Biomechanics in DALK: Big bubble vs Manual lamellar dissection
ABSTRACT The approach to any refractive condition of the eye with regular astigmatism is more complicated than that for myopia or hyperopia alone. It requires familiarity with the complex images collectively identified as Sturm ’ s conoid. Fortunately, only three of those play a critical role in the interpretation of ametropia with astigmatism. This manuscript discusses a prescription strategy for ametropias associated with regular astigmatism evolved from those three key images.RESUMO A abordagem de qualquer condi ção refrativa do olho com astigmatismo regular é mais complicada do que a da miopi...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Missed opportunities on retinopathy of prematurity: the urgency of doing more
ABSTRACT The approach to any refractive condition of the eye with regular astigmatism is more complicated than that for myopia or hyperopia alone. It requires familiarity with the complex images collectively identified as Sturm ’ s conoid. Fortunately, only three of those play a critical role in the interpretation of ametropia with astigmatism. This manuscript discusses a prescription strategy for ametropias associated with regular astigmatism evolved from those three key images.RESUMO A abordagem de qualquer condi ção refrativa do olho com astigmatismo regular é mais complicada do que a da miopi...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

A warning against associating doxycycline with isotretinoin
ABSTRACT The approach to any refractive condition of the eye with regular astigmatism is more complicated than that for myopia or hyperopia alone. It requires familiarity with the complex images collectively identified as Sturm ’ s conoid. Fortunately, only three of those play a critical role in the interpretation of ametropia with astigmatism. This manuscript discusses a prescription strategy for ametropias associated with regular astigmatism evolved from those three key images.RESUMO A abordagem de qualquer condi ção refrativa do olho com astigmatismo regular é mais complicada do que a da miopi...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Bilateral Pseudomonas endophthalmitis after immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery: primum non nocere
ABSTRACT The approach to any refractive condition of the eye with regular astigmatism is more complicated than that for myopia or hyperopia alone. It requires familiarity with the complex images collectively identified as Sturm ’ s conoid. Fortunately, only three of those play a critical role in the interpretation of ametropia with astigmatism. This manuscript discusses a prescription strategy for ametropias associated with regular astigmatism evolved from those three key images.RESUMO A abordagem de qualquer condi ção refrativa do olho com astigmatismo regular é mais complicada do que a da miopi...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Prescription for astigmatic ametropia revisited
ABSTRACT The approach to any refractive condition of the eye with regular astigmatism is more complicated than that for myopia or hyperopia alone. It requires familiarity with the complex images collectively identified as Sturm ’ s conoid. Fortunately, only three of those play a critical role in the interpretation of ametropia with astigmatism. This manuscript discusses a prescription strategy for ametropias associated with regular astigmatism evolved from those three key images.RESUMO A abordagem de qualquer condi ção refrativa do olho com astigmatismo regular é mais complicada do que a da miopi...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Morning glory disc anomaly associated with large facial infantile hemangioma as the presenting signs of PHACE syndrome
ABSTRACT Infantile hemangioma, the most common benign tumor in infancy, is usually an isolated condition occurring in many different locations in the body. However, large infantile hemangioma may be associated with other systemic malformations, including central nervous system, cerebrovascular, cardiac, and ophthalmology abnormalities, a condition termed PHACE syndrome. In this paper, we describe a case of PHACE syndrome that was presented with the unique association of a large facial infantile hemangioma and morning glory anomaly.RESUMO O hemangioma infantil é a causa mais comum de tumor benigno na infância e...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Subfoveal perfluorocarbon liquid removal by peeling of internal limiting membrane, without retinotomy
ABSTRACT Perfluorocarbon liquid has been widely used during vitreoretinal operations. Subretinal retention is a rare intraoperative complication, but even small quantities can damage the macular structure and function, and no standard treatment has been established. We encountered a 43-year-old woman who presented a retained subfoveal bubble after a vitreoretinal operation due to primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Herein, we describe the procedure we used to remove the perfluorocarbon liquid without retinotomy using internal limiting membrane peeling.RESUMO O perfluorocarbono l íquido tem sido amplamente dur...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed by antenatal ultrasonography with spontaneous resolution
We report a case of a fetus with bilateral dacryocystocele diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound at the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy with spontaneous postpartum resorption.RESUMO A dacriocistocele é uma anormalidade facial benigna rara do sistema nasolacrimal, que pode ser detectada na rotina pré-natal durante o terceiro trimestre da gravidez. O ultrassom é o método de escolha, mas a ressonância magnética também pode ser usada em casos específicos. Na maioria das vezes, a dacriocistoc ele é um achado temporário, que pode se resolver espont&aci...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Spontaneous repositioning of posterior chamber intraocular lens: a mere coincidence?
We report a case of spontaneous repositioning in the left eye of an anteriorly subluxated in-the-bag intraocular lens. The spontaneous repositioning may have been caused by antagonistic effects related to the topical administration of brimonidine and prednisolone. The dislocation was treated without aggressive manipulation or surgical intervention.RESUMO Apesar dos recentes avan ços na cirurgia moderna de catarata e da aplicação de uma ampla gama de novos dispositivos, o deslocamento tardio de uma lente intraocular dentro do saco capsular continua a ser uma complicação devastadora, ainda ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Frequency of conjunctival epithelial dysplasia in patients with pterygium
Conclusions: The prevalence of ocular squamous surface neoplasia in our region appears to be high. Countrywide studies are necessary to determine the true prevalence of ocular squamous surface neoplasia in Mexico and to examine related risk factors.RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a frequ ência de neoplasia escamosa da superfície ocular associada ao pterígio com apresentação clínica, em um centro de referência em Oftalmologia da região central do México. Métodos: Revisamos os laudos histopatológicos e as lâminas de biópsia de todos os pacien...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Aqueous humor renin, angiotensin I, and angiotensin II activity in primary open-angle glaucoma
ABSTRACT Purpose: The renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathogenesis of retinal ischemic conditions and glaucoma. Our objective was to evaluate the renin, angiotensinconverting enzyme 1, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activities in aqueous humor and blood samples of patients with and without primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: We analyzed samples from 56 participants who underwent ocular surgeries. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with cataract alone (n=28) and patients with cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma (n=28). Venous blood (2 ml) and aqueous humor (150 µl, via paracent...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Clinical outcomes of ocular surface in patients treated with vitamin D oral replacement
ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the clinical outcomes of the ocular surface in patients with vitamin D deficiency after oral replacement. Methods: A total of 40 patients with vitamin D deficiency were enrolled in the study. The patients received 50,000 units of oral vitamin D weekly over a period of 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, 1,500-2,000 units/d were administered for 24 weeks. Eyelid margin score, meibomian gland expressibility score, Oxford grading, Schirmer I test, tear breakup time, tear osmolarity, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index score were evaluated at baseline, and at 8, 12, and 24 weeks. Results: The meibomian gland ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Anti-fibrotic effects of rosmarinic acid on Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts stimulated with TGF-β: therapeutic potential in ocular surgery
This study evaluated the anti-fibrotic activity of rosmarinic acid on rabbit Tenon ’ s capsule fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor- β 2. Methods: Primary cultures of rabbit Tenon ’ s capsule fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of rosmarinic acid for 12 h, in the presence and absence of transforming growth factor- β 2. After 48 h, the proliferation index of rabbit Tenon ’ s capsule fibroblasts and the differentiation of myofibroblasts were investigated through immunofluorescence staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and alpha smooth muscle actin. An a...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The usefulness of systemic inflammatory markers as diagnostic indicators of the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema
Conclusion: The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume of the diabetic macular edema group were higher than those of the non-diabetic macular edema and control groups. A neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio cutoff value of ≥ 2.26 was identified as an indicator of the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the neutrophil/ lymphocyte ratio of the non-diabetic macular edema group was higher than that of the control group.RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a utilidade de marcadores inflamat órios sistêmicos (ou seja, contagem de glóbulos brancos e plaquetas,...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Use of virtual reality equipment to assess the manual dexterity of applicants for ophthalmology residency
ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the microsurgery dexterity outcomes of two sequential training evaluations using virtual reality technology. Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study of all candidates who were accepted as first-year residents at one of six ophthalmology teaching institutions. Residents were subjected to two identical series of standardized, reproducible dexterity tests using virtual reality equipment (Eyesi ®): “ sequence 1 ” and “ sequence 2. ” Each sequence consisted of five difficulty levels that were assessed using a proprietary scoring system. The data were tested f...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effects of pupillary dilation on ocular optical biometry outcomes in pediatric patients
Conclusions: Pharmacological pupillary dilation in children appeared to hav e no impact on axial length and intraocular lens power, but caused a significant increase in anterior chamber depth. The difference in anterior chamber depth measurements before and after pupillary dilation could be related to the optical biometry device model used. These outcomes should be consider ed in intraocular lens power calculations performed using anterior chamber depth parameters.RESUMO Objetivo: A dilata ção pupilar farmacológica é realizada em exames oftalmológicos abrangentes e antes das mediç&...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Changes in anterior segment parameters following insertion of ExPRESS mini glaucoma implant vs. trabeculectomy
Conclusions: Both ExPRESS mini glaucoma implant and trabeculectomy significantly decreased intraocular pressure and had transient effects on anterior segment parameters, with minor differences between the methods.RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar as altera ções nos parâmetros do segmento anterior após a cirurgia ExPRESS Mini Glaucoma Shunt vs. trabeculectomia usando a câmera Scheimpflug Pentacam rotativa. Métodos: Neste estudo comparativo prospectivo, 27 pacientes com glaucoma tratados no Centro Médico Rabin de 2009 a 2013 foram incluídos nes te estudo comparativo prospectivo: ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Accelerated corneal cross-linking with hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin keratoconic corneas: 2-year follow-up
Conclusion: Accelerated corneal cross-linking in keratoconic eyes with thin corneas could halt the progression of keratoconus in corneas thinner than 400 µm at 24 months after treatment.RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os resultados do cross-linking corneano acelerado em c órneas ceratocônicas com os valores mais baixos de paquimetria0,05) aos 24 meses ap ós o cross-linking, comparada com medidas antes do procedimento. Embora a leitura da média da ceratometria mais plana não tenha apresentado alteração significativa (p=0,58), a leitura ceratom&eac...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effects of axial length on retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer measured by spectral-domain OCT
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the influence of ocular axial length on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness in healthy eyes after correcting for ocular magnification effect. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 120 eyes from 60 volunteer participants (myopes, emmetropes, and hyperopes). The thickness of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer were measured using the spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT)-Cirrus HD-OCT and correlated with ocular axial length. Adjustment for ocular magnification was perfor...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Diabetic retinopathy screening and the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil
(Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia)
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Decreased mean platelet volume and increased platelet to lymphocyte ratio in patients with pterygium
ABSTRACT To identify and classify available information regarding COVID-19 and eye care according to the level of evidence, within four main topics of interest: evidence of the virus in tears and the ocular surface, infection via the conjunctival route, ocular manifestations, and best practice recommendations. A structured review was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar on COVID-19 and ophthalmology. The Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence worksheet was used for quality assessments. 1018 items were identified in the search; 26 records were...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Mechanisms and biomarker candidates in pterygium development
ABSTRACT To identify and classify available information regarding COVID-19 and eye care according to the level of evidence, within four main topics of interest: evidence of the virus in tears and the ocular surface, infection via the conjunctival route, ocular manifestations, and best practice recommendations. A structured review was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar on COVID-19 and ophthalmology. The Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence worksheet was used for quality assessments. 1018 items were identified in the search; 26 records were...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the eye: how much do we really know? A best evidence review
ABSTRACT To identify and classify available information regarding COVID-19 and eye care according to the level of evidence, within four main topics of interest: evidence of the virus in tears and the ocular surface, infection via the conjunctival route, ocular manifestations, and best practice recommendations. A structured review was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar on COVID-19 and ophthalmology. The Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence worksheet was used for quality assessments. 1018 items were identified in the search; 26 records were...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Unintentional injection of a dexamethasone implant into the crystalline lens: a case report
ABSTRACT The intravitreal dexamethasone implant is a sustained-release anti-inflammatory drug system that releases 0.7 mg of dexamethasone into the vitreous cavity. The following case report describes a rare complication: accidental injection of the dexamethasone implant into the crystalline lens. A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with central retina vein occlusion and cystoid macular edema. Initial tSreatment included three monthly intravitreal doses of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, which was not successful. Treatment was then modified to an intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Ten weeks later, the imp...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in the crystalline lens: a case report
This report describes the therapeutic effects and outcomes of an accidental injection of an intralenticular sustained-release dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex ®) in three patients with diabetic macular edema. All three patients underwent accidental injections of sustained-release intravitreal dexamethasone implants into the crystalline lens by the same surgeon. After the accidental injection of Ozurdex® into the crystalline lens, a remarkable reduction in the macular edema and an improvement in visual acuity were observed, suggesting that a positive outcome can be achieved without immediate surgery.RESUMO Este estudo...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ophthalmologic alterations in cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita: a series of cases
We describe ophthalmologic alterations found in three patients with cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita highlighting the rare retinal manifestations.RESUMO A Cutis marmorata telangiectasica cong ênita é uma desordem vascular cutânea rara que pode estar associada a diferentes manifestações sistêmicas, como assimetria corporal, alterações cutâneas, oftalmológicas, vasculares e neurológicas. Descrevemos alterações oftalmológicas encontradas em três pacientes com cutis marmorata telangiectasia congênita, destacando a...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Double puncta canaliculi may exhibit different clinical presentations
This report was written to emphasize that unilateral epiphora of dry eye symptoms may be related to supernumerary punctum or canalicular systems and can easily be diagnosed with lid eversion.RESUMO Neste artigo, descrevemos dois pacientes adultos que apresentaram pun ção lacrimal dupla: um deles assintomático e diagnosticado incidentalmente, e o outro queixava-se de epífora. Nos dois pacientes, unilateralidade, preferência pela pálpebra inferior e posição medial pelo ponto normal foram características comuns do ponto acessório. No paciente assintomá...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Topical mitomycin in endoscopic-assisted probing for the treatment of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in older children
Conclusions: Although mitomycin C has no adverse effects when applied to the opening of the nasolacrimal duct, its use after lacrimal probing for the treatment of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction does not improve the chance of success.RESUMO Objetivo: A mitomicina C tem sido usada em cirurgia oft álmica para reduzir cicatrizes pós-operatórias. Entretanto, os resultados da sondagem endoscópica assistida para o tratamento da obstrução congênita do ducto nasolacrimal com mitomicina C adjuvante em crianças permanecem desconhecidos. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo a...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Does wearing swimming goggles affect corneal morphology in keratoconic eyes?
ABSTRACT Purpose: A significant transient increase in intraocular pressure in individuals wearing swimming goggles has been demonstrated in previous studies. These findings suggested that wearing swimming goggles could represent a significant risk factor for worsening of corneal parameters in patients with keratoconus who swim regularly. The aim of this study was to investigate corneal parameters in patients with keratoconus after wearing swimming goggles. Methods: Comprehensive ocular examinations were performed on 74 eyes of 37 patients with keratoconus. Measurements of the corneal front keratometry values (Kflat, Ksteep...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Baerveldt implant versus trabeculectomy as the first filtering surgery for uncontrolled primary congenital glaucoma: a randomized clinical trial
Conclusions: Both the tube and trabeculectomy groups presented similar intraocular pressure controls, but complete success was more frequent in the trabeculectomy grou p. Non-valved glaucoma drainage devices caused potentially blinding complications during tube opening. Because of the small sample size, we could not draw conclusions as to the safety data of the studied technique.RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo inicial era comparar a efic ácia e a segurança do implante de drenagem e a trabeculectomia em crianças com glaucoma congênito primário após falência de cirurgia angular. Com...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Costs and outcomes of phacoemulsification for cataracts performed by residents
ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe costs and outcomes of phacoemulsification for cataracts performed by ophthalmology residents. Methods: We obtained medical records from patients operated on in 2011 by third year residents (R3) using phacoemulsification (n=576). Our expenses estimation included professionals ’ and hospital costs (fees, materials, medications, and equipment). The study outcomes included spectacle-corrected visual acuities before and six months after the operation, rate of intraoperative complications, and total number of postoperative visits. We compared outcome variables with those from extracapsular cat...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Infrared thermography for the analysis of ocular surface temperature after phacoemulsification
Conclusions: The reduction in ocular surface temperature toward the end of post-cataract surgery follow-up may be associated with increased instability of the tear film after phacoemulsification. Therefore, patient awareness regarding the possibility of clinical symptoms of dry eye syndrome during the first month after surgery should be part of clinical manageme nt of cataract surgery. Ocular surface temperature did not increase after cataract surgery, suggesting the absence of significant inflammation, and the temperature about 1 month after cataract surgery was comparable to that before surgery. Nevertheless, the negativ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Mapping the corneal thickness and volume in patients with Down syndrome: a comparative population-based study
ABSTRACT Purpose: To measure the central-to-peripheral corneal thickness and its volume according to age and gender in 10-30-year-old patients with Down syndrome (DS) and in matched individuals without DS. Methods: In the report, 202 normal pattern right eyes of patients with Down syndrome and 190 right eyes of individuals without Down syndrome and compared averages using independent sample t-tests and multiple linear regression models. The measured variables included the apical corneal thickness; the minimum corneal thickness; the average thickness on rings at 2 mm (R2), 3 mm (R3), and 4 mm (R4); the corneal volume in the...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Dynamic changes of periostin and collagen I in the sclera during progressive myopia in guinea pigs
ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate periostin and collagen I expression during a scleral remodeling in myopic eyes and to determine their role in collagen remodeling of the myopic sclera. Methods: Fifty one-week-old guinea pigs were divided into the control and form-deprivation myopia (FDM) groups. The eyes of animals in the form-deprivation myopia group were covered for 2, 4, and 8 weeks, or were covered for 4 weeks and then uncovered for 2 weeks. The diopters and axial lengths in the eyes in each group of guinea pigs were measured. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to detect ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Long-term comparison of the efficacies of internal and external browpexy combined with blepharoplasty
Conclusions: External and internal browpexy surgery afforded adequate and similar elevations of the central and lateral brow, which were significantly different from those in the standard blepharoplasty group during long-term follow-up.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a compara ção, a longo prazo, da eficácia quantitativa da sobrancelha interna e externa em combinação com a blefaroplastia da pálpebra superior com base nas posições lateral e central da sobrancelha. Métodos: Este estudo retrospectivo avaliou as cirurgias interna e externa da braquiterapia com blef aropla...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Bupivacaine injection for comitant horizontal strabismus: clinical and radiological results
Conclusions: Bupivacaine injection improved eye alignment in small-angle horizontal comitant strabismus, effectively diagnosed with orbital magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate volumetric changes of the extraocular muscles. Further clinical studies with larger numbers of patients should be performed to define optimal dosages, concentration, and application method and dose-response relationship.RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar resultados da inje ção de bupivacaína para o tratamento do estrabismo comitante horizontal e avaliar sua eficácia clínica e as alterações radiológicas...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Survey among retina specialists in Brazil about inflammatory reactions after intravitreal antiangiogenic therapy
Conclusions: Most specialists reported cases of early-onset inflammation after intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic agents. The incidence of irreversible complications was low. Aflibercept was the most common agent used. The causes of inflammation remain unknown, but we formulated some relevant hypotheses.RESUMO Objetivo: Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar as caracter ísticas clínicas de pacientes com reações inflamatórias após injeção intravítrea de agentes antiangiogênicos e as técnicas empregadas por especialistas em retina brasileiros...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Coronavirus and the eye: what is relevant so far?
(Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia)
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 29, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Blindness from bilateral pseudomonas endophthalmitis following bilateral simultaneous cataract surgery: Primum non nocere
ABSTRACT Degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt ’ s macular dystrophy, and age-related macular degeneration are characterized by irreversible loss of vision due to direct or indirect photoreceptor damage. No effective treatments exist, but stem cell studies have shown promising results. Our aim with this review was to describe the types of stem cells that are under study, their effects, and the main clinical trials involving them.RESUMO As doen ças degenerativas da retina, como retinose pigmentar, distrofia macular de Stargardt e degeneração macular relaciona &agrav...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Clinical studies using stem cells for treatment of retinal diseases: state of the art
ABSTRACT Degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt ’ s macular dystrophy, and age-related macular degeneration are characterized by irreversible loss of vision due to direct or indirect photoreceptor damage. No effective treatments exist, but stem cell studies have shown promising results. Our aim with this review was to describe the types of stem cells that are under study, their effects, and the main clinical trials involving them.RESUMO As doen ças degenerativas da retina, como retinose pigmentar, distrofia macular de Stargardt e degeneração macular relaciona &agrav...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Coexistence of papilledema and pseudopapilledema after remission of idiopathic intracranial hypertension by bariatric surgery
This report highlights the coexistence of true papilledema and pseudopapilledema due to optic disk drusen, following remission of idiopathic intracranial hypertension after a bariatric surgery.RESUMO Uma mulher de 37 anos queixou-se de cefaleia ap ós perda visual bilateral nos últimos dois anos. Apresentava história de obesidade e havia sido submetida à cirurgia bariátrica três meses antes, seguida de considerável perda de peso. O exame neuro-oftálmico revelou um disco óptico inchado bilateral. Após uma análise computadorizada dos campos visuais e ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pilomatrix carcinoma of the lacrimal caruncle: a case report
ABSTRACT A 45-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of a mass located in the caruncle of his right eye. An incisional biopsy had been performed one month prior by another specialist, and the histopathology report showed basal cell carcinoma. The mass was completely excised with a 2 mm safety margin, and the large conjunctival defect was reconstructed with one sheet of amniotic membrane allograft. A histological diagnosis of pilomatrix carcinoma was established. To prevent recurrence after surgery, we added bevacizumab (25 mg/mL, 1.25 mg/mL per drop) eye drops four times per day for three months. At the one-year fol...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Regression of macular edema with topical brinzolamide and nepafenac alone and identification of a novel gyrate atrophy mutation
ABSTRACT Gyrate atrophy is a rare metabolic autosomal recessive disorder caused by ornithine aminotransferase enzyme deficiency that leads to characteristic progressive, degenerative chorioretinal findings. Patients complain mostly of low vision, night blindness, and peripheral vision loss. Posterior subcapsular cataract, myopia, choroid neovascularization, and intraretinal cysts may be accompanying factors related to vision loss. We encountered a patient with vision loss secondary to posterior subcapsular cataract and intraretinal cysts. After treatment with topical brinzolamide and nepafenac (and without any diet mo difi...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evidence of autophagic vesicles in a patient with Lisch corneal dystrophy
ABSTRACT Lisch corneal dystrophy is a rare corneal disease characterized by the distinctive feature of highly vacuolated cells. Although this feature is important, the nature of these vacuoles within corneal cells remains unknown. Here, we sought to analyze corneal cells from a patient diagnosed with Lisch dystrophy to characterize the vacuoles within these cells. Analyses using histopathology examination, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were all consistent with previous descriptions of Lisch cells. Importantly, the vacuoles within these cells appeared to be autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and c...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comparing the postoperative refractive predictability of Pentacam HR and IOLMaster 500 after a multifocal intraocular lens implantation
ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the postoperative refractive predictability of IOLMaster 500 and Pentacam HR on the basis of keratometry and anterior chamber depth values in eyes with an indication for multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted on 118 eyes treated with phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens implantation. Only the eyes that achieved emmetropia in the dynamic refraction performed on postoperative day 30 were included. Haigis ’ formula was used in each case to calculate the intraocular lens power, and the intraocular lens with the target r...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Relationships between corneal biomechanics and the structural and functional parameters of glaucoma damage
ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the relationships between (i) thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head topography, and visual field parameters and (ii) corneal biomechanical properties in normal controls and patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study included 68 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma, 99 eyes with ocular hypertension and 133 control eyes. Corneal biomechanical properties, optic nerve head topographic features, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and visual fields were assessed in all cases. Corneal biomechanical...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Intra- and interobserver reliability of a modified distraction test based on digital images to assess lower eyelid horizontal tension
Conclusion: A high intra- and interobserver concordance was observed in the studied method to quantify lower eyelid tension. The proposed method is simple and easily reproducible, and to the best our knowledge, this is the first method that quantifies lower eyelid horizontal tension on the basis of digital image processing. This modified distraction test might be useful in studies quantifying lower eyelid horizontal tension.RESUMO Objetivo: A frouxid ão palpebral inferior é avaliada classicamente por meio de testes de “ snap-back ” e “ distraction test ” . O objetivo deste estudo foi a...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion treated with Anti-VEGF
We examined 38 eyes of 19 patients for the study. We measured superficial and deep capillary plexus vessel densities (%), foveal avascular zone areas (mm2), and central macular thicknesses. Results: Parafoveal superficial and deep capillary plexus values were significantly lower in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion than in fellow eyes (p
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Patterns of ocular trauma in elderly patients in an urban population-the Bronx experience
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of ocular injuries among elderly patients admitted to an urban level I trauma center because of major trauma from 2008 to 2015. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients aged>65 years admitted with ocular injuries that were identified with ICD-9 codes. Tabulated data were analyzed using the Student ’ s paired t-test, the chi-squared test, and regression analysis using STATA/MP-12 software. Significance was set at p
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ocular surface changes in the treatment of rosacea: comparison between low-dose oral isotretinoin and doxycycline
ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the impact of ocular changes between systemic treatment with doxycycline and low-dose oral isotretinoin in patients with moderate-to-severe papulopustular rosacea. Methods: Patients were randomized to receive either isotretinoin 0.3-0.4 mg/kg (group A) or doxycycline 100 mg/day (group B) for 16 weeks. Ocular symptoms were searched and evaluated, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, breakup time, rose bengal staining score, and meibomian gland dysfunction grading. The patients were retested at the end of treatment. Results: The present study included 39 patients (30 fema...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - March 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research