Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

A descriptive analysis of sleep and wakefulness states during maternal behaviors in postpartum rats.
Authors: Benedetto L, Rivas M, Pereira M, Ferreira A, Torterolo P Abstract Mother rats spend most of their time nursing their litter during the early stages of the postpartum period, only occasionally leaving the nest. The suckling stimulus from the pups elicits the adoption of nursing postures, during which milk ejection occurs, an event associated with the occurrence of non-REM (NREM) sleep in the rat. Despite this evidence, the characteristics of sleep during different nursing postures along the postpartum period remain unknown. The present study aims to describe the sleep pattern of mother rats while nursing, h...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

A small dose of apomorphine counteracts the deleterious effects of middle cerebral artery occlusion in different models.
Authors: Mastroiacovo F, Gaglione A, Busceti CL, Ryskalin L, Bozza G, Nicoletti F, Orzi F, Fornai F Abstract The present manuscript investigates in two animal species by using two different experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (permanent and transient), the neuroprotective effects of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. These effects were evaluated by measuring the infarct volume and by counting muscle strength at different time points following the ischemic insult. Apomorphine at the dose of 3 mg/Kg when adminsitered at two hours following the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was ab...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The nature of catecholamine-containing neurons in the enteric nervous system in relationship with organogenesis, normal human anatomy and neurodegeneration.
Authors: Natale G, Ryskalin L, Busceti CL, Biagioni F, Fornai F Abstract The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells. This is finalized to ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Silver nano particles ameliorate learning and spatial memory of male Wistar rats by prevention of amyloid fibril-induced neurotoxicity.
Authors: Ramshini H, Moghaddasi AS, Aldaghi LS, Mollania N, Ebrahim-Habibi A Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative disease characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which results into memory and learning impairments. In the present study, we showed that the aggregates formed by a protein that has no link with Alzheimer's disease, namely the hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), were cytotoxic and decreased spatial learning and memory in rats. The effect of Ag-nano particles (Ag-NPs) was investigated on disruption of amyloid aggregation and preservation of co...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Neural correlates of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a combined neurophysiological and neuroimaging approach (R1).
Authors: Russo M, Calamuneri A, Cacciola A, Bonanno L, Naro A, Dattola V, Sessa E, Buccafusca M, Milardi D, Bramanti P, Calabrò RS, Quartarone A Abstract The present study is aimed at further exploring structural and functional correlates of fatigue in Relapsing- Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients by using a combined approach by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and a Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The physiopathology of fatigue in MS is still poorly understood, although a variety of pathogenic mechanisms has been proposed. Our working hypothesis is that diffuse microstructural whit...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Physical Exercise Improves Total Antioxidant Capacity and Gene Expression in Rat Hippocampal Tissue.
In this study 3-5-month-old male Wistar albino rats were subjected to three times/week moderate intensity exercise on a rodent treadmill for a period of 6 weeks. The tissue antioxidant activity towards various reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined in the hippocampus. In addition, to identify the molecular pathways that may be involved in ROS metabolism, the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and sirtuins (SIRT1 and SIRT3) were measured. Our results showed a higher antioxidant activity in the hippocampus of physically trained rats compared to sedentary controls. Furthermore, exercise induced an up-regulation of ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Physical exercise and oxidative stress in muscular dystrophies: is there a good balance?
Authors: Chico L, Ricci G, Cosci O Di Coscio M, Simoncini C, Siciliano G Abstract The effect of oxidative stress on muscle damage inducted by physical exercise is widely debated. It is generally agreed that endurance and intense exercise can increase oxidative stress and generate changes in antioxidant power inducing muscle damage; however, regular and moderate exercise can be beneficial for the health improving the antioxidant defense mechanisms in the majority of cases. Growing evidences suggest that an increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several muscular dystrophies (MDs). N...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Lifestyle, Physical Activity and Cognitive Functions: the impact on the scores of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa).
Authors: Innocenti A, Cammisuli DM, Sgromo D, Franzoni F, Fusi J, Galetta F, Pruneti C Abstract The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a rapid screening tool, including subtests to assess several cognitive domains, developed to detect MCI from normal ageing cognitive changes. Several validation and normative studies have conducted around the world considering the influences of age and education on the MoCA score, but none takes into account the lifestyle and habits. However, lifestyles, and particularly physical activity (PA) have been positively associated with both physical and mental health in elderly. The ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Influence of physical exercise on β-amyloid, α-synuclein and tau accumulation: an in vitro model of oxidative stress in human red blood cells.
Influence of physical exercise on β-amyloid, α-synuclein and tau accumulation: an in vitro model of oxidative stress in human red blood cells. Arch Ital Biol. 2017 Jul 01;155(1-2):33-42 Authors: Iofrida C, Daniele S, Pietrobono D, Fusi J, Galetta F, Trincavelli ML, Bonuccelli U, Franzoni F, Martini C Abstract A common pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders (NDs), such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases, is the abnormal accumulation and misfolding of specific proteins, primarily α-synuclein (α-syn), β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ) and tau, in brain and in ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The proposal of a clinical protocol to assess central and peripheral fatigue in myotonic dystrophy type 1.
In this study, we investigated the dimensions of experienced fatigue and  physiological fatigue in a sample of 26 DM1 patients (17 males, 9 females, mean age 41.6 years, SD±12.7); experienced fatigue has been studied through Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and physiological fatigue was measured through an intermittent incremental exercise of the forearm muscles using a myometer; oxidative stress balance markers trend during aerobic exercise test have been collected. The occurrence of central fatigue in the sample means that central activation worsens during the motor contraction; interestingly FSS score was signi...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Authors: Cammisuli DM, Innocenti A, Franzoni F, Pruneti C Abstract Several studies have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy older adults without cognitive complains but lesser is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of aerobic exercise upon cognition in MCI patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic ...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Dreamlike events are correlated with the length of sleep mentation reports.
Authors: Rosenlicht N, Primich C, McQuaid JR, Maloney T, Feinberg I Abstract We investigated the relationship between length and dreamlike quality in sleep mentation reports. Reports were obtained by waking subjects at sleep onset (SO) and at 5 and 10 minutes into the second (REMP2) and fourth REM periods (REMP4). Reports were recorded, transcribed, and scored blindly for total word count (TWC) and dreamlike quality as measured by a composite dream scale score (CDS). Dreamlike quality was strongly correlated with TWC; both CDS and TWC scores increased across successively later awakenings. Significant differences we...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Ultrastructural study of the neural microcircuits in the sensory epithelium of the paratympanic organ of the chicken.
Authors: Giannessi F, Ryskalin L, Ruffoli R Abstract The paratympanic organ (PTO) is a sensory organ located in the medial wall of the tympanic cavity of birds. The organ looks like a small tapering vesicle, and is equipped with a sensory epithelium formed by supporting cells (SCs) and Type II hair cells (Type II-HCs). The function of the PTO has not yet been precisely defined. The prevailing current hypothesis is that the PTO assesses the air pressure exerted on the external surface of the tympanic membrane. The PTO could may thus function as a barometer and, in flying birds, also as an altimeter. The afferent syn...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Methamphetamine increases Prion Protein and induces dopamine-dependent expression of protease resistant PrPsc.
Authors: Ferrucci M, Ryskalin L, Biagioni F, Gambardella S, Busceti CL, Falleni A, Lazzeri G, Fornai F Abstract The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is physiologically expressed within selective brain areas of mammals. Alterations in the secondary structure of this protein lead to scrapie-like prion protein (PrPsc), which precipitates in the cell. PrPsc has been detected in infectious, inherited or sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Prion protein metabolism is dependent on autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome. Despite not being fully elucidated, the physiological role of prion protein relates to chaperones which resc...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - July 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Brain connectivity is altered by extreme physical exercise during non-REM sleep and wakefulness: indications from EEG and fMRI studies.
Authors: Menicucci D, Gentili C, Piarulli A, Laurino M, Pellegrini S, Mastorci F, Bedini R, Montanaro D, Sebastiani L, Gemignani A Abstract Brain connectivity is associated to behavioral states (e.g. wake, sleep) and modified by physical activity although, to date, it is not clear which components (e.g. hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, cytokines) associated to the exercise are involved. In this pilot study, we used extreme exercise (UltraTriathlon) as a model to investigate physical-activity-related changes of brain connectivity. We studied post-race brain synchronization during wakefulness and sleep a...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Electrocortical spectral analysis and fractal methods for assessing the effects of unilateral brain injury on rat cerebellum.
Authors: Martac LD, Sekulic S, Cvijanovic M Abstract We used electrocortical spectral analysis and fractal methods for assessing the effects of unilateral, single brain injury on cerebellum. Cerebellar electrocortical activity was recorded in control state (before the injury) and after a single brain injury of the cerebellar cortex in anesthetized rats. We noticed that the mean power in gamma high-frequency domain (32-128 Hz) of the cerebellum, was increased after the first brain injury, while after a two-week recovery, it was larger than before the injury. The unilateral brain injury induced a permanent increase o...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Evaluation of functional outcome measured by modified Rankin scale in rtPA treated patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Authors: Georgievski-Brkic B, Savic M, Nikolic D, Nikcevic L, Vukicevic M, Kozic D Abstract Aim of our study was to assess functional outcome measured by modified Rankin scale (mRS) in patients that were treated with thrombolytic therapy-recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) after acute ischemic stroke. The study included 100 participants that were treated after acute ischemic stroke. Analyzed parameters included: gender; age groups: age 54 and below (Groupup to-54), 55-64 (Group55-64), 65-74 (Group65-74), and 75 and above (Group75-up); cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Considerin...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Injection of Toll-like receptor 4 siRNA into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent rats.
Authors: Liu QF, Li L, Guo YQ, Li X, Mou ZD, Wang X, Du GZ Abstract We assessed the role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) region of morphine-dependent rats on attenuating withdrawal syndrome, and regulating glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), glutamic acid (Glu), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). After siRNA-mediated downregulation of TLR4, changes were observed in withdrawal behavior and downstream signaling molecules. Rats were injected into the vlPAG with TLR4 siRNA, followed by intraperitoneal injection of morphine for 5 consecutive days, and then nalox...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Further evidence of a prolonged hypotensive and a bradycardic effect after mandibular extension in normal volunteers.
Authors: Del Seppia C, Ghione S, Foresi P, Fommei E, Lapi D, Colantuoni A, Scuri R Abstract We previously reported that in normotensive humans submaximal mouth opening (mandibular extension) obtained by an ad hoc dilator (spring device), associated with partial masticatory movements and prolonged for 10 minutes is followed by a long-lasting reduction of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Similar results were obtained by us in anesthetized rats. A recent independent study failed to confirm the results in the normotensive human. We reassessed, in 25 normotensive volunteers, the effects on BP and HR of mandibula...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Serotonin modifies the spontaneous spiking activity of gracile nucleus neurons in rats: role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.
Authors: Grasso C, Li Volsi G, Barresi M Abstract We tested the effects of microiontophoretic application of serotonin (5-HT) on the firing rate of neurons located in the gracile nucleus (GN) of rats. Application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 agonists and antagonists respectively mimicked/ modulated and blocked the effects produced by the amine, respectively. Among the tested neurons, 88.2% modified their background firing activity in the presence of 5-HT. Responsive neurons decreased their mean firing activity (MFA) in 56.7% of cases and increased it in the remaining 43.3%. To ascertain the specificity of the effects induce...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Harm aversion explains utilitarian choices in moral decision-making in males but not in females.
Authors: Rota G, Palumbo S, Lattanzi N, Manfrinati A, Sarlo M, Lotto L, Pietrini P, Rumiati R, Pellegrini S Abstract In recent years, a great deal of research has relied on hypothetical sacrificial dilemmas to investigate decision-making processes involved in pro-social utilitarian choices. Recent evidence, however, has suggested that moral sacrificial choices may actually reflect reduced harm aversion and antisocial dispositions rather than an utilitarian inclination. Here, we used moral dilemmas to confront healthy volunteers with controversial action choices. We measured impulsiveness and venturesomeness persona...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Long lasting musical training modifies language processing: a Dichotic Fused Word Test study.
Authors: Sebastiani L, Castellani E Abstract Musical training modifies neural areas associated with both music and language and enhances speech perception and discrimination by engaging the right hemisphere regions classically associated with music processing. On these bases we hypothesized that participants with extended musical training could have reduced left-hemisphere dominance for speech. In order to verify this hypothesis, two groups of right-handed individuals, one with long-term musical training and one with no musical training, participated to a Dichotic Fused Word Test consisting in the simultaneous pres...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Cortical excitability in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone compared to patients with hypothyroidism and euthyroid controls: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.
In this study we investigated whether adult thyroid hormone resistance affects cortical excitability and modulates inhibitory and excitatory intracortical circuitries by using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Cortical excitability was probed with transcranial magnetic stimulation in 4 patients with thyroid hormone resistance, 10 patients affected by overt hypothyroidism (OH) and 10 age-matched healthy controls. We tested motor thresholds, motor evoked potential recruitment curve, cortical silent period (CSP), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation. In both OH and RTH patients, the i...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

A Statistical Proposal for Selecting a Data-depending Threshold in Neurobiology.
Authors: Finotelli P, Panzica F, Dulio P, Rotondi F, Varotto G Abstract In this paper we propose a new methodology for introducing thresholds in the analysis of neuro- biological databases. Often, in Neuroscience, absolute thresholds are adopted. This is done by cutting the data below (or above) predetermined values of the involved parameters, without an analysis of the distribution of the collected data concerning the phenomenon under investigation. Despite an absolute threshold could be rigorously defined in terms of physic parameters, it can be influenced by many different subjective aspects, including cognitive...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - December 6, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Idiopathic Hypersomnia: a pilot study.
Authors: Galbiati A, Abutalebi J, Iannaccone S, Borsa VM, Musteata S, Zucconi M, Giora E, Ferini-Strambi L Abstract Idiopathic Hypersomnia (IH) is a rare sleep disorder characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) that leads to invalidating daytime consequences. Till now the treatment of IH has mirrored that of sleepiness in narcolepsy, and it is mainly focused on symptoms' management. We employed an anodal transcranic Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) treatment in order to induce a shift toward arousal in IH patients' cortex during the day. Every patients underwent a 4 weeks treatment (3 stimulations per we...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - August 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Administration of copper reduced the hyper-excitability of neurons in CA1 hippocampal slices from epileptic rats.
The objective of this work is to determine whether Cu perfusion can perturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices derived from pilocarpine treated epileptic rats. Field potential (FP) recordings of the CA1 neurons of rats with chronic epilepsy showed voltage and response duration decrease following copper sulfate perfusion. However, voltage and response duration were higher after removing copper by washing. The discharge frequency of the CA1 neurons of hippocampal slices from non-epileptic control rats was increased after acute perfusion of 10 μM of pilocarpine. This increase was blocked by administering copper su...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - August 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Maternal Care Determinant of Longevity?
Authors: Giorgio M, Renzi C, Oliveri S, Pravettoni G Abstract Maternal care is an essential early environment in mammals that ensures emotional regulation and adaptive fitness of progeny. Longevity and healthy aging are associated with favorable environmental factors including fitting social and behavioral features. In the present review, we discuss the findings that link rearing conditions and early maternal care with life span and aging from an evolutionary, psychological, and molecular perspective. The quality of maternal care may influence internal adaptation through a variety of parallel mechanisms including e...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - August 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Neuroscience Evidence for Economic Humanism in Management Science: Organizational Implications and Strategy.
Authors: Lattanzi N, Menicagli D, Dal Maso L Abstract Globalization phenomena and Information Communication Technology (ICT) are producing deep changes worldwide. The economic environment and society where firms both cooperate and compete with each other are rapidly changing leading firms towards recognizing the role of intangible resources as a source of fresh competitive advantage. Experience, innovation and the ability to create new knowledge completely arise from the act of human resources inviting firms to focus on how to generate and shape knowledge. Therefore, the future of firms depends greatly on how manag...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - August 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Reelin induces process growth in cultured astrocytes: Implication for glia-synaptic plasticity.
Authors: Brunkhorst R, Bock H, Derouiche A Abstract Short Communication. PMID: 27168410 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie)
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - May 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Detection, Distribution and Amount of Posttranslational α-Tubulin Modifications in Immortalized Rat Schwann Cells.
Detection, Distribution and Amount of Posttranslational α-Tubulin Modifications in Immortalized Rat Schwann Cells. Arch Ital Biol. 2015 Dec 1;153(4):255-265 Authors: Gadau SD Abstract Microtubules (MTs), heterodimers of α- and β-tubulin, are involved in different cellular processes including mitosis, cell motility, intracellular transport, cell shape and polarization. In most eukaryotes tubulins, especially the α, are subjected to several post-translational modifications (PTMs) which include acetylation, tyrosination, detyrosination, Δ2 modification, polyglutamylation, that...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - May 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Intraperitoneal Administration of Low Dose Aluminium in The Rat: How Good is It to Produce a Model for Alzheimer Disease.
In this study, we looked at the neuropathology of Al and the characteristic lesions of AD by histological and immunohistochemical techniques and determined oxidative stress markers in the brains of Al-treated and control rats. We also made electrophysiological recordings at the hippocampus and evaluated possible behavioural changes by Morris water maze test. However, no pathologic changes occurred in the animals except for an impairment in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus (e.g. the LTPs of population spike (PS) amplitude at 15 min post-tetanus were measured as 217±27% in Al-treated rats and as 240&plu...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - May 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

A Mathematical Model for Evaluating the Functional Connectivity Strongness in Healthy People.
Authors: Finotelli P, Dulio P Abstract The human brain is a really complex organization of connectivity whose principal elements are neurons, synapses and brain regions. Up to now this connectivity is not fully understood, and recent impulse in investigating its structure has been given by Graph Theory. However, some points remain unclear, mainly due to possible mismatching between the Mathematical and the Neuroscientific approach. It is known that neural connectivity is classified into three categories: structural (or anatomical) connectivity, functional connectivity and effective connectivity. The point is that t...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - May 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Recent developments in automatic scoring of rodent sleep.
Authors: Bastianini S, Berteotti C, Gabrielli A, Lo Martire V, Silvani A, Zoccoli G Abstract Sleep research carried out on rat and mouse model led to the publication of more than 5000 papers in the last 15 years, of which more than 500 in 2014. Wake-sleep scoring represents a crucial step of the work performed in pre- clinical sleep laboratories; it is a time consuming task and a potential source of errors affecting research outcomes. Several algorithms have been developed to perform automatic sleep scoring. Automatic scoring can accelerate the work of researchers substantially. Moreover, the use of sleep scoring a...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Wake-sleep, thermoregulatory, and autonomic effects of cholinergic activation of the lateral hypothalamus in the rat: a pilot study.
In conclusion, the results of this work show that the arousal elicited by LH disinhibition by GABAzine is concomitant with autonomic responses set by the intervention of cold-defense mechanisms. Since the same response is elicited at a lower level by CBL administration, the hypothesis of an involvement of cholinoceptive ORX neurons in its generation is discussed. PMID: 26742661 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie)
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

High amplitude theta wave bursts: a novel electroencephalographic feature of rem sleep and cataplexy.
Authors: Lo Martire VC, Bastianini S, Berteotti C, Silvani A, Zoccoli G Abstract High amplitude theta wave bursts (HATs) were originally described during REMS and cataplexy in ORX-deficient mice as a novel neurophysiological correlate of narcolepsy (Bastianini et al., 2012). This finding was replicated the following year by Vassalli et al. in both ORX-deficient narcoleptic mice and narcoleptic children during cataplexy episodes (Vassalli et al., 2013). The relationship between HATs and narcolepsy-cataplexy in mice and patients indicates that the lack of ORX peptides is responsible for this abnormal EEG activity, th...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Slow cortical rhythms: from single-neuron electrophysiology to whole-brain imaging in vivo.
Authors: Olcese U, Faraguna U Abstract The slow cortical oscillation is the major brain rhythm occurring during sleep, and has been the object of thorough investigation for over thirty years. Despite all these efforts, the function and the neuronal mechanisms behind slow cortical rhythms remain only partially understood. In this review we will provide an overview of the techniques available for the in vivo study of slow cortical oscillations in animal models. Our goal is to provide an up to date resource for the selection of the best experimental strategies to study specific aspects of slow oscillations. We will co...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Sleep to grow smart?
Authors: Volk C, Huber R Abstract Sleep is undisputable an essential part of our life, if we do not sleep enough we feel the consequences the next day. The importance of sleep for healthy brain functioning has been well studied in adults, but less is known for the role of sleep in the paediatric age. Childhood and adolescence is a critical phase for brain development. The increased need for sleep during this developmental phase fosters the growing recognition for a central role of sleep during development. In this review we summarize the findings that demonstrate a close relationship between sleep and brain maturat...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The assessment of somatosensory cortex plasticity during sleep deprivation by paired associative stimulation.
Authors: Gorgoni M, Ferlazzo F, D'Atri A, Lauri G, Ferrara M, Rossini PM, De Gennaro L Abstract Many animal studies suggest that during sleep deprivation (SD) synaptic strength should progressively increase, leading to the saturation of the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Nevertheless, direct evidences about the effects of sustained wakefulness on cortical plasticity in humans are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in the ability to induce LTP-like mechanism in humans during a period of SD by means of a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol, which combines medi...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Frequency-dependent effects of oscillatory-tDCS on EEG oscillations: a study with Better OSCillation detection method (BOSC).
Authors: D'Atri A, De Simoni E, Gorgoni M, Ferrara M, Ferlazzo F, Rossini PM, De Gennaro L Abstract Oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (osc-tDCS) modulates the spontaneous brain activity in a frequency-specific manner. Most studies evaluated cortical effects of osc-tDCS through spectral measures, without differentiating components associated with rhythmic and non-rhythmic activity. Since osc-tDCS mainly affects brain oscillatory activity, our aim was to investigate on the specific changes of EEG oscillations following a frontal osc-tDCS at 0.8 and at 5 Hz. 20 healthy subjects (26.8 ± 2.5 yea...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Linking Sleep Slow Oscillations with consciousness theories: new vistas on Slow Wave Sleep unconsciousness.
Authors: Gemignani A, Menicucci D, Laurino M, Piarulli A, Mastorci F, Sebastiani L, Allegrini P Abstract We review current models of consciousness in the context of wakefulness and sleep. We show that recent results on Slow Wave Sleep, including our own works, naturally fit within consciousness models. In particular, Sleep Slow Oscillations, namely low-frequency (
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Pediatric insomnia: new insights in clinical assessment and treatment options.
Authors: Bruni O, Angriman M Abstract Sleep disorders in children can compromise quality of life of both children and families and chronic sleep deprivations is associated with poorer developmental outcome, overweight and behavioral disturbances. Clinicians should incorporate questions about sleep into their routine health assessment, and the assessment of insomnia should follow a medical approach primary and secondary contributing factors should be assessed, as well as maladaptive behaviors related to sleep. A careful examination of sleep/wake schedule, abnormal movements or behavior during sleep, and daytime cons...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Respiratory sleep disorders in Jeune syndrome: a case description.
CONCLUSION: It can be hypothesized that the combination of altered respiratory and cardiac frequency is related to central type of sleep respiratory disorders consequent to C1 compression, while the obstructive minor component is related to thoracic restrictive disorders. Full night lab-polygraphy is recommended in dysmorphic skeletal disorders like JS. PMID: 26742669 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie)
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Effect of ethylic alcohol on attentive functions involved in driving abilities.
Authors: Bivona U, Garbarino S, Rigon J, Buzzi MG, Onder G, Matteis M, Catani S, Giustini M, Mancardi GL, Formisano R Abstract The burden of injuries due to drunk drivers has been estimated only indirectly. Indeed, alcohol is considered one of the most important contributing cause of car crash injuries and its effect on cognitive functions needs to be better elucidated. Aims of the study were i) to examine the effect of alcohol on attentive abilities involved while driving, and ii) to investigate whether Italian law limits for safe driving are sufficiently accurate to prevent risky behaviours and car crash risk whi...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

The association between restless legs syndrome, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases: hypotheses and evidence from the literature.
Authors: Zanigni S, Calandra-Buonaura G, Giannini G, Tonon C, Cortelli P, Provini F Abstract The association between RLS and both CVRFs, such as hypertension and diabetes, and CVDs still remains elusive. Although several shared physiopathological causes could explain these possible relationships, the emerging body of literature focusing on these disorders remains controversial. The reasons for these inconsistent findings are mainly due to the different methodologies applied. First, considering that RLS, CVRFs and CVDs are influenced by age and sex, many clinical and population-based studies performed a selection bi...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Restless legs syndrome/Willis Ekbom disease: new diagnostic criteria according to different nosology.
Authors: Marelli S, Galbiati A, Rinaldi F, Giora E, Oldani A, Ferini Strambi L, Zucconi M Abstract Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) is a common neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the legs, with an urge to move. The symptoms typically begin or worsen during periods of rest, in particular during the evening and at night, while the activity may typically relieve them. The majority of patients complains of poor sleep. Recent studies reported the prevalence is ranging from 5 to 10%. RLS/WED can be divided into primary (patients without associated c...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Can sleep microstructure improve diagnosis of OSAS? Integrative information from CAP parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the RERA scoring has a limited accuracy in the detection of FL events. In NREM sleep, CAP rules provided more information than AASM arousal for the definition of respiratory events and sleep alterations in OSAS. PMID: 26742673 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie)
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Sleep disorders in menopause: results from an Italian Multicentric Study.
Authors: Fabbrini M, Aricà I, Tramonti F, Condurso R, Carnicelli L, De Rosa A, Di Perri C, Bonsignore MR, Zito A, Russo G, Pagliarulo MG, Guarnieri B, Cerroni G, Mennuni G, Della Marca G, Bonanni E, Silvestri R Abstract Menopause in the female life cycle is a special period due to important hormonal, physical and psychological changes. Sleep disruption represents a common complaint for midlife and menopausal women, related to primary sleep disorders, including insomnia, sleep disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome (RLS), mood and anxiety disorder, other medical illness, hormonal-related vasomotor sympt...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

NREM sleep transient events in fronto-temporal dementia: beyond sleep stage architecture.
Authors: Maestri M, Carnicelli L, Economou NT, Bonakis A, Paparrigopoulos T, Papageorgiou ST, Giorgi FS, Di Coscio E, Tognoni G, Ferri R, Bonuccelli U, Bonanni E Abstract Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is increasingly becoming recognized as a major cause of early onset (
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Sleep disturbances and cognitive decline: recommendations on clinical assessment and the management.
Authors: Guarnieri B, Cerroni G, Sorbi S Abstract In 2004, in Genoa (Italy), the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) was born. The first congress of this new scientific society took place in Rome in 2006. SINDem soon recognized the importance to investigate sleep problems in cognitive decline and created a national "sleep study group "composed by neurologists and sleep specialists. In 2012, The SINDem study group, in close relationship with the Italian Association of sleep medicine (AIMS), published the study "Prevalence of sleep disturbances in mild cognitive impairment and dementing diso...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research

Subjective hypnotic efficacy of Trazodone and Mirtazapine in patients with chronic insomnia: a retrospective, comparative study.
Authors: Savarese M, Carnicelli M, Cardinali V, Mogavero MP, Federico F Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of two sedating antidepressants, trazodone and mirtazapine, for the treatment of chronic insomnia. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients received trazodone or mirtazapine for at least three months at the dosage that was effective in the titration period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with chronic insomnia, referred to the Sleep Disorder Center of Bari, diagnosed as chronic insomniacs according to ICSD-3 diagnostic criteria, with or without dysthymic disorder according to D...
Source: Archives Italiennes de Biologie - January 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Arch Ital Biol Source Type: research