and female mice. These were combined with immunohistochemistry for major markers of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Selective labelling of spinal afferent endings following dextran biotin-labelling from DRGs in vivo showed no co-localisation of VAChT or TH in sens...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sharma H, Kyloh M, Brookes SJH, Costa M, Spencer NJ, Zagorodnyuk VP Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Association between reduced heart rate variability components and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with a systemic right ventricle.
CONCLUSION: In patients with a systemic right ventricle, HRV is lower compared with controls and (SDANN) is independently associated with supraventricular arrhythmias. PMID: 32623323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zandstra T, Kiès P, Maan A, Man SC, Bootsma M, Vliegen H, Egorova A, Mertens B, Holman E, Schalij M, Jongbloed M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Utility of salivary gland biopsy in diagnosing Sjogren's syndrome in a POTS patient population.
CONCLUSION: A positive ANA and skin biopsy for SFN are two helpful features in selecting POTS patients for LSGB. PMID: 32570139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pasadyn SR, Warren CB, Wilson RG Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Functional atropine sensitive purinergic responses in the healthy rat bladder.
Abstract While acetylcholine is regarded to be the main directly contractile transmitter substance in the urinary bladder, interactions with other transmitters likely occur. Presently, the interplay between purinergic and cholinergic signalling was investigated to unravel the involvement of the urothelium and efferent neurons in the functionally important purinergically evoked release of acetylcholine in vitro. Functional characterization of receptor subtypes involved in this interplay was also performed. In vitro organ bath experiments with electrical field stimulation (EFS) or administration of agonist were perf...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stenqvist J, Carlsson T, Winder M, Aronsson P Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in the heart failure patient.
Abstract Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is a common comorbidity in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. It is associated with an increased risk of falls, incident cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. There are over 5 million individuals in the U.S. with heart failure (HF) with an associated 50% mortality rate at 5 years. The prevalence of nOH and HF increase with age and, as the population continues to age, will be increasingly common comorbid conditions. Thus, the effective management of these conditions has important implications for public health. The management of orthostatic hy...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dixon DD, Muldowney JAS Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Psychological correlates of patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).
Abstract Psychological symptoms are frequently reported in patients with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS); however, the nature of these symptoms is not well understood. The current study described baseline psychological symptoms in patients with POTS, and examined associations between psychological and self-report autonomic symptoms. Participants reported mild anxiety symptoms, moderate depressive symptoms, severe somatization, and elevated anxiety sensitivity. Depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing were significantly associated with autonomic symptoms. The current study adds to the literatur...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fisher CJ, Katzan I, Heinberg LJ, Schuster AT, Thompson NR, Wilson R Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Attention and executive function are impaired during active standing in postural tachycardia syndrome.
Abstract Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic form of orthostatic intolerance associated with cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesized executive function and attention is impaired in POTS during active standing. Eighty-seven POTS participants and 39 healthy controls of similar age, sex, and education level completed executive function (Stroop word-color) and attention (CogState Identification) tests in supine and standing postures in a cross-sectional study. POTS participants had lower executive function (t-score: 48 ± 11 vs. 55 ± 10 control; p = 0.009) and wo...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miller AJ, Sheehan T, Bourne KM, Feeley M, Arnold AC Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
State-dependent modulation of sympathetic firing by α1-adrenoceptors requires constitutive PKC activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord.
State-dependent modulation of sympathetic firing by α1-adrenoceptors requires constitutive PKC activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord. Auton Neurosci. 2020 May 23;227:102688 Authors: Su CK Abstract The central adrenergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems diffusively affect the operation of the spinal neural network and dynamically gauge central sympathetic outflow. Using in vitro splanchnic nerve-thoracic spinal cord preparations as an experimental model, this study examined the intraspinal α1-adrenoceptor-meidated modulation of sympathetic firing behaviors. Several sympathetic ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Su CK Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
In vivo paracrine effects of ATP-induced urothelial acetylcholine in the rat urinary bladder.
Abstract Mechanical stretch of the urothelium induces the release of ATP that activates bladder afferent nerves. In the rat urinary bladder, ATP is also a contractile co-transmitter in the parasympathetic innervation. In isolated preparations, ATP evokes a urothelial release of acetylcholine that substantially contributes to ATP-evoked contractile responses. Currently we aimed to further examine the interactions of ATP and acetylcholine in the rat urinary bladder in two in vivo models. In the whole bladder preparation, atropine reduced ATP-evoked responses by about 50% in intact but denervated bladders, while atro...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stenqvist J, Aronsson P, Carlsson T, Winder M, Tobin G Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Effect of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on isolated jejunum: A very useful tool to study the interaction between neurons in the enteric nervous system.
atilde;o IM Abstract Scorpion envenomation is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. In Brazil, Tityus serrulatus is the biggest cause of accidents with venomous animals. Tityus serrulatus venom causes symptoms related to a great activation of the autonomic system attributed to a massive release of sympathetic and parasympathetic mediators. This effect is attributed to the presence of toxins acting in Na+ and K+ ion channels, leading to an increase in cell excitability. Although gastrointestinal symptoms, like diarrhoea and sialorrhea, is observed in moderate to severe cases, little attention i...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Louza GSG, Carmo LLGD, Conceição IM Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Selective abolition of Mayer waves in conscious endotoxemic rats.
In conclusion, the amplitude of Mayer waves cannot be used indiscriminately as an index of vascular sympathetic tone. PMID: 32417667 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - April 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Julien C, Chapuis B, Barrès C Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Transecting the hypogastric nerve to uncover the bladder-inhibitory pathways involved with saphenous nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats.
Abstract Saphenous (SAFN) nerve stimulation was recently shown in anesthetized rats to elicit bladder-inhibitory responses in a frequency-dependent manner; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential role of the hypogastric nerve (HGN) in this inhibitory pathway by examining stimulation-evoked changes in bladder function under four different experimental conditions: (1) HGN intact, saline infusion (HGNi-s), (2) HGN transected, saline infusion (HGNt-s), (3) HGN intact, acetic acid (AA) infusion (HGNi-a), and (4) HGN transected, AA infusion (HGNt-a). Experimen...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - April 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Franz KS, Yoo PB Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Intracerebroventricularly injected nesfatin-1 activates central cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways.
In conclusion, these findings report that while nesfatin-1 is generating its autonomic effects, it also might be using central prostaglandins and leukotrienes by activating central COX and LOX pathways. PMID: 32334147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - April 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guvenc-Bayram G, Altinbas B, Iqbal A, Cerci E, Udum D, Yilmaz MS, Erdost H, Yalcin-Ulger E, Ilhan T, Ersoy F, Uz E, Yalcin M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Renal iodine123-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy relates to muscle sympathetic nervous activity in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Renal denervation is effective for modulating augmented sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We have demonstrated that renal iodine123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy is associated with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in patients with hypertension. However, it is unclear whether renal 123I-MIBG scintigraphy is useful for assessment of SNA in HFrEF. METHODS: The study population consisted of 24 HFrEF patients and 11 healthy subjects as controls. Patients with HFrEF underwent 123I-MIBG scintigraphy and hemodynami...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Okabe Y, Murai H, Tokuhisa H, Hamaoka T, Mukai Y, Sugimoto H, Takashima SI, Kato T, Matsuo S, Usui S, Furusho H, Takamura M, Kaneko S Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Treatment induced neuropathy of diabetes.
CONCLUSION: TIND is more common than previously suspected. The number of cases reported over the past 10 years is much greater than historical literature predicted. Increased attention to target glucose control as a physician metric could suggest a possible explanation for the increased in TIND cases reported in recent years. At present, supportive care is the only recommended treatment. Future research is necessary to define the underlying mechanism, prevent development and to guide treatment recommendations. PMID: 32247944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gibbons CH Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Cardiovagal baroreflex gain relates to sensory loss after spinal cord injury.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to autonomic nervous system damage, resulting in loss of sympathetic control to the vasculature and the heart proportional to injury level. Given maintained cardiac parasympathetic control, we hypothesized that SCI demonstrates a compensatory, higher baroreflex gain compared to able-bodied that relates to injury level (neurological and/or sensory). We compared baroreflex gain (average and across 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 mmHg input stimuli) derived from neck chamber technique in SCI (N = 29; neurological level C1-T10, sensory zone of partial preservation C4-S4/5...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - March 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Draghici AE, Taylor JA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Real-world droxidopa or midodrine treatment persistence in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension or orthostatic hypotension.
In this study, we compared the treatment persistence of droxidopa and midodrine. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients prescribed either droxidopa or midodrine was conducted using the Symphony Health Solutions database (Symphony Health Solutions, Phoenix, AZ, USA). Inclusion criteria were (1) a pharmacy insurance claim in at least 16 consecutive quarters from mid-2014 to 2018 and (2) an active prescription for droxidopa or midodrine of ≥30 days' duration during that period. Treatment persistence was defined as the time to the first break in drug coverage of ≥45 days and was capped at 365 days. ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kymes SM, Sullivan C, Jackson K, Raj SR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Serotonin and substance P: Synergy or competition in the control of breathing.
Abstract Numerous neurotransmitters identified in the central nervous system play role in ventilatory control. This mini-review focuses on the respiratory effects of two neurotransmitters: serotonin (5-HT) and substance P (SP). We discuss their co-localization in medullary raphe nuclei, expression of proper receptors within the specific regions of respiratory related structures and contribution to respiratory rhythmogenesis. PMID: 32145695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Szereda-Przestaszewska M, Kaczyńska K Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Threshold and saturation pressures of baroreflex-mediated myocardial interstitial acetylcholine release in rats.
Abstract Cardiac microdialysis allows the assessment of cardiac efferent vagal nerve activity from myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels with minimal influence on the neural control of the heart; however, a total picture of the baroreflex-mediated myocardial interstitial ACh release including the threshold and saturation pressures has yet to be quantified. In eight anesthetized Wistar-Kyoto rats, we implanted microdialysis probes in the left ventricular free wall and measured the myocardial interstitial ACh release simultaneously with efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during a carotid sinus ba...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawada T, Sata Y, Akiyama T, Shimizu S, Sonobe T, Pearson JT, Sugimachi M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Attenuated baroreflex in a Parkinson's disease animal model coincides with impaired activation of non-C1 neurons.
Abstract Orthostatic hypotension is one of the most common symptoms observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and it is associated with denervation of the heart and impairment of the baroreflex. Here, we aimed to investigate if the impaired baroreflex was associated with lower activation of cardiovascular brainstem areas in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of PD. The PD model was generated with male Wistar rats by injection of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the striatum. After 20 or 60 days, the femor...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cabral LM, Moreira TS, Takakura AC, Falquetto B Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
A novel role of cardiac inwardly rectifying potassium channels explaining autonomic cardiovascular dysfunctions in a cuprizone-induced mouse model of multiple sclerosis.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), believed to have an autoimmune etiology. MS patients showed an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk probably related to an impairment in the autonomic control of CV functions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely elucidated. Inwardly-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play a key role in cardiac excitability by contributing to the repolarization phase of action potential and were recently identified as target of the autoantibody response in MS patients. The...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Akyuz E, Villa C Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Quantitative sudomotor abnormalities in clinically isolated rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.
DISCUSSION: Sudomotor abnormalities are common in patients with iRBD, supporting the concept that peripheral autonomic impairment occurs early in the course of disease. PMID: 32062418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zitser J, Muppidi S, Sinn DI, Jaradeh S, Miglis MG Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Muscle vasodilator response via potential adrenaline secretion to L-cysteine microinjected in rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats.
Abstract We previously found that the thiol amino acid L-cysteine microinjected into rat medullary autonomic areas produces changes in arterial blood pressure (AP) via ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors (iEAAr), but its effect on vascular beds is still unknown. Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) pressor area includes adrenal and lumbar presympathetic neurons which activation could cause opposite muscle vascular responses: vasodilation versus vasoconstriction. However, there are few data on the vasodilator response in rats. Ionotropic EAAr activation alone with L-cysteine may be effective to differentiate...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takemoto Y Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
A 12-month lifestyle intervention does not improve cardiac autonomic function in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a high risk of future autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-month lifestyle intervention (LI) involving regular aerobic exercise on cardiac autonomic function in CKD patients. DESIGN: Pooled exploratory analysis. METHODS: 113 eligible patients with stage 3-4 CKD (eGFR 25-60 ml/min/1.75m2) participated in a LI program, including an 8-week individualised gym-based exercise program followed by a 10-month home-based program. The control (CON) group underwent standar...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huppertz N, Beetham KS, Howden EJ, Leicht AS, Isbel NM, Coombes JS Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Rostral ventrolateral medulla neuron activity is suppressed by Klotho and stimulated by FGF23 in newborn Wistar rats.
Abstract Hypertension often occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Considering the decrease in serum Klotho and increase in serum FGF23 levels in such patients, decreased Klotho and increased FGF23 levels were thought to be associated with hypertension. Presympathetic neurons at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contribute to sympathetic activity and regulation of blood pressure. Therefore, we hypothesized that Klotho would reduce the activities of RVLM neurons and FGF23 would stimulate them. Accordingly, this study examined the effects of Klotho and FGF23 on bulbospinal neurons in the RVLM. ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Oshima N, Onimaru H, Yamagata A, Ito S, Imakiire T, Kumagai H Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Severing the ventral funiculus in chronic spinal cord injury has the most deteriorating effect on spermatogenesis in rats.
Abstract Sexual dysfunction, following spinal cord injury (SCI), is highly dependent on the extent of injury. SCI disrupts the supraspinal innervation of the reproductive organs; resulting in structural and functional deficits. Relating the extent of SCI to these changes could eventually improve diagnoses and treatment planning of sexual dysfunction following SCI. In the present study, following chronic SCI of different severities (1/3 dorsal SCI (1/3 SCI), 2/3 dorsal SCI (2/3 SCI), and complete transection (Tx)) at T8 spinal level, histological changes of seminiferous tubules parameters in testis were examined. T...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kaddumi EG, Omoush SA, Shuqair DA, Abdel-Razaq W, Alkhateeb HH, Kanaan RA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Autonomic impairment in sleep: An introduction to the special edition.
PMID: 31978844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Calandra-Buonaura G, Cortelli P, Miglis M, Palma JA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Prevalence of hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.
Abstract Despite well-established clinical associations between Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), the precise prevalence is unknown. We therefore evaluated for hEDS in 91 POTS participants using the 2017 hEDS diagnostic checklist, which has three major criteria: 1) generalized joint hypermobility (Beighton score), 2) systemic features, family history, and 3) absence of exclusion criteria. Overall, 28 out of 91 POTS participants (31%) met clinical criteria for hEDS. An additional 24% of participants had generalized joint hypermobility without meeting hED...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miller AJ, Stiles LE, Sheehan T, Bascom R, Levy HP, Francomano CA, Arnold AC Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and autonomic disorders: a position statement from the American Autonomic Society.
CONCLUSIONS: Certain conditions are prevalent in the same patient populations that are vaccinated with the HPV vaccine (peri-pubertal males and females). This association, however, is insufficient proof of causality. PMID: 31928708 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 31, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barboi A, Gibbons CH, Axelrod F, Benarroch EE, Biaggioni I, Chapleau MW, Chelimsky G, Chelimsky T, Cheshire WP, Claydon VE, Freeman R, Goldstein DS, Joyner MJ, Kaufmann H, Low PA, Norcliffe-Kaufmann L, Robertson D, Shibao CA, Singer W, Snapper H, Vernino Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Dynamic monitoring of single-terminal norepinephrine transporter rate in the rodent cardiovascular system: A novel fluorescence imaging method.
Abstract Here, we validate the use of a novel fluorescent norepinephrine transporter (NET) substrate for dynamic measurements of transporter function in rodent cardiovascular tissue; this technique avoids the use of radiotracers and provides single-terminal resolution. Rodent (Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice) hearts and mesenteric arteries (MA) were isolated, loaded with NET substrate Neurotransmitter Transporter Uptake Assay (NTUA) ex vivo and imaged with confocal microscopy. NTUA labelled noradrenergic nerve terminals in all four chambers of the heart and on the surface of MA. In all tissues, a temperature-dependen...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cao LL, Holmes AP, Marshall JM, Fabritz L, Brain KL Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Activation of bradykinin-sensitive pericardial afferents increases systemic venous tone in conscious rats.
Abstract Our understanding of reflex regulation of veins lags behind that of the arterial system. While the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) exerts control over sympathetic outflow, its effect on venous tone is not known. We tested the hypothesis that activation of pericardial bradykinin sensitive afferents elicits systemic venoconstriction. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were chronically instrumented for measurement of arterial pressure and mean circulatory filling pressure, an index of venous tone, and with an indwelling pericardial catheter. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and mean circulatory...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Martin DS, Vogel E, Freeling J, Reihe C Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Sympathetic overactivation predicts body weight loss in patients with heart failure.
Abstract Neurohumoral activation is frequently observed in chronic heart failure (HF) patients who develop body weight (BW) loss. We therefore hypothesized that sympathetic overactivation can predict progression of BW loss in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction. We prospectively evaluated BW loss in 108 non-edematous HF in whom muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was measured. Follow-up began on the day of first MSNA measurement. Patients with BW loss of ≥5% of baseline BW during the first year of follow-up were considered to be experiencing BW loss. Maximal BW loss (%) and time to first BW loss (i....
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joho S, Ushijima R, Nakagaito M, Kinugawa K Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Effects of high-fat diet on sympathetic neurotransmission in mesenteric arteries from Dahl salt-sensitive rat.
In conclusion, HFD-induced hypertension is not driven by increased sympathetic neurotransmission to MA in male and female Dahl ss rats. PMID: 31731103 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alula KM, Biltz R, Xu H, Garver H, Laimon-Thomson EL, Fink GD, Galligan JJ Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research