Fast reaction of carbon free radicals with flavonoids and other aromatic compounds.
Abstract Many theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the principal initial biological targets of free radicals are nucleic acids, lipids and proteins. The reaction normally generates carbon-centered radicals which can propagate molecular damage either directly or after formation of new reactive species following reaction with oxygen. Overall damage prevention is therefore best achieved by repair of the carbon radicals before they initiate further reactions. Recent studies have shown that the repair cannot be achieved by normal levels of the endogenous antioxidants glutathione, ascorbate or urate. Sin...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - September 16, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nauser T, Gebicki JM Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Thymidylate synthase-catalyzed, tetrahydrofolate-dependent self-inactivation by 5-FdUMP.
Abstract In view of previous crystallographic studies, N4-hydroxy-dCMP, a slow-binding thymidylate synthase inhibitor apparently caused "uncoupling" of the two thymidylate synthase-catalyzed reactions, including the N5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate one-carbon group transfer and reduction, suggesting the enzyme's capacity to use tetrahydrofolate as a cofactor reducing the pyrimidine ring C(5) in the absence of the 5-methylene group. Testing the latter interpretation, a possibility was examined of a TS-catalyzed covalent self-modification/self-inactivation with certain pyrimidine deoxynucleotides, including...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - September 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sobich J, Prokopowicz M, Maj P, Wilk P, Zieliński Z, Frączyk T, Rode W Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Elevated p70S6K phosphorylation in rat soleus muscle during the early stage of unloading: Causes and consequences.
Abstract Currently, there is a lack of investigation into the initial signaling events underlying the development of disuse muscle atrophy. The study was aimed to (i) identify an assumed relationship between AMPK dephosphorylation and p70S6K hyperphosphorylation in the initial period of hindlimb unloading (HS), and (ii) assess the signaling consequences of p70S6K hyperphosphorylation following 24-h HS. For experiment 1, rats were treated with AMPK activator (AICAR) for 6 d before HS as well as during 24-h HS. For experiment 2, rats were treated with mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin during 24-h HS. The key signaling ma...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - September 10, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Belova SP, Vilchinskaya NA, Mochalova EP, Mirzoev TM, Nemirovskaya TL, Shenkman BS Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Hydroxyl radical scavenging of the compatible solute ectoine generates two N-acetimides.
Abstract Living cells employ various defence mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Besides protecting enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules also play an important role as radical scavengers. Within bacteria the amino acid derivative ectoine (2-methyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylate) is the most abundant compatible solute and stress protectant. Although this compound is already produced commercially for applications as moisturizer and skin-care product, it has been a matter of debate whether ectoine also has radical-scav...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - September 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Brands S, Schein P, Castro-Ochoa KF, Galinski EA Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Conserved Arg451 residue is critical for maintaining the stability and activity of thioredoxin glutathione reductase.
Abstract Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), a potential anthelminthic drug target causes NADPH-dependent transfer of electrons to both thioredoxins and glutathione systems. In the present study, we showed that a single point mutation conserved at Arg451 position is critical for maintaining the structure-function of FgTGR. The current biochemical results showed that R451A mutation significantly decreases both oxidoreductase activities (glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase) of the enzyme. Computational analyses using molecular dynamics simulation provided an in-depth insight into the structural alte...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - September 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kalita P, Shukla H, Das KC, Tripathi T Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Mouse Akr1cl gene product is a prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase with strict substrate specificity.
Abstract A mouse gene, Akr1cl, encodes a member of the aldo-keto reductase 1C subfamily (AKR1CL), whose function, however, remains unknown. Here, we show that the recombinant AKR1CL is an NADPH-dependent reductase of prostaglandin (PG) D2 (Km 3.2 μM, kcat 5.6 min-1) and oxidizes 9α,11β-PGF2 (Km 30 μM, kcat 3.3 min-1) in the reverse reaction. In contrast, it did not exhibit oxidoreductase activity towards other PGs (E2, A1, B2 and F2α), steroids and nonsteroidal carbonyls and alcohols, which are substrates of other mammalian AKR1C subfamily enzymes. The enzyme activity was inhibited by es...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 31, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Endo S, Matsunaga T, Hara A Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Regenerative effects of glycyrrhizin and/or platelet rich plasma on type II collagen induced arthritis: Targeting autophay machinery markers, inflammation and oxidative stress.
Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic autoimmune disease manifested by joint destruction and deformity, hence decreasing life's quality. The aim of the present work is to explore the mechanistic effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and/or glycyrrhizin (GL) treatments on collagen induced arthritis. 75 female Wistar rats were allocated into five equal groups. Group I: control group. Group II: arthritis group (A group); arthritis was induced by collagen type-II. Group III: Glycyrrhizin (A+GL) group, Group IV: platelet rich plasma treated (A+PRP) group and Group V: combined treatment (A+GL+PRP) gro...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 30, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Shafik NM, El-Deeb OS, El-Esawy RO, Mohamed DA, Deghidy EA Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Oxygenation reactions catalyzed by the F557V mutant of soybean Lipoxygenase-1: Evidence for two orientations of substrate binding.
Abstract Plant lipoxygenases oxygenate linoleic acid to produce 13(S)-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(S)-HPOD) or 9-hydroperoxy-10Z,12E-octadecadienoic acid (9(S)-HPOD). The manner in which these enzymes bind substrates and the mechanisms by which they control regiospecificity are uncertain. Hornung et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA96 (1999) 4192-4197) have identified an important residue, corresponding to phe-557 in soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SBLO-1). These authors proposed that large residues in this position favored binding of linoleate with the carboxylate group near the surface of the enzyme (tail-f...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hershelman D, Kahler KM, Price MJ, Lu I, Fu Y, Plumeri PA, Karaisz F, Bassett NF, Findeis PM, Clapp CH Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Neonatal cytochrome P450 CYP3A7: A comprehensive review of its role in development, disease, and xenobiotic metabolism.
This article summarizes the current state of knowledge of CYP3A7, including its discovery, distribution, alleles, RNA splicing, expression and regulation, metabolic properties, substrates, and inhibitors. PMID: 31445893 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Li H, Lampe JN Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Short-lived neutral FMN and FAD semiquinones are transient intermediates in cryo-reduced yeast NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.
Abstract The electron configuration of flavin cofactors, FMN and FAD, is a critical factor governing the reactivity of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). The current view of electron transfer by the mammalian CPR, based on equilibrium redox potentials of the flavin cofactors, is that the two electron-reduced FMN hydroquinone (FMNH2), rather than one electron-reduced FMN semiquinone, serves as electron donor to the terminal protein acceptors. However, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the CPR species originated from different organisms have shown that redox potentials measured at distinct electron transfer s...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Davydov RM, Jennings G, Hoffman BM, Podust LM Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Preparation of dihydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and activities of two dioxygenases in the phenanthrene degradative pathway.
Abstract Dihydroxy phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene derivatives are intermediates in the bacterial catabolism of the corresponding parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Ring-opening of the dihydroxy species followed by a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions generates metabolites that funnel into the Krebs Cycle with the eventual production of carbon dioxide and water. One complication in delineating these pathways and harnessing them for useful purposes is that the initial enzymatic processing produces multiple dihydroxy PAHs with multiple ring opening possibilities and products. As part of a systema...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 21, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Erwin KL, Johnson WH, Meichan AJ, Whitman CP Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The multifunctional globin dehaloperoxidase strikes again: Simultaneous peroxidase and peroxygenase mechanisms in the oxidation of EPA pollutants.
Abstract The multifunctional catalytic hemoglobin dehaloperoxidase (DHP) from the terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata was found to catalyze the H2O2-dependent oxidation of EPA Priority Pollutants (4-Me-o-cresol, 4-Cl-m-cresol and pentachlorophenol) and EPA Toxic Substances Control Act compounds (o-, m-, p-cresol and 4-Cl-o-cresol). Biochemical assays (HPLC/LC-MS) indicated formation of multiple oxidation products, including the corresponding catechol, 2-methylbenzoquinone (2-MeBq), and oligomers with varying degrees of oxidation and/or dehalogenation. Using 4-Br-o-cresol as a representative substrate, labeling...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 21, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Malewschik T, de Serrano V, McGuire AH, Ghiladi RA Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Coupling efficiency in light-driven hybrid P450BM3 and CYP119 enzymes.
Abstract The light-driven hybrid P450 enzyme approach utilizing the photochemical properties of a covalently attached Ru(II)-diimine photosensitizer was extended to the archaeal Sulfolobus acidocaldarius CYP119 enzyme leading to high photocatalytic activity in the hydroxylation of the chromogenic substrate, 11-nitrophenoxyundecanoic acid. The determined kcat was greater than those reported with various natural redox partners. In addition, the sacrificial electron donor, diethyldithiocarbamate, used in the photocatalytic reaction is shown to play a dual role. It acts as an efficient quencher of the Ru(II) excited s...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 16, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kato M, Melkie M, Li J, Foley B, Nguyen HT, Leti L, Cheruzel L Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

HO-1 overexpression and underexpression: Clinical implications.
Abstract In this review we examine the effects of both over- and under-production of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and HO activity on a broad spectrum of biological systems and on vascular disease. In a few instances e.g., neonatal jaundice, overproduction of HO-1 and increased HO activity results in elevated levels of bilirubin requiring clinical intervention with inhibitors of HO activity. In contrast HO-1 levels and HO activity are low in obesity and the HO system responds to mitigate the deleterious effects of oxidative stress through increased levels of bilirubin (anti-inflammatory) and CO (anti-apoptotic) and decr...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 16, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Drummond GS, Baum J, Greenberg M, Lewis D, Abraham NG Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

CRISPR Cas9-mediated deletion of biliverdin reductase A (BVRA) in mouse liver cells induces oxidative stress and lipid accumulation.
Abstract Obesity is the predominant cause of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. NAFLD includes a spectrum of pathologies that starts with simple steatosis, which can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with the commission of other factors such as the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Biliverdin reductase A (BVRA) reduces biliverdin to the antioxidant bilirubin, which may serve to prevent NAFLD, and possibly the progression to NASH. To further understand the role of BVRA in hepatic function, we used CRISPR-Cas9 technology to ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Gordon DM, Adeosun SO, Ngwudike SI, Anderson CD, Hall JE, Hinds TD, Stec DE Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Silencing Bach1 alters aging-related changes in the expression of Nrf2-regulated genes in primary human bronchial epithelial cells.
In conclusion, these results suggest that increased Bach1 contributes to aging-related loss of electrophile-enhanced Nrf2 signaling. PMID: 31422075 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang H, Zhou L, Davies KJA, Forman HJ Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

How iron is handled in the course of heme catabolism: Integration of heme oxygenase with intracellular iron transport mechanisms mediated by poly (rC)-binding protein-2.
Abstract Heme and iron are essential to almost all forms of life. The strict maintenance of heme and iron homeostasis is essential to prevent cellular toxicity and the existence of systemic and intracellular regulation is fundamental. Cytosolic heme can be catabolized and detoxified by heme oxygenases (HOs). Interestingly, free heme detoxification through HOs results in the production of free ferrous iron, which can be potentially hazardous for cells. Recently, the intracellular iron chaperone, poly (rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2), has been identified, which can be involved in accepting iron after heme catabolism a...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yanatori I, Richardson DR, Toyokuni S, Kishi F Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Hydrogen peroxide-producing NADPH oxidases and the promotion of migratory phenotypes in cancer.
ow JH Abstract The cellular microenvironment plays a critical role in cancer initiation and progression. Exposure to oxidative stress, specifically hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), has been linked to aberrant cellular signaling through which the development of cancer may be promoted. Three members of the NADPH oxidase family (NOX4, DUOX1 and DUOX2) explicitly generate this non-radical oxidant in a wide range of tissues, often in support of the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the contributions of each H2O2-producing NOX to the invasive behaviors of tumors and/or the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Meitzler JL, Konaté MM, Doroshow JH Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Labile heme impairs hepatic microcirculation and promotes hepatic injury.
Abstract Sepsis is a life-threatening clinical syndrome defined as a deregulated host response to infection associated with organ dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of septic liver dysfunction are incompletely understood. Among others, the iron containing tetrapyrrole heme inflicts hepatic damage when released into the circulation during systemic inflammation and sepsis. Accordingly, hemolysis and decreased concentrations of heme-scavenging proteins coincide with an unfavorable outcome of critically ill patients. As the liver is a key organ in heme metabolism and host response to infection, we ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Englert FA, Seidel RA, Galler K, Gouveia Z, Soares MP, Neugebauer U, Clemens MG, Sponholz C, Heinemann SH, Pohnert G, Bauer M, Weis S Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Orchestration of algal metabolism by protein disorder.
, Gontero B Abstract Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are proteins that provide many functional advantages in a large number of metabolic and signaling pathways. Because of their high flexibility that endows them with pressure-, heat- and acid-resistance, IDPs are valuable metabolic regulators that help algae to cope with extreme conditions of pH, temperature, pressure and light. They have, however, been overlooked in these organisms. In this review, we present some well-known algal IDPs, including the conditionally disordered CP12, a protein involved in the regulation of CO2 assimilation, as probably the ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 10, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Launay H, Receveur-Bréchot V, Carrière F, Gontero B Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway: A new tool for prodrug bioactivation.
Abstract Prodrugs account for more than 5% of pharmaceuticals approved worldwide. Over the past decades several prodrug design strategies have been firmly established; however, only a few functional groups remain amenable to this approach. The aim of this overview is to highlight the use of coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic enzymes as a recently explored bioactivation scheme and provide information about its scope of utility. This emerging tool is likely to have a strong impact on future medicinal and biological studies as it offers promiscuity, orthogonal selectivity, and the capability of assembling exceptionally la...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 9, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Duncan D, Auclair K Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Synergistic effects between the additions of a disulphide bridge and an N-terminal hydrophobic sidechain on the binding pocket tilting and enhanced Xyn11A activity.
Abstract Synergistic effect of distal site-directed mutations and molecular mechanisms on the enhanced thermostability of GH11 xylanase from B. firmus Strain K-1 (xyn11A) was investigated through enzyme activity assays and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. From the experiment, single N-terminal leucine substitution at K40L caused a significant drop in enzymatic activity. However, the addition of a disulphide bond at S100C/N147C, along with the K40L mutation enhanced the enzymatic activity at room temperature. Molecular mechanisms on the improvement of enzymatic activity were addressed through atomistic...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 8, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Boonyaputthikul H, Muhammad A, Roekring S, Rattanarojpong T, Khunrae P, Sutthibutpong T Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Extracellular coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is reduced to ubiquinol-10 by intact Hep G2 cells independent of intracellular CoQ10 reduction.
Abstract Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential factor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and is closely associated with ATP production in humans. It is known that orally administered CoQ10 in humans is rapidly reduced, and most is detected as a reduced form, ubiquinol-10 (CoQ10H2), in serum. However, the mechanism of exogenous CoQ10 reduction in vivo is unclear. Therefore, in order to clarify how CoQ10 is reduced to CoQ10H2, we conducted a study using human liver cancer cell line Hep G2 cells, which show strong intracellular CoQ10-reducing activity. When intact cells were incubated with CoQ10, the exogenously a...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Takahashi T, Mine Y, Okamoto T Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Heme uptake and utilization by hypervirulent Acinetobacter baumannii LAC-4 is dependent on a canonical heme oxygenase (abHemO).
Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections in critically ill and immune compromised patients. The ability to acquire iron from the hosts iron and heme containing proteins is critical to their survival and virulence. The majority of A. baumannii hypervirulent strains encode a heme uptake system that includes a putative heme oxygenase (hemO). Despite reports indicating A. baumannii can grow on heme direct evidence of extracellular heme uptake and metabolism has not been shown. Through isotopic labeling (13C-heme) we show the hypervirulent A. baumannii LAC-4 metaboliz...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 6, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Giardina BJ, Shahzad S, Huang W, Wilks A Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Promotion of liver growth by CAR is accompanied by Akt pathway activation and FoxM1-Nedd4-mediated repression of PTEN.
Abstract Recently, we reported that treatment with the mouse agonist of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), 1,4-bis benzene[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] (TCPOBOP; a well-known hepatomitogen), reduced PTEN protein levels, leading to Akt activation. Hence, the present study was performed to demonstrate the role of CAR in PTEN regulation and liver growth. Liver hyperplasia caused by CAR activation was confirmed to be mediated by a decrease in PTEN protein level and the activation of the Akt signalling pathway in the liver of mice. Treatment with the CAR agonist decreased the PTEN levels and increased Foxm1 lev...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yarushkin AA, Mazin ME, Pustylnyak YA, Prokopyeva EA, Pustylnyak VO Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

S-equol inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF-7  cells via regulating miR-10a-5p and PI3K/AKT pathway.
We examined the effects of S-equol on proliferation and apoptosis of MCF-7 cells by cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry. Screening for microRNAs and predicting their target genes using the starBase and Targetscan website, respectively. Protein expression was detected by Western blot. The microRNA level were quantified by real-time PCR. The results showed that S-equol inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and promoted apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. The expression of miR-10a-5p was significantly decreased in breast cancer tissues and breast cancer cell lines, ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - August 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang J, Ren L, Yu M, Liu X, Ma W, Huang L, Li X, Ye X Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Bilirubin as a predictor of diseases of civilization. Is it time to establish decision limits for serum bilirubin concentrations?
Abstract Bilirubin is among the most potent of the endogenous antioxidants. Data developed over the last three decades have convincingly demonstrated the protective effects of mildly elevated serum bilirubin concentrations; whereas lower levels of it have been associated with an increased risk of various diseases of civilization, commonly accompanied with increased oxidative stress. Even tiny, micromolar changes of serum bilirubin concentrations have been associated with substantial modulation for the risk of these diseases. However, clinical data published in the current literature are influenced by many confound...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 31, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Vitek L Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Characterization of conserved active site residues in class I nitronate monooxygenase.
Abstract Propionate 3-nitronate (P3N) is a natural toxin that irreversibly inhibits mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. P3N poisoning leads to a variety of neurological disorders and even death. Nitronate monooxygenase (NMO) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was the first NMO characterized in bacteria and serves as a paradigm for Class I NMO. Here, we hypothesized that the carboxylate group of P3N might form a hydrogen bond with one or more of the four tyrosine or a lysine residues that are conserved in the active site of the enzyme. In the wild-type enzyme, the kcat value was pH independent between pH 6.0 and 1...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Su D, Aguillon C, Gadda G Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 regulates autophagy in acute lung injury through AMPK/mTOR signaling.
In conclusion, these findings suggest that ACE2 could alleviate the severity of ALI, inflammation and autophagy in lung tissue through the AMPK/mTOR pathway. PMID: 31356776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang X, Zheng J, Yan Y, Ruan Z, Su Y, Wang J, Huang H, Zhang Y, Wang W, Gao J, Chi Y, Lu X, Liu Z Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Demographic model for inheritable cardiac disease.
Abstract The cardiac muscle proteins, generating and regulating energy transduction during a heartbeat, assemble in the sarcomere into a cyclical machine repetitively translating actin relative to myosin filaments. Myosin is the motor transducing ATP free energy into actin movement against resisting force. Cardiac myosin binding protein C (mybpc3) regulates shortening velocity probably by transient N-terminus binding to actin while its C-terminus strongly binds the myosin filament. Inheritable heart disease associated mutants frequently modify these proteins involving them in disease mechanisms. Nonsynonymous sing...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Burghardt TP Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

An arsenal of methods for the experimental characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins - How to choose and combine them?
Abstract In this review, we detail the most common experimental approaches to assess and characterize protein intrinsic structural disorder, with the notable exception of NMR and EPR spectroscopy, two ideally suited approaches that will be described in depth in two other reviews within this special issue. We discuss the advantages, the limitations, as well as the caveats of the various methods. We also describe less common and more demanding approaches that enable achieving further insights into the conformational properties of IDPs. Finally, we present recent developments that have enabled assessment of structura...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Schramm A, Bignon C, Brocca S, Grandori R, Santambrogio C, Longhi S Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

A class I fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase is associated with salt stress tolerance in a halotolerant cyanobacterium halothece sp. PCC 7418.
Abstract Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) is a key metabolic enzyme, which is involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and the Calvin cycle. The distinct physiological roles of FBAs in various organisms have been reported; however, in cyanobacteria, the functional characterization of FBAs and investigation of the intracellular dynamics of FBAs largely remains unknown. Here, we utilized a two-step chromatographic technique to identify a class I FBA (CI-FBA), which we named H2846. H2846 was induced by salt stress in the halotolerant cyanobacterium Halothece sp. PCC 7418 (hereafter referred to as Halothece 741...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Patipong T, Ngoennet S, Honda M, Hibino T, Waditee-Sirisattha R, Kageyama H Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Exploring the substrate specificity of Cytochrome P450cin.
In this study, we screened a small library of terpenes and terpenoid compounds against P450cin and two P450cin mutants, N242A and N242T, that have previously been shown to affect selectivity. Initial screening indicated that P450cin could catalyse the oxidation of most of the monoterpenes tested; however, sesquiterpenes were not substrates for this enzyme or the N242A mutant. Additionally, both P450cin mutants were found to be able to oxidise other bicyclic monoterpenes. For example, the oxidation of (R)- and (S)-camphor by N242T favoured the production of 5-endo-hydroxycamphor (65-77% of the total products, dependent on t...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Stok JE, Giang PD, Wong SH, De Voss JJ Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Propionate suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis via GPR43/AMPK signaling pathway.
In this study, we examined the direct effects of propionate on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism using human HepG2 hepatocytes. Here, we demonstrate that propionate at a physiologically-relevant concentration effectively suppresses palmitate-enhanced glucose production in HepG2 cells but does not affect intracellular neutral lipid levels. Our results indicated that propionate can decline in gluconeogenesis by down-regulation of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a major regulator of the hepatic glucose metabolis...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 26, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yoshida H, Ishii M, Akagawa M Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The interaction between methionine and two aromatic amino acids is an abundant and multifunctional motif in proteins.
Abstract Many types of non-covalent interactions give rise to a protein's natural structure and function. One such interaction involves an aromatic amino acid (phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), or tyrosine (Tyr)) and the sulfur of methionine (Met), the so-called methionine-aromatic interaction. The Met-aromatic interaction is well-established, and it is defined as involving one aromatic and one Met residue. However, in a small-scale survey, we recently noted that more than one aromatic residue can interact with one Met in a "bridging" motif of the general form Aro-Met-Aro. In the present work, a sys...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Weber DS, Warren JJ Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Hydrogen sulfide regulates circadian-clock genes in C2C12 myotubes and the muscle of high-fat-diet-fed mice.
We examined whether H2S has any effect on CCG in the skeletal muscle of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and in myotubes. In the muscle of HFD-mice, the expression of H2S biosynthesis enzyme genes (CSE, CBS, and 3-Mpst) along with antioxidant genes (GCLC, GCLM, GSS, and GSR) involved in GSH biosynthesis and recycling were reduced significantly, but the oxidative stress (OS) increased. Expression of the CCG (Bmal1, Clock, RORα, Cry2, Per2) and clock-controlled genes (PPARγ, PGC-1α, RXRα) was downregulated, whereas the levels of PPARα mRNA were upregulated. Similar to that in the muscle of HFD-mic...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Parsanathan R, Jain SK Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The protective effects of orexin a against high glucose-induced activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human vascular endothelial cells.
Abstract Vascular disease is one of the most significant threats to the lives of patients suffering from diabetes, and chronic exposure of vascular endothelial cells to high glucose has been shown to significantly contribute to the process of endothelial cell dysfunction, one of the earliest events in diabetes-associated vascular disease. Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a key role in initiating the inflammatory process by facilitating the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. ASC and caspase 1 are also implicated in NLRP...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang C, Abdukerim M, Abilailieti M, Tang L, Ling Y, Pan S Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Determinants of substrate specificity in D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Conversion of the M. tuberculosis enzyme from one that does not use α-ketoglutarate as a substrate to one that does.
Determinants of substrate specificity in D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Conversion of the M. tuberculosis enzyme from one that does not use α-ketoglutarate as a substrate to one that does. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2019 Jul 22;: Authors: Xu XL, Grant GA Abstract d-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) converts d-3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) to phosphohydroxypyruvate (PHP) in the first step of l-serine biosynthesis. This reaction is reversible, and some PGDHs are capable of using α-ketoglutarate (αKG) instead of PHP in the reverse direction to produce α-hydroxyglutarate. The enzy...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xu XL, Grant GA Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Triptolide preserves glomerular barrier function via the inhibition of p53-mediated increase of GADD45B.
In this study, we found triptolide suppresses podocyte p53 and GADD45B expression in vivo and in vitro. We used our previously developed in vivo zebrafish model of inducible podocyte-targeted injury and found that triptolide or the inhibition of p53 and gadd45ba with morpholino (MO) alleviated metronidazole (MTZ) induced edema in zebrafish, while the overexpression of gadd45ba in podocytes blocked the protective effect of triptolide and p53 MO on podocyte injury in zebrafish. Further study showed that p53 directly transactivated GADD45B. Triptolide inhibited p53 binding to the GADD45B promoter and subsequent GADD45B transc...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 19, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhai X, Wang L, Xu C, Hou Q, Zhang L, Li Z, Qin W, Liu Z, Chen Z Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Functional importance of αAsp-350 in the catalytic sites of Escherichia coli ATP synthase.
Functional importance of αAsp-350 in the catalytic sites of Escherichia coli ATP synthase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2019 Jul 19;: Authors: Raheem S, Steiner A, Ahmad Z Abstract Negatively charged residue αAsp-350 of the highly conserved VISIT-DG sequence is required for Pi binding and maintenance of the phosphate-binding subdomain and for Pi binding in the catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1Fo ATP synthase. αAsp-350 is situated in close proximity, 2.88 Å and 3.5 Å, to the conserved known phosphate-binding residues αR376 and βR182. αD350 is also in clo...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 19, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Raheem S, Steiner A, Ahmad Z Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Telmisartan ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats by modulating NF- κB signalling in the context of PPARγ agonistic activity.
Telmisartan ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats by modulating NF-κB signalling in the context of PPARγ agonistic activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2019 Jul 18;671:185-195 Authors: Saber S, Basuony M, Eldin AS Abstract Variations in Nrf-2 and NF-κB expression profiles have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC), in which an interplay between these two critical pathways has been identified. The therapeutic potential of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) for oxidative damage and inflammation has recently received considerable attention. Dextran sodium sulfate (D...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 18, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Saber S, Basuony M, Eldin AS Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Binding induced folding: Lessons from the kinetics of interaction between NTAIL and XD.
nni S Abstract Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) are a class of protein that exert their function despite lacking a well-defined three-dimensional structure, which is sometimes achieved only upon binding to their natural ligands. This feature implies the folding of IDPs to be generally coupled with a binding event, representing an interesting challenge for kinetic studies. In this review, we recapitulate some of the most important findings of IDPs binding-induced folding mechanisms obtained by analyzing their binding kinetics. Furthermore, by focusing on the interaction between the Measles virus NTAIL prote...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 18, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Toto A, Troilo F, Visconti L, Malagrinò F, Bignon C, Longhi S, Gianni S Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

A method for cost-effective and rapid characterization of engineered T7-Based transcription factors by cell-free protein synthesis reveals insights into the regulation of T7 Rna polymerase-driven expression.
Abstract The T7 bacteriophage RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) serves as a model for understanding RNA synthesis, as a tool for protein expression, and as an actuator for synthetic gene circuit design in bacterial cells and cell-free extract. T7 RNAP is an attractive tool for orthogonal protein expression in bacteria owing to its compact single subunit structure and orthogonal promoter specificity. Understanding the mechanisms underlying T7 RNAP regulation is important to the design of engineered T7-based transcription factors, which can be used in gene circuit design. To explore regulatory mechanisms for T7 RNAP-driven e...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 18, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: McManus JB, Lux MW, Murray RM, Emanuel PA Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Acute phase protein response to viral infection and vaccination.
Abstract Organisms respond in multiple ways to microbial infections. Pathogen invasion tipically triggers an inflammatory response where acute phase proteins (APP) have a key role. Pentraxins (PTX) are a family of highly conserved APP that play a part in the host defense against infection. The larger proteins of the family are simply named pentraxins, while c-reactive proteins (CRP) and serum amyloid proteins (SAA, SAP) are known as short pentraxins. Although high APP levels have been broadly associated with bacterial infections, there is a growing body of evidence revealing increased PTX, CRP and SAP expression u...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 16, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Perez L Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

HDAC3 positively regulates HE4 expression to promote ovarian carcinoma progression.
CONCLUSION: HDAC3 expression is higher in ovarian cancer and promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration. HDAC3 and HE4 binding activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, enhances ovarian cancer and promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration. PMID: 31302139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lou T, Zhuang H, Liu C, Zhang Z Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Dulaglutide inhibits high glucose- induced endothelial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Abstract Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in high glucose- induced endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dulaglutide, a newly developed glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, has been approved for the management of T2DM. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether dulaglutide possesses a protective effect against high glucose- induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results indicate that dulaglutide treatment prevented high glucose- induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonyl, as well as the...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Luo X, Hu Y, He S, Ye Q, Lv Z, Liu J, Chen X Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Heme Oxygenase-1 dictates innate - Adaptive immune phenotype in human liver transplantation.
Abstract Liver transplantation (LT) has become the standard of care for patients with end-stage liver disease and those with hepatic malignancies, while adaptive immune-dominated graft rejection remains a major challenge. Despite potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression upon innate immune-driven hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury, its role in adaptive immune cell-driven responses remains to be elucidated. We analyzed human biopsies from LT recipients (n = 55) to determine putative association between HO-1 levels and adaptive/co-stimulatory gene expression...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 9, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kadono K, Dery KJ, Hirao H, Ito T, Kageyama S, Nakamura K, Oncel D, Aziz A, Kaldas FM, Busuttil RW, Kupiec-Weglinski JW Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The ameliorative effect of angiotensin 1-7 on experimentally induced-preeclampsia in rats: Targeting the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma expression & asymmetric dimethylarginine.
This study was designed to explore the effect of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) on experimentally induced-preeclampsia in Wistar rats targeting the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma expression (PPARs-γ) & asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). 30 female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Normal pregnant (NP), preeclampsia (PE), and preeclampsia treated with Ang 1-7 (PE + Ang 1-7) groups. Reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model was induced on GD14. On GD18, protein in urine, urine volume and urinary sodium excretion were determined. On GD19, the systolic blood pressure (S...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 8, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: El-Saka MH, Madi NM, Ibrahim RR, Alghazaly GM, Elshwaikh S, El-Bermawy M Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Stabilization of Sir3 interactions by an epigenetic metabolic small molecule, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, on yeast SIR-nucleosome silent heterochromatin.
In conclusion, our results reveal the importance of AAR, indicating that it not only affects the conformational rearrangement of SIR complexes but also might function as a critical fine-tuning modulatory component of yeast silent SIR-nucleosome pre-heterochromatin by stabilizing the intermolecular interaction between Sir3 N- and C-terminal regions. PMID: 31295433 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 8, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang SH, Lee SP, Tung SY, Tsai SP, Tsai HC, Shen HH, Hong JY, Su KC, Chen FJ, Liu BH, Wu YY, Hsiao SP, Tsai MS, Liou GG Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The role of ERp44 in glucose and lipid metabolism.
In this study, we generated and characterized ERp44-/- mice. We used type 2 diabetes models and ERp44 knockout mice to show the implication of ERp44 in glucose and lipid metabolism. Knockout newborns had lower blood glucose compared to wild-type. Adult knockouts had abnormal intraperitoneal, glucose, insulin and pyruvic acid tolerance. Lipocytes were smaller and fewer in knockout mice compared to wild-type. Knockouts resisted to high-fat diet-induced obesity. ERp44 expression in white adipose tissue decreased significantly in type 2 diabetes models. Results suggest that ERp44 is closely associated with glucose and lipid me...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - July 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nyirimigabo E, Jin M, Yang Z, Wang J, Zhai K, Mao Y, Wang H, Ji G Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research