Tizoxanide induces autophagy by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.
In this study, we investigated the effects of TIZ on autophagy by regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. RAW264.7 macrophage cells were treated with various TIZ concentrations. Cell viability assay, transmission electron microscope, and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the biological function of the macrophage cells, and the expression levels of the autophagy pathway-related proteins were measured by Western blot. Results revealed that TIZ promoted the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, the formation of autophagy vacuoles, and the degradation of SQSTM1/p62 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner i...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shou J, Wang M, Cheng X, Wang X, Zhang L, Liu Y, Fei C, Wang C, Gu F, Xue F, Li J, Zhang K Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Phytochemicals enriched in spices: a source of natural epigenetic therapy.
This article aims at highlighting the epigenetic regulatory roles of phytochemicals present in condiments and spices with considerable health benefits. PMID: 31838653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - December 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gupta J, Sharma S, Sharma NR, Kabra D Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Pharmacology of natural radioprotectors.
Abstract We apologize that there are some errors in the references for three sentences and Table 2. PMID: 31832995 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - December 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mun GI, Kim S, Choi E, Kim CS, Lee YS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

MiR-338-5p ameliorates pathological cardiac hypertrophy by targeting CAMKII δ.
In this study, we first found that the regulation of miR-338-5p was aberrant in cardiac tissues of heart failure patients and transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced PCH mice. Overexpression of miR-338-5p in the heart using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (rAAV9) ameliorated TAC-induced PCH, as indicated by a decreased heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio. Furthermore, miR-338-5p mitigated the TAC-induced damage in heart contraction and relaxation function, as measured by echocardiography and a cardio hemodynamic measurement, respectively. We also identified CAMKIIδ as a direct target of miR-338-...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li K, Lin Y, Li C Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Effects of steady-state clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem in healthy subjects.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of steady-state clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem in healthy subjects. In the control phase, 33 subjects received a single dose of zolpidem (5 mg). One week later, in the clarithromycin phase, the subjects received clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily for 5 days to reach steady state concentrations, followed by zolpidem (5 mg) and clarithromycin (500 mg). In each phase, plasma concentrations of zolpidem were evaluated up to 12 h after drug administration by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. In...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee CM, Jung EH, Byeon JY, Kim SH, Jang CG, Lee YJ, Lee SY Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Diverse roles of arrest defective 1 in cancer development.
Abstract Arrest defective 1 is an acetyltransferase that acetylates N-terminal amino acid or internal lysine residues of its target proteins. By acetylating its target proteins, ARD1 plays roles in many cellular activities, including proliferation, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. In recent years, a number of investigations have emerged reporting the dysregulated expression of ARD1 in different types of cancer, including lung, liver, pancreas, breast, prostate, and colon cancer. Furthermore, the expression level of ARD1 in cancer tissues has been correlated with the progression and metastasis of the canc...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - December 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chaudhary P, Ha E, Vo TTL, Seo JH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Involvement of mitochondrial biogenesis during the differentiation of human periosteum-derived mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes.
In conclusion, these results indicate that mitochondrial biogenesis and OXPHOS metabolism play important roles in the differentiation of POMCS and suggest that pharmaceutical modulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and/or function can be a novel regulation for POMSC differentiation and regenerative medicine. PMID: 31802425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - December 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee AR, Moon DK, Siregar A, Moon SY, Jeon RH, Son YB, Kim BG, Hah YS, Hwang SC, Byun JH, Woo DK Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Hesperetin ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice through regulating the TLR4-MyD88-NF- κB signaling pathway.
This study investigated the effect of hesperetin on LPS-induced lung inflammatory response. Mice were intratracheally instilled with 5 mg/kg body weight LPS, and then were given hesperetin orally (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg body weight) 1 h later. Hesperetin dramatically suppressed the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Besides, it reduced lung injury, wet weight/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity. In addition, hesperetin significantly downregulat...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - December 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang N, Geng C, Sun H, Wang X, Li F, Liu X Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates placental oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and endoplasmic reticulum stress in a mouse model of gestational diabetes mellitus.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of tetramethylpyrazine on inflammatory responses, ER stress and oxidative stress of the placenta in a mouse model of GDM. Our results showed that tetramethylpyrazine treatment significantly alleviated the GDM symptoms characterized by low body weight and serum insulin levels, high blood glucose, and decreased β-cell function in pregnant C57BL/KsJdb/+ mice. In addition, tetramethylpyrazine reduced the level of malondialdehyde, and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione. Moreover, tetramethylpyrazine decreased the total serum chole...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - December 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jiao Y, Zhang S, Zhang J, Du J Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Cis-element architecture of Nrf2-sMaf heterodimer binding sites and its relation to diseases.
Abstract Cellular detoxication is essential for health because it provides protection against various chemicals and xenobiotics. The KEAP1-NRF2 system is important for cellular defense against oxidative and electrophilic stresses as NRF2 activates the transcription of an array of cytoprotective genes, including drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, in a stress-dependent manner. The CNC family of transcription factors, including NRF2, form heterodimers with small Maf (sMaf) proteins and bind to consensus DNA sequences that have been referred to as antioxidant response element, electrophile response element, or...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - December 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Otsuki A, Yamamoto M Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

The regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylases in GABA neurotransmission in the brain.
Abstract Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter that is required for the control of synaptic excitation/inhibition and neural oscillation. GABA is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylases (GADs) that are widely distributed and localized to axon terminals of inhibitory neurons as well as to the soma and, to a lesser extent, dendrites. The expression and activity of GADs is highly correlated with GABA levels and subsequent GABAergic neurotransmission at the inhibitory synapse. Dysregulation of GADs has been implicated in various neurological disorders including epilepsy and schizop...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee SE, Lee Y, Lee GH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Nrf2 in liver toxicology.
Abstract Liver plays essential roles in the metabolism of many endogenous chemicals and exogenous toxicants. Mechanistic studies in liver have been at the forefront of efforts to probe the roles of bioactivation and detoxication of environmental toxins and toxicants in hepatotoxicity. Moreover, idiosyncratic hepatoxicity remains a key barrier in the clinical development of drugs. The now vast Nrf2 field emerged in part from biochemical and molecular studies on chemical inducers of hepatic detoxication enzymes and subsequent characterization of the modulation of drug/toxicant induced hepatotoxicities in mice throug...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Taguchi K, Kensler TW Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Emerging evidence for crosstalk between Nrf2 and mitochondria in physiological homeostasis and in heart disease.
Abstract Nrf2 regulates redox homeostasis in cells by coordinately regulating a range of antioxidant enzymes and proteins. An increase in oxidative stress is one of the hallmarks of aging, and Nrf2 protein levels and activity decrease with aging. Decreased mitochondrial functions, such as decreased ATP production, also occur with aging, leading to the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Thus, understanding the relationships between Nrf2 and the mitochondria is important for clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of aging. It is becoming clear that Nrf2 is activated in a t...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsushima M, Liu J, Hirao W, Yamazaki H, Tomita H, Itoh K Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Emerging immune gene signatures as prognostic or predictive biomarkers in breast cancer.
Abstract Several multigene assays have been developed to predict the risk of distant recurrence and response to adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer. However, the prognostic or predictive value of current proliferation gene signature-based assays are limited to hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2-) early breast cancer. Considerable discordance between the different assays in classifying patients into risk groups has also been reported, thus raising questions about the clinical utility of these assays for individual patients. Therefore, there still remains a nee...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kwon MJ Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Protective effects of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone, a major metabolite of daidzein, on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.
Abstract Daidzein, one of the important isoflavones, is extensively metabolized in the human body following consumption. In particular, 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF), a major metabolite of daidzein, has been the focus of recent investigations due to its various health benefits, such as anti-cancer and anti-obesity effects. However, the protective effects of 6,7,4'-THIF have not yet been studied in models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the protective activity of 6,7,4'-THIF on 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Pr...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ko YH, Kwon SH, Kim SK, Lee BR, Hur KH, Kim YJ, Kim SE, Lee SY, Jang CG Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Potential molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of arsenic on angiogenesis.
Abstract Arsenic is a potent chemotherapeutic drug that is applied as a treatment for cancer; it exerts its functions through multiple pathways, including angiogenesis inhibition. As angiogenesis is a critical component of the progression of many diseases, arsenic is a feasible treatment option for patients with other angiogenic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, among others. However, arsenic is also a well-known carcinogen, demonstrating a pro-angiogenesis effect. This review will focus on the dual effects of arsenic on neovascularization and the relevant mechanisms underlying these effects,...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - November 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhang J, Zhang Y, Wang W, Zhang Z Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Allyl isothiocyanate may reverse the expression of MRP1 in COPD rats via the Notch1 signaling pathway.
Abstract In the present study, the roles of AITC in up-regulating the MRP1 expression and its relationship with the activation of the Notch1 signaling pathway were investigated by combining the in vivo and in vitro experiments. AITC was administered to the COPD model rats and normal rats to explore the association between Notch1 and MRP1. The human bronchial epithelial cells were treated with DAPT, the Notch1 signaling pathway inhibitor, to verify the effect of Notch1 on the expression of AITC-induced MRP1. Compared with the control group, the expressions of Notch1, Hes1 (the target gene of Notch1) and MRP1 in the...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wu J, Wang X, Yao Z, Wu Q, Fang W, Li Z, Wang D Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Molecular insights into the role of mitochondria in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming the most common cause of fatal liver diseases such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, and indications for orthotopic liver transplantation. Given its high prevalence, the absence of FDA-approved drugs for NAFLD is noticeable. In the pathogenesis of NAFLD, it is well known that mitochondrial dysfunction arises as a result of changes in ETC complexes and the membrane potential (Δψm), as well as decreased ATP synthesis. Due to their fundamental role in energy metabolism and cell death decision, alterations in mitochondria are considered to be cr...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee J, Park JS, Roh YS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Schisandrin A ameliorates MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease in a mouse model via regulation of brain autophagy.
In this study, we demonstrated its protective effect and biochemical mechanism of action in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Sch A significantly ameliorated behavioural abnormalities and increased the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons detected by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. Pre-treatment with Sch A significantly decreased the levels of the inflammatory mediators IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α and markedly improved antioxidant defences by inhibiting the activity of MDA and increasing that of SOD. Furthermore, Sch A activated expression of the...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhi Y, Jin Y, Pan L, Zhang A, Liu F Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Amentoflavone protects the hematopoietic system of mice against γ-irradiation.
In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to total-body 60Co γ-irradiation at 7.5 or 3.0 Gy. The survival rate and mean survival time were evaluated to determine the radioprotective effect of AMF. Number of peripheral blood cells, frequency of colony forming unit-granulocytes, monocytes and micronuclei were measured to assess the protective effects of AMF on the hematopoietic system. Levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and pathological changes in the bone marrow were determined. Additionally, next-generation sequencing technology was used to explore potential targets of AMF. We observed that AM...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Qu X, Li Q, Zhang X, Wang Z, Wang S, Zhou Z Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Interactions of ginseng with therapeutic drugs.
Abstract Ginseng is the most frequently used herbal medicine for immune system stimulation and as an adjuvant with prescribed drugs owing to its numerous pharmacologic activities. It is important to investigate the beneficial effects and interaction of ginseng with therapeutic drugs. This review comprehensively discusses drug metabolizing enzyme- and transporter-mediated ginseng-drug interaction by analyzing in vitro and clinical results with a focus on ginsenoside, a pharmacologically active marker of ginseng. Impact of ginseng therapy or ginseng combination therapy on diabetic patients and of ginseng interaction...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Choi MK, Song IS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Mitochondrial biology in airway pathogenesis and the role of NRF2.
Abstract A constant improvement in understanding of mitochondrial biology has provided new insights into mitochondrial dysfunction in human disease pathogenesis. Impaired mitochondrial dynamics caused by various stressors are characterized by structural abnormalities and leakage, compromised turnover, and reactive oxygen species overproduction in mitochondria as well as increased mitochondrial DNA mutation frequency, which leads to modified energy production and mitochondria-derived cell signaling. The mitochondrial dysfunction in airway epithelial, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells has been implicated in ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cho HY, Kleeberger SR Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of buthionine sulfoximine on the chlorin e6-based photodynamic treatment of cancer cells.
In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on the chlorin e6 (Ce6)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer cells. Among various cancer cells, HCT116 cells have highest intracellular L-glutathione (GSH) level and SNU478 cells showed the lowest GSH level. BSO alone showed negligible intrinsic cytotoxicity against CCD986sk cells. Since HCT116 and SNU478 cells showed the highest and the lowest intracellular GSH levels, respectively, those were used to test synergistic effect on the Ce6-based PDT. In the absence of light, BSO and Ce6 combination did not practically increase reacti...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee HM, Kim DH, Lee HL, Cha B, Kang DH, Jeong YI Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

In silico drug repositioning: from large-scale transcriptome data to therapeutics.
Abstract Drug repositioning is an attractive alternative to conventional drug development when new beneficial effects of old drugs are clinically validated because pharmacokinetic and safety profiles are generally already available. Since ~ 30% of drugs newly approved by the US food and drug administration (FDA) are developed through drug repositioning, identifying novel usage for existing drugs is an emerging strategy for developing disease treatments. With advances in next-generation sequencing technologies, available transcriptome data related to diseases have expanded rapidly. Harnessing these resources...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - September 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kwon OS, Kim W, Cha HJ, Lee H Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Warburg effect and its role in tumourigenesis.
Abstract Glucose is a crucial molecule in energy production and produces different end products in non-tumourigenic- and tumourigenic tissue metabolism. Tumourigenic cells oxidise glucose by fermentation and generate lactate and adenosine triphosphate even in the presence of oxygen (Warburg effect). The Na+/H+-antiporter is upregulated in tumourigenic cells resulting in release of lactate- and H+ ions into the extracellular space. Accumulation of lactate- and proton ions in the extracellular space results in an acidic environment that promotes invasion and metastasis. Otto Warburg reported that tumourigenic cells ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 31, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lebelo MT, Joubert AM, Visagie MH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Pifithrin- μ induces necroptosis through oxidative mitochondrial damage but accompanies epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenomenon in malignant mesothelioma cells under lactic acidosis.
Pifithrin-μ induces necroptosis through oxidative mitochondrial damage but accompanies epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenomenon in malignant mesothelioma cells under lactic acidosis. Arch Pharm Res. 2019 Aug 19;: Authors: Lee YJ, Park KS, Heo SH, Nam HS, Cho MK, Lee SH Abstract Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), a chaperone protein associated with tumorigenesis and chemoresistance, has attracted significant attention as a potential therapeutic target for the development of anticancer drugs. Here, the effects of pifithrin-μ, an effective dual inhibitor of HSP70 and p53, on anticancer activit...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee YJ, Park KS, Heo SH, Nam HS, Cho MK, Lee SH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Therapeutic targets for endothelial dysfunction in vascular diseases.
Abstract Vascular endothelial cells are located on the surface of the blood vessels. It has been recognized as an important barrier to the regulation of vascular homeostasis by regulating the blood flow of micro- or macrovascular vessels. Indeed, endothelial dysfunction is an initial stage of vascular diseases and is an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, or diabetes. Therefore, in order to develop therapeutic targets for vascular diseases, it is important to understand the key factors involved in maintaining endothelial...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huynh DTN, Heo KS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Attenuation of hyperoxic acute lung injury by Lycium barbarum polysaccharide via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome.
Abstract Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), an active component from Goji berry which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant features. The aim of our study was to investigate whether LBP has any role in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Using a murine model of hyperoxia-induced ALI, we investigate the effect of LBP on pulmonary pathological changes as well as Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and the nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Exposure to 100% oxygen for 72 h in male C57BL/6 mice resulted in increased protein ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hong CY, Zhang HD, Liu XY, Xu Y Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Filtering through the role of NRF2 in kidney disease.
Abstract Kidney disease affects ~ 10% of the population worldwide, resulting in millions of deaths each year. Mechanistically, oxidative stress is a major driver of various kidney diseases, and promotes the progression from acute to chronic injury, as well as renal cancer development. NRF2, the master regulator of redox balance, has been shown to protect against kidney disease through its negation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, many kidney diseases exhibit high levels of ROS as a result of decreased NRF2 protein levels and transcriptional activity. Many studies have tested the strategy of using ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - August 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Schmidlin CJ, Dodson MB, Zhang DD Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Isoorientin improves scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments by restoring the cholinergic system, antioxidant defense, and p-CREB/BDNF signaling in the hippocampus and frontal cortex.
Abstract Isoorientin (ISO) is considered one of the most important flavonoids with various pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Despite these beneficial activities, the effects of ISO on learning and memory have not been investigated so far. The current study evaluated the memory-enhancing effects of ISO in a scopolamine-treated mouse model by using the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. The results showed that ISO (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment significantly improved the cognitive impairments caused by scopolamine. Additionally, ISO significantly decr...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ko YH, Kwon SH, Lee SY, Jang CG Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Hesperetin inhibits neuroinflammation on microglia by suppressing inflammatory cytokines and MAPK pathways.
Abstract Neuroinflammation is a specific or nonspecific immunological reaction in the central nervous system that is induced by microglia activation. Appropriate regulation of activated microglial cells is therefore important for inhibiting neuroinflammation. Hesperetin is a natural flavanone and an aglycone of hesperidin that is found in citrus fruits. Hesperetin reportedly possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant effects. However, the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of hesperetin on microglia are still unknown. Here, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of hesperetin on lipopolysacc...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jo SH, Kim ME, Cho JH, Lee Y, Lee J, Park YD, Lee JS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Astragalin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats via induction of heme oxygenase-1.
Abstract Astragalin, a bioactive component of medicinal plants such as Rosa agrestis, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant features. Induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is an effective strategy to reduce excessive generated oxidants during the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of the present study is to investigate that whether the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant features of astragalin is HO-1 dependent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in animal study. Intratracheal LPS was performed to induce experimental ALI model. Astragalin was administrated 1 h after...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - June 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zheng D, Liu D, Liu N, Kuang Y, Tai Q Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Apoptotic cell clearance in the tumor microenvironment: a potential cancer therapeutic target.
Abstract Millions of cells in the human body undergo apoptosis not only under normal physiological conditions but also under pathological conditions such as infection or other diseases related to acute tissue injury. Swift apoptotic cell clearance is essential for tissue homeostasis. Defective clearance of dead cells is linked to pathogenesis of diseases such as inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis, neurological disease, and cancer. Significance of apoptotic cell clearance has been emerging as an interesting field for disease treatment. Efficient apoptotic cell clearance plays an important role in reducing infla...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - June 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shin SA, Moon SY, Park D, Park JB, Lee CS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Realgar transforming solution-induced differentiation of NB4 cell by the degradation of PML/RAR α partially through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
In conclusion, these results suggested that RTS-induced cell differentiation may attribute to the PML/RARα degradation partially through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID: 31214877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hai Y, Wang X, Song P, Li JY, Zhao LH, Xie F, Tan XM, Xie QJ, Yu L, Li Y, Wu ZR, Li HY Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Pharmacology of natural radioprotectors.
Abstract We apologize that there are some errors in the references for three sentences and Table 2. PMID: 31209736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mun GI, Kim S, Choi E, Kim CS, Lee YS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Preventive approach for overcoming dementia.
Abstract Dementia is used as a general term to describe chronic disorders of mental processes caused by the deterioration of cognitive functions to the extent that one's ability to perform daily activities is impaired. Currently, age is known to be the main risk factor for dementia, suggesting that the risk of being diagnosed with dementia significantly increases later in one's life. Therefore, there are two approaches one can take when confronting dementia: to cure it when it occurs in late adulthood or to prevent the onset of symptoms beforehand. Recently, the latter strategy of delaying and preventing Alzheimer...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - June 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee H, Kim D, Lee W, Kim HY, Kim Y Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Phosphatidylserine receptor-targeting therapies for the treatment of cancer.
Abstract Asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the plasma membrane is a unique characteristic of eukaryotic cells. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin are exposed in the outer leaflet, and phosphatidylserine (PS) is predominantly located in the inner leaflet. Redistribution of PS to the cell surface can be observed in several physiological conditions, such as apoptosis and platelet activation, or in pathological conditions, such as the release of microvesicles/exosomes from tumor tissues. PS binding to the phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) on immune cells initiates immunosuppressive pathways that can l...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - June 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Park M, Kang KW Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Idelalisib inhibits osteoclast differentiation and pre-osteoclast migration by blocking the PI3K δ-Akt-c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling cascade.
Idelalisib inhibits osteoclast differentiation and pre-osteoclast migration by blocking the PI3Kδ-Akt-c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling cascade. Arch Pharm Res. 2019 Jun 03;: Authors: Yeon JT, Kim KJ, Son YJ, Park SJ, Kim SH Abstract Since increased number of osteoclasts could lead to impaired bone structure and low bone mass, which are common characteristics of bone disorders including osteoporosis, the pharmacological inhibition of osteoclast differentiation is one of therapeutic strategies for preventing and/or treating bone disorders and related facture. However, little data are available regarding the...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - June 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yeon JT, Kim KJ, Son YJ, Park SJ, Kim SH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in cancer.
Abstract Over the past decade, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has demonstrated improved therapeutic efficacy in a wide range of cancers. However, the benefits are restricted to a small population of patients. Therefore, studies on understanding the mechanisms resistant to ICI therapy and for finding predictive biomarkers for ICI therapy are being actively conducted. Recent studies have demonstrated that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) inhibit ICI therapy by various mechanisms, and that the response to ICI therapy can be improved by blocking MDSC activity. Moreover, low level of MDSC in patients ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - May 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Park SM, Youn JI Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Synthesis of arbutin-gold nanoparticle complexes and their enhanced performance for whitening.
Abstract Arbutin, a natural polyphenol, possesses numerous biological activities including whitening, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory activities, as well as strong reducing power, making it an ideal bioactive ingredient for preparing gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Previously, we developed a novel green, mild synthetic method for GNPs using glycosides such as arbutin as reducing agents and stabilizers. Herein, we optimized the synthetic method for glycoside-GNPs using arbutin, methyl β-D-glucoside, and phenyl β-D-glucoside and validated their whitening efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The resulting...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - May 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Park JJ, Hwang SJ, Kang YS, Jung J, Park S, Hong JE, Park Y, Lee HJ Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Applications of deep learning for the analysis of medical data.
Abstract Over the past decade, deep learning has demonstrated superior performances in solving many problems in various fields of medicine compared with other machine learning methods. To understand how deep learning has surpassed traditional machine learning techniques, in this review, we briefly explore the basic learning algorithms underlying deep learning. In addition, the procedures for building deep learning-based classifiers for seizure electroencephalograms and gastric tissue slides are described as examples to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of deep learning applications. Finally, we review t...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - May 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jang HJ, Cho KO Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Various approaches for measurement of synaptic vesicle endocytosis at the central nerve terminal.
In this study, we reviewed the current methods for assessing and visualizing SV endocytosis at the central nerve terminal. PMID: 31115782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research)
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - May 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jin Y, Seo KH, Ko HM, Jung TW, Chung YH, Lee JH, Park HH, Kim HC, Jeong JH, Lee SH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

A new anti-Helicobacter pylori juglone from Reynoutria japonica.
Abstract A 70% ethanol extract from the root portion of Reynoutria japonica afforded one new and three known juglone derivatives, namely, 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (1), 2-ethoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (2), 2-methoxy-7-acetonyljuglone (3), and 3-acetyl-7-methoxy-2-methyljuglone (4) together with two phenolics (5 and 6), an anthraquinone (7), a stilbene (8) and a phthalide (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic studies including IR, MS, and 1H, 13C, 2D NMR spectra. Compound 3 is a new compound in nature, and compounds 4-6 have been isolated for the first time fro...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - May 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Khalil AAK, Park WS, Lee J, Kim HJ, Akter KM, Goo YM, Bae JY, Chun MS, Kim JH, Ahn MJ Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Flavonoid morin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of melanoma cells by regulating reactive oxygen species, Sp1 and Mcl-1.
Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with cancer progression in different cancers, including melanoma. It also affects specificity protein (Sp1), a transcription factor. Flavonoid morin is known to inhibit growth of cancer cells, including lung cancer and breast cancer. Herein, we hypothesized that morin can inhibit cancer activities in melanoma by altering ROS generation. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of morin and its underlying mechanisms in melanoma cells. Effects of morin on cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using standardized assays. Changes in pro-apoptotic ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - May 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee YJ, Kim WI, Kim SY, Cho SW, Nam HS, Lee SH, Cho MK Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Mediators of the homeostasis and effector functions of memory Th2 cells as novel drug targets in intractable chronic allergic diseases.
Abstract Allergic patients have life-long chronic inflammatory diseases with repeated relapses and exacerbations. Currently used allergy therapeutics have some limitations, which warrants a search for novel drug targets for allergy treatment. The studies on conventional allergic disease therapeutics have been focused on the pathology of allergy involving effector type 2 helper T cells (Th2). However, it has been suggested that allergen-specific memory Th2 cells are developed after the initial allergen exposure, which may play a critical role in the allergic relapses. Here, we discuss the contribution of memory Th2...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - May 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yeon SM, Choi A, Hong MS, Jung YW Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of L-2',3'-Dideoxy-4'-selenonucleosides (L-4'-Se-ddNs).
Abstract Based on the potent anti-HIV activity of L-2',3'-dideoxycytidine (L-ddC), L-2',3'-dideoxy-4'-selenonucleosides (L-4'-Se-ddNs) have been synthesized from natural chiral template, L-glutamic acid, using Pummerer-type condensation as a key step. All synthesized compounds were assayed for anti-HIV-1 activity, but none of them did show any significant antiviral activity up to 100 μM, probably due to conformational differences between L-ddC and L-4'-Se-ddC, induced by the bulky selenium atom, which might play an important role in phosphorylation by cellular kinase. PMID: 31041687 [PubMed - as suppl...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - April 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yu J, Kim G, Jarhad DB, Kim HR, Jeong LS Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of epithelial transport and oxidative stress protection of nanoengineered curcumin derivative-cyclodextrin formulation for ocular delivery.
Abstract Ocular drug delivery has been a well-known route for the drug administration for the treatment of ocular diseases. However, numerous anatomical and physiological barriers prevailing in the eye itself create considerable challenges for achieving the necessitated therapeutic efficacy along with ocular bioavailability. However, recent advances in nanoengineered strategies hold definite promises in terms of devising improved ophthalmic medicines for the effective drug delivery to target the sites with enhanced ocular bioavailability. Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol yellow colored compound, and its metaboli...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - April 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Maharjan P, Jin M, Kim D, Yang J, Maharjan A, Shin MC, Cho KH, Kim MS, Min KA Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Targeting ROCK/LIMK/cofilin signaling pathway in cancer.
Abstract Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK)/Lin11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 kinase (LIMK)/cofilin-signaling cascades are stimulated by receptor tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, integrins and its ligands, growth factors, hormones, fibronectin, collagen, and laminin. Activated signaling cascades can cause transit from normal cells to cancer cells by modulating actin/filament dynamics. In various cancers including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers, high expression or activity of each cascade protein is significantly associated with poor survival rate of patients as well as aggress...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - April 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lee MH, Kundu JK, Chae JI, Shim JH Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Bookmarking by histone methylation ensures chromosomal integrity during mitosis.
Abstract The cell cycle is an orchestrated process that replicates DNA and transmits genetic information to daughter cells. Cell cycle progression is governed by diverse histone modifications that control gene transcription in a timely fashion. Histone modifications also regulate cell cycle progression by marking specific chromatic regions. While many reviews have covered histone phosphorylation and acetylation as regulators of the cell cycle, little attention has been paid to the roles of histone methylation in the faithful progression of mitosis. Indeed, specific histone methylations occurring before, during, or...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - April 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kim JE Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research

Camptothecin activates SIRT1 to promote lipid catabolism through AMPK/FoxO1/ATGL pathway in C2C12 myogenic cells.
Abstract Caloric restriction activates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and induces a variety of metabolic effects that are beneficial for preventing age-related disease. The present study screened a commercially available used drug library to develop small molecule activators of SIRT1 as therapeutics for treatment of metabolic disorders. Using an in vitro fluorescence assay, the cancer therapeutic camptothecin increased SIRT1 enzymatic activity by 5.5-fold, indicating it to be a potent SIRT1 activator. Camptothecin also elevated the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+/NADH ratio and increased SIRT1 protein levels in differ...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - April 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lo MC, Chen JY, Kuo YT, Chen WL, Lee HM, Wang SG Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research