Assessing the accommodation response after near visual tasks using different handheld electronic devices
Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that the difference between the ideal and real accommodation responses is mainly attributed to parameters associated with the accommodation process, such as the near visual acuity, depth of focus, pupil diameter, and wavefront aberrations. The wavefront aberrations were dependent on the 3-mm pupil size selected in this study. The accommoda tion response was not dependent on the electronic device employed in each condition, and it was mainly associated with young age and level of amplitude of accommodation of the subjects.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta de acomoda ç...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 30, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy
ABSTRACT Purpose: To ı nvestigate frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) among patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods: The study included 83 patients with CSCR and 201 age- and sex-matched healthy controls; the mean age was 47.5 ± 11.3 years in the CSCR group (18 women; 21.7%) and 47.2 ± 11.2 years in the control group (44 women; 21.9%). All participants were assessed for FMS based on 2010 American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria and for depression and anxiety with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Dep ression Inventory (BDI). Results: FMS was diagnosed in 35 pat...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 30, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Tear osmolarity and ocular surface parameters in patients with psoriasis
ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity, tear film function, and ocular surface changes in patients with psoriasis. Methods: At a single center, 30 eyes of 30 patients with psoriasis (group 1) and 30 eyes of 30 healthy individuals (group 2) were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT) test, scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using a modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity measurement. Results: Tear osmolarity values, OSDI, and Oxford scale scores were significantly higher in group 1 (309.8 ± ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 30, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Consequences of cataract surgery public policies run by private contractors
(Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia)
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 30, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Selective laser trabeculoplasty as an initial treatment option for open-angle glaucoma
ABSTRACT Although eye drops are frequently used as an initial treatment option for open angle glaucoma (OAG), side effects, and poor adherence, among others, may compromise treatment efficacy. In this scenario, laser trabeculoplasty is an interesting therapeutic option for open angle glaucoma cases. Commonly used for many years as a last alternative prior to glaucoma incisional surgery, laser trabeculoplasty has been changing its indication after the advent of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT). In the current review, we critically evaluated the published data regarding the use of laser trabeculoplasty as a first treatm...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Macular hemorrhage after roller coaster riding in a single-eyed patient with congenital glaucoma
ABSTRACT A 21-year-old female presented with a 4-day history of decreased vision in her only functional eye (right eye, OD). She had a history of multiple ocular surgeries in both eyes because of congenital glaucoma and had lost light perception in her left eye several years prior. Ophthalmological examination revealed 0.15 Snellen visual acuity, and fundoscopy revealed nearly total cupping and pallor of the optic disc and multiple retinal hemorrhagic foci in the macula in OD. Lesions spontaneously resolved over a few months. Gravitational forces during a roller coaster ride may have caused this macular hemorrhage.RESUMO U...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Dacryoliths causing intermittent epiphora associated with a patent lacrimal system
We present two patients with dacryoliths and patent lacrimal drainage with intermittent tearing and without infection. Dacryoliths can be present in the lacrimal sac or lacrimal duct without acute or chronic inflammation. In these cases, we believe dacryolith formation was a causative factor of intermittent epiphora even with a patent drainage system, and we propose that dacryoliths and even fungal colonization formation may be the first event before dacryocystitis and should be considered as a cause of epiphora.RESUMO Apresentamos dois pacientes com dacriolit íase e drenagem lacrimal patente com lacrimejamento inte...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Iris metastases from systemic cancer: a report of three cases
ABSTRACT Ocular metastasis is relatively uncommon, with a reported incidence of approximately 8%, according to the results of autopsy evaluation. The majority of ocular metastases are located within the choroid, while metastatic tumors affecting the iris are rare. Metastatic tumors may manifest as stromal nodules or ill-defined iris thickening, or they may present with nonspecific features such as pain, iridocyclitis, and hyphema. Here, we describe three patients with iris metastasis and discuss the diagnostic challenges and unusual findings associated with these cases.RESUMO A maioria das met ástases oculares do c&...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pupilloplasty in a patient with true polycoria: a case report
ABSTRACT Here we report a case of surgical pupilloplasty in an adult with true polycoria. A 44-year old man was referred to our clinic with a best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 0.5 diopters (D) in his left eye. Biomicroscopy revealed two pupils within a 2.5-mm central zone, with diameters of 1.2 and 1.1 mm. Both pupils had real iris sphincters and responded to light and chemical stimulation. Therefore, we surgically cut the bridge between the two pupils without any intraoperative or postoperative complications. One month after the surgery, BCVA had improved to 0.9 D, and the final pupil was almost round, measuring 2.7 ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Bilateral retinal vasculitis in a patient with lichen planus
We present the case of a patient who was diagnosed with retinal vasculitis and who was followed up for mucosal LP. LP has not been reported as a cause of retinal vasculitis in the literature. We believe that the retinal vasculitis in this case was related to LP because cellular immunity plays a role in the pathogenesis of both entities.RESUMO L íquen plano (LP) é uma doença auto-imune, inflamatória de etiologia desconhecida que normalmente afeta a pele e membranas mucosas. Vasculite retiniana engloba um grupo de doenças que ameaçam a visão em que a autoimunidade parece desem...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Optical coherence tomography of macular atrophy associated with microcephaly and presumed intrauterine Zika virus infection
ABSTRACT This case report describes the retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in a microcephalic infant with macular atrophy presumably caused by intrauterine Zika virus infection. OCT demonstrated atrophy of the outer retinal layers and choriocapillaris, including the outer nuclear layer and ellipsoid zone, associated with retinal pigment epithelium hyper-reflectivity and increased OCT penetration into deeper layers of the choroid and sclera. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with the Zika virus. It is becomi...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical analysis of retinoblastoma cell phenotype using neuronal and glial cell markers
Conclusion: The majority of retinoblastomas and both RB cell lines expressed an immature neural and/or a mature neuronal cell marker, but not a glial marker. These results indicate a typical neuroblast or neuronal origin and eliminate astrocyte differentiation from neural stem cells as the source of retinoblastoma.RESUMO Objetivos: Este estudo visa determinar a origem do retinoblastoma em um n úmero de casos e correlacionar essos achados com fatores prognósticos e histopatológicos conhecidos. Métodos: Trinta e nove casos de retinoblastoma foram diagnosticados e analisados com imuno-histoqu&iacut...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Full-field electroretinogram recorded with skin electrodes in normal adults
Conclusions: ERGs recorded with skin electrodes presented lower peak-to-peak amplitude compared with microfiber electrodes. However, using appropriate normative values, skin electrodes may be useful for specific target populations such as uncooperative infants and/or p atients with ocular surface alterations.RESUMO Objetivo: O eletrorretinograma de campo total (ERG) em pacientes n ão colaborativos e/ou com alterações palpebrais pode ser registrado com diferentes métodos de captação de respostas, dentre eles os eletrodos de pele. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o eletroretinogr...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Efficacy of aflibercept on exudative age-related macular degeneration in patients exhibiting complete ranibizumab resistance and tachyphylaxis
Conclusions: Although treatment with aflibercept yielded generally positive anatomical results in both groups, no significant increase in visual acuity was achieved.RESUMO Objetivo: O presente estudo comparou a efic ácia do aflibercept na degeneração macular neovascular relacionada à idade (NV-AMD) com de resistência completa ao ranibizumab e taquifilaxia ao ranibizumab. Método: Quarenta e quatro olhos de 38 pacientes com degeneração macular neovascular relacionada à idade foram inscritos. Eles foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo de resistência completa ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effect of corneal biomechanical properties on surgically-induced astigmatism and higher-order aberrations after cataract surgery
Conclusions: Despite the observed lack of relationships of preoperative biomechanical properties of the cornea with SIA and postoperative aberrations (except for SA), further studies involving large r patient groups are needed to explore the unexpected refractive deviations after cataract surgery.RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a rela ção entre as propriedades biomecânicas da córnea e as mudanças refrativas pós-operatórias em pacientes com baixa astigmatismo após a cirurgia de catarata. Método: Neste estudo prospectivo, recrutamos os pacientes submetidos a cirurgia ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Atopic keratoconjunctivitis: long-term results of medical treatment and penetrating keratoplasty
Conclusion: Whereas most AKC patients maintained a useful CDVA with medical treatment, PK may be required in some cases. Despite the frequent occurrence of complications, PK can significantly improve the CDVA.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados a longo prazo em ceratoconjuntivite at ópica (AKC) pacientes que foram tratados clinicamente ou cirurgicamente. Métodos: Os prontuários de 16 pacientes (32 olhos) com AKC, que foram acompanhados entre 1996 e 2013 foram avaliados retrospectivamente. As medidas adotadas foram as características demográficas, tempos de seguimento, e r esultados bio...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Influence of the epiretinal membrane on ranibizumab therapy outcomes in patients with diabetic macular edema
ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the influence of the epiretinal membrane (ERM) on intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) therapy for diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: This retrospective study included 56 eyes of 48 patients with DME divided into two groups: the DME with ERM (study) and only DME (control) groups. Changes in the central macular thickness (CMT) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were evaluated. Results: In the study group, although the CMT was significantly reduced following the first injection (p
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Mycophenolate mofetil as an immunomodulator in refractory noninfectious uveitis
Conclusions: This small retrospective case series is consistent with the literature concerning the high efficacy and moderate tolerability of MMF in noninfectious uveitis. Observation of patients should be continued for at least 1 year to clearly determine MMF efficacy.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a efic ácia e tolerância do micofenolato de mofetila (MMF) para o tratamento das uveítes não infecciosas refratárias, utilizando os métodos de análises definidos pelo "Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group." Método: Estudo retrospectivo de série d...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Visual outcomes after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using donor corneas without removal of Descemet membrane and endothelium
ABSTRACT Purpose: The optical quality of the interface after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using the big-bubble technique has been shown to be excellent, leading to results comparable to penetrating keratoplasty. However, there is little in the literature with respect to the controversy surrounding the preparation of the donor cornea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate visual acuity (VA) in patients with keratoconus who underwent DALK without removal of the donor graft endothelium. Methods: The records of 90 patients who underwent DALK without the removal of the Descemet membrane (DM) and endothelium we...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of anterior segment parameters using Scheimpflug technology during the Valsalva maneuver in patients with keratoconus
Conclusions: No changes associated with VM were found in the KC indices or the stage of the disease. However, an increase in pupil diameter and a decrease in anterior chamber angle val ue were found. These changes were comparable to values obtained from previous studies performed on normal corneas.RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo tem como objetivo explorar os efeitos da manobra de Valsalva (VM) na c órnea ectásica durante a varredura tomográfica do segmento anterior usando a câmera de Scheimpflug. Métodos: Foi conduzido estudo observacional, prospectivo envolvendo 100 olhos de 50 pacientes que...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats
Conclusions: Lycopene may aid in the clinical management of uveitis by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliamos o efeito do licopeno, um caroten óide dietético e um potente anti-oxidante, sobre a inflamação ocular e estresse oxidativo em modelo de uveíte experimental. Métodos: Uveíte foi induzida por endotoxina (EIU) em ratos Sprague-Dawley por uma única injeção subcutânea de 200 ug de lipopolissacárido (LPS). A indução de EIU foi precedida por injeção intraperitoneal de licopeno em...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Visual impairment and autism in children: when the ophthalmologist makes the difference
(Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia)
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - January 5, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell complex, and choroidal thicknesses in migraine
ABSTRACT Abnormalities in visual processing caused by visual deprivation or abnormal binocular interaction may induce amblyopia, which is characterized by reduced visual acuity. Occlusion therapy, the conventional treatment, requires special attention as occlusion of the fellow normal eye may reduce its visual acuity and impair binocular vision. Besides recovering visual acuity, some researchers have recommended restoration of stereoacuity and motor fusion and reverse suppression in order to prevent diplopia. Recent studies have documented that the amblyopic visual cortex has a normal complement of cells but reduced spatia...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Amblyopia: neural basis and therapeutic approaches
ABSTRACT Abnormalities in visual processing caused by visual deprivation or abnormal binocular interaction may induce amblyopia, which is characterized by reduced visual acuity. Occlusion therapy, the conventional treatment, requires special attention as occlusion of the fellow normal eye may reduce its visual acuity and impair binocular vision. Besides recovering visual acuity, some researchers have recommended restoration of stereoacuity and motor fusion and reverse suppression in order to prevent diplopia. Recent studies have documented that the amblyopic visual cortex has a normal complement of cells but reduced spatia...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole treatment: case report
ABSTRACT Herein, we report a case of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) following uneventful pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole treatment. A 56-year-old previously healthy woman presented with a full-thickness macular hole in right eye (OD) and small cup-to-disc ratios in both eyes. Five days after surgery, she noticed sudden painless loss of vision in OD and was found to have an afferent pupillary defect and intraocular pressure of 29 mmHg. Fundus examination showed right optic disc edema and the resolution of a macular hole with an inferior altitudinal visual field defect. Erythrocyte sedimentati...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Management of necrotizing scleritis after pterygium surgery with rituximab
ABSTRACT The authors present a case of necrotizing scleritis after pterygium excision successfully treated with rituximab after attempts with high doses of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. A literature review revealed case reports and a phase I/II dose-ranging randomized clinical trial using rituximab for necrotizing scleritis with or without association with autoimmune disease. This is the only case report on rituximab treatment for necrotizing scleritis after pterygium surgery. In cases with refractoriness to immunosuppressive drugs, a CD20 antibody can be used.RESUMO Os autores apresentam um caso de sucesso ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma as a first presentation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's)
We report a case of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma in a patient with undiagnosed granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's). A 59-year-old man presented with a severe headache, ocular pain, blurred vision, shortness of breath, and mild fever. Clinical examination revealed conjunctival chemosis, corneal edema, and shallow anterior chambers. Closed angles were observed bilaterally on gonioscopy. The patient was treated with intravenous mannitol, oral acetazolamide, and anti-glaucomatous eye drops. Over the following two days, his vision improved and intraocular pressures decreased. Subsequently, laser iridotomies w...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal sac: case report
ABSTRACT Lacrimal sac tumors are rare with a clinical presentation that typically includes obstruction of the lacrimal drainage system and epiphora as the most frequent symptom. Cribriform adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is the most common malignant epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland and minor salivary glands; however, its occurrence in the lacrimal drainage apparatus is extremely rare. Given the rarity of ACC, definitive diagnosis is almost invariably late conferring a poor prognosis. Herein we report the case of a 41-year-old woman with primary ACC of the lacrimal sac and describe the ophthalmological examination, dia...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Toxic anterior segment syndrome following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty
We present the case of a 31-year-old patient with toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) that developed after undergoing deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). She had keratoconus, and despite wearing hard contact lenses for many years in the left eye, her vision had deteriorated; therefore, DALK was performed on this eye. The preoperative visual acuity (VA) was finger counting at 3 m. Routine DALK was performed using the "big-bubble" technique. The corneal entry incision was hydrated at the end of the surgery, which was terminated by air injection into the anterior chamber. On postoperative day 1, VA was at...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Coexistence of optic pit and coloboma of iris, lens, and choroid: a case report
ABSTRACT A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with a complaint of glare in both eyes. Biomicroscopic examination of both the eyes revealed iris and lens colobomas in the inferior quadrant. Fundus examination of the right eye revealed an oval and gray inferotemporal optic pit and two choroid colobomas in the inferior quadrant. In the left eye, two choroid colobomas were detected that were inferior to the optic nerve head. Furthermore, a 21-year-old man presented to our clinic for a routine ophthalmologic examination. Bilateral biomicroscopic examination was normal. Fundus examination of the left eye revealed an ov...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Repeatability of contrast sensitivity testing in patients with age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and cataract
Conclusion: In subjects with good visual acuity, the FVA system is useful for evaluating CS and demonstrates good repeatability, as shown by ICC and COR. Because there is no ceiling effect, this system is beneficial for evaluation of early changes in CS, particularly in patients with glaucoma or AMD.RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a reprodutibilidade intrassess ão e intersessão das medidas de sensibilidade ao contraste (CS) em pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade (AMD), glaucoma e catarata. Método: As medidas de CS foram feitas pelo OPTEC-Funcional Visão Analyzer ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of inner segment/outer segment junctions in different types of epiretinal membranes
Conclusions: The IS/OS junction appears to be disrupted during the early stages of ERM. Grade 3 ERM is associated with a significantly higher incidence of IS/OS disruption.RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar a rela ção entre a interrupção da junção segmento interno/segmento externo (IS/OS), espessura macular e grau de membrana epirretiniana (ERM), com a melhor acuidade visual corrigida (BCVA), e a relação entre a interrupção da junção IS/OS com a severidade da ERM. Métodos: Cinquenta e quatro olh os de 54 paciente...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Is there a relationship between outer retinal destruction and choroidal changes in cone dystrophy?
ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of the present study was to use enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) to investigate choroidal changes in patients with cone dystrophy (CD) and to correlate these findings with clinical and electroretinography (ERG) findings. Methods: This case-control study included 40 eyes of 20 patients with CD and 40 eyes of 40 age- and refraction-matched healthy individuals. Choroidal thickness (CT) measurements were obtained under the foveal center and at 500 and 1,500 μ m from the nasal and temporal regions to the center of the fovea, respectively. EDI-OCT and ERG data were analyz...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comparison of central corneal thickness estimated by an ultrasonic pachymeter and non-contact specular microscopy
ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements of healthy individuals obtained with ultrasonic pachymetry (UP) and non-contact specular microscopy (NCSM). Method: In total, 148 eyes of 74 subjects with no ocular or systemic diseases were included in the study. Central corneal thickness measurements of all patients performed with UP and NCCM were compared. Results: A total of 74 subjects (38 females) were included in this study. The mean age was 45.2 ± 18.4 (range 12-85) years. The mean central corneal thickness of all 148 eyes was 546.9 ± 40 μ m with UP and 510.8 ± 42 μ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Subfoveal choroidal thickness changes after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for central serous chorioretinopathy
Conclusions: SFCT decreased in both groups with remission of the disease. However, the decrease was significantly greater in the control group. In terms of anatomic and functional outcomes, IVB injection is not promising.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as altera ções da espessura da coroide subfoveal (SFCT) após terapia com bevacizumab (IVB) para coriorretinopatia serosa central (CSC) usando tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral com profundidade aprimorada (EDI-OCT). Métodos: Neste estudo retrospectivo, foram avaliados prontuários de pacientes com CSC que recebe...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials as a diagnostic tool for ocular malingering
Conclusion: Normal pattern-reversal visually evoked potential parameters with suspected ocular malingering were observed in a 20 patient cohort. This electrophysiological technique appeared to be useful as a mea sure of visual pathway integrity in this specific population.RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a contribui ção dos potenciais visuais evocados por padrões reversos no diagnóstico de simulação de baixa de visão em um hospital universitário do Brasil. Métodos: Um grupo de pacientes adultos com suspeita de simulação de baixa de visão em um o...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comparison of 20% sulfur hexafluoride with air for intraocular tamponade in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK)
ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the effect of 20% sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) with that of air on graft detachment rates for intraocular tamponade in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Methods: Forty-two eyes of patients who underwent DMEK by a single surgeon (A.S.J.) at Wilmer Eye Institute between January 2012 and 2014 were identified; 21 received air for intraocular tamponade and the next consecutive 21 received SF6. The main outcome measure was the graft detachment rate; univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The graft detachment rate was 67% in the air group and 19% in the SF6 group (p
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Dysfunction in the fellow eyes of strabismic and anisometropic amblyopic children assessed by visually evoked potentials
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate visual acuity and transient pattern reversal (PR) visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in the fellow eyes of children with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. Methods: Children diagnosed with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia were recruited for electrophysiological assessment by VEPs. Monocular grating and optotype acuity were measured using sweep-VEPs and an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, respectively. During the same visit, transient PR-VEPs of each eye were recorded using stimuli subtending with a visual angle of 60', 15', and 7.5'. Parameters of amplitude (in &...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Microbiological and epidemiological study of infectious keratitis in children and adolescents
Conclusion: Our st udy showed that in the age range studied, the prevalence of keratitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria or by the non-viral microorganisms evaluated increases with age. Previous use of topical antimicrobial drug and trauma due to non-chemical burns are associated with non-bacterial keratitis. Knowled ge of the risk factors and the microorganisms involved may help improve treatment of keratitis in children and adolescents and minimize visual impairment.RESUMO Objetivos: Descrever o perfil epidemiol ógico e microbiológico de ceratite microbiana em crianças e adolescentes. Métodos...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Corneal structure in tilted disc syndrome
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal volume (CV), and anterior and posterior corneal surfaces using the Scheimpflug imaging system in patients diagnosed with tilted disc syndrome (TDS). Methods: The study group (Group 1) and the control group (Group 2) comprised 35 eyes of 35 age-, sex-, and refraction-matched cases. All cases underwent a full ophthalmic examination that included cycloplegic refraction, axial ocular length measurement, and Scheimpflug imaging. Results: The mean age was 34.68 ± 15.48 years in Group 1 and 34.11 ± 12.01 years in Group 2 (p=0.864). The gender...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Crosslinking enters public health armamentarium in Brazil
(Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia)
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - December 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ocular finding in Zika virus infection
ABSTRACT Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a progressive optic neuropathy with intraocular pressure (IOP) within the statistically normal range ( ≤ 21 mmHg). The prevalence of NTG varies widely among different population studies, being the most prevalent open-angle glaucoma subtype in some reports. The etiology of NTG possibly is multifactorial and still not well defined. Alternative treatments have been proposed based on pathogenesis details. However, in clinical practice, adequate reduction of IOP remains the keystone of managing patients with NTG. We review the pathogenesis of NTG and the available therapies for this ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comparison of intravitreal ranibizumab and bevacizumab treatment for retinopathy of prematurity
ABSTRACT Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a progressive optic neuropathy with intraocular pressure (IOP) within the statistically normal range ( ≤ 21 mmHg). The prevalence of NTG varies widely among different population studies, being the most prevalent open-angle glaucoma subtype in some reports. The etiology of NTG possibly is multifactorial and still not well defined. Alternative treatments have been proposed based on pathogenesis details. However, in clinical practice, adequate reduction of IOP remains the keystone of managing patients with NTG. We review the pathogenesis of NTG and the available therapies for this ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comment on: mean platelet volume in patients with retinal artery occlusion
ABSTRACT Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a progressive optic neuropathy with intraocular pressure (IOP) within the statistically normal range ( ≤ 21 mmHg). The prevalence of NTG varies widely among different population studies, being the most prevalent open-angle glaucoma subtype in some reports. The etiology of NTG possibly is multifactorial and still not well defined. Alternative treatments have been proposed based on pathogenesis details. However, in clinical practice, adequate reduction of IOP remains the keystone of managing patients with NTG. We review the pathogenesis of NTG and the available therapies for this ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Normal-tension glaucoma: an update
ABSTRACT Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a progressive optic neuropathy with intraocular pressure (IOP) within the statistically normal range ( ≤ 21 mmHg). The prevalence of NTG varies widely among different population studies, being the most prevalent open-angle glaucoma subtype in some reports. The etiology of NTG possibly is multifactorial and still not well defined. Alternative treatments have been proposed based on pathogenesis details. However, in clinical practice, adequate reduction of IOP remains the keystone of managing patients with NTG. We review the pathogenesis of NTG and the available therapies for this ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Acquired anterior staphyloma after corneal ulcer associated with the use of crack
We describe an unusual case of acquired anterior staphyloma in a patient addicted to crack cocaine. At the beginning of his crack cocaine abuse, he noticed redness and irritation of his eyes. Over the next 4 months, the patient also noticed the onset of decreasing visual acuity in his right eye (OD). Initially, his visual acuity was light perception in OD, and slit-lamp examination revealed a corneal infiltrate with a peripheral perforation and an iris prolapse. The patient was hospitalized to ensure compliance with the prescribed treatment and was advised to undergo therapeutic keratoplasty; however, the patient left the ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Differentiation of mild keratoconus from corneal warpage according to topographic inferior steepening based on corneal tomography data
We report two cases of suspicious asymmetric bow tie and inferior steepening on topographic evaluations with reflection (Placido) and projection (Scheimpflug). Rotating Scheimpflug corneal and anterior segment tomography (Oculus Pentacam HR, Wetzlar, Germany) ® was performed in the first case, with a maximal keratometric value (Kmax) of 43.2 D and an overall deviation value from the Belin/Ambrósio Enhanced Ectasia Display (BAD-D) of 1.76, which was observed in the study eye (OD). BAD-D was 6.59 in the fellow eye, which had clinical findings that were c onsistent with keratoconus stage 2. The second case presente...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Fonsecaea pedrosoi as a rare cause of acute conjunctival ulceration
ABSTRACT Conjunctival ulceration accompanied with secretion and pain was observed in a 30-year-old male, 3 days after a perforating corneal trauma. Cultures of conjunctival ulcer samples grew Fonsecaea pedrosoi, a major causative agent of chromoblastomycosis that is typically transmitted during trauma. The conjunctival ulcer was successfully treated with amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole. This case report summarizes the diagnosis and treatment of a conjunctival ulcer due to F. pedrosoi, which is a rare complication of contaminated ocular trauma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of F...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Extraconal cystic schwannoma mimicking an orbital dermoid cyst
ABSTRACT To our knowledge, we report the first case of an extraconal orbital cystic schwannoma in Brazilian literature. The tumor grew slowly and progressively and was associated with minimal eccentric proptosis and diplopia. The radiologic study (orbital computed tomography) revealed a rounded, encapsulated, and extraconal cystic mass in the superior medial region of the right orbit in the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerve topography. An anterior orbitotomy with full excision of the tumor was performed, and the histopathology examination revealed that the tumor was a schwannoma. After the surgery, the patient experien...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research