An origin of carotid vasodilation extends along the full extent of the parasympathetic parvicellular reticular region in the rat brainstem
Auton Neurosci. 2021 Feb 13;232:102786. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102786. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring grooming in rats, cranial parasympathetic activation leads to increased carotid artery blood flow, but the brainstem origin of this vasodilation signal is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to map brainstem sites wherein chemical stimulation with l-cysteine, an ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor activator, can trigger carotid vasodilation in anesthetized intact and superior cervical sympathectomized (SCD) rats. The right side of the brainstem was accessed ventrally; arterial blood pressure and ri...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yumi Takemoto Source Type: research

An origin of carotid vasodilation extends along the full extent of the parasympathetic parvicellular reticular region in the rat brainstem
Auton Neurosci. 2021 Feb 13;232:102786. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102786. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring grooming in rats, cranial parasympathetic activation leads to increased carotid artery blood flow, but the brainstem origin of this vasodilation signal is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to map brainstem sites wherein chemical stimulation with l-cysteine, an ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor activator, can trigger carotid vasodilation in anesthetized intact and superior cervical sympathectomized (SCD) rats. The right side of the brainstem was accessed ventrally; arterial blood pressure and ri...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yumi Takemoto Source Type: research

An origin of carotid vasodilation extends along the full extent of the parasympathetic parvicellular reticular region in the rat brainstem
Auton Neurosci. 2021 Feb 13;232:102786. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102786. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring grooming in rats, cranial parasympathetic activation leads to increased carotid artery blood flow, but the brainstem origin of this vasodilation signal is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to map brainstem sites wherein chemical stimulation with l-cysteine, an ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor activator, can trigger carotid vasodilation in anesthetized intact and superior cervical sympathectomized (SCD) rats. The right side of the brainstem was accessed ventrally; arterial blood pressure and ri...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yumi Takemoto Source Type: research

An origin of carotid vasodilation extends along the full extent of the parasympathetic parvicellular reticular region in the rat brainstem
Auton Neurosci. 2021 Feb 13;232:102786. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102786. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring grooming in rats, cranial parasympathetic activation leads to increased carotid artery blood flow, but the brainstem origin of this vasodilation signal is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to map brainstem sites wherein chemical stimulation with l-cysteine, an ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor activator, can trigger carotid vasodilation in anesthetized intact and superior cervical sympathectomized (SCD) rats. The right side of the brainstem was accessed ventrally; arterial blood pressure and ri...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yumi Takemoto Source Type: research

Cardiac sympathetic denervation and mental health
CONCLUSION: The BCSD procedure is associated with reduced anxiety shortly after successful treatment for refractory ventricular arrhythmias in a small sample. Longitudinal surveillance of mental health symptoms after BCSD may be warranted to monitor the impact of this procedure on mental health.PMID:33631539 | DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102787 (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sahib S Khalsa Ashley N Clausen Leila Shahabi Julie Sorg Sarah E Gonzalez Bruce Naliboff Kalyanam Shivkumar Olujimi A Ajijola Source Type: research

Cardiac sympathetic denervation and mental health
CONCLUSION: The BCSD procedure is associated with reduced anxiety shortly after successful treatment for refractory ventricular arrhythmias in a small sample. Longitudinal surveillance of mental health symptoms after BCSD may be warranted to monitor the impact of this procedure on mental health.PMID:33631539 | DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102787 (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sahib S Khalsa Ashley N Clausen Leila Shahabi Julie Sorg Sarah E Gonzalez Bruce Naliboff Kalyanam Shivkumar Olujimi A Ajijola Source Type: research

Characterizing the autonomic neural connections between the abdominal aortic and superior hypogastric plexuses: A multimodal neuroanatomical study
Auton Neurosci. 2021 Feb 13;232:102785. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102785. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe aortic plexus serves as the primary gateway for sympathetic fibers innervating the pelvic viscera. Damage to this plexus and/or its associated branches can lead to an assortment of neurogenic complications such as bladder dysregulation or retrograde ejaculation. The neuroanatomy of this autonomic plexus has only recently been clarified in humans; as such, the precise function of its constituent fibers is still not clear. Further study into the functional neuroanatomy of the aortic plexus could help refine nerve-spar...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Adam M R Groh Justin Lamont Cleusa de Oliveira Jacob Fanous Nagalingam Rajakumar Nicholas E Power Tyler S Beveridge Source Type: research

Exaggerated sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to dynamic mechanoreflex activation in rats with heart failure: Role of endoperoxide 4 and thromboxane A < sub > 2 < /sub > receptors
Auton Neurosci. 2021 Feb 13;232:102784. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102784. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the role played by endoperoxide 4 receptors (EP4-R) and thromboxane A2 receptors (TxA2-R) during isolated dynamic muscle mechanoreflex activation in rats with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-rEF) and sham-operated healthy controls. We found that injection of the EP4-R antagonist L-161,982 (1 μg) into the arterial supply of the hindlimb had no effect on the peak pressor response to dynamic hindlimb muscle stretch in HF-rEF (n = 6, peak ∆MAP ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alec L E Butenas Korynne S Rollins Auni C Williams Shannon K Parr Stephen T Hammond Carl J Ade K Sue Hageman Timothy I Musch Steven W Copp Source Type: research

The features of the glymphatic system
Auton Neurosci. 2021 Feb 3;232:102774. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102774. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe glymphatic system creates a network of perivascular channels. It is made of astroglia cells, whose perikaryon extensions strongly express aquaporin-4 water channels (AQP4). The pathways of the glymphatic system ensure the transport of nutrients, including glucose, lipids, amino acids, neurotransmitters, antigens, and immune cells, as well as exchange of information via afferent and efferent immune pathways. Within the glymphatic system, convective exchange of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) com...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Blanka Nycz Marek Mandera Source Type: research

Characterizing the autonomic neural connections between the abdominal aortic and superior hypogastric plexuses: A multimodal neuroanatomical study
Auton Neurosci. 2021 Feb 13;232:102785. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102785. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe aortic plexus serves as the primary gateway for sympathetic fibers innervating the pelvic viscera. Damage to this plexus and/or its associated branches can lead to an assortment of neurogenic complications such as bladder dysregulation or retrograde ejaculation. The neuroanatomy of this autonomic plexus has only recently been clarified in humans; as such, the precise function of its constituent fibers is still not clear. Further study into the functional neuroanatomy of the aortic plexus could help refine nerve-spar...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Adam M R Groh Justin Lamont Cleusa de Oliveira Jacob Fanous Nagalingam Rajakumar Nicholas E Power Tyler S Beveridge Source Type: research

Exaggerated sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to dynamic mechanoreflex activation in rats with heart failure: Role of endoperoxide 4 and thromboxane A < sub > 2 < /sub > receptors
Auton Neurosci. 2021 Feb 13;232:102784. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102784. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the role played by endoperoxide 4 receptors (EP4-R) and thromboxane A2 receptors (TxA2-R) during isolated dynamic muscle mechanoreflex activation in rats with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-rEF) and sham-operated healthy controls. We found that injection of the EP4-R antagonist L-161,982 (1 μg) into the arterial supply of the hindlimb had no effect on the peak pressor response to dynamic hindlimb muscle stretch in HF-rEF (n = 6, peak ∆MAP ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alec L E Butenas Korynne S Rollins Auni C Williams Shannon K Parr Stephen T Hammond Carl J Ade K Sue Hageman Timothy I Musch Steven W Copp Source Type: research

The features of the glymphatic system
Auton Neurosci. 2021 Feb 3;232:102774. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2021.102774. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe glymphatic system creates a network of perivascular channels. It is made of astroglia cells, whose perikaryon extensions strongly express aquaporin-4 water channels (AQP4). The pathways of the glymphatic system ensure the transport of nutrients, including glucose, lipids, amino acids, neurotransmitters, antigens, and immune cells, as well as exchange of information via afferent and efferent immune pathways. Within the glymphatic system, convective exchange of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) com...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Blanka Nycz Marek Mandera Source Type: research

Characterizing the autonomic neural connections between the abdominal aortic and superior hypogastric plexuses: A multimodal neuroanatomical study.
Abstract The aortic plexus serves as the primary gateway for sympathetic fibers innervating the pelvic viscera. Damage to this plexus and/or its associated branches can lead to an assortment of neurogenic complications such as bladder dysregulation or retrograde ejaculation. The neuroanatomy of this autonomic plexus has only recently been clarified in humans; as such, the precise function of its constituent fibers is still not clear. Further study into the functional neuroanatomy of the aortic plexus could help refine nerve-sparing surgical procedures that risk debilitating neurogenic complications, while also adv...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 13, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Groh AMR, Lamont J, de Oliveira C, Fanous J, Rajakumar N, Power NE, Beveridge TS Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Exaggerated sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to dynamic mechanoreflex activation in rats with heart failure: Role of endoperoxide 4 and thromboxane A2 receptors.
Abstract The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the role played by endoperoxide 4 receptors (EP4-R) and thromboxane A2 receptors (TxA2-R) during isolated dynamic muscle mechanoreflex activation in rats with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-rEF) and sham-operated healthy controls. We found that injection of the EP4-R antagonist L-161,982 (1 μg) into the arterial supply of the hindlimb had no effect on the peak pressor response to dynamic hindlimb muscle stretch in HF-rEF (n = 6, peak ∆MAP pre: 27 ± 7; post: 27 ± 4 mm ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 13, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Butenas ALE, Rollins KS, Williams AC, Parr SK, Hammond ST, Ade CJ, Hageman KS, Musch TI, Copp SW Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Autonomic dysregulation as an early pathologic feature of Huntington Disease.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been described in adults with motor-manifest Huntington's Disease (HD) or those who are near their predicted motor onset. It is unclear if ANS dysfunction is present years prior to the onset of motor symptoms of HD. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we compared crude markers of ANS function between children with the gene-expansion that causes HD (GE group) who were decades from their predicted motor onset and gene-non-expanded children (GNE group). METHODS: We included participants from the Kids-HD study who were
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - February 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schultz JL, Harshman LA, Kamholz JA, Nopoulos PC Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Can novel non-invasive autonomic tests help discriminate between pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy?
CONCLUSION: The tests applied in this study may help to confirm autonomic failure but did not support the differential diagnosis between PAF and MSA. PMID: 33548868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 26, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gagaouzova BS, Datema M, Thijs RD, Tannemaat MR, Steenmeijer SR, Notting IC, van Dijk JG Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Autonomic response after hemorrhagic stroke in the right insular cortex: What is the common pathophysiology in rat and human?; Reply.
s MAP PMID: 33508528 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Marins FR, Limborço-Filho M, Xavier CH, Guatimosim S, Fontes MAP Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Syncopal attacks in children: Is it cardiac or epilepsy related?
CONCLUSIONS: A number of self-reported/observed symptoms can be used to distinguish epilepsy from syncope with high discriminative ability. The current findings still need to be validated in larger, preferably multiple populations before they can be safely relied upon. PMID: 33513550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 21, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bashiri F, Alsheikh R, Alsheikh R, AlSheikh H, Alsehemi M, Alhuzaimi A Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Prevalence of joint hypermobility syndromes in pediatric postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: Our evaluation of a large series of pediatric patients with POTS revealed that over one-fifth of patients had EDS and over one-third of patients had HSD. The awareness of the prevalence of comorbidities such as hypermobility disorders may help inform providers diagnosing and caring for these patients. PMID: 33388686 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Boris JR, Bernadzikowski T Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Observational case series describing features of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (PoTS).
Abstract Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (PoTS) is a chronic condition often affecting multiple systems with varied presenting symptoms. Diagnosis is made by demonstrating cardiovascular criteria on standing along with clinical assessment. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing has been used to demonstrate and characterise the physiological response to exercise and the severity of the syndrome. Previous studies on exercise testing in these patients have focussed on cardiovascular changes alone. This series characterises the integrated cardiac and respiratory response to exercise seen with cardiopulmonary exercise testing....
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Loughnan A, Gall N, James S Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Using a radiopaque marker with radiography for evaluating colonic transit by geometric center in conscious rats: A novel method.
This study developed a new method using radiopaque markers under X-ray to measure rat colonic transit by geometric center repeatedly and/or over a time series in the same individually. Additionally, the utility of this method was shown by elucidating the innervation of the autonomic nerve on colonic transit in detail with a pharmacological technique in conscious rats. An in-dwelling silastic cannula was inserted into the cecum and the proximal part was moved through the abdominal wall, where it was fixed to the posterior neck skin. Twenty markers were administered from the cannula to the proximal colon with saline on the f...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Okada M, Taniguchi S, Takeshima C, Taniguchi H, Kitakoji H, Itoh K, Takahashi T, Imai K Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Protective effects of quercetin-loaded microcapsules on the enteric nervous system of diabetic rats.
Abstract Quercetin-loaded microcapsules (QLM) promote controlled release and higher bioavailability of quercetin, an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent. We evaluated the antioxidant effect of QLM on enteric innervation and in the oxidative status of the ileum of diabetic rats. Wistar adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used in six groups containing normoglycemic (N), diabetic (D) and either normoglycemic or diabetic groups treated with QLM at a dose of 10 mg/kg (NQ10 and DQ10, respectively) or 100 mg/kg (NQ100 and DQ100, respectively). DQ10 e DQ100 did not prevent overall neuronal loss in the total an...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sehaber-Sierakowski CC, Vieira-Frez FC, Hermes-Uliana C, Martins HA, Bossolani GDP, Lima MM, Blegniski FP, Guarnier FA, Baracat MM, Perles JVCM, Zanoni JN Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Cardioprotective effects of acute sleep deprivation on ischemia/reperfusion injury.
CONCLUSION: This study shows cardioprotective effects of acute sleep deprivation, which can be abolished by chemical sympathectomy in isolated hearts of rats. PMID: 33310629 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Edalatyzadeh Z, Aghajani M, Imani A, Faghihi M, Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, Askari S, Choopani S Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Exaggerated potassium current reduction by oxytocin in visceral sensory neurons following chronic intermittent hypoxia" [Auton Neurosci. 229 2020 Sep 28 102735].
Corrigendum to "Exaggerated potassium current reduction by oxytocin in visceral sensory neurons following chronic intermittent hypoxia" [Auton Neurosci. 229 2020 Sep 28 102735]. Auton Neurosci. 2020 Dec 04;:102758 Authors: Dantzler HA, Kline DD PMID: 33288445 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - December 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dantzler HA, Kline DD Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Autonomic response after hemorrhagic stroke in the right insular cortex: What is the common pathophysiology in rat and human?
PMID: 33260055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nagai M, Dote K, Kato M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Purinergic receptor antagonism: A viable strategy for the management of autonomic dysreflexia?
Abstract The purinergic receptor ligand, ATP, may participate in reflex induced vasoconstriction through sympathetic efferent and sensory afferent mechanisms. However, the role of the purinergic system in contributing to autonomic dysreflexia following spinal cord injury is unclear. The present study investigates the involvement of P2X receptors in contributing to pressor responses during autonomic dysreflexia. Twenty rats were subjected to spinal cord injury and 24 h later hemodynamic responses to colorectal distension were recorded. Animals were randomized to receive intravenous administration of the P2X re...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Minic Z, O'Leary DS, Reynolds CA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Inhibition of the dorsomedial hypothalamus substantially decreases brown adipose tissue sympathetic discharge induced by activation of the lateral habenula.
In this study we aimed to test this possibility. In anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, we recorded electrical discharges directly from sympathetic fibres that innervate BAT, as well as BAT temperature. Injections of bicuculline (1 nmol in 100 nl), a neuronal activator by disinhibition, into the LHb increased BAT sympathetic nerve discharge by 4.9 ± 1.4dBμV (n = 7, P 
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brizuela M, Ootsuka Y Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Validation of the new index of baroreflex function to identify neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.
CONCLUSION: In our cohort, the ΔHR/ΔSBP ratio had a good sensitivity but a limited specificity to identify NOH. This easily applicable test may represent a valuable screening tool in a clinical setting to identify patients who need further detailed autonomic testing to confirm the neurogenic origin of OH. PMID: 33189018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guaraldi P, Baschieri F, Barletta G, Cecere A, Cortelli P, Calandra-Buonaura G Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of acute hyperglycemia on the exercise pressor reflex in healthy rats.
In conclusion, these findings suggest that acute, local exposure to hyperglycemia does not affect the exercise pressor reflex or either of its components. PMID: 33190039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huo Y, Grotle AK, Ybarbo KM, Lee J, Harrison ML, Stone AJ Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Global REACH 2018: Regional differences in cerebral blood velocity control during normoxic and hypoxic cold pressor tests.
Abstract The impact of oxygen on the cerebral response to the cold pressor test (CPT) remains unknown. In 13 participants, blood pressure, middle and posterior cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv and PCAv, respectively) were measured during an isocapnic normoxic and hypoxic (SpO2 = 85%) CPT. The main findings were: 1) the MCAv response to the CPT was greater compared to the PCAv in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively); and, 2) hypoxia did not alter the cerebral response to the CPT (P = 0.141 and P = 0.150, respectively). The...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - November 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tymko MM, Hoiland RL, Ainslie PN Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Adenosine A1 and A2a receptors modulate the nitrergic system in cell culture from dorsomedial medulla oblongata.
In this study we evaluate the interaction between adenosinergic and nitrergic systems in cell culture from the dorsomedial medulla oblongata of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Using quantification of nitrite levels, RT-PCR analysis and RNA interference we demonstrate that adenosine A1 (A1R) and A2a receptor (A2aR) agonists induce a concentration-dependent decrease and increase of nitrite and nNOS mRNA levels in cultured cells from WKY and SHR, respectively. These effects in nitrite levels are attenuated by the administration of A1R and A2aR selective antagonists, CPT and ZM 241385. Furthermore...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - October 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Costa MA, Matsumoto JPP, Carrettiero DC, Fior-Chadi DR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Exaggerated potassium current reduction by oxytocin in visceral sensory neurons following chronic intermittent hypoxia.
This study sought to determine the mechanism (s) by which OT modulates sensory afferent-nTS mediated reflexes normally and after CIH. Nodose ganglia neurons from male Sprague-Dawley rats were examined after 10d CIH (6% O2 every 3 min) or their normoxic (21% O2) control. OTR mRNA and protein were identified in Norm and CIH ganglia and was similar between groups. To examine OTR function, APs and potassium currents (IK) were recorded in dissociated neurons. Compared to Norm, after CIH OT depolarized neurons and reduced current-induced AP discharge. After CIH OT also produced a greater reduction in IK that where tetraethy...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dantzler HA, Kline DD Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Syncope at SARS-CoV-2 onset.
We describe clinical and laboratory findings in 35 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab experiencing one or multiple syncope at disease onset. Clinical neurologic and cardiologic examination, and electrocardiographic findings were normal. Chest computed tomography showed findings consistent with interstitial pneumonia. Arterial blood gas analysis showed low pO2, pCO2, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) indicating hypocapnic hypoxemia. Patients who presented with syncope showed significantly lowe...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Canetta C, Accordino S, Buscarini E, Benelli G, La Piana G, Scartabellati A, Viganò G, Assandri R, Astengo A, Benzoni C, Gaudiano G, Cazzato D, Rossi DS, Usai S, Tramacere I, Lauria G Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Delayed orthostatic hypotension.
Abstract Delayed orthostatic hypotension is a fall in blood pressure beyond 3 min of standing or upright tilt table testing. The prevalence, clinical features and pathophysiology are reviewed. To date, there is little data to support a standardized or recommended treatment. However, the 10-year mortality rates of individuals with delayed orthostatic hypotension are approximately 50%. Despite the fact that delayed orthostatic hypotension carries the same symptoms, risks and high mortality rate as classical orthostatic hypotension, but is under-recognized. The frequency with which delayed orthostatic hypotensio...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gibbons CH, Freeman R Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Autonomic and Cardiac Repolarization Lability in Long QT Syndrome Patients.
CONCLUSION: Autonomic (HRV) and cardiac repolarization (QTVI) ECG measures differ based on LQTS genotype and history of arrhythmias in LQTS1. SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50 were each independent markers for LQTS genotype. PMID: 32942226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - September 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: DeMaria N, Selmi A, Kashtan S, Xia X, Wang M, Zareba W, Couderc JP, Auerbach DS Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Lower urinary tract function in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: A preliminary observation.
CONCLUSION: We observed detrusor overactivity in FTLD patients with LUT symptoms. Although a preliminary observation, this LUT feature, which might reflect the frontal/insular cortex pathology typically associated with FTLD, requires appropriate management and care. PMID: 32871389 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - August 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sakakibara R, Shimizu A, Takahashi O, Aiba Y, Tateno F, Sugisaki Y, Suzuki H, Yamamoto T, Uchiyama T, Yamanishi T Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Circadian rhythms of blood pressure and rate pressure product in children with postural tachycardia syndrome.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate circadian rhythms of blood pressure (BP) and rate pressure product (RPP) in children with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) by performing 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM). METHODS: 103 POTS children and 84 age- and gender-matched healthy children were enrolled and they got 24-h ABPM under usual routine of diurnal activity and nocturnal sleep. RESULTS: Although the mean awake systolic BP (SBP), 24-h diastolic BP (DBP), awake DBP, asleep heart rate (HR) did not differ between two groups (P > 0.05), the mean 24-h and asleep SBP, asle...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - August 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cai H, Wang S, Zou R, Wang Y, Wang C Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Sex differences in cardiac vagal reactivation from the end of isometric handgrip exercise and at the onset of muscle metaboreflex isolation.
Abstract A parasympathetic reactivation is an underlying mechanism mediating the rapid fall in heart rate (HR) at the onset of post-exercise ischemia (PEI) in humans. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that, compared to men, women present a slower HR recovery at the cessation of isometric handgrip exercise (i.e., onset of PEI) due to an attenuated cardiac vagal reactivation. Forty-seven (23 women) young and healthy volunteers were recruited. Subjects performed 90s of isometric handgrip exercise at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction followed by 3-min of PEI. The onset of PEI was analyzed over the first 30s in 10s w...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - August 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Samora M, Teixeira AL, Sabino-Carvalho JL, Vianna LC Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Differential diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension.
Abstract Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common clinical manifestation characterized by a significant fall in blood pressure with postural change and is frequently accompanied by debilitating symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. The reported prevalence of OH ranges between 5 and 10% in middle-aged adults with a burden that increases concomitantly with age; in those over 60 years of age, the prevalence is estimated to be over 20%. Unfortunately, the clinical course of OH is not necessarily benign. OH patients are at an increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes including death, falls, cardiovascular and cer...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lei LY, Chew DS, Raj SR Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

The ectopy-triggering ganglionated plexuses in atrial fibrillation.
CONCLUSION: ET-GP can be identified by endocardial stimulation and their anatomical distribution, in contrast to AVD-GP, would be more likely to be affected by wide antral circumferential ablation. This may contribute to AF ablation outcomes. PMID: 32769021 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim MY, Sandler B, Sikkel MB, Cantwell CD, Leong KM, Luther V, Malcolme-Lawes L, Koa-Wing M, Ng FS, Qureshi N, Sohaib A, Whinnett ZI, Fudge M, Lim E, Todd M, Wright I, Peters NS, Lim PB, Linton NWF, Kanagaratnam P Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Orexin A and B in the rat superior salivatory nucleus.
In this study, the distribution of OXA and OXB was examined in the rat superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) using retrograde tracing and immunohistochemical and methods. OXA- and OXB-immunoreactive (-ir) nerve fibers were seen throughout the SSN. These nerve fibers surrounded SSN neurons retrogradely labeled with Fast blue (FB) from the corda-lingual nerve. FB-positive neurons had pericellular OXA- (47.5%) and OXB-ir (49.0%) nerve fibers. Immunohistochemistry for OX receptors also demonstrated the presence of OX1R and OX2R in FB-positive SSN neurons. The majority of FB-positive SSN neurons contained OX1R- (69.7%) or OX2R-immu...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sato T, Yajima T, Fujita M, Kobashi M, Ichikawa H, Yoshida R, Mitoh Y Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Morphological and neurochemical characterisation of anterogradely labelled spinal sensory and autonomic nerve endings in the mouse bladder.
The objective was to characterise anatomically and immunohistochemically the terminal endings of sensory and autonomic motor nerve endings in wholemount preparations of the mouse bladder. We used both anterograde labelling of pelvic and hypogastric nerves ex vivo and anterograde labelling from lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in vivo in male and female mice. These were combined with immunohistochemistry for major markers of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Selective labelling of spinal afferent endings following dextran biotin-labelling from DRGs in vivo showed no co-localisation of VAChT or TH in sens...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sharma H, Kyloh M, Brookes SJH, Costa M, Spencer NJ, Zagorodnyuk VP Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Association between reduced heart rate variability components and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with a systemic right ventricle.
CONCLUSION: In patients with a systemic right ventricle, HRV is lower compared with controls and (SDANN) is independently associated with supraventricular arrhythmias. PMID: 32623323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zandstra T, Kiès P, Maan A, Man SC, Bootsma M, Vliegen H, Egorova A, Mertens B, Holman E, Schalij M, Jongbloed M Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Utility of salivary gland biopsy in diagnosing Sjogren's syndrome in a POTS patient population.
CONCLUSION: A positive ANA and skin biopsy for SFN are two helpful features in selecting POTS patients for LSGB. PMID: 32570139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pasadyn SR, Warren CB, Wilson RG Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Functional atropine sensitive purinergic responses in the healthy rat bladder.
Abstract While acetylcholine is regarded to be the main directly contractile transmitter substance in the urinary bladder, interactions with other transmitters likely occur. Presently, the interplay between purinergic and cholinergic signalling was investigated to unravel the involvement of the urothelium and efferent neurons in the functionally important purinergically evoked release of acetylcholine in vitro. Functional characterization of receptor subtypes involved in this interplay was also performed. In vitro organ bath experiments with electrical field stimulation (EFS) or administration of agonist were perf...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stenqvist J, Carlsson T, Winder M, Aronsson P Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in the heart failure patient.
Abstract Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is a common comorbidity in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. It is associated with an increased risk of falls, incident cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. There are over 5 million individuals in the U.S. with heart failure (HF) with an associated 50% mortality rate at 5 years. The prevalence of nOH and HF increase with age and, as the population continues to age, will be increasingly common comorbid conditions. Thus, the effective management of these conditions has important implications for public health. The management of orthostatic hy...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dixon DD, Muldowney JAS Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Psychological correlates of patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).
Abstract Psychological symptoms are frequently reported in patients with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS); however, the nature of these symptoms is not well understood. The current study described baseline psychological symptoms in patients with POTS, and examined associations between psychological and self-report autonomic symptoms. Participants reported mild anxiety symptoms, moderate depressive symptoms, severe somatization, and elevated anxiety sensitivity. Depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing were significantly associated with autonomic symptoms. The current study adds to the literatur...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fisher CJ, Katzan I, Heinberg LJ, Schuster AT, Thompson NR, Wilson R Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Attention and executive function are impaired during active standing in postural tachycardia syndrome.
Abstract Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic form of orthostatic intolerance associated with cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesized executive function and attention is impaired in POTS during active standing. Eighty-seven POTS participants and 39 healthy controls of similar age, sex, and education level completed executive function (Stroop word-color) and attention (CogState Identification) tests in supine and standing postures in a cross-sectional study. POTS participants had lower executive function (t-score: 48 ± 11 vs. 55 ± 10 control; p = 0.009) and wo...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miller AJ, Sheehan T, Bourne KM, Feeley M, Arnold AC Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

State-dependent modulation of sympathetic firing by α1-adrenoceptors requires constitutive PKC activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord.
State-dependent modulation of sympathetic firing by α1-adrenoceptors requires constitutive PKC activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord. Auton Neurosci. 2020 May 23;227:102688 Authors: Su CK Abstract The central adrenergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems diffusively affect the operation of the spinal neural network and dynamically gauge central sympathetic outflow. Using in vitro splanchnic nerve-thoracic spinal cord preparations as an experimental model, this study examined the intraspinal α1-adrenoceptor-meidated modulation of sympathetic firing behaviors. Several sympathetic ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Su CK Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

In vivo paracrine effects of ATP-induced urothelial acetylcholine in the rat urinary bladder.
Abstract Mechanical stretch of the urothelium induces the release of ATP that activates bladder afferent nerves. In the rat urinary bladder, ATP is also a contractile co-transmitter in the parasympathetic innervation. In isolated preparations, ATP evokes a urothelial release of acetylcholine that substantially contributes to ATP-evoked contractile responses. Currently we aimed to further examine the interactions of ATP and acetylcholine in the rat urinary bladder in two in vivo models. In the whole bladder preparation, atropine reduced ATP-evoked responses by about 50% in intact but denervated bladders, while atro...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - May 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stenqvist J, Aronsson P, Carlsson T, Winder M, Tobin G Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research