Clinical features of mtDNA-related syndromes in adulthood.
Abstract Mitochondrial diseases are the most common inheritable metabolic diseases, due to defects in oxidative phosphorylation. They are caused by mutations of nuclear or mitochondrial DNA in genes involved in mitochondrial function. The peculiarity of "mitochondrial DNA genetics rules"in part explains the marked phenotypic variability, the complexity of genotype-phenotype correlations and the challenge of genetic counseling. The new massive genetic sequencing technologies have changed the diagnostic approach, enhancing mitochondrial DNA-related syndromes diagnosis and often avoiding the need of a tissu...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: V M, F G, C S, G S, M M Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Coptisine induces autophagic cell death through down-regulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and up-regulation of ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells.
Abstract Coptisine is isoquinoline alkaloid derived from Coptidis Rhizoma and is known to have potential anti-cancer activity toward various carcinomas. Targeting autophagy is one of the main approaches for cancer therapy, but whether the anti-cancer efficacy of coptisine involves autophagy is still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of coptisine on autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells, and identified the underlying mechanism. Our results showed that coptisine increased cytotoxicity and autophagic vacuoles in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expressions of l...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 20, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim SY, Hwangbo H, Kim MY, Ji SY, Lee H, Kim GY, Kwon CY, Leem SH, Hong SH, Cheong J, Choi YH Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Calmodulin downregulation in conditional knockout HeLa cells inhibits cell migration.
Villalobo A Abstract The study of calmodulin (CaM) functions in living cells has been tackled up to date using cell-permeant CaM inhibitors or interference-RNA methods. CaM inhibitors may lack specificity and the siRNA interference approach is challenging, as all three CaM genes expressing an identical protein in mammals have to be blocked. Therefore, we recently introduced a novel genetic system using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene deletion and conditional CaM expression to study the function of CaM in HeLa cells. Here, we describe the effect of CaM downregulation on the basal and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-depende...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 18, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Alcalde J, Munk M, González-Muñoz M, Panina S, Berchtold MW, Villalobo A Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Functional analysis of whether the glycine residue of the GMN motif of the Arabidopsis MRS2/MGT/CorA-type Mg2+ channel protein AtMRS2-11 is critical for Mg2+ transport activity.
Abstract Magnesium (Mg2+) plays a critical role in many physiological processes. The AtMRS2/MGT family, which contains nine Arabidopsis genes (and two pseudogenes), belongs to a eukaryotic subset of the CorA superfamily of divalent cation transporters. AtMRS2-11/MGT10 possesses the signature GlyMetAsn sequence (the GMN motif) conserved in the CorA superfamily; however, little is known about the role of the GMN motif in AtMRS2. Direct measurement using the fluorescent dye mag-fura-2 revealed that reconstituted AtMRS2-11 mediated rapid Mg2+ uptake into proteoliposomes at extraliposomal Mg2+ concentrations of 10 and ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 17, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ishijima S, Shiomi R, Sagami I Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Linoleate diol synthase related enzymes of the human pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis.
In conclusion, a novel EAS has been found in H. capsulatum and B. dermititidis with 13S-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid as the likely physiological substrate. PMID: 33189651 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 12, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Oliw EH Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The role of interleukin-6/interleukin-6 receptor signaling in the mechanical stress-induced extracellular matrix remodelling of bladder smooth muscle.
In this study, we investigated the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on the process of mechanical stretch-induced ECM remodelling of bladder smooth muscle. To construct the bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) animal model, the female Sprague-Dawley rat's urethra was partially ligated. Besides, elevated hydrostatic pressure and mechanical stretch were applied to human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) to mimic the in vitro model. The expression of rats' inflammatory genes was analyzed using DNA microarrays. We used the quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining to detect IL-6 in rats' bladder smooth muscle ti...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 12, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: He Q, Lin Y, Liao B, Zhou L, Ai J, Jin X, Li H, Wang K Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Serum phospholipidomics reveals altered lipid profile and promising biomarkers in multiple sclerosis.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease causing disability in young adults. Alterations in metabolism and lipid profile have been associated with this disease. Several studies have reported changes in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and the profile of fatty acids, ceramides, phospholipids and lipid peroxidation products. Nevertheless, the understanding of the modulation of circulating lipids at the molecular level in multiple sclerosis remains unclear. In the present study, we sought to assess the existence of a distinctive lipid signature of multiple sclerosis using an untargeted lipidomics ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 12, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ferreira HB, Melo T, Monteiro A, Paiva A, Domingues P, Domingues MR Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The New Era for Research on Polyphenols and Food Factors.
PMID: 33189654 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 12, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Oteiza P, Toyokuni S Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Impaired collagen fibril assembly in keloids with enhanced expression of lumican and collagen V.
In this study, the differences in tissue structure, collagen ultrastructure, matrix components, mechanical properties and collagen assembling molecules between keloids and their extra-lesional skins (ELSs) were explored using histology, transmission electron microscope (TEM), qPCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics. Histological evaluation showed thinner fibers in keloids with increased contents of collagen III and proteoglycans, which were supported by TEM findings of thinner collagen fibrils and less developed D-band periodicity in keloids than in ELSs (p 
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhou B, Tu T, Gao Z, Wu X, Wang W, Liu W Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Mitochondrial stress and GDF15 in the pathophysiology of sepsis.
Abstract Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that regulate diverse cellular processes. Mitochondrial stress, including stress generated by electron transport chain defects and impaired mitochondrial proteostasis, is intimately involved in various diseases and pathological conditions. Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when an imbalanced host response to infection leads to organ dysfunction. Metabolic disturbances and impaired immune responses are implicated in the pathogenesis and development of sepsis. Given that mitochondria play central roles in cellular metabolism, mitochondrial stress ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Fujita Y, Ito M, Ohsawa I Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as a potential therapeutic target for vitiligo.
Abstract Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin which causes loss of melanocytes from the epidermis. Recently, it is demonstrated that oxidative stress (OS) plays a significant role in the immuno-pathogenesis of vitiligo. A major mechanism in the cellular defense against OS is activation of the nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1)-antioxidant responsive element (ARE) signaling pathway. Recently it has been shown that vitiligo melanocytes have impaired Nrf2-ARE signaling. A number of drugs including those known as Nrf2 activators and those known to posses...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 10, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lin X, Meng X, Song Z, Lin J Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Scaffold dependent role of the inositol 5'-phosphatase SHIP2, in regulation of oxidative stress induced apoptosis.
Abstract Cell apoptosis is an important process that occurs during development or in response to stress stimuli such as oxidative stress. The serine-threonine kinase Akt enhances survival and suppress apoptosis. SHIP2 is known as a negative regulator of Akt. In addition to its lipid 5'-phosphatase activity, SHIP2 interacts and signals as a scaffolding complex with several proteins. Several findings have pointed out a possible role of SHIP2 in apoptosis regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms behind remain unknown. Using embryonic fibroblast lacking the lipid 5'-phosphatase domain as a genetic model system an...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 9, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Azzi A Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Peroxiredoxin 1 - Multifunctional antioxidant enzyme, protects from molecular and cellular oxidative damages, increases the survival rate of animals exposed to total body irradiation.
CONCLUSION: The recombinant Prx1 can be considered as an effective radioprotector for minimizing the risks of injury of animal's body by ionizing radiation, and it could be a promising therapeutic molecule for suppression or prevention of pathological conditions accompanied or caused by oxidative stress. PMID: 33181129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 9, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sharapov MG, Gudkov SV Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

A proteomics approach to further highlight the altered inflammatory condition in Rett syndrome.
In this study, using primary dermal fibroblasts from control and RTT subjects, we performed a proteomic analysis that, together with data mining approaches, allowed us to carry out a comprehensive characterization of RTT cellular proteome. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses showed that differentially expressed proteins in RTT were mainly enriched in biological processes related to immune/inflammatory responses. Overall, by using proteomic data mining as supportive approach, our results provide a detailed insight into the molecular pathways involved in RTT immune dysfunction that, causing tissue and organ damage, ca...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 5, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cicaloni V, Pecorelli A, Cordone V, Tinti L, Rossi M, Hayek J, Salvini L, Tinti C, Valacchi G Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Intensified mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide release occurs in all brain regions, affects male as well as female Rett mice, and constitutes a life-long burden.
In conclusion, we used a reliable multi-sample cuvette-based assay on mitochondrial ROS release to perform brain-wide analyzes along the entire lifespan. Mitochondrial H2O2 release in Rett mice is intensified in all brain regions, includes hemizygous males and heterozygous females, and affects all maturational stages. Therefore, intensified mitochondrial H2O2 release seriously needs to be considered throughout RTT pathogenesis and may constitute a potential therapeutic target. PMID: 33160914 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 5, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Adebayo OL, Dewenter I, Rinne L, Golubiani G, Solomonia R, Müller M Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Effects of air pollution particles (ultrafine and fine particulate matter) on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress - Implications for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.
l T Abstract Environmental pollution is a major cause of global mortality and burden of disease. All chemical pollution forms together may be responsible for up to 12 million annual excess deaths as estimated by the Lancet Commission on pollution and health as well as the World Health Organization. Ambient air pollution by particulate matter (PM) and ozone was found to be associated with an all-cause mortality rate of up to 9 million in the year 2015, with the majority being of cerebro- and cardiovascular nature (e.g. stroke and ischemic heart disease). Recent evidence suggests that exposure to airborne particles ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 4, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Daiber A, Kuntic M, Hahad O, Delogu LG, Rohrbach S, Di Lisa F, Schulz R, Münzel T Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Cellular compartments challenged by membrane photo-oxidation.
Abstract The lipid composition of membranes impacts directly on the structure and function of the cytoplasmic as well as organelle membranes. Depending on the type of membrane, specific lipids are required to accommodate, intercalate, or pack membrane proteins to the proper functioning of the cells/organelles. Rather than being only a physical barrier that separates the inner from the outer spaces, membranes are responsible for many biochemical events such as cell-to-cell communication, protein-lipid interaction, intracellular signaling, and energy storage. Photochemical reactions occur naturally in many biologica...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 4, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tsubone TM, Martins WK, Franco MSF, Silva MN, Itri R, Baptista MS Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Erratum to "Inflammatory conditions promote a switch of oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalytic subunit isoform expression" [Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 693 (2020) 108538].
Erratum to "Inflammatory conditions promote a switch of oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalytic subunit isoform expression" [Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 693 (2020) 108538]. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2020 Nov 04;:108641 Authors: Prados MB, Sica MP, Miranda S PMID: 33160627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 4, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Prados MB, Sica MP, Miranda S Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Neferine suppresses vascular endothelial inflammation by inhibiting the NF- κB signaling pathway.
Neferine suppresses vascular endothelial inflammation by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2020 Nov 03;:108595 Authors: Zhong Y, He S, Huang K, Liang M Abstract The vascular endothelium, as the interface between the blood and the surrounding tissues, plays a pivotal role in inflammation. Neferine, which was isolated from Lotus Plumule, has many biological roles, such as antifibrotic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities. We demonstrated the role of neferine in the inhibition of pro-adhesion and pro-inflammatory responses of endothelial cells...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 3, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhong Y, He S, Huang K, Liang M Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A-induced fatty acid oxidation suppresses cell progression in gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: Our results examine that CPT1A-mediated FAO activation increases GC cell proliferation and migration, supporting that CPT1A is a useful prognostic biomarker and an attractive focus for GC. PMID: 33157102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 3, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang L, Li C, Song Y, Yan Z Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Evolution of the human mitochondrial ABCB7 [2Fe-2S](GS)4 cluster exporter and the molecular mechanism of an E433K disease-causing mutation.
Abstract Iron-sulfur cluster proteins play key roles in a multitude of cellular processes. Iron-sulfur cofactors are assembled primarily in mitochondria and are then exported to the cytosol by use of an ABCB7 transporter. It has been shown that the yeast mitochondrial transporter Atm1 can export glutathione-coordinated iron-sulfur clusters, [2Fe-2S](SG)4, providing a source of cluster units for cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly systems. This pathway is consistent with the endosymbiotic model of mitochondrial evolution where homologous bacterial heavy metal transporters, utilizing metal glutathione adducts, we...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 3, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pearson SA, Cowan JA Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

N- and S-oxygenation activity of truncated human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 and its common polymorphic variants.
Abstract Human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is a membrane-bound, phase I drug metabolizing enzyme. It is highly polymorphic with some of its variants demonstrating differences in rates of turnover of its substrates: xenobiotics including drugs as well as dietary compounds. In order to measure its in vitro activity and compare any differences between the wild type enzyme and its polymorphic variants, we undertook a systematic study using different engineered proteins, heterologously expressed in bacteria, purified and catalytically characterized with 3 different substrates. These included the full-lengt...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - November 2, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bortolussi S, Catucci G, Gilardi G, Sadeghi SJ Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Suppression of inflammatory cascades via novel cinnamic acid nanoparticles in acute hepatitis rat model.
Abstract Hepatitis was characterized by extreme inflammation and hepatocellular damage. Therefore, the current study aimed to gain insights into the modulation role of Cinnamic acid nanoparticles (CANPs) against acute hepatitis induced by d-Galactosamine and gamma radiation exposure (D-Gal/radiation) in the rat model and to suggest the implied molecular mechanism of CANPs. Acute hepatitis seriousness and the serum enzyme activities of ALT, AST, and ALP have been diminished upon oral administration of CANPs. Besides, the hepatic tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) have been significantly de...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 31, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ibrahim EA, Moawed FSM, Moustafa EM Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Metabolic interventions: A new insight into the cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract Metabolic reprogramming confers cancer cells plasticity and viability under harsh conditions. Such active alterations lead to cell metabolic dependency, which can be exploited as an attractive target in development of effective antitumor therapies. Similar to cancer cells, activated T cells also execute global metabolic reprogramming for their proliferation and effector functions when recruited to the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, the high metabolic activity of rapidly proliferating cancer cells can compete for nutrients with immune cells in the TME, and consequently, suppressing their anti-tumor...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 31, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yu T, Dong T, Eyvani H, Fang Y, Wang X, Zhang X, Lu X Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Boswellic acids and their derivatives as potent regulators of glucocorticoid receptor actions.
In this study we examined whether BA alpha and beta and certain BAs derivatives exert their actions, at least in part, through the regulation of GR activities. Applying docking analysis we found that BAs can bind stably into the deacylcortivazol (DAC) accommodation pocket of GR. Moreover we showed that certain boswellic acids derivatives induce glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation, no activation of GRE dependent luciferase gene expression, and suppression of the TNF-α induced NF-κB transcriptional activation in GR positive HeLa and HEK293 cells, but not in low GR level COS-7 cells. Furthermore, cer...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 27, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Karra AG, Tzortziou M, Kylindri P, Georgatza D, Gorgogietas VA, Makiou A, Krokida A, Tsialtas I, Kalousi FD, Papadopoulos GE, Papadopoulou KΚ, Psarra AG Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Glycoproteomic analysis identifies cryptdin-related sequence 1 as O-glycosylated protein modified with α1,2-fucose in the small intestine.
Glycoproteomic analysis identifies cryptdin-related sequence 1 as O-glycosylated protein modified with α1,2-fucose in the small intestine. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2020 Oct 27;:108653 Authors: Hashiguchi H, Tsukamoto Y, Ogawa M, Tashima Y, Takeuchi H, Nakamura M, Kawashima H, Fujishiro M, Okajima T Abstract The modification of galactose with α1,2-fucose is involved in symbiosis with intestinal bacteria and elimination of pathogenic bacteria. It is postulated that α1,2-fucosylated mucin secreted from goblet cells is involved in defending an organism against infections, but the detailed m...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 27, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hashiguchi H, Tsukamoto Y, Ogawa M, Tashima Y, Takeuchi H, Nakamura M, Kawashima H, Fujishiro M, Okajima T Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The santalene synthase from Cinnamomum camphora: Reconstruction of a sesquiterpene synthase from a monoterpene synthase.
Abstract Plant terpene synthases (TPSs) can mediate formation of a large variety of terpenes, and their diversification contributes to the specific chemical profiles of different plant species and chemotypes. Plant genomes often encode a number of related terpene synthases, which can produce very different terpenes. The relationship between TPS sequence and resulting terpene product is not completely understood. In this work we describe two TPSs from the Camphor tree Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. One of these, CiCaMS, acts as a monoterpene synthase (monoTPS), and mediates the production of myrcene, while the oth...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 26, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Di Girolamo A, Durairaj J, van Houwelingen A, Verstappen F, Bosch D, Cankar K, Bouwmeester H, de Ridder D, van Dijk ADJ, Beekwilder J Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Extracellular ATP modulates podocyte function through P2Y purinergic receptors and pleiotropic effects on AMPK and cAMP/PKA signaling pathways.
We describe a protection mechanism for the glomerular barrier linked to reduced oxidative stress and reestablished energy balance. PMID: 33122160 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Szrejder M, Rachubik P, Rogacka D, Audzeyenka I, Rychłowski M, Angielski S, Piwkowska A Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Characterization of two sugar transporters responsible for efficient xylose uptake in an oleaginous yeast Candida tropicalis SY005.
This study aims to identify and characterize sugar transporters capable of xylose uptake in an oleaginous strain of the industrially relevant yeast Candida tropicalis. In silico database mining resulted in two sugar transporter proteins- CtStp1 and CtStp2, containing conserved amino acid residues and motifs that have been previously reported to be involved in xylose transport in other organisms. Several softwares predicted the likelihood of 10-12 transmembrane (TM) helices to be present in both the Stps, while molecular modelling showed 12 TM helices that were organized into a typical structure found in the major faci...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chattopadhyay A, Singh R, Das AK, Maiti MK Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

pH-bioresponsive poly( ε-caprolactone)-based polymersome for effective drug delivery in cancer and protein glycoxidation prevention.
In this study, we propose the synthesis of a poly (ethylene oxide)-poly (ε-caprolactone)-based polymersome (PEO-PCL) loaded with GSH as a pH-responsive drug delivery molecule for cancer and protein alteration inhibition. Initially, the nanocarrier was synthesized and characterized by DLS, TEM/SEM microscopy as well as gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 1H NMR. Their CMC formation, encapsulation efficiency, and pH responsiveness were analyzed. In addition, empty and GSH-loaded PEO-PCL polymersomes were tested for their toxicity and therapeutic effect on normal and cancer cells via an MTT test. Subsequently, pro...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ghorbanizamani F, Moulahoum H, Sanli S, Bayir E, Zihnioglu F, Timur S Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Effects of overexpression of ACSL1 gene on the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes of bovine.
In this study, we used a recombinant adenovirus vector (Ad-ACSL1) to overexpress the ACSL1 gene using Ad-NC (recombinant adenovirus of green fluorescent protein) as the control. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was done to examine the gene expression associated with the synthesis of UFA, followed by the analysis of the fatty acid composition. Oil red O staining was done to examine the aggregation of lipid droplets. We found that ACSL1 overexpression was associated with an upregulated expression of PPARγ, FABP3, ACLY, SCD1, and FASN, and downregulated expression of CPT1A. Additionally, ACSL1 overexpression resulte...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhao Z, Abbas Raza SH, Tian H, Shi B, Luo Y, Wang J, Liu X, Li S, Bai Y, Hu J Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

miR-34a regulates lipid metabolism by targeting SIRT1 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with iron overload.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the existence of a link between the liver cell mitochondria and miR-34a/SIRT1 signaling. Potential endogenous modulators of NAFLD pathogenesis may ultimately provide new tools for therapeutic intervention. PMID: 33098868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang L, Sun M, Cao Y, Ma L, Shen Y, Velikanova AA, Li X, Sun C, Zhao Y Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Chinese herbal medicine promote tissue differentiation in colorectal cancer by activating HSD11B2.
CONCLUSION: The HSD11B2 protein was a key CHM target for treating colorectal cancer. The key role of CHM may lie in activating HSD11B2 and further promoting tissue differentiation in colorectal cancer. PMID: 33098869 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Qi L, Zhang Y, Song F, Ding Y Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Disruption of mitochondrial functions and oxidative stress contribute to neurologic dysfunction in organic acidurias.
Abstract Organic acidurias (OADs) are inherited disorders of amino acid metabolism biochemically characterized by accumulation of short-chain carboxylic acids in tissues and biological fluids of the affected patients and clinically by predominant neurological manifestations. Some of these disorders are amenable to treatment, which significantly decreases mortality and morbidity, but it is still ineffective to prevent long-term neurologic and systemic complications. Although pathogenesis of OADs is still poorly established, recent human and animal data, such as lactic acidosis, mitochondrial morphological alteratio...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wajner M, Vargas CR, Amaral AU Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Characterization of intra- and inter-species hybrid tetramers of pyruvate carboxylase: Biotin and the BCCP domain play a crucial role in determination of the kinetics and thermodynamics of catalysis.
Abstract The formation, kinetics and thermodynamic activation parameters of hybrid tetramers of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) formed between wild-type Rhizobium etli pyruvate carboxylase (WTRePC) and mutant forms of this enzyme, as well as between Aspergillus nidulans PC and mutant forms of RePC have been characterized in a previous study. In this current work, we aim to extend the previous study by forming hybrid tetramers between WTRePC or chicken liver PC (CLPC) with single or double mutant RePCs. By forming hybrid tetramers between WTRePC with either K1119A or ΔBCCP RePC, the biotin moiety and BCCP (biotin c...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 17, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rattanapornsompong K, Jitrapakdee S, Attwood PV Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Zika virus NS4A N-Terminal region (1-48) acts as a cofactor for inducing NTPase activity of NS3 helicase but not NS3 protease.
Abstract Among Flaviviridae, in West Nile virus (WNV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the non-structural protein NS4A modulates the NTPase activity of viral helicases during nucleic acid unwinding through its N-terminal disordered residues (1-50). In HCV, the acidic NS4A also serves as a cofactor for regulating the NS3 protease activity. However, in case of Zika virus (ZIKV), the role of NS4A and its impact on activities of NS3 helicase and protease is not known. In order to elucidate the role of NS4A, we checked the NTPase activity of NS3 helicase and protease activity of NS3 protease in presence of NS4A N-terminal ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 17, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kumar D, Kumar A, Bhardwaj T, Giri R Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Glutamate binding triggers monomerization of unliganded mGluR2 dimers.
Abstract The Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) is involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders and is an attractive drug target. It is believed to form a strict dimer and the dimeric assembly is necessary for glutamate induced activation. Although, many studies have focused on glutamate induced conformational changes, the dimerization propensity of mGluR2 with and without glutamate has never been investigated. Also, the role of the unstructured loop in dimerization of mGluR2 is not clear. Here, using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) based assays in live cells we show that mGluR2...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 16, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Singh DR, Pandey K, Mishra AK, Pandey P, Vivcharuk V Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Ablation of TMEM126B protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced injuries of PC12  cells via maintaining mitochondrial anti-apoptotic functions.
Ablation of TMEM126B protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced injuries of PC12 cells via maintaining mitochondrial anti-apoptotic functions. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2020 Oct 16;:108634 Authors: Wei L, Fan Y, Wei L, He X, Yang J, Zheng X Abstract Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is a key contributing factor to the pathogenic mechanism involved in cerebral infarction. Transmembrane protein 126b (TMEM126B), a mitochondrial complex I assembly factor, has been reported to have an intimate association with disease progression, but is little known in ischemia stroke. The present stu...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 16, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wei L, Fan Y, Wei L, He X, Yang J, Zheng X Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The phosphate moiety of phosphoenolpyruvate does NOT contribute to allosteric regulation of liver pyruvate kinase by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate ✝.
The phosphate moiety of phosphoenolpyruvate does NOT contribute to allosteric regulation of liver pyruvate kinase by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate✝. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2020 Oct 16;:108633 Authors: Chappell BM, Fenton AW Abstract A linked-function theory for allostery allows for a differentiation between those protein-ligand interactions that contribute the most to ligand binding and those protein-ligand interactions that contribute to the allosteric mechanism. This potential distinction is the basis for analogue studies used to determine which chemical moieties on the allosteric effector contribute t...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 16, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chappell BM, Fenton AW Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The possible roles of necroptosis during cerebral ischemia and ischemia / reperfusion injury.
Abstract Cell death is a process consequential to cerebral ischemia and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Recent evidence suggest that necroptosis has been involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury. The mechanism of necroptosis is initiated by an activation of inflammatory receptors including tumor necrosis factor, toll like receptor, and fas ligands. The signals activate the receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1, 3, and a mixed-lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL) to instigate necroptosis. RIPK1 inhibitor, necrostatin-1, was developed, and dramatically reduced brain injury f...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 14, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Liao S, Apaijai N, Chattipakorn N, Chattipakorn SC Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The role of MAP-kinase p38 in the m. soleus slow myosin mRNA transcription regulation during short-term functional unloading.
Abstract The unloading of postural muscles leads to the changes in myosins heavy chains isoforms (MyHCs) mRNAs transcription pattern, that cause severe alterations of muscle functioning. Several transcription factors such as NFATc1 and TEAD1 upregulate slow MyHC mRNA transcription, and p38 MAP kinase can phosphorylate NFAT and TEAD1, causing their inactivation. However, the role p38 MAP kinase plays in MyHCs mRNAs transcription regulation in postural soleus muscle during unloading remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK during rat soleus unloading would prevent the u...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sharlo KA, Mochalova EP, Belova SP, Lvova ID, Nemirovskaya TL, Shenkman BS Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Hallmarks of oxidative stress in the livers of aged mice with mild glycogen branching enzyme deficiency.
Abstract Glycogen branching enzyme (GBE1) introduces branching points in the glycogen molecule during its synthesis. Pathogenic GBE1 gene mutations lead to glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV), which is characterized by excessive intracellular accumulation of abnormal, poorly branched glycogen in affected tissues and organs, mostly in the liver. Using heterozygous Gbe1 knock-out mice (Gbe1+/-), we analyzed the effects of moderate GBE1 deficiency on oxidative stress in the liver. The livers of aged Gbe1+/- mice (22 months old) had decreased GBE1 protein levels, which caused a mild decrease in the degree of gly...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 10, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Malinska D, Testoni G, Duran J, Brudnicka A, Guinovart JJ, Duszynski J Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The Dark Side of Actin: Cardiac actin variants highlight the role of allostery in disease development.
Abstract Mutations in the α-cardiac actin ACTC1 gene cause dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These diseases are the result of changes in protein interactions between ACTC protein and force-generating β-myosin or the calcium-dependent cardiac-tropomyosin (cTm) and cardiac troponin (cTn) regulatory complex, altering the overall contractile force. The T126I and S271F ACTC variants possess amino acid substitutions on the other side of actin relative to the myosin or regulatory protein binding sites on what we call the "dark side" of actin. The T126I change results in hyposensitivity to calci...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 10, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Teng GZ, Dawson JF Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Evaluation of a conserved tryptophanyl residue in donor substrate binding and catalysis by a phenol sulfotransferase (SULT1A1).
Abstract Structural determinations of members of the sulfotransferase (SULT) family suggest a direct interaction between a conserved tryptophanyl side chain and bound 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP). We have prepared and purified mutants of the bovine SULT1A1, a very conserved homolog to the human SULT1A1, in which tryptophanyl-53 was sequentially trimmed to tyrosine, leucine, and alanine. Differential scanning fluorimetry indicated structural stabilities of the mutant proteins comparable to the wild type SULT1A1; however, less thermal stabilizations by PAP plus pentachlorophenol were observed with the muta...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 10, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Beckmann JD, Chodavarapu S, Doyle B Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

SMAGP knockdown inhibits the malignant phenotypes of glioblastoma cells by inactivating the PI3K/Akt pathway.
In conclusion, SMAGP silencing inhibited the malignant phenotypes of GBM cells by inactivating the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID: 33049294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics)
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 10, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ni H, Ji D, Huang Z, Li J Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Metabolomics in renal cell carcinoma: From biomarker identification to pathomechanism insights.
Abstract Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a frequently diagnosed cancer with high prevalence, which is inversely associated with survival benefit. Although myriad studies have shed light on disease causality, unfortunately, thus far, RCC diagnosis is faced with numerous obstacles partly due to the insufficient knowledge of effective biomarkers, hinting deeper mechanistic understanding are urgently needed. Metabolites are recognized as final proxies for gene-environment interactions and physiological homeostasis as they reflect dynamic processes that are ongoing or have been taken place, and metabolomics may therefore...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 8, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chen YY, Hu HH, Wang YN, Liu JR, Liu HJ, Liu JL, Zhao YY Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of orange juice (poly)phenols in humans: The effect of a controlled alcoholic fermentation.
ni L, Del Rio D, Mena P Abstract The consumption of orange juice provides high concentrations of health-promoting bioactive compounds, the amount of which may increase upon alcoholic fermentation. Although fermentation may offer new prospects for the industry of orange-related products, there is a lack of studies reporting the influence of controlled alcoholic fermentation on the bioavailability of orange juice (poly)phenols in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption profile, pharmacokinetic parameters, and urinary excretion of orange juice (poly)phenols in nine volunteers after acute administ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 8, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Castello F, Fernández-Pachón MS, Cerrillo I, Escudero-López B, Ortega Á, Rosi A, Bresciani L, Del Rio D, Mena P Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

The tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate inhibits NF- κB-mediated transcriptional activation by covalent modification.
The tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate inhibits NF-κB-mediated transcriptional activation by covalent modification. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2020 Oct 07;:108620 Authors: Lakshmi SP, Reddy AT, Kodidhela LD, Varadacharyulu NC Abstract Potential health benefits of consuming tea are thought to include anti-inflammatory actions of its constituent flavonoids including catechins, which are well-recognized antioxidants. We analyzed and discovered a novel mechanism by which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in tea and a putative health-promoting constituent, inhibits activatio...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lakshmi SP, Reddy AT, Kodidhela LD, Varadacharyulu NC Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Kinetic solvent viscosity effects reveal a protein isomerization in the reductive half-reaction of Neurospora crassa class II nitronate monooxygenase.
In this study, we report the first kinetic investigation of NcNMO with P3N and its conjugated acid 3-nitropropionic acid (3NPA), and a mechanistic investigation with 3NPA using kinetic solvent viscosity effects. The kcat value with P3N (300 s-1) was 7-times larger than with 3NPA and the kcat/KP3N value (1,700,000 M-1s-1) was ∼500-times larger than the kcat/K3NPA value, consistent with P3N being a faster and better substrate than 3NPA. The normalized kcat and kcat/K3NPA values showed inverse hyperbolic dependences on the relative solvent viscosity, consistent with an internal isomerization of the enzyme-substrate comp...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - October 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Vodovoz M, Gadda G Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Preferential modification of CyaA-hemolysin by CyaC-acyltransferase through the catalytic Ser30-His33 dyad in esterolysis of palmitoyl-donor substrate devoid of acyl carrier proteins.
Abstract We previously demonstrated that the ∼130-kDa CyaA-hemolysin domain (CyaA-Hly) from Bordetella pertussis co-expressed with CyaC-acyltransferase in Escherichia coli was acylated at Lys983 and thus activated its hemolytic activity. Here, attempts were made to provide greater insights into such toxin activation via fatty-acyl modification by CyaC-acyltransferase. Non-acylated CyaA-Hly (NA/CyaA-Hly) and CyaC were separately expressed in E. coli and subsequently purified by FPLC to near homogeneity. When effects of acyl-chain length were comparatively evaluated through CyaC-esterolysis using various p-nitro...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - September 30, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yentongchai M, Thamwiriyasati N, Imtong C, Li HC, Angsuthanasombat C Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research