Association of IL-21 polymorphisms (rs907715, rs2221903) with susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases: a meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Data from the present study suggest that the IL-21 rs907715 polymorphism might be associated with multiple ADs susceptibility in Caucasians. Especially, the allele G of intronic rs907715 in IL-21 confers increased risk of ADs. PMID: 25074442 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

The association between vibration and vascular injury in rheumatic diseases: a review of the literature.
Authors: Wang YJ, Huang XL, Yan JW, Wan YN, Wang BX, Tao JH, Chen B, Li BZ, Yang GJ, Wang J Abstract Vascular manifestations can be seen early in the pathogenesis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Animal experiments, laboratory and clinical findings indicated that acute or long-term vibration exposure can induce vascular abnormalities. Recent years, in addition to Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), vibration as a risk factor for other rheumatic diseases has also received corresponding considered. This review is concentrated upon the role of vibration in the disease of systemic sclerosis (SSc). In this review, we are goin...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Circulating levels of chemokines in psoriasis.
Authors: Lima XT, Oliveira RT, Braga FG, Magalhães RF, Mamoni RL, Blotta MH Abstract Chemokines may contribute to local and systemic inflammation in patients with psoriasis. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of chemokine ligands and receptors in the recruitment of T cells into psoriatic lesional skin and synovial fluid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of Th1-related chemokines in psoriasis and to investigate any association with disease severity. We quantified serum levels of CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL16 and the frequencies of CD4+CXCR3+ T lymphocytes through ELISA and flow cytom...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Genetic variants of interleukin-4 gene in autoimmune thyroid diseases: an updated meta-analysis.
Authors: Shen X, Yan X, Xie B, Xu D, Wang K, Zhu J, Li J, Zhang X, Cao F Abstract Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) including Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are common autoimmune endocrine disorders. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a cytokine secreted by T cells, plays a critical role in antigen-specific Th2 responses. The IL-4 gene is highly polymorphic and it has been reported that the polymorphism at -590 (T/C, rs2243250) in the promoter region of IL-4 may contribute to the development of AITDs. Recently, several case-control studies have examined the association of genetic variants of IL-4 with A...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Associations between Klinefelter's syndrome and autoimmune diseases: English national record linkage studies.
Authors: Seminog OO, Seminog AB, Yeates D, Goldacre MJ Abstract There are reports suggesting that people with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) may be at increased risk of some autoimmune diseases, but the evidence is not substantial. We wanted to add to the evidence by systematically assessing the risk of autoimmune diseases in a national cohort of people with KS. We selected records of all people with KS in a record-linked dataset of all hospital day cases and inpatient admissions in England, 1999-2011; and we followed them up by electronic record linkage to identify the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. We compared t...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Interleukin-2 and subunit alpha of its soluble receptor in autoimmune Addison's disease--an association study and expression analysis.
Authors: Fichna M, Żurawek M, Bratland E, Husebye ES, Kasperlik-Załuska A, Czarnocka B, Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska D, Nowak J Abstract Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) results from T cell-mediated destruction of the adrenal cortex, commonly accompanied by autoantibodies to 21-hydroxylase (21OH). In order to gain insight into the obscure aetiology of this disease, we investigated the roles of the IL2 and IL2RA genes, encoding interleukin-2 and subunit alpha of its receptor (IL2Ra), respectively. The association of AAD with IL2 and IL2RA polymorphisms (rs6822844, rs2069762, rs3136534, rs11594656, rs3118470 and rs2...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Inhibition of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 reduces the production of autoantibody and alleviates symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus.
This study aimed to investigate the role of Blimp-1 in the development of SLE and autoimmune-like symptoms. Lentivirus-mediated Blimp-1 siRNA was constructed and injected into MRL-Fas(lpr) lupus mice. The expression levels of Blimp-1, J-chain, C-myc, XBP-1 and BCMA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) were determined by RT-PCR. Anti-dsDNA autoantibody levels were detected using ELISA. The expression levels of Blimp-1 in liver, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes of mice were also detected by Western blot. The 24-h urinary protein was monitored weekly. Our results demonstrated that in MRL-Fas(lpr) lupus mice, Blimp-1 wa...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Interleukin-17 is a critical target for the treatment of ankylosing enthesitis and psoriasis-like dermatitis in mice.
In conclusion, IL-17 is a key mediator in the pathogenic process of tarsal ankylosis and psoriasis-like dermatitis in male DBA/1 mice caged together. Thus, IL-17 is a potential therapeutic target in ankylosing enthesitis and psoriasis in humans. PMID: 25352178 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor system is a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that aberrant IGF-I and IGFBP-3 production plays a role in abnormal osteoclastic activation and angiogenesis in RA. This work supports future clinical exploration of anti-IGF-IR mAb in drug repositioning as a new treatment for RA. PMID: 25352179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Detailed profiling of anti-desmoglein autoantibodies identifies anti-Dsg1 reactivity as a key driver of disease activity and clinical expression in pemphigus vulgaris.
Authors: Naseer SY, Seiffert-Sinha K, Sinha AA Abstract With their near-universal presence in patients and ease of clinical measurement, anti-desmoglein (Dsg) antibodies serve as primary candidates for creating prognostic tools in Pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Although the desmoglein compensation hypothesis postulates a clear relationship between anti-Dsg autoantibodies and clinical phenotype in PV, recent studies have questioned the fidelity of this hypothesis as a predictor of lesion morphology. Moreover, few studies address the association of anti-Dsg antibodies to other clinical parameters such as disease phase and ...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies are present in intravenous immunoglobulin and are produced in mice following its administration.
The objective of this study was to determine if IVIG contained such antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) measured specific binding of IVIG Gamunex to purified human anti-Aβ IgG. The mean concentration of its Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies in four experiments was 1.85 μg/mL (18.5 μg/g IgG; range = 1.82-1.89 μg/mL [18.2-18.9 μg/g IgG]), and their mean percentage of specific binding was 72.2% (range = 68.3-75.3%). We then performed ELISAs to determine if antibodies to purified human anti-Aβ were produced in C57BL/6 mice injecte...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Pentraxin 3 as a biomarker of local inflammatory response to vascular injury in systemic lupus erythematosus.
In conclusion, PTX3 concentrations in SLE patients might serve as a indicator of the activation/dysfunction of vascular endothelium. PMID: 25401491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

The selective impact of transgenically expressed glucocorticoid receptor on T cells.
Authors: Yakimchuk K, Chen L, Hasni MS, Okret S, Jondal M Abstract Glucocorticoids (GCs) strongly impact on different T cell subsets inducing generally immunosuppressive effects, whereas much less is known about the effect of GC on natural killer (NK) cells. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of GC on T cell functions, including T cell-mediated anti-tumor immune response, and on NK cells. We have used lck-GR mice, which overexpress a transgenic rat GR in both T and NK cells. These mice were found to have decreased both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations in the periphery. In contrast, both NK a...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Acthar gel treatment suppresses acute exacerbations in a murine model of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
This study investigated the effects of Acthar in an animal model of relapsing-remitting MS, using SJL/J mice sensitized with myelin peptide. All animal studies were reviewed and approved by the University of Utah Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and conducted in accordance with the guidelines prepared by the Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Institute of Laboratory Animals Resources, National Research Council. Mice injected with Acthar to treat the second attack had a significantly lower mean clinical score during relapse and a significantly reduced cumulative disease burden compared to Placebo ge...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Deletion of IL-4Rα in the BALB/c mouse is associated with altered lesion topography and susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Deletion of IL-4Rα in the BALB/c mouse is associated with altered lesion topography and susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Autoimmunity. 2015 Jun;48(4):208-21 Authors: Orian JM, Keating P, Downs LL, Hale MW, Jiang X, Pham H, LaFlamme AC Abstract The regulation of cytokine expression by immune deviation from a pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory or "regulatory" milieu is crucial to the prevention of permanent central nervous system (CNS) damage in neuroinflammation. Earlier studies in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model pointed to ...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Autoantibody response and pregnancy-related pathology induced by combined LPS and tetanus toxoid hyperimmunization in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.
We report that, although high affinity pathological anti-β2GPI antibodies were produced in all groups of animals, the reproductive pathology was recorded only in mice that received both LPS and TTd, implying on the important roles of both infections and molecular mimicry in APS pathogenesis. Moreover, APS-related reproductive pathology was more pronounced in BALB/c (lowered fertility and fecundity) than C57BL/6 mice (lowered fecundity), which correlated well with the disruption in natural antibody network observed in BALB/c mouse strain. PMID: 25430703 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Antiphospholipid antibodies correlate with stroke severity and outcome in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.
Authors: Rodríguez-Sanz A, Martínez-Sánchez P, Prefasi D, Fuentes B, Pascual-Salcedo D, Blanco-Bañares MJ, Díez-Tejedor E Abstract BACKGROUND: Our goal was to analyze the association of the level of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) with stroke severity and outcome in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: Observational study included consecutive patients with ischemic stroke younger than 55 years (2007-2012). We analyzed serum levels of aPLs, including anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-β2GPI) and antiprothrom...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Novel insights into Tim-4 function in autoimmune diseases.
Authors: Fang XY, Xu WD, Pan HF, Leng RX, Ye DQ Abstract T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-4 (Tim-4) was first recognized as a costimulatory molecule regulating T-cell activation. Dysregulation of Tim-4 has been found in some autoimmune conditions, particularly in the immune cells. Recently, Tim-4 was found to be critical for regulating T cells, with the ability of inhibiting naïve CD4(+) T cells and Th17 cells, increasing Th2 cell development. Tim-4 can also enhance T cell expansion via linker for activation of T cells, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Protein kinase B (PKB, also kn...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Interleukin-22 and rheumatoid arthritis: emerging role in pathogenesis and therapy.
Authors: Xie Q, Huang C, Li J Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by synovial inflammation and resultant progressive joint damage. It has become increasingly evident that cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family. Recent findings suggest that not only the expression of IL-22 is abnormal both in RA patients and in arthritis mice but also the aberrant IL-22 performs significantly in disease onset of RA. In this paper, we focus on the critical role of IL-22 in RA. Hopefully, the information o...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Using Poly I:C as an adjuvant does not induce or exacerbate models of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Authors: Annable T, Tomassian T, Jain S, Leibbrandt M, Cooke MP, Deane JA Abstract Subunit vaccines are typically poorly immunogenic when administered alone, and require adjuvants for robust responses. Triggering TLRs to boost antigen-specific adaptive immunity is an attractive approach to increase the potency and quality of vaccines. However, recent reports suggest that alterations in TLR expression are associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To compare genetic studies with adjuvant studies, we examined whether stimulation through a TLR agonist induces or increases the autoimmune ...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

High frequency of activated NKp46(+) natural killer cells in patients with new diagnosed of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.
Authors: Wang Y, Yuan W, Guo H, Jiang Y Abstract To determine the potential association of different subsets of NK cells with the development of latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) in patients. The frequency of different subsets of NK and NKT cells, including IFN-γ(+) and CD107a(+) NK and NKT cells, in 27 patients with newly diagnosed LADA and 20 healthy controls (HC) were determined by flow cytometry. The concentrations of serum autoantibodies against GAD65 were measured by direct radioligand assay. The potential association of the frequency of NK cells with clinical measures was analyzed. In compari...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

B cells produce less IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-α in myasthenia gravis.
B cells produce less IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-α in myasthenia gravis. Autoimmunity. 2015 Jun;48(4):201-7 Authors: Yilmaz V, Oflazer P, Aysal F, Parman YG, Direskeneli H, Deymeer F, Saruhan-Direskeneli G Abstract B cells from myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with autoantibodies (Aab) against acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) or with no detectable Aab were investigated as cytokine producing cells in this study. B cells were evaluated for memory phenotypes and expressions of IL-10, IL-6 and IL-12A. Induced productions of IL-10, IL-6, IL-12p40, TNF-α and LT from isolated B ...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Biological relevance of citrullinations: diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic options.
CONCLUSION: Current literature suggests that increased levels of citrullinated proteins are found in several if not all inflammatory diseases. In RA measurement of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) against citrullinated protein fragments are widely used as a prognostic biomarker. More recently, it has been indicated that levels of selected citrullinated proteins carries additional potential as biomarkers. This includes citrullinated vimentin which provide prognostic information in diseases as fibrosis and ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, recent studies suggest that inhibition of PAD is a target for treatment...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Extension of the CD4⁺Foxp3⁺CD25(-/low) regulatory T-cell subpopulation in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Authors: Zóka A, Barna G, Somogyi A, Műzes G, Oláh Á, Al-Aissa Z, Hadarits O, Kiss K, Firneisz G Abstract Regulatory T-cells (Treg) have a crucial role in limiting physiologic autoreactivity. Foxp3 is a master regulator transcription factor of Treg differentiation and active Treg cells express high levels of IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25). The aim of our study was to assess the key markers of Treg cell function in type 1 diabetic (T1DM) and control subjects by flow cytometry. The proportion of CD25(-/low) cells among CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells was higher in T1DM patients that might suggest ...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

B cell TLR1/2, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 interact in induction of class switch DNA recombination: modulation by BCR and CD40, and relevance to T-independent antibody responses.
Authors: Pone EJ, Lou Z, Lam T, Greenberg ML, Wang R, Xu Z, Casali P Abstract Ig class switch DNA recombination (CSR) in B cells is crucial to the maturation of antibody responses. It requires IgH germline IH-CH transcription and expression of AID, both of which are induced by engagement of CD40 or dual engagement of a Toll-like receptor (TLR) and B cell receptor (BCR). Here, we have addressed cross-regulation between two different TLRs or between a TLR and CD40 in CSR induction by using a B cell stimulation system involving lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS-mediated long-term primary class-switched antibody responses...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens and development of autoimmune disease.
CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant associations between atopy and autoimmune disease, but we cannot exclude relatively small to moderate effects - protective or promotive - of atopy on autoimmune disease. PMID: 25600125 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Antiphospholipid autoantibodies as blood biomarkers for detection of early stage Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: McIntyre JA, Ramsey CJ, Gitter BD, Saykin AJ, Wagenknecht DR, Hyslop PA, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Abstract A robust blood biomarker is urgently needed to facilitate early prognosis for those at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Redox reactive autoantibodies (R-RAAs) represent a novel family of antibodies detectable only after exposure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, plasma or immunoglobulin fractions to oxidizing agents. We have previously reported that R-RAA antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are significantly decreased in the CSF and serum of AD patients compared to healthy...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Vaccination to modulate atherosclerosis.
Authors: Kimura T, Tse K, Sette A, Ley K Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Adaptive immunity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Recently, modulation of the immune response against atherosclerotic plaque antigen(s) has attracted attention as a potentially preventive and therapeutic approach. Here, we review a series of studies on immunization with various antigens targeting treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis-related antigens include oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) and heat shock protei...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Contribution of autoallergy to the pathogenesis in the NOD mice.
Authors: Thyagarajan R, Banday V, Ding Z, Lejon K Abstract The immunoglobulin isotype IgE is commonly associated with allergy. However, its involvement in autoimmune disease in general, and Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in particular, is still not completely clarified, nonetheless IgE has been observed in patients with T1D. In this article, we aimed to elucidate the contribution of IgE in the pathogenesis of the disease in a spontaneous model for T1D, i.e. the NOD mouse. We observed increased levels of IgE in splenic, lymph node and peripheral blood B cells in the NOD mice compared to the control C57BL/6 (B6) mice. No corr...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

STAT1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and susceptibility to immune thrombocytopenia.
Authors: Chen Z, Guo Z, Ma J, Liu F, Gao C, Liu S, Wang A, Wu R Abstract Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune bleeding disorder. One of the key mediators of IFN-γ signaling is the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 protein (STAT1). We evaluated the relationship between STAT1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the associated risk of ITP in a prospective case-control study. A total of 548 children were recruited: 328 children with ITP and 220 healthy children as sex- and age-matched normal controls. The Sequenom MassArray system (Sequenom, San Diego, CA) w...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Association of joint erosion with SLC22A4 gene polymorphisms inconsistently associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility.
In this study, the two SNPs were genotyped for 2313 Korean participants and their associations with RA susceptibility and severity were examined. SNP association with RA susceptibility was tested among 1304 RA patients and 1009 healthy controls, and association with joint erosion among 1063 erosive and 241 non-erosive RA patients. Meta-analysis for RA susceptibility association was additionally performed using 10 previous studies and the current one. The two SNPs were almost perfectly correlated with each other (r(2 )= 0.98), and therefore only slc2F1 was tested for association. RA susceptibility association ...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Selected biologic markers of inflammation and activity of Crohn's disease.
Authors: Karczewski J, Swora-Cwynar E, Rzymski P, Poniedziałek B, Adamski Z Abstract The study aimed to compare the accuracy of selected biologic markers in assessing the disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The analysis included serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ, hsCRP, peripheral CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells, as well as fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin. A group of 55 adults with CD was enrolled to the study. Disease activity was assessed using Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS), which currently represents ...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Reactivation of persistent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes secretion of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) in EBV-infected B lymphocytes with TRAbs on their surface.
This study revealed TRAb production from TRAb(+)EBV(+) cells in response to reactivation induction of persistent EBV in different efficiencies between patients and controls. PMID: 25759125 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Effects of disruption of the nucleotide pattern in CRID element and Kozak sequence of interferon β on mRNA stability and protein production.
This study has tried to improve the IFNβ production by introducing mutations in the coding region of IFNβ, while its amino acid sequence is intact. Two recombinant vectors IFNβ(K) and IFNβ(K+CRID )were designed by site-directed mutagenesis. The IFNβ(K) and IFNβ(K+CRID) have two substitutions in Kozak sequence and four substitutions in CRID sequence, respectively. The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell codon usage optimization was also performed for both of them. They were transiently transfected to CHO-dhfr(-) cell line using Lipofectamine kit (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY). The amount of mRNA a...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Macrophages in vascular inflammation--From atherosclerosis to vasculitis.
Authors: Shirai T, Hilhorst M, Harrison DG, Goronzy JJ, Weyand CM Abstract The spectrum of vascular inflammatory disease ranges from atherosclerosis and hypertension, widespread conditions affecting large proportions of the population, to the vasculitides, rare syndromes leading to fast and irreversible organ failure. Atherosclerosis progresses over decades, inevitably proceeding through multiple phases of disease and causes its major complications when the vessel wall lesion ruptures, giving rise to lumen-occlusive atherothrombosis. Vasculitides of medium and large arteries progress rapidly, causing tissue ischemi...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Fine specificities of natural regulatory T cells after IVIG therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Authors: Burns JC, Touma R, Song Y, Padilla RL, Tremoulet AH, Sidney J, Sette A, Franco A Abstract The activation of natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) recognizing the heavy constant region (Fc) of IgG is an important mechanism of action of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in Kawasaki disease (KD). Lack of circulating Fc-specific nTreg in the sub-acute phase of KD is correlated with the development of coronary artery abnormalities (CAA). Here, we characterize the fine specificity of nTreg in sub-acute (2- to 8-week post-IVIG) and convalescent (1- to 10-year post-IVIG) KD subjects by testing the immunogenic...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

The role of statins in inflammatory vasculitides.
Authors: Tremoulet AH Abstract While the statins are best known for their cholesterol lowering capabilities, they also appear to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and endothelial-repairing properties that have raised the question as to whether this class of drugs can be of benefit in non-atherosclerotic, acute and chronic vasculitides. These effects, independent of the lipid-lowering effects, make the statins a class of drugs that are primed for repurposing and being used in disease states where innate and adaptive immunity and endothelial damage play a key role. Thus far, statins have been used in Behcet's, rhe...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Temporal phenotypic features distinguish polarized macrophages in vitro.
In conclusion, macrophage cytokine production and marker expression were temporally regulated and relative levels compared across polarizing conditions were highly dependent upon the timing and location (cellular versus CM) of the sample collection. For most cytokines, cellular production preceded increases in the CM suggesting that cellular regulatory pathways should be studied within 6 h of stimulation. The divergent polarization-dependent expression of Vegfr1 may be essential to controlling VEGF potentially regulating angiogenesis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the vascular niche. The current study expands the re...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Promotion of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis upon neutrophil granulocytes' stimulation with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) peptide.
In conclusion, with its potent capacity to mobilize neutrophils and to stimulate innate immune cells, fMLP peptide can be used to aggravate immune reactions in EAE. This observation may indicate that the strength of innate immune responses particularly at the induction phase of EAE might influence the clinical course of the disease. PMID: 25826286 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Introduction.
Authors: Franco A PMID: 25831239 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin gallate stimulates the neuroreactive salivary secretomotor system in autoimmune sialadenitis of MRL-Fas(lpr) mice via activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and inactivation of nuclear factor κB.
In this study, we examined the effects of administering EGCG to MRL-Fas(lpr) mice with autoimmune sialadenitis on the levels of AQP5, activated NF-κB p65 subunit, activated PKA, activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) (an activator of NF-κB), inhibitor κB (IκB) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) (an inhibitor of NF-κB). In EGCG-treated mice, intense aster-like immunostaining for AQP5 was observed on the apical plasma membranes (APMs) of submandibular gland acinar cells. Likewise, PKA, IκB and HDAC1 were highly expressed in salivary gland tissues, whereas the expression of JNK and NF-&kapp...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Altered IgG autoantibody levels and CD4(+) T cell subsets in lupus-prone Nba2 mice lacking the nuclear progesterone receptor.
Authors: Wong AH, Agrawal N, Hughes GC Abstract Important interactions between female reproduction and autoimmunity are suggested by the female-predominance of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases and the amelioration of certain autoimmune diseases during pregnancy. Sexually dimorphic risk of developing SLE involves modulation of genetic risk by environmental factors, sex hormones and non-hormonal factors encoded on the sex chromosomes. In some lupus models, estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α), enhances production of highly pathogenic IgG2a/c autoantibodies (autoAbs). Some...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice show abnormalities in ovarian function and morphology with the progression of autoimmune disease.
In conclusion, MRL/lpr mice display altered ovarian development, morphology and function consistent with the progression of severe autoimmune disease, as these findings are less severe in MRL/+ counterparts. PMID: 25857350 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

MicroRNA-29a induces apoptosis via increasing the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio in dermal fibroblasts of patients with systemic sclerosis.
Authors: Jafarinejad-Farsangi S, Farazmand A, Mahmoudi M, Gharibdoost F, Karimizadeh E, Noorbakhsh F, Faridani H, Jamshidi AR Abstract The most prominent feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and other diseases associated with fibrosis is the prolonged activation of fibroblasts not eliminated by apoptosis, hence characterized by accumulation of more extra cellular matrix (ECM). We tend to verify if microRNA-29a (miR-29a) as an anti-fibrotic factor could induce apoptosis in SSc fibroblasts. We did not detect apoptosis in SSc fibroblasts. We found that Bcl-2 expression was upregulated in SSc fibroblasts and the ratio o...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Poly-autoimmunity in patients with myasthenia gravis: A single-center experience.
Authors: Evoli A, Caliandro P, Iorio R, Alboini PE, Damato V, LaTorre G, Provenzano C, Marino M, Lauriola L, Scuderi F, Bartoccioni E Abstract We evaluated the co-occurrence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in a large population of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients from a single center. Our survey included 984 patients, 904 with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies and 80 with anti-muscle specific kinase antibodies. The anti-acetylcholine receptor positive population included patients with early-onset (age at onset ≤ 50 years), late-onset and thymoma-associated disease. Follow-up ranged 2-40 years. Two-hundred and f...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

The association between rs4684677 T/A polymorphism in preproghrelin gene and predisposition to autoimmune thyroid diseases in children.
CONCLUSIONS: Rs4684677 T/A polymorphisms in preproghrelin gene could contribute to development of AITDs in children and T allele is the main risk factor. PMID: 25868387 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Autoimmunity)
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Interleukin-17 in systemic lupus erythematosus: A comprehensive review.
Authors: Li D, Guo B, Wu H, Tan L, Chang C, Lu Q Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complicated autoimmune disease of multifactorial pathoaetiology. One of the most serious manifestations is lupus nephritis. The pathogenesis of SLE has not been well elucidated, but it has been reported that interleukin-17 (IL-17) and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of SLE. IL-17A, a member of IL-17 family, amplifies the immune response by inducing the local production of chemokines and cytokines, recruiting neutrophils and monocytes, augmenting the production of autoantibodies, and aggravating the ...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Treatment with anti-C5aR mAb leads to early-onset clinical and mechanistic effects in the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis model.
In this study we use the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA) model to study the very early effects of a blocking, non-depleting anti-C5aR mAb on joint inflammation with treatment synchronised with disease onset, an approach not previously described. The DTHA model is a single-paw inflammatory arthritis model characterised by synchronised and rapid disease onset driven by T-cells, immune complexes and neutrophils. We show that a reduction in paw swelling, bone erosion, cartilage destruction, synovitis and new bone formation is apparent as little as 60 h after administration of a single dose of a blo...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Complicating autoimmune diseases in myasthenia gravis: a review.
Authors: Nacu A, Andersen JB, Lisnic V, Owe JF, Gilhus NE Abstract Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disease of skeletal muscle endplates. MG subgroup is relevant for comorbidity, but usually not accounted for. MG patients have an increased risk for complicating autoimmune diseases, most commonly autoimmune thyroid disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we present concomitant autoimmune disorders associated with the different MG subgroups, and show how this influences treatment and prognosis. Concomitant MG should always be considered in patients with an autoimmune...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

Continuing the quest for autoimmunity due to oral metal exposure.
Authors: Rachmawati D, Muris J, Scheper RJ, Rustemeyer T, Kleverlaan CJ, Feilzer AJ, von Blomberg BM, van Hoogstraten IM Abstract AIM: The role of metal exposure in the development of autoimmune disease (AID) is still controversial. Here, we studied the relationship between oral metal exposure, metal allergy and autoimmunity. METHODS: A mixed population (n = 78) of non-allergic volunteers, metal-allergic patients and patients with oral problems putatively due to metal alloys was evaluated for oral Ni, Pd, Au and Hg exposure and skin hypersensitivity. Clinical autoimmune parameters were based on me...
Source: Autoimmunity - February 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research