Sleep Fosters Insight Into Real-Life Problems.
In conclusion, SRIs are much more common than might have been expected, manifest in several forms and appear to be part of normal, healthy sleep. Importantly, the strong link of SRIs with sleep mentation suggests they result from some form of higher-order information processing during sleep, rather than being (fully) secondary to general restorative effects of sleep. Finally, our findings show that a large portion of the sampled population is aware of sleep's benefits for real life problem solving and experiences such benefits on a regular basis. PMID: 30324605 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie)
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Dreaming during REM sleep: autobiographically meaningful or a simple reflection of a Hebbian-based memory consolidation process?
Authors: Voss U, Klimke A Abstract REM sleep is a state of desynchronized electrophysiological activity of the brain. It is usually accompanied by mental activity characterized by a succession of complex visual experiences commonly referred to as dreaming. Although REM sleep and dreaming are not implicitly conjoined, when they co-occur, they have a very distinct phenomenology, as, typically, the dream plot is bizarre and incohesive which is mirrored in heightened brain activation coupled with strongly attenuated coherence levels. At the same time, owing to increased limbic system activity, REM sleep dreams are high...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Hippocampal theta power pressure builds over non-REM sleep and dissipates within REM sleep episodes.
Authors: Bjorness TE, Booth V, Poe GR Abstract The theta rhythm during waking has been associated with voluntary motor activity and learning processes involving the hippocampus. Theta also occurs continuously during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where it likely serves memory consolidation. Theta amplitude builds across wakefulness and is the best indicator of the homeostatic need for non-REM (NREM) sleep. Although REM sleep is homeostatically regulated independently of NREM sleep, the drivers of REM sleep regulation are under debate. The dynamics of theta within REM sleep bouts have not been thoroughly explored. W...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The state of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep.
Authors: Bosman C, Aldunate N Abstract Wakefulness and sleep are two qualitatively different behavioral states. The mechanisms underlying these behavioral states can be traced back to the coordinated functioning of cortical microcircuits. The stereotypical activity of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep shapes a cortical state, defined as an organized neuronal network functioning across time. Cortical microcircuits are conformed by pyramidal cells and several interneurons, organized into a six-layer structure that contains well defined connections across excitatory and inhibitory cells. In this orga...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Non-REM sleep and the neural correlates of consciousness: more than meets the eyes.
Authors: Olcese U Abstract The scientific study of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has long relied on comparing conditions in which consciousness is normally present with others in which it is impaired. Brain lesions offer a unique opportunity to understand which anatomical networks are needed to sustain consciousness, but provide limited insights on the patterns of neural activity that can support conscious processing. Non-REM sleep, on the other hand, has long epitomized the typical case of a non-conscious yet fully active brain. Consequently, the differences in neural activity existing between wakef...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Neural functional correlates of emotional processing in patients with first-episode psychoses: an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: During emotional task performance, FEP patients fail to activate an extensive brain network comprising emotional processing-related areas, including both cortical and subcortical areas. PMID: 30039831 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie)
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Imitation Strategies in Callosotomized Patients.
Authors: Pierpaoli C, Foschi N, Cagnetti C, Ferrante L, Manzoni T, Polonara G, Fabri M Abstract Imitation is a human ability rooted in early life. It allows people to interact with each other by observing and reproducing simple and complex movements alike. Imitation can occur in at least two forms: the rst, de ned as anatomical, seems to be based primarily on the mental construct of the "body schema" because the imitating movement corresponds precisely to the imitated movement in bodily terms, but not in terms of spatial compatibility. For example, a right arm movement of a model is imitated with a right ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Serotonin Transporter (SERT) in Platelets of Patients with Mild Huntington's Disease: Relationships with Social Cognition Symptoms.
Authors: Betti L, Palego L, Unti E, Mazzucchi S, Kiferle L, Palermo G, Bonuccelli U, Giannaccini G, Ceravolo R Abstract Deficits in social-cognition processing have been identified during early stages of Huntington Disease (HD), attracting interest on their relevance as possible predictors of  neurodegenerative progression. Since the neurotrophin Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) are known to modulate human adaptive behavior, we appraised these two proteins in mild-HD using blood platelets, with the aim at finding relationships with cognitive/psychosocial skil...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Contextual fear conditioning modulates the gene expression over time.
Authors: Federighi G, Traina G, Bernardi R, Baldi E, Bucherelli C, Scuri R Abstract Contextual fear conditioning (CFC) is a quick cognitive test based on the association context-aversive stimulus in which a single training leads to a long-term memory. Previously, we showed that 2 days after conditioning the expression of the genes Napa, Pnf2, Casp3, Pdrg1, Ywhaz, Stmn1, Bpgm, were positively modulated in CFC rats respect to naïve rats, explor rats which had freely explored the experimental apparatus and SO rats to which the same number of aversive shocks used in CFC paradigm had been administered in the same C...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

X-ray micro-computed tomography of postmortem brain tissue using potassium dichromate as a contrast agent.
Authors: Herrera M, Notario B, Barrio MC, Metscher BD, Murillo Gonzalez J Abstract No abstract available. PMID: 30039835 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie)
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Alzheimer's Disease: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
CONCLUSIONS: Standardized protocols, larger and more rigorous RCTs with long-term follow-ups may provide better insight into the effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deterioration characterizing people with AD. PMID: 30039836 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie)
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Claimed effects, outcome variables and methods of measurement for health claims proposed under regulation (EC) 1924/2006 and related to cognitive function in adults.
Authors: Martini D, Innocenti A, Cosentino C, Bedogni G, Zavaroni I, Ventura M, Galli D, Mirandola P, Vitale M, Dei Cas A, Bonadonna RC, Passeri G, Pruneti C, Del Rio D Abstract Some food/food components have been the object of request of authorization to the use of health claims related to cognitive function in adults and compliant with the Regulation (EC) 1924/2006. Most of the requests have received a negative opinion by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) also because of the choice of not appropriate outcome variables (OVs) and methods of measurement (MMs) selected in the trials used to substantiate the c...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The emerging picture of ALS: a multisystem, not only a "motor neuron disease.
The emerging picture of ALS: a multisystem, not only a "motor neuron disease. Arch Ital Biol. 2017 Dec 01;155(4):99-109 Authors: Silani V, Ludolph A, Fornai F Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons: compelling evidence points now towards additional involvement of extramotor functions. Beside the cognitive-behavioural disturbances, many ALS patients express extrapyramidal deficits: neuropathological findings fully support the multisystem brain degeneration. The therapeutical option to treat the multisystemic character o...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Next Generation Sequencing and ALS: known genes, different phenotyphes.
Authors: Campopiano R, Ryskalin L, Giardina E, Zampatti S, Busceti CL, Biagioni F, Ferese R, Storto M, Gambardella S, Fornai F Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is fatal neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction resulting in rapidly progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure. Most cases appear to be sporadic, but 5-10 % of cases have a family history of the disease, and over the last decade, identification of mutations in about 20 genes predisposing to these disorders has provided the means to better understand their pathogenesis. Next Ge...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Are there endogenous stem cells in the spinal cord?
Authors: Ferrucci M, Ryskalin L, Busceti CL, Gaglione A, Biagioni F, Fornai F Abstract Neural progenitor cells (NPC) represent the stem-like niche of the central nervous system that maintains a regenerative potential also in the adult life. Despite NPC in the brain are well documented, the presence of NPC in the spinal cord has been controversial for a long time. This is due to a scarce activity of NPC within spinal cord, which also makes difficult their identification. The present review recapitulates the main experimental studies, which provided evidence for the occurrence of NPC within spinal cord, with a specia...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Cross-talk between pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegeneration: the role of oxidative stress in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Authors: Chico L, Modena M, Lo Gerfo A, Ricci G, Caldarazzo Ienco E, Ryskalin L, Fornai F, Siciliano G Abstract The mechanisms underlying motoneuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the motor system with progressive paralysis, are complex and not yet fully understood. It is generally agreed that ALS is a multifactorial and multisystem disease due not only possibly to genetic causes but also to other factors like oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, RNA dysmetabolism, autophagy, and excitotoxicity glutamate-mediate. Altered ox...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Imaging techniques in ALS.
Authors: Zaccagna F, Lucignani G, Raz E, Colonnese C Abstract Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of both upper and lower motor neuron located in the spinal cord and brainstem. Diagnosis of ALS is predominantly clinical, nevertheless, electromyography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may provide support. Several advanced MRI techniques have been proven useful for ALS diagnosis and, indeed, the combination of different MRI techniques demonstrated an improvement in sensitivity and specificity as far as 90%. This review focus on the imaging t...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The multisystem degeneration amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - neuropathological staging and clinical translation.
Authors: Verde F, Del Tredici K, Braak H, Ludolph A Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons. However, much evidence points towards additional involvement of brain systems other than the motor. As much as half of ALS patients display cognitive-behavioral disturbances. ALS shares with a considerable proportion of FTD cases the same neuropathological substrate, namely, inclusions of abnormally phosphorylated protein TDP-43 (pTDP-43). In analogy with pathological staging systems elaborated in the past decades for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Therapy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): an unexpected evolving scenario.
Authors: Silani V Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in increasing disability, being uniformly fatal. Since its approval in the 1990s, riluzole remained for long time the unique treatment, offering modest survival benefit. Most recently a second drug has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of ALS: edaravone. Significant advances have been made in the symptomatic management of the disease but more effective drug therapy targeting disease progression is still dreadfully needed, the success appearing almost a miracle. Recent ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Revisiting the gamma loop in ALS.
Authors: Limanaqi F, Gambardella S, Lazzeri G, Ferrucci M, Ruggieri S, Fornai F Abstract Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fast progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle denervation, weakening and atrophy, which eventually culminates into death, mainly due to respiratory failure. The traditional view of ALS as a disorder affecting selectively motor neurons throughout the central nervous system has been progressively dispelled by innumerous lines of evidence indicating that other cells but motor neurons may be affected as well. Remarkably, this disorder is not limited to the motor system b...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Protective effects of long-term lithium administration in a slowly progressive SMA mouse model.
Authors: Biagioni F, Ferrucci M, Ryskalin L, Fulceri F, Lazzeri G, Calierno MT, Busceti CL, Ruffoli R, Fornai F Abstract In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of lithium administration to a knock-out double transgenic mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN1A2G+/-; SMN2+/+) of Spinal Muscle Atrophy type III (SMA-III). This model is characterized by very low levels of the survival motor neuron protein, slow disease progression and motor neuron loss, which enables to detect disease-modifying effects at delayed time intervals. Lithium administration attenuates the decrease in motor activity and provides full protec...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Structural modeling of altered CLCN1 conformation following a novel mutation in a patient affected by autosomal dominant myotonia congenita (Thomsen disease).
Authors: Ferese R, Albano V, Falconi M, Iacovelli F, Campopiano R, Scala S, Griguoli AM, Gaglione A, Giardina E, Zampatti S, Storto M, Fornai F, D'Alessio C, Novelli G, Gambardella S PMID: 29405036 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie)
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

A descriptive analysis of sleep and wakefulness states during maternal behaviors in postpartum rats.
Authors: Benedetto L, Rivas M, Pereira M, Ferreira A, Torterolo P Abstract Mother rats spend most of their time nursing their litter during the early stages of the postpartum period, only occasionally leaving the nest. The suckling stimulus from the pups elicits the adoption of nursing postures, during which milk ejection occurs, an event associated with the occurrence of non-REM (NREM) sleep in the rat. Despite this evidence, the characteristics of sleep during different nursing postures along the postpartum period remain unknown. The present study aims to describe the sleep pattern of mother rats while nursing, h...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

A small dose of apomorphine counteracts the deleterious effects of middle cerebral artery occlusion in different models.
Authors: Mastroiacovo F, Gaglione A, Busceti CL, Ryskalin L, Bozza G, Nicoletti F, Orzi F, Fornai F Abstract The present manuscript investigates in two animal species by using two different experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (permanent and transient), the neuroprotective effects of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. These effects were evaluated by measuring the infarct volume and by counting muscle strength at different time points following the ischemic insult. Apomorphine at the dose of 3 mg/Kg when adminsitered at two hours following the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was ab...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The nature of catecholamine-containing neurons in the enteric nervous system in relationship with organogenesis, normal human anatomy and neurodegeneration.
Authors: Natale G, Ryskalin L, Busceti CL, Biagioni F, Fornai F Abstract The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells. This is finalized to ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Silver nano particles ameliorate learning and spatial memory of male Wistar rats by prevention of amyloid fibril-induced neurotoxicity.
Authors: Ramshini H, Moghaddasi AS, Aldaghi LS, Mollania N, Ebrahim-Habibi A Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative disease characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which results into memory and learning impairments. In the present study, we showed that the aggregates formed by a protein that has no link with Alzheimer's disease, namely the hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), were cytotoxic and decreased spatial learning and memory in rats. The effect of Ag-nano particles (Ag-NPs) was investigated on disruption of amyloid aggregation and preservation of co...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Neural correlates of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a combined neurophysiological and neuroimaging approach (R1).
Authors: Russo M, Calamuneri A, Cacciola A, Bonanno L, Naro A, Dattola V, Sessa E, Buccafusca M, Milardi D, Bramanti P, Calabrò RS, Quartarone A Abstract The present study is aimed at further exploring structural and functional correlates of fatigue in Relapsing- Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients by using a combined approach by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and a Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The physiopathology of fatigue in MS is still poorly understood, although a variety of pathogenic mechanisms has been proposed. Our working hypothesis is that diffuse microstructural whit...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Physical Exercise Improves Total Antioxidant Capacity and Gene Expression in Rat Hippocampal Tissue.
In this study 3-5-month-old male Wistar albino rats were subjected to three times/week moderate intensity exercise on a rodent treadmill for a period of 6 weeks. The tissue antioxidant activity towards various reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined in the hippocampus. In addition, to identify the molecular pathways that may be involved in ROS metabolism, the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and sirtuins (SIRT1 and SIRT3) were measured. Our results showed a higher antioxidant activity in the hippocampus of physically trained rats compared to sedentary controls. Furthermore, exercise induced an up-regulation of ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Physical exercise and oxidative stress in muscular dystrophies: is there a good balance?
Authors: Chico L, Ricci G, Cosci O Di Coscio M, Simoncini C, Siciliano G Abstract The effect of oxidative stress on muscle damage inducted by physical exercise is widely debated. It is generally agreed that endurance and intense exercise can increase oxidative stress and generate changes in antioxidant power inducing muscle damage; however, regular and moderate exercise can be beneficial for the health improving the antioxidant defense mechanisms in the majority of cases. Growing evidences suggest that an increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several muscular dystrophies (MDs). N...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Lifestyle, Physical Activity and Cognitive Functions: the impact on the scores of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa).
Authors: Innocenti A, Cammisuli DM, Sgromo D, Franzoni F, Fusi J, Galetta F, Pruneti C Abstract The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a rapid screening tool, including subtests to assess several cognitive domains, developed to detect MCI from normal ageing cognitive changes. Several validation and normative studies have conducted around the world considering the influences of age and education on the MoCA score, but none takes into account the lifestyle and habits. However, lifestyles, and particularly physical activity (PA) have been positively associated with both physical and mental health in elderly. The ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Influence of physical exercise on β-amyloid, α-synuclein and tau accumulation: an in vitro model of oxidative stress in human red blood cells.
Influence of physical exercise on β-amyloid, α-synuclein and tau accumulation: an in vitro model of oxidative stress in human red blood cells. Arch Ital Biol. 2017 Jul 01;155(1-2):33-42 Authors: Iofrida C, Daniele S, Pietrobono D, Fusi J, Galetta F, Trincavelli ML, Bonuccelli U, Franzoni F, Martini C Abstract A common pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders (NDs), such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases, is the abnormal accumulation and misfolding of specific proteins, primarily α-synuclein (α-syn), β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ) and tau, in brain and in ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The proposal of a clinical protocol to assess central and peripheral fatigue in myotonic dystrophy type 1.
In this study, we investigated the dimensions of experienced fatigue and  physiological fatigue in a sample of 26 DM1 patients (17 males, 9 females, mean age 41.6 years, SD±12.7); experienced fatigue has been studied through Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and physiological fatigue was measured through an intermittent incremental exercise of the forearm muscles using a myometer; oxidative stress balance markers trend during aerobic exercise test have been collected. The occurrence of central fatigue in the sample means that central activation worsens during the motor contraction; interestingly FSS score was signi...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Authors: Cammisuli DM, Innocenti A, Franzoni F, Pruneti C Abstract Several studies have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy older adults without cognitive complains but lesser is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of aerobic exercise upon cognition in MCI patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Dreamlike events are correlated with the length of sleep mentation reports.
Authors: Rosenlicht N, Primich C, McQuaid JR, Maloney T, Feinberg I Abstract We investigated the relationship between length and dreamlike quality in sleep mentation reports. Reports were obtained by waking subjects at sleep onset (SO) and at 5 and 10 minutes into the second (REMP2) and fourth REM periods (REMP4). Reports were recorded, transcribed, and scored blindly for total word count (TWC) and dreamlike quality as measured by a composite dream scale score (CDS). Dreamlike quality was strongly correlated with TWC; both CDS and TWC scores increased across successively later awakenings. Significant differences we...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Ultrastructural study of the neural microcircuits in the sensory epithelium of the paratympanic organ of the chicken.
Authors: Giannessi F, Ryskalin L, Ruffoli R Abstract The paratympanic organ (PTO) is a sensory organ located in the medial wall of the tympanic cavity of birds. The organ looks like a small tapering vesicle, and is equipped with a sensory epithelium formed by supporting cells (SCs) and Type II hair cells (Type II-HCs). The function of the PTO has not yet been precisely defined. The prevailing current hypothesis is that the PTO assesses the air pressure exerted on the external surface of the tympanic membrane. The PTO could may thus function as a barometer and, in flying birds, also as an altimeter. The afferent syn...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Methamphetamine increases Prion Protein and induces dopamine-dependent expression of protease resistant PrPsc.
Authors: Ferrucci M, Ryskalin L, Biagioni F, Gambardella S, Busceti CL, Falleni A, Lazzeri G, Fornai F Abstract The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is physiologically expressed within selective brain areas of mammals. Alterations in the secondary structure of this protein lead to scrapie-like prion protein (PrPsc), which precipitates in the cell. PrPsc has been detected in infectious, inherited or sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Prion protein metabolism is dependent on autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome. Despite not being fully elucidated, the physiological role of prion protein relates to chaperones which resc...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Brain connectivity is altered by extreme physical exercise during non-REM sleep and wakefulness: indications from EEG and fMRI studies.
Authors: Menicucci D, Gentili C, Piarulli A, Laurino M, Pellegrini S, Mastorci F, Bedini R, Montanaro D, Sebastiani L, Gemignani A Abstract Brain connectivity is associated to behavioral states (e.g. wake, sleep) and modified by physical activity although, to date, it is not clear which components (e.g. hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, cytokines) associated to the exercise are involved. In this pilot study, we used extreme exercise (UltraTriathlon) as a model to investigate physical-activity-related changes of brain connectivity. We studied post-race brain synchronization during wakefulness and sleep a...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Electrocortical spectral analysis and fractal methods for assessing the effects of unilateral brain injury on rat cerebellum.
Authors: Martac LD, Sekulic S, Cvijanovic M Abstract We used electrocortical spectral analysis and fractal methods for assessing the effects of unilateral, single brain injury on cerebellum. Cerebellar electrocortical activity was recorded in control state (before the injury) and after a single brain injury of the cerebellar cortex in anesthetized rats. We noticed that the mean power in gamma high-frequency domain (32-128 Hz) of the cerebellum, was increased after the first brain injury, while after a two-week recovery, it was larger than before the injury. The unilateral brain injury induced a permanent increase o...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Evaluation of functional outcome measured by modified Rankin scale in rtPA treated patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Authors: Georgievski-Brkic B, Savic M, Nikolic D, Nikcevic L, Vukicevic M, Kozic D Abstract Aim of our study was to assess functional outcome measured by modified Rankin scale (mRS) in patients that were treated with thrombolytic therapy-recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) after acute ischemic stroke. The study included 100 participants that were treated after acute ischemic stroke. Analyzed parameters included: gender; age groups: age 54 and below (Groupup to-54), 55-64 (Group55-64), 65-74 (Group65-74), and 75 and above (Group75-up); cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Considerin...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Injection of Toll-like receptor 4 siRNA into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent rats.
Authors: Liu QF, Li L, Guo YQ, Li X, Mou ZD, Wang X, Du GZ Abstract We assessed the role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) region of morphine-dependent rats on attenuating withdrawal syndrome, and regulating glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), glutamic acid (Glu), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). After siRNA-mediated downregulation of TLR4, changes were observed in withdrawal behavior and downstream signaling molecules. Rats were injected into the vlPAG with TLR4 siRNA, followed by intraperitoneal injection of morphine for 5 consecutive days, and then nalox...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Further evidence of a prolonged hypotensive and a bradycardic effect after mandibular extension in normal volunteers.
Authors: Del Seppia C, Ghione S, Foresi P, Fommei E, Lapi D, Colantuoni A, Scuri R Abstract We previously reported that in normotensive humans submaximal mouth opening (mandibular extension) obtained by an ad hoc dilator (spring device), associated with partial masticatory movements and prolonged for 10 minutes is followed by a long-lasting reduction of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Similar results were obtained by us in anesthetized rats. A recent independent study failed to confirm the results in the normotensive human. We reassessed, in 25 normotensive volunteers, the effects on BP and HR of mandibula...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Serotonin modifies the spontaneous spiking activity of gracile nucleus neurons in rats: role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.
Authors: Grasso C, Li Volsi G, Barresi M Abstract We tested the effects of microiontophoretic application of serotonin (5-HT) on the firing rate of neurons located in the gracile nucleus (GN) of rats. Application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 agonists and antagonists respectively mimicked/ modulated and blocked the effects produced by the amine, respectively. Among the tested neurons, 88.2% modified their background firing activity in the presence of 5-HT. Responsive neurons decreased their mean firing activity (MFA) in 56.7% of cases and increased it in the remaining 43.3%. To ascertain the specificity of the effects induce...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Harm aversion explains utilitarian choices in moral decision-making in males but not in females.
Authors: Rota G, Palumbo S, Lattanzi N, Manfrinati A, Sarlo M, Lotto L, Pietrini P, Rumiati R, Pellegrini S Abstract In recent years, a great deal of research has relied on hypothetical sacrificial dilemmas to investigate decision-making processes involved in pro-social utilitarian choices. Recent evidence, however, has suggested that moral sacrificial choices may actually reflect reduced harm aversion and antisocial dispositions rather than an utilitarian inclination. Here, we used moral dilemmas to confront healthy volunteers with controversial action choices. We measured impulsiveness and venturesomeness persona...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Long lasting musical training modifies language processing: a Dichotic Fused Word Test study.
Authors: Sebastiani L, Castellani E Abstract Musical training modifies neural areas associated with both music and language and enhances speech perception and discrimination by engaging the right hemisphere regions classically associated with music processing. On these bases we hypothesized that participants with extended musical training could have reduced left-hemisphere dominance for speech. In order to verify this hypothesis, two groups of right-handed individuals, one with long-term musical training and one with no musical training, participated to a Dichotic Fused Word Test consisting in the simultaneous pres...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Cortical excitability in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone compared to patients with hypothyroidism and euthyroid controls: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.
In this study we investigated whether adult thyroid hormone resistance affects cortical excitability and modulates inhibitory and excitatory intracortical circuitries by using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Cortical excitability was probed with transcranial magnetic stimulation in 4 patients with thyroid hormone resistance, 10 patients affected by overt hypothyroidism (OH) and 10 age-matched healthy controls. We tested motor thresholds, motor evoked potential recruitment curve, cortical silent period (CSP), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation. In both OH and RTH patients, the i...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

A Statistical Proposal for Selecting a Data-depending Threshold in Neurobiology.
Authors: Finotelli P, Panzica F, Dulio P, Rotondi F, Varotto G Abstract In this paper we propose a new methodology for introducing thresholds in the analysis of neuro- biological databases. Often, in Neuroscience, absolute thresholds are adopted. This is done by cutting the data below (or above) predetermined values of the involved parameters, without an analysis of the distribution of the collected data concerning the phenomenon under investigation. Despite an absolute threshold could be rigorously defined in terms of physic parameters, it can be influenced by many different subjective aspects, including cognitive...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Idiopathic Hypersomnia: a pilot study.
Authors: Galbiati A, Abutalebi J, Iannaccone S, Borsa VM, Musteata S, Zucconi M, Giora E, Ferini-Strambi L Abstract Idiopathic Hypersomnia (IH) is a rare sleep disorder characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) that leads to invalidating daytime consequences. Till now the treatment of IH has mirrored that of sleepiness in narcolepsy, and it is mainly focused on symptoms' management. We employed an anodal transcranic Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) treatment in order to induce a shift toward arousal in IH patients' cortex during the day. Every patients underwent a 4 weeks treatment (3 stimulations per we...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - August 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Administration of copper reduced the hyper-excitability of neurons in CA1 hippocampal slices from epileptic rats.
The objective of this work is to determine whether Cu perfusion can perturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices derived from pilocarpine treated epileptic rats. Field potential (FP) recordings of the CA1 neurons of rats with chronic epilepsy showed voltage and response duration decrease following copper sulfate perfusion. However, voltage and response duration were higher after removing copper by washing. The discharge frequency of the CA1 neurons of hippocampal slices from non-epileptic control rats was increased after acute perfusion of 10 μM of pilocarpine. This increase was blocked by administering copper su...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - August 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Maternal Care Determinant of Longevity?
Authors: Giorgio M, Renzi C, Oliveri S, Pravettoni G Abstract Maternal care is an essential early environment in mammals that ensures emotional regulation and adaptive fitness of progeny. Longevity and healthy aging are associated with favorable environmental factors including fitting social and behavioral features. In the present review, we discuss the findings that link rearing conditions and early maternal care with life span and aging from an evolutionary, psychological, and molecular perspective. The quality of maternal care may influence internal adaptation through a variety of parallel mechanisms including e...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - August 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Neuroscience Evidence for Economic Humanism in Management Science: Organizational Implications and Strategy.
Authors: Lattanzi N, Menicagli D, Dal Maso L Abstract Globalization phenomena and Information Communication Technology (ICT) are producing deep changes worldwide. The economic environment and society where firms both cooperate and compete with each other are rapidly changing leading firms towards recognizing the role of intangible resources as a source of fresh competitive advantage. Experience, innovation and the ability to create new knowledge completely arise from the act of human resources inviting firms to focus on how to generate and shape knowledge. Therefore, the future of firms depends greatly on how manag...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - August 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research