Skin barrier dysfunction and filaggrin.
Abstract Skin barrier dysfunction caused by endogenous or exogenous factors can lead to various disorders such as xerosis cutis, ichthyoses, and atopic dermatitis. Filaggrin is a pivotal structural protein of the stratum corneum (SC) and provides natural moisturizing factors that play a role in skin barrier functions. Filaggrin aggregates keratin filaments, resulting in the formation of a keratin network, which binds cornified envelopes and collapse keratinocytes to flattened corneocytes. This complex network contributes to the physical strength of the skin. Filaggrin is degraded by caspase-14, calpain 1, and bleo...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - January 18, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kim Y, Lim KM Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Correction to: White matter and neurological disorders.
PMID: 33428068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - January 11, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bae HG, Kim TK, Suk HY, Jung S, Jo DG Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

IL-1 and CD40/CD40L platelet complex: elements of induction of Crohn's disease and new therapeutic targets.
Abstract Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are chronic and multifactorial diseases that affect the intestinal tract, both characterized by recurrent inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, resulting in abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and, rectal bleeding. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) regroup these two disorders. The exact pathological mechanism of IBD remains ambiguous and poorly known. In genetically predisposed patients, defects in intestinal mucosal barrier are due to an uncontrolled inflammatory response to normal flora. In addition to the genetic predisposition, these defects could be tr...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anka Idrissi D, Senhaji N, Aouiss A, Khalki L, Tijani Y, Zaid N, Marhoume FZ, Naya A, Oudghiri M, Kabine M, Zaid Y Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Role of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and their receptors in virus infection: a promising therapeutic strategy for SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storm.
Abstract Unexpected viral infections outbreaks, significantly affect human health, leading to increased mortality and life disruption. Among them is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which emerged as a deadly pandemic, calling for intense research efforts on its pathogenicity mechanism and development of therapeutic strategies. In the SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storm, systemic inflammation has been associated with severe illness and mortality. Recent studies have demonstrated special pro-resolving lipids mediators (SPMs) lipoxins, resolvins, maresins, and protectins as potential therapeutic...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee CH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Overview of COVID-19 inflammatory pathogenesis from the therapeutic perspective.
Abstract The novel beta coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, designated as COVID-19) that is responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome has devastated the global economy and health care system. Since COVID-19 changed the definition of "normal" in ordinary life around the world, the development of effective therapeutics and preventive measures is desperately needed to fight SARS-CoV-2 infection and restore normalcy. A clear understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis is crucial in providing the scientific rationale necessary to develop anti-COVID19 drugs and vaccines. According to the most recently published litera...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee C, Choi WJ Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Protective effect of lncRNA CRNDE on myocardial cell apoptosis in heart failure by regulating HMGB1 cytoplasm translocation through PARP-1.
Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are bound up with the regulation of various diseases. Here, we probed into the effect of lncRNA colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (CRNDE) on heart failure (HF). The pathological alterations and cell apoptosis of heart tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin and TUNEL staining. The viability or apoptosis of mouse myocardial cells HL-1 was tested by XTT or flow cytometry. The interaction between lncRNA CRNDE and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) was verified by RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down. The stability of the PARP-1 protein and the a...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen H, Liu J, Wang B, Li Y Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

ABCB1 c.2677G > T/c.3435C > T diplotype increases the early-phase oral absorption of losartan.
ABCB1 c.2677G>T/c.3435C>T diplotype increases the early-phase oral absorption of losartan. Arch Pharm Res. 2020 Nov 29;: Authors: Shin HB, Jung EH, Kang P, Lim CW, Oh KY, Cho CK, Lee YJ, Choi CI, Jang CG, Lee SY, Bae JW Abstract Losartan has been shown to be a substrate of the drug-efflux transporter MDR1, encoded by the ABCB1 gene. ABCB1 c.2677G>T and c.3435C>T variants are known to be associated with reduced expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We investigated the effects of ABCB1 diplotype on the pharmacokinetics of losartan. Thirty-eight healthy Korean volunteers with diff...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shin HB, Jung EH, Kang P, Lim CW, Oh KY, Cho CK, Lee YJ, Choi CI, Jang CG, Lee SY, Bae JW Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Effects of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of metoclopramide.
In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 significantly affected metoclopramide pharmacokinetics. PMID: 33247397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bae JW, Oh KY, Yoon SJ, Shin HB, Jung EH, Cho CK, Lim CW, Kang P, Choi CI, Jang CG, Lee SY, Lee YJ Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Fibroblast growth factor 2 exacerbates inflammation in adipocytes through NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Abstract Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue is the hallmark of obesity and a major risk factor for the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance. NLRP3 inflammasome regulates the maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18, and was recently discovered to be involved in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) such as FGF1, FGF10, and FGF21 are adipokines that regulate adipocyte development and metabolism, but reports on the effect of other FGFs on adipocytes are lacking. In the present study, the novel role of FGF2 in NLRP3 inflammaso...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: ZhuGe DL, Javaid HMA, Sahar NE, Zhao YZ, Huh JY Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Effects of paroxetine on the pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine and its metabolites in different CYP2D6 genotypes.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the  effects of paroxetine, a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6, on the pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine and its two metabolites, 4-hydroxyatomoxetine and N-desmethylatomoxetine, in different CYP2D6 genotypes. Twenty-six healthy subjects were recruited and divided into CYP2D6*wt/*wt (*wt=*1 or *2, n = 10), CYP2D6*wt/*10 (n = 9), and CYP2D6*10/*10 groups (n = 7). In atomoxetine phase, all subjects received a single oral dose of atomoxetine (20 mg). In paroxetine phase, after administration of a single oral dose of paroxe...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jung EH, Lee YJ, Kim DH, Kang P, Lim CW, Cho CK, Jang CG, Lee SY, Bae JW Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on heart disease.
Abstract A wide range of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been studied for their therapeutic potential because the excessive activity and expression of HDACs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. An increasing number of preclinical studies have demonstrated the cardioprotective effects of numerous HDAC inhibitors, suggesting a wide variety of mechanisms by which the inhibitors protect against cardiac stress, such as the suppression of cardiac fibrosis and fetal gene expression, enhancement of angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis, prevention of electrical remodeling, and regul...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chun P Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

NRF2 level is negatively correlated with TGF- β1-induced lung cancer motility and migration via NOX4-ROS signaling.
In this study, we investigated the role of NRF2 on TGF-β1-induced cell motility/migration. In NRF2-silenced lung cancer A549 cells, both basal and TGF-β1-inducible cell motility/migration increased compared to those in A549. SMAD transcription activity and phosphorylated SMAD2/3 levels were higher in TGF-β1-treated NRF2-low A549 cells than those in A549. Notably, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were elevated by TGF-β1 treatment were higher in the NRF2-low A549 than those in control cells, and treatment with ROS scavenger blocked TGF-β1-induced cell motility. As an underlying molecu...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ryu D, Lee JH, Kwak MK Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Bioactive natural products from the genus Salinospora: a review.
Abstract Actinomycetes are an important source for bioactive secondary metabolites. Among them, the genus Salinispora is one of the first salt obligatory marine species worldwide and is typically found in various types of substrates in tropical and subtropical marine environments including sediments and marine organisms. This genus produces a wide range of chemical scaffolds and bioactive compounds such as lomaiviticins, cyclomarins, rifamycins, salinaphthoquinones, and salinosporamides. This review arranged Salinispora derived secondary metabolites according to the three species that comprise the genus. Moreover,...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kim H, Kim S, Kim M, Lee C, Yang I, Nam SJ Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Pathological angiogenesis and inflammation in tissues.
Abstract The role of angiogenesis in the growth of organs and tumors is widely recognized. Vascular-organ interaction is a key mechanism and a concept that enables an understanding of all biological phenomena and normal physiology that is essential for human survival under pathological conditions. Recently, vascular endothelial cells have been classified as a type of innate immune cells that are dependent on the pathological situations. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines and signaling regulators activated upon exposure to infection or various stresses play crucial roles in the pathological function of parenchymal ce...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jeong JH, Ojha U, Lee YM Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Flavonoids as therapeutic candidates for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression.
Abstract Emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression are widespread psychological diseases that affect up to 20% of the world's population. There are many approaches to the discovery of novel agents for the treatment of depressive- and anxiety-like symptoms. However, the efficacy of existing drugs for emotional disorders is only exerted after a few weeks of treatment and have serious side effects. Due to this, new strategies to find suitable and safe options are being sought by many researchers. Among them, a lot of interest has been attracted by plant-derived natural compounds due to their wide range of be...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ko YH, Kim SK, Lee SY, Jang CG Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides following repeated oral administration of red ginseng extract significantly differ between species of experimental animals.
In conclusion, the choice of animal model should be the subject of careful consideration when exploring the pharmacology of RGE with specific focus on the plasma profile of an individual ginsenoside. PMID: 33225388 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jeon JH, Lee J, Choi MK, Song IS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Metastatic behavior analyses of tetraspanin TM4SF5-expressing spheres in three-dimensional  (3D) cell culture environment.
Metastatic behavior analyses of tetraspanin TM4SF5-expressing spheres in three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environment. Arch Pharm Res. 2020 Nov 21;: Authors: Song DG, Kim E, Lee JW Abstract Cancer metastasis involves diverse cellular functions via bidirectional communications between intracellular and extracellular spaces. To achieve development of the anti-metastatic drugs, one needs to consider the efficacy and mode of action (MOA) of the drug candidates to block the metastatic potentials of cancerous cells. Rather than under two-dimensional environment, investigation of the metastatic poten...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Song DG, Kim E, Lee JW Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Recent progresses in marine microbial-derived antiviral natural products.
Abstract Viruses have always been a class of pathogenic microorganisms that threaten the health and safety of human life worldwide. However, for a long time, the treatment of viral infections has been slow to develop, and only a few antiviral drugs have been using clinically. Compared with these from terrestrial environments, marine-derived microorganisms can produce active substances with more novel structures and unique functions. From 2015 to 2019, 89 antiviral compounds of 8 structural classes have been isolated from marine microorganisms, of which 35 exhibit anti-H1N1 activity. This review surveys systematica...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Teng YF, Xu L, Wei MY, Wang CY, Gu YC, Shao CL Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Pharmacological effects of harmine and its derivatives: a review.
This article reviews the pharmacological effects and associated mechanisms of harmine. In addition, the structure-activity relationship of harmine derivatives has been summarized. PMID: 33206346 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhang L, Li D, Yu S Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of  Myristica fragrans Houtt.: an updated review.
Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Myristica fragrans Houtt.: an updated review. Arch Pharm Res. 2020 Nov 18;: Authors: Ha MT, Vu NK, Tran TH, Kim JA, Woo MH, Min BS Abstract Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), an aromatic evergreen tree, is well known as a commercial source of mace (aril) and nutmeg (seed), which have long been widely used as spices in the culinary field. In addition, various parts of M. fragrans have been used in folk medicine for treating several diseases. Since its extensive uses in the culinary sector and folk medicine, M. fragrans has long attracted...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ha MT, Vu NK, Tran TH, Kim JA, Woo MH, Min BS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

PBN inhibits a detrimental effect of methamphetamine on brain endothelial cells by alleviating the generation of reactive oxygen species.
Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful psychostimulant that is causing serious health problems worldwide owing to imprudent abuses. Recent studies have suggested that METH has deleterious effects on the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A few studies have also been conducted on the mechanisms whereby METH-induced oxidative stress causes BBB dysfunction. We investigated whether N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN) has protective effects on BBB function against METH exposure in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). We found that METH significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) g...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hwang JS, Cha EH, Park B, Ha E, Seo JH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) as a target for anticancer treatment.
Abstract The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in the cellular processes for protein quality control and homeostasis. Dysregulation of the UPS has been implicated in numerous diseases, including cancer. Indeed, components of UPS are frequently mutated or abnormally expressed in various cancers. Since Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, received FDA approval for the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma, increasing numbers of researchers have been seeking drugs targeting the UPS as a cancer therapeutic strategy. Here, we introduce the essential component of UPS, including ub...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Park J, Cho J, Song EJ Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Development of JAK inhibitors for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases: kinase-targeted inhibitors and pseudokinase-targeted inhibitors.
Abstract JAKs are a family of intracellular tyrosine kinases consisting of four members, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2. They are key components of the JAK-STAT pathway that transmit signals of many cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of numerous immune-mediated diseases and have been major molecular targets in developing new drugs for the treatment of such diseases. Some small-molecule inhibitors of JAKs have been approved by the FDA for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Now, newer JAK inhibitors with isoform-selectivity among the four different JAKs are being developed, wi...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kim HO Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

β-Sitosterol attenuates liver injury in a rat model of chronic alcohol intake.
In conclusion, β-sitosterol has a protective effect on chronic alcoholism and has broad clinical application prospects in the treatment of alcohol-induced liver damage. PMID: 33155166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen Z, Wu A, Jin H, Liu F Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Activation of β2 adrenergic receptor signaling modulates inflammation: a target limiting the progression of kidney diseases.
Activation of β2 adrenergic receptor signaling modulates inflammation: a target limiting the progression of kidney diseases. Arch Pharm Res. 2020 Nov 05;: Authors: Dorotea D, Ha H Abstract Beta 2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR)-agonists, widely used as bronchodilators, have demonstrated wide-spectrum anti-inflammatory properties in both immune and non-immune cells in various tissues. Their anti-inflammatory properties are mediated primarily, but not exclusively, via activation of the canonical β2-AR signaling pathway (β2-AR/cAMP/PKA). As non-canonical β2-AR signaling also occurs, ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dorotea D, Ha H Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Brain energy metabolism and multiple sclerosis: progress and prospects.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease accompanied with nerve pain and paralysis. Although various pathogenic causes of MS have been suggested, including genetic and environmental factors, how MS occurs remains unclear. Moreover, MS should be diagnosed based on clinical experiences because of no disease-specific biomarker and currently available treatments for MS just can reduce relapsing frequency or severity with little effects on disease disability. Therefore, more efforts are required to identify pathophysiology of MS and diagnosis markers. Recent evidence indicates another aspect of MS path...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - October 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Park SJ, Choi JW Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Structure elucidation of small organic molecules by contemporary computational chemistry methods.
Abstract Small molecules derived from natural sources such as plants, fungi, bacteria, or synthetic materials have served as promising drug candidates for a long time. Unambiguous determination of chemical structures of these natural/synthetic molecules is a prerequisite for their development into new drugs. Despite the significant development of modern analytical tools it is still challenging to accomplish full structural assignment. In the last decades, computational chemistry methods using quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics theories followed by sophisticated statistical approaches have been rapidly devel...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - October 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kim CS, Oh J, Lee TH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Mitochondrial connection to ginsenosides.
This article reviews the regulatory effects of ginsenosides on the mitochondria and highlights their beneficial role in treating mitochondrial diseases. PMID: 33113096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - October 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang F, Roh YS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Beta resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) from fungi: chemistry, biology, and biosynthesis.
Abstract β-Resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) are one of the major polyketides produced by fungi, and some of them have a diverse array of biological activities. Most RALs feature a 14-membered macrocyclic ring fused to β-resorcylic acid (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid). In this review, more than 100 RAL-type of compounds are structurally classified into three groups; 14-membered RALs with 17R configuration, 14-membered RALs with 17S configuration, and benzopyranones/benzofuranones, and they are reviewed comprehensively in terms of chemistry, biological activities, and biosynthetic pathways. PMID: 33113097 ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - October 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bang S, Shim SH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

In vitro anticancer evaluation of micelles containing N-(4-(2-((4-methoxybenzyl)amino)ethyl)phenyl)heptanamide, an analogue of fingolimod.
Abstract Fingolimod has been evaluated for use as an anticancer agent. However, many steps are required to synthesize fingolimod because of its intricate structure. A fingolimod analogue, N-(4-(2-((4-methoxybenzyl)amino)ethyl)phenyl)heptanamide (MPH), also has anti-cancer effects and is easier to synthesize but is poorly soluble in water. To compensate for its poor water solubility, MPH-loaded polymeric micelles were prepared by thin film hydration method using various polymers and the physicochemical properties of the MPH-loaded micelles such as particle size, drug-loading (DL, %), and encapsulation efficiency (E...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - October 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yoon MS, Lee YJ, Park CW, Hong JT, Baek DJ, Shin DH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Emerging roles of ferroptosis in liver pathophysiology.
Abstract Ferroptosis is a widely recognized process of regulated cell death linking redox state, metabolism, and human health. It is considered a defense mechanism against extensive lipid peroxidation, a complex process that may disrupt the membrane integrity, eventually leading to toxic cellular injury. Ferroptosis is controlled by iron, reactive oxygen species, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Accumulating evidence has addressed that ferroptosis plays an unneglectable role in regulating the development and progression of multiple pathologies of the liver, including hepatocellular carcinoma, liver fibrosis, nonal...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kim KM, Cho SS, Ki SH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Recent insights on modulation of inflammasomes by adipokines: a critical event for the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolism-associated diseases.
Abstract Aberrant production of adipokines, a group of adipocytes-derived hormones, is considered one of the most important pathological characteristics of obesity. In individuals with obesity, beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin are downregulated, whereas leptin and other pro-inflammatory adipokines are highly upregulated. Hence, the imbalance in levels of these adipokines is thought to promote the development of obesity-linked complications. However, the mechanisms by which adipokines contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases have not been clearly understood. Inflammasomes represent key signaling...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pham DV, Park PH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Grape seed proanthocyanidins protect retinal ganglion cells by inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial alteration.
Abstract Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) are known as condensed tannins and have been used as an anti-oxidant in various neurodegenerative diseases. In our study, GSP was used as a daily dietary supplement and the neuroprotective effects were evaluated on the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the retinal tissues in glaucomatous DBA/2D (D2) mice. D2 mice and age-matched non-glaucomatous DBA/2J-Gpnmb+ (D2-Gpnmb+) mice were fed with GSP or a control diet for up to 6 months. The intraocular pressure (IOP), RGC survival, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the levels of apoptotic proteins, and the expression...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li L, Geng X, Tian L, Wang D, Wang Q Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

White matter and neurological disorders.
Abstract The central nervous system is simply divided into two distinct anatomical regions based on the color of tissues, i.e. the gray and white matter. The gray matter is composed of neuronal cell bodies, glial cells, dendrites, immune cells, and the vascular system, while the white matter is composed of concentrated myelinated axonal fibers extending from neuronal soma and glial cells, such as oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. As neuronal cell bodies are located in the gray matter, great attention has been focused mainly on the gray matter regarding the underst...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bae HG, Kim TK, Suk HY, Jung S, Jo DG Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Applications of deep eutectic solvents to quantitative analyses of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in various matrices: a brief review.
Abstract Pharmaceuticals and pesticides are important analytes of interest in clinical, environmental, and food analyses for ensuring public health. Sample pretreatment steps are often prerequisites for the quantitative analysis of these compounds, which are generally present in low concentrations in samples with complex matrices. In compliance with the current trend towards green analytical chemistry, the replacement of conventional toxic organic solvents with ecofriendly and safe solvents has been pursued in developing sample pretreatment methods. Subsequent to several reports in 2017, deep eutectic solvents (DE...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee J, Kim H, Kang S, Baik N, Hwang I, Chung DS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Repositioning medication for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease to delay the onset and prevent progression of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder. As with other common chronic diseases, multiple risk factors contribute to the onset and progression of AD. Many researchers have evaluated the epidemiologic and pathophysiological association between AD, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and cerebrovascular diseases (CBVDs), including commonly reported risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Relevant therapies of CVDs/CBVDs for the attenuation of AD have also been empirically investigated. Considering the challenges of new drug development, in terms of co...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee H, Kim E Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Three new ent-abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana and their cytotoxicity in human tumor cell lines.
Abstract The article "Three new ent-abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana and their cytotoxicity in human tumor cell lines", written by Minghui Li, Fang He, Yuan Zhou, Meigui Wang, Pingde Tao, Qingmei Tu, Guanghui Lv, Xintao Chen, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 17 April 2019 with open access. With the author(s)' decision to step back from Open Choice, the copyright of the article changed on 4 September 2020 to © The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea 2020 and the article is forthwith distributed under the te...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li M, He F, Zhou Y, Wang M, Tao P, Tu Q, Lv G, Chen X Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: Attenuation of aortic injury by ursolic acid through RAGE-Nox-NF κB pathway in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.
Retraction Note to: Attenuation of aortic injury by ursolic acid through RAGE-Nox-NFκB pathway in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2020 Sep 03;: Authors: Xiang M, Wang J, Zhang Y, Ling J, Xu X Abstract The authors have retracted this article [1] because Fig. 4A and Fig. 4B are same as the left-hand panel and the middle panel respectively in Fig. 1 in an article published in Chinese by another author group [2]. In addition, Associate Professor Xiaoning Li did not give permission to be acknowledged for pathology work. All authors agree with this retraction. P...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Xiang M, Wang J, Zhang Y, Ling J, Xu X Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Therapeutic effects of ginsenosides on breast cancer growth and metastasis.
Abstract Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. Thus, the development of new and effective low-toxicity drugs is vital. The specific characteristics of breast cancer have allowed for the development of targeted therapy towards each breast cancer subtype. Nevertheless, increasing drug resistance is displayed by the changing phenotype and microenvironments of the tumor through mutation or dysregulation of various mechanisms. Recently, emerging data on the therapeutic potential of biocompounds isolated from ginseng have been reported. Therefore, in this review, various ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jin Y, Huynh DTN, Nguyen TLL, Jeon H, Heo KS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Hyperthermal paclitaxel-bound albumin nanoparticles co-loaded with indocyanine green and hyaluronidase for treating pancreatic cancers.
Abstract Albumin nanoparticles have become an attractive cancer nanomedicine platform due to their pharmaceutical advantages. Recently, photothermal therapy has been extensively applied to cancer treatment due to heat-induced tumor ablation. Herein, we fabricated albumin nanoparticles (HSA-NPs) loaded with paclitaxel (PTX), indocyanine green (ICG; a hyperthermal agent) and hyaluronidase (HAase) that breaks down hyaluronan, a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in tumors. Synthesis was based on a slightly modified nanoparticle albumin-bound (Nab™) technique. The prepared nanoparticles (PTX/ICG/H...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kim SS, Kim HK, Kim H, Lee WT, Lee ES, Oh KT, Choi HG, Youn YS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Many faces of the GPCR-arrestin interaction.
Abstract G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) belong to a major receptor family and regulate important physiological and pathological functions. Upon agonist activation, GPCRs couple to G proteins and induce the activation of G protein-dependent signaling pathways. The agonist-activated GPCRs are also phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), which promote their interaction with arrestins. Arrestin binding induces desensitization (i.e., inability to couple to G proteins) and/or internalization of GPCRs. Arrestins not only desensitize and/or internalize GPCRs but also mediate other downstream sign...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kim K, Chung KY Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Setosphapyrone C and D accelerate macrophages cholesterol efflux by promoting LXR α/ABCA1 pathway.
This study was designed to investigate whether setosphapyrone C and D have potential lipid-lowering capacity and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Our data showed that setosphapyrone C and D had weak cytotoxicity compared to the liver X receptor α (LXRα) agonist T0901317. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, setosphapyrone C and D significantly enhanced [3H]-cholesterol efflux by ~ 21.3% and 32.4%, respectively; furthermore, setosphapyrone C and D enhanced the protein levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and LXRα by 58% and 69%, and 60% and 70% (8 µM), respectively; however, they h...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li T, Yin J, Ji Y, Lin P, Li Y, Yang Z, Hu S, Wang J, Zhang B, Koshti S, Wang J, Ji C, Guo S Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Protective effect of quercetin against myocardial ischemia as a Ca2+ channel inhibitor: involvement of inhibiting contractility and Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channels.
Abstract Many studies describe the stimulating effect of quercetin on Ca2+ channels and the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial ischemia and hypertension. However, these studies are scattered and contradictory. The aim of this study is to elucidate the protective effects of quercetin against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia and verify the cellular mechanisms based on the L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC), Ca2+ transients, and myocardial contractility. An animal model of myocardial ischemia was established by subcutaneous injection of ISO for 2 days. Quercetin significantly reduced ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liang Y, Zhang Y, Liu M, Han X, Zhang J, Zhang X, Chu L Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

In vitro modeling for inherited neurological diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells: from 2D to organoid.
Abstract Stem cells are characterized by self-renewal and by their ability to differentiate into cells of various organs. With massive progress in 2D and 3D cell culture techniques, in vitro generation of various types of such organoids from patient-derived stem cells is now possible. As in vitro differentiation protocols are usually made to resemble human developmental processes, organogenesis of patient-derived stem cells can provide key information regarding a range of developmental diseases. Human stem cell-based in vitro modeling as opposed to using animal models can particularly benefit the evaluation of neu...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nam KH, Yi SA, Jang HJ, Han JW, Lee J Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine: a potential and controversial treatment for COVID-19.
Abstract A novel coronavirus, later named SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in China in December 2019 and subsequently widely identified in the United States, Japan, South Korea, France, India, and other countries. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection was called COVID-19. The high fatality and morbidity rates of COVID-19 make it the third largest global epidemic in this century. However, there are currently no approved antiviral drugs for the COVID-19 treatment. Recently, two old antimalarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, have been found to exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects both in vitro and in vivo. P...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zou L, Dai L, Zhang X, Zhang Z, Zhang Z Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Transcriptional suppression of androgen receptor by 18 β-glycyrrhetinic acid in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.
Correction to: Transcriptional suppression of androgen receptor by 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2020 Jul 31;: Authors: Sun Y, Aryal P, Jiang M, Wu S, Park PH, Song K Abstract The authors regret to inform that authors Pramod Aryal and Shuang Wu were inadvertently omitted from authorship of the manuscript above at the time of original submission. Pramod Aryal and Shuang Wu were contributors to conducting experiments, acquiring and initial plotting/analyzing data. The authors would like to state that Sun You and Pramod Aryal contributed equally to thi...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sun Y, Aryal P, Jiang M, Wu S, Park PH, Song K Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Characteristics of Korean patients with methamphetamine use disorder based on the quantitative analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair.
Abstract Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive central nervous system stimulant. MA use disorder is characterized by a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is enhanced by a dynamic process of repeated use and withdrawal. The analysis of MA and its metabolite, amphetamine (AM), in hair is routinely performed in forensic laboratories for illegal MA use determination. However, few studies regarding the clinical application of hair analysis have been conducted to monitor the treatment of MA use disorder. Herein, the characteristics of Korean patients with MA use disorder were investigated based on drug abuse scr...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Seo MJ, Song SH, Kim S, Jang WJ, Jeong CH, Lee S Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Protective effects of L-theanine on rats with dextran sulfate sodium-induced inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of L-theanine in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were pre-treated with L-theanine at 0, 50, 200, or 800 mg/kg/day. IBD was induced in rats using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Histopathological analysis suggests that L-theanine can suppress DSS-induced IBD with significant inhibition of inflammation in large and small intestinal tissues. Moreover, the 200 mg/kg/day L-theanine-treated DSS group had higher body and small intestine weights, a lower disease acti...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - July 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen L, Xiao WJ, Yan QX, Gong ZH, Zhang S, Zeng L, Yang M, Zhou YH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

CRISPR-mediated promoter de/methylation technologies for gene regulation.
Abstract DNA methylation on cytosines of CpG dinucleotides is well established as a basis of epigenetic regulation in mammalian cells. Since aberrant regulation of DNA methylation in promoters of tumor suppressor genes or proto-oncogenes may contribute to the initiation and progression of various types of human cancer, sequence-specific methylation and demethylation technologies could have great clinical benefit. The CRISPR-Cas9 protein with a guide RNA can target DNA sequences regardless of the methylation status of the target site, making this system superb for precise methylation editing and gene regulation. Ta...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - July 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sung CK, Yim H Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

ω-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid induction of breast cancer cells apoptosis through generation of mitochondrial ROS and phosphorylation of AMPK.
In conclusion, ω-HUA sequentially caused the production of mitochondrial ROS and the consequent AMPK activation, thereby inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Thus, ω-HUA may prove useful as an anticancer agent that targets AMPK in breast cancer cells. PMID: 32720162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - July 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ahn J, Kim H, Yang KM Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research