Ketogenic diet in combination with voluntary exercise impacts markers of hepatic metabolism and oxidative stress in male and female Wistar rats
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Ketogenic diets (KDs) are shown to benefit hepatic metabolism; however, their effect on the liver when combined with exercise is unknown. We investigated the effects of a KD versus a “western” diet (WD) on markers of hepatic lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in exercising rats. Male and female Wistar rats with access to voluntary running wheels were randomized to 3 groups (n = 8–14 per group): standard chow (SC; 17% fat), WD (42% fat), or KD (90.5% fat) for 7 weeks. Bo dy fat percentage (BF%) was increased in WD and KD versus SC, althoug...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - December 7, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Mary P. Moore Rory P. Cunningham Taylor J. Kelty Luigi R. Boccardi Nhu Y. Nguyen Frank W. Booth R. Scott Rector Source Type: research

Note of appreciation / Note de reconnaissance
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism,Volume 44, Issue 12, Page iii-vi, December 2019. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - December 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

β-Cell compensation concomitant with adaptive endoplasmic reticulum stress and β-cell neogenesis in a diet-induced type 2 diabetes model
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells adapt to obesity-related insulin resistance via increases in insulin secretion and β-cell mass. Failed β-cell compensation predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanisms of β-cell compensation are not fully understood. Our previous study reported changes in β-cell mass during the progression of T2D in the Nile rat (NR; Arvicanthis niloticus) fed standard chow. In the present study, we measured other β-cell adaptive responses, including glucose metabolism and β-cell i...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - November 28, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Hui Huang Kaiyuan Yang Rennian Wang Woo Hyun Han Sharee Kuny Paula Horn Zelmanovitz Yves Sauv é Catherine B. Chan Source Type: research

High doses of sodium nitrate prior to exhaustive exercise increases plasma peroxynitrite levels in well-trained subjects: randomized, double-blinded, crossover study
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of pre-workout sodium nitrate supplementation on nitric oxide, peroxynitrite levels, and performance parameters. Ten well-trained male subjects participated in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover study. They ingested 8, 16, and 24 mmol sodium nitrate or placebo (NaCl) dissolved in water at 2.5 h before an incremental exercise test. Respiratory gases (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory exchange ratio) were measured throughout the exercise trials and 3 blood sampl...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - November 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Farhad Gholami Leila Rahmani Fatemeh Amirnezhad Khadijeh Cheraghi Source Type: research

Irritable bowel syndrome is underdiagnosed and ineffectively managed among endurance athletes
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of IBS among endurance athletes and examine their GI symptom management strategies. A previously validated, online questionnaire assessed IBS diagnosis, the meeting of IBS diagnostic criteria (Rome III or Manning), general GI symptoms, and symptom mitigation strategies of endurance athletes. The questionnaire was distributed to United States athletes completing a marathon, ultra-marathon, half-distance triathlon, or full-distance triathlon. Medically diagnosed IBS was reported by 2.8% of endurance athletes. The total prevalence of IBS (n = 430) was 9.8% (medical...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - November 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Lauren A. Killian Soo-Yeun Lee Source Type: research

Preventive effects of l-glutamine on gestational fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy: involvement of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Gestational fructose exposure has detrimental health consequences on both the maternal and fetus or offspring in the early or later life, contributing to epidemic rise in cardiometabolic syndrome including cardiac events. l-Glutamine has been shown to mitigate cardiac metabolic stress. However, the effect of l-glutamine on cardiac hypertrophy induced by gestational fructose exposure is not known. We therefore hypothesized that l-glutamine would prevent gestational fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy, possibly by suppression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - November 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Kehinde Samuel Olaniyi Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Is V ̇O2 supressed during nonapnoeic facial submersion?
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - November 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Sarah Anderson Maggie R. Chamberlain Samantha Musgrove Antonia Partusch Keagan R.J. Tice David B. Thorp Source Type: research

The effect of preventive exercise on the neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Parkinson ’s disease is characterized by neurodegeneration and learning deficiency. Physical exercise can alleviate these symptoms by increasing the expression of some effective and relevant factors. The preventive effect of 16-week treadmill running in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, before 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) induction, was assessed. Experimental groups consisted of sedentary (SED), SED+6-OHDA, exercised (EX), and EX+6-OHDA rats. Forty-eight hours after the last session of exercise, 6-OHDA was injected into the medial forebrain bundl...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - November 6, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Zeinab Rezaee Sayed Mohammad Marandi Hojjatallah Alaei Fahimeh Esfarjani Source Type: research

Association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and coffee consumption among Korean adults: results from the Health Examinees study
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the frequency and quantity of coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Health Examinees study. A total of 130  420 participants (43 682 men and 86 738 women) were included in our study. Coffee consumption was categorized into 5 categories (0,
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - October 30, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Sangah Shin Jiyeon Lim Hwi-Won Lee Claire E. Kim Seong-Ah Kim Jong-koo Lee Daehee Kang Source Type: research

Is the 2019 Canada ’s Food Guide Snapshot nutritionally adequate?
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. This analysis assessed the nutrient content of foods depicted in Canada ’s Food Guide Snapshot. Nutrient contents per 2000 kcal were initially assessed by comparison to Daily Values (DVs). For essential nutrients provided in amounts90%. Novelty Canadians who consume foods as depicted in the Food Guide Snapshot are likely to fall below dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - October 28, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Susan I. Barr Source Type: research

Proceedings of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology 52nd Annual General Meeting / Actes du 52e congr ès annuel de la Société canadienne de physiologie de l’exercice
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism,Volume 44, Issue 10 (Suppl. 2), Page S55-S120, October 2019. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - October 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effect of short-term, high-intensity exercise training on human skeletal muscle citrate synthase maximal activity: single versus multiple bouts per session
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. The legs of 9 men (age 21 ± 2 years, 45 ± 4 mL/(kg·min)) were randomly assigned to complete 6 sessions of high-intensity exercise training, involving either one or four 5-min bouts of counterweighted, single-leg cycling. Needle biopsies from vastus lateralis revealed that citrate synthase maximal activity increased after training in the 4-bout group (p = 0.035) but not the 1-bout group (p = 0.10), with a significant difference between groups post-training (13%, p = 0.021). Novelty Short-term training using brief intense exercise requires ...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - October 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Martin J. MacInnis Lauren E. Skelly F. Elizabeth Godkin Brian J. Martin Thomas R. Tripp Mark A. Tarnopolsky Martin J. Gibala Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Coenzyme Q10 does not improve peripheral insulin sensitivity in statin-treated men and women: the LIFESTAT study
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - October 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Anja Birk Kuhlman Thomas Morville Tine Lovs ø Dohlmann Maria Hansen Bo Kelly J ørn Wulff Helge Flemming Dela Source Type: research

Reply to “Discussion of ‘Blood pressure levels among Indigenous children living at different altitudes’”
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism,Volume 44, Issue 10, Page 1123-1123, October 2019. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - September 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Valeria Hirschler Source Type: research

Discussion of “Blood pressure levels among Indigenous children living at different altitudes”
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism,Volume 44, Issue 10, Page 1121-1122, October 2019. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - September 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: GuanYang Kang Source Type: research

Effect of exercise intensity on circulating hepatokine concentrations in healthy men
This study investigated whether exercise intensity modulates the hepatokine response to acute exercise. Ten young, healthy men undertook three 8-h experimental trials: moderate-intensity exercise (MOD; 55% peak oxygen uptake), high-intensity exercise (HIGH; 75% peak oxygen uptake), and control (CON; rest), in a randomised, counterbalanced order. Exercise trials commenced with a treadmill run of varied duration to match gross exercise energy expenditure between trials (MOD vs HIGH; 2475 ± 70 vs 2488 ± 58 kJ). Circulating FGF21, follistatin, LECT2, glucagon, insulin, glucose and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA)...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - August 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Scott A. Willis Jack A. Sargeant Alice E. Thackray Thomas Yates David J. Stensel Guruprasad P. Aithal James A. King Source Type: research

Intermittent sequential pneumatic compression does not enhance whole-body heat loss in elderly adults during extreme heat exposure
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Lower-limb intermittent sequential pneumatic compression (ISPC) improves circulation and vascular function in elderly adults. We evaluated the hypothesis that ISPC would also augment whole-body heat loss (WBHL) in elderly adults (aged 69 ± 4 years) resting in extreme heat (40 °C). While ISPC increased mean arterial pressure (91 ± 9 mm Hg) relative to no-ISPC (83 ± 5 mm Hg; P = 0.013) at the end of the exposure, no influence on WBHL was observed (81 ± 7 and 86 ± 11 W for ISPC and no-ISPC, respectively, P = 0.310). Novelty...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - August 9, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Andrew W. D ’Souza Sean R. Notley Robert D. Meade Glen P. Kenny Source Type: research

Total body skeletal muscle mass and diet in children aged 6 –8 years: ANIVA Study
This study provides values of SMM for children. Children’s adherence to a Mediterranean diet was not related to total SMM. At the same time, the consumption of excess calories or overeating is associated with SMM, with those children overeating more having lower SMM values. The differences in the intake of the other macro- and micronutrients were not associated with children’s SMM. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - August 7, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Maria Morales-Suarez-Varela Isabel Peraita-Costa Carlos Guillamon Escudero Agustin Llopis-Morales Agustin Llopis-Gonzalez Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes prevalence among Canadian adults — dietary habits and sociodemographic risk factors
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Patients with diagnosed diabetes receive recommendations by their healthcare providers about lifestyle modification, particularly on diet. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diagnosed diabetes, undetected (undiagnosed) type 2 diabetes, and prediabetes of Canadian adults, and to evaluate whether individuals with diagnosed diabetes have different dietary intakes compared with the other groups. We used nationally representative data from Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 and 2 (n = 6807, representing estimated population of 23...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - August 6, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Zeinab Hosseini Susan J. Whiting Hassan Vatanparast Source Type: research

No longer beeting around the bush: a review of potential sex differences with dietary nitrate supplementation
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Over the last decade there has been substantial interest in the health and athletic performance benefits associated with acute and chronic dietary nitrate (NO3 –) supplementation. Dietary NO3–, commonly found in leafy green and root vegetables, undergoes sequential reduction to nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) via the enterosalivary circulation. Importantly, NO has been shown to elicit a number of biological effects ranging from blood pressure reduction t o improved exercise economy and athletic performance. However, a common absence within biologica...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - July 26, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Kate A. Wickham Lawrence L. Spriet Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory burden of brass neck coils placed on Kayan Karen long-neck women of Thailand
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. There is only scarce information regarding the physiological and health impact of lifelong wearing of the neck brass coils in Karen Kayan women. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of wearing brass neck coils on cardiorespiratory and cerebrovascular functions in long-neck Karen women. A total of 28 Karen women (aged 23 –66 years) were studied. Fourteen Karen women who had been wearing neck brass coils were compared with 14 Karen women with no neck coils. We also studied 14 age-matched city-living controls. Radiographic examination o...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - July 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Pattawan Lapo Nakarin Inmutto Hirofumi Tanaka Daroonwan Suksom Source Type: research

Shear stress and flow-mediated dilation in the normoxic and hypoxic human
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. The endothelium is a single cell layer that plays a critical role in determining the health and function of blood vessels. Endothelial function is shaped by shear stress, the frictional force exerted by the speed of blood flow, and the thickness (viscosity) of the blood. Exposure to shear stress that reverses direction back-and-forth impairs endothelial function in young men. Whether women are equally susceptible to this perturbation and the isolated impact of a low level of shear stress with and without reversal of shear had not been investigated. Hypoxia, t...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - July 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Joshua C. Tremblay Source Type: research

Oleic acid-induced perilipin 5 expression and lipid droplets formation are regulated by the PI3K/PPAR α pathway in HepG2 cells
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Perilipin 5 (Plin5), a member of the PAT (Perilipin, ADRP, and Tip47) protein family, has been implicated in the regulation of cellular neutral lipid accumulation in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms of Plin5 are not clear. The goal of the present study was to explore the mechanism of oleic acid (OA)-induced Plin5 expression in HepG2 cells. We found that the expression of Plin5 was increased during OA-induced lipid droplets formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. During this process of OA-stimulated lipid...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - July 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Wenxia Zhong Bin Fan Huiying Cong Tianyu Wang Jianqiu Gu Source Type: research

Erratum: Effects of citrus leaf extract on aortic vascular reactivity in hypertensive rats fed repeatedly heated vegetable oil
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism,Volume 44, Issue 7, Page 804-804, July 2019. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - June 25, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Hawa Nordin Siti Yusof Kamisah Suhaila Mohamed Kamsiah Jaarin Source Type: research

Diet quality and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among South Asians in Alberta
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. South Asians have a higher prevalence of early onset cardiovascular disease risk compared with other populations. Dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dietary patterns in immigrants and successive generations of South Asians settled in Western countries undergo adaptions. Little is known about the dietary intake of South Asians in Alberta, thus the objective of the present study was to describe the dietary patterns among South Asians and their risks for cardiovascular diseases. A retrospective analysis of data collected from ...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - June 7, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Fatheema B. Subhan Catherine B. Chan Source Type: research

Physical activity and its association with psychosocial health following bariatric surgery
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Physical activity (PA) helps sustain weight loss and may also provide psychological benefits in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Using a set of questionnaires, we demonstrated that bariatric patients with increased level of PA at 1-year follow-up had better psychosocial outcomes including depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life compared with those who had reduced or unchanged level of PA. Our findings indicate the benefit of incorporating PA in the postoperative care for bariatric patients. Novelty Postoperative behavioural change ...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - June 4, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Melinda Maggisano Azusa Maeda Allan Okrainec Susan Wnuk Sanjeev Sockalingam Timothy Jackson Source Type: research

Optimizing foods for special dietary use in Canada: key outcomes and recommendations from a tripartite workshop
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Many health conditions result in unique nutritional requirements (e.g., protein restriction, low energy, fortification) and the need to consume foods in nontraditional formats (e.g., liquid diets, supplements, tube feeding). In Canada, 45% of hospital patients are malnourished upon admission, resulting in prolonged hospital stays, increased health care costs, and higher mortality rates. Fortunately, advances in nutrition and food science enabled the development of products that provide nutritional support for individuals in hospital and at home. In Canada, th...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - June 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Ashleigh K.A. Wiggins Andrea Grantham G. Harvey Anderson Source Type: research

Wendy Ward, new Co-Editor for Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism,Volume 44, Issue 6, Page iii-iii, June 2019. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - May 30, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Associations of CYP24A1 copy number variation with vitamin D deficiency and insulin secretion
In this study, we aimed at investigating the association between copy number of CYP24A1 and the concentration of insulin. Included in the study were 1528 rural people from Henan Province of China. The copy number of CYP24A1 and the concentrations of serum 25(OH) vitamin D3 and insulin were determined. Association between copy number of CYP24A1 and vitamin D deficiency was investigated with logistic regression model. Correlation between copy number of CYP24A1 and serum insulin was observed by Spearman correlation. The results suggested that copy number variation of CYP24A1 was associated with vitamin D deficiency. Higher co...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - May 21, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Xing Li Chenling Qu Yan Wang Zhenxing Mao Chongjian Wang Wenjie Li Songcheng Yu Source Type: research

Metabolic equivalents of body weight resistance exercise with slow movement in older adults using indirect calorimetry
We examined the metabolic equivalents (METs) of body weight resistance exercise with slow movement in older adults using indirect calorimetry. Thirteen men and 7 women (mean age, 70.8 ± 4.8 years) participating in this study performed 4 exercises (squat, knee push-up, crunch, and heel-raise). Squat was categorized as 3.6 to 3.8 METs, whereas knee push-up, crunch, and heel-raise were categorized as 2.1 to 3.2 METs based on aerobic energy expenditure. Those values are comparable w ith those of younger adults. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - May 21, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Takashi Nakagata Yosuke Yamada Hisashi Naito Source Type: research

Cycling performed on an innovative ergometer at different intensities –durations in men: neuromuscular fatigue and recovery kinetics
This study investigated the etiology of knee extensors (KE) NM fatigue and recovery kinetics in response to cycling exercises by assessing NM function as early as 10 s following cycling and up to 8 min of recovery. Ten young males performed different cycling exercises on different days: a Wingate (WING), a 10-min task at severe-intensity (SEV), and a 90-min task at moderate-intensity (MOD). Electrically evoked and isometric maximal voluntary contractions (IMVC) of KE were assessed before, after, and during recovery. SEV induced the highest decrease in IMVC. Peak twitch (Pt) was more reduced in WING and SEV than in MOD (p
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - May 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Renata L. Kr üger Saied Jalal Aboodarda Libia Marcela Jaimes Pierre Samozino Guillaume Y. Millet Source Type: research

Understanding exercise-dependent plasticity of motoneurons using intracellular and intramuscular approaches
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Spinal motoneurons (MN) exhibit exercise-dependent adaptations to increased activity, such as exercise and locomotion, as well as decreased activity associated with disuse, spinal cord injury, and aging. The development of several experimental approaches, in both human and animal models, has contributed significantly to our understanding of this plasticity. The purpose of this review is to summarize how intracellular recordings in an animal model and motor unit recordings in a human model have, together, contributed to our current understanding of exercise-de...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - May 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Duane C. Button Jayne M. Kalmar Source Type: research

Associations of weather conditions with adolescents ’ daily physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration
This study investigated the associations of weather conditions with physical activity (PA), sedentary time (ST), and sleep duration in a sample of 740 Hong Kong adolescents (mean age: 14.7 ± 1.6 years). The activPAL was used to assess the time spent during moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), ST, and sleep. Weather data (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, rainfall amount, and sunlight duration) were obtained from the Hong Kong Observatory. Linear mixed models were constructed to examin e the associations of weather conditions with the durations of MVPA, ST, and sleep on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. The ana...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - May 7, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Chen Zheng Wendy Yajun Huang Stephen Heung-Sang Wong Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Canadian Nutrition Society: Scientific Abstracts from the 10th Annual Scientific Meeting / Soci été canadienne de nutrition: Résumés scientifiques de la 10e réunion scientifique annuelle
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - May 6, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of β-hydroxybutyrate treatment on glycogen repletion and its related signaling cascades in epitrochlearis muscle during 120 min of postexercise recovery
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. We investigated the effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), the most abundant type of ketone body in mammals, on postexercise glycogen recovery in skeletal muscle by using an in vitro experimental model. Male ICR mice swam for 60 min and then their epitrochlearis muscles were removed and incubated with either physiological levels of glucose (8 mmol/L) and insulin (60 μU/mL) or glucose and insulin plus 1, 2, or 4 mmol/L of sodium β-HB. Four millimoles per liter β-HB had a significant positive effect on glycogen repletion in epitrochlearis m...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - May 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Yumiko Takahashi Shin Terada Mai Banjo Kohei Seike Suguru Nakano Hideo Hatta Source Type: research

Nutrient intake and dietary quality changes within a personalized lifestyle intervention program for metabolic syndrome in primary care
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. A team-based 12-month lifestyle program for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (involving physicians, registered dietitians (RDs), and kinesiologists) was previously shown to reverse MetS in 19% of patients (95% confidence interval, 14% to 24%). This work evaluates changes in nutrient intake and diet quality over 12 months (n = 205). Individualized diet counselling was provided by 14 RDs at 3 centres. Two 24-h recalls, the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (HEI-C), and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were completed at each time point. Total energy inta...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 30, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Paula Brauer Dawna Royall Airu Li Ariellia Rodrigues Jennifer Green Sharon Macklin Alison Craig Jennifer Pasanen Lucie Brunelle Scott Maitland Rupinder Dhaliwal Doug Klein Angelo Tremblay Caroline Rheaume David M. Mutch Khursheed Jeejeebhoy Source Type: research

Role of single serving form of dairy on satiety and postprandial glycaemia in young and older healthy adults
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Dairy proteins reduce appetite and improve postprandial glycaemic response in adults. However, there are no reports of dairy in amounts usually consumed on satiety and postprandial glycaemia in either young or older adults. In a randomized crossover design, 30 healthy young adults (age: 23.5 ± 0.5 years; body mass index (BMI): 21.8 ± 0.4 kg/m2) and 30 healthy/overweight older adults (age: 65.2 ± 0.5 years; BMI: 24.7 ± 0.6 kg/m2) consumed 1 serving (according to manufacturers’ labels) of skim milk (0.1% milk fat (MF)), whole m...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 30, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Shirley Vien Hrvoje Fabek Yurie Yamagishi Ying Ti Lee Bohdan L. Luhovyy G. Harvey Anderson Source Type: research

Physical literacy improves with the Run Jump Throw Wheel program among students in grades 4 –6 in southwestern Ontario
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the introduction of a fundamental movement skills (FMS) program to grade 4 –6 physical education (PE) classes could improve students’ physical literacy (PL) and influence the amount of effort exerted in PE class. Athletics Canada’s grassroots Run Jump Throw Wheel (RJTW) Program was delivered for 10 weeks during PE classes (2 schools: four grade 4, four grade 5, two g rade 6, one split grade 5–6 class, and one split grade 6–7 class, totalling 310 students). Participants completed ...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Paige Coyne Elizabeth Vandenborn Sara Santarossa Marcia M. Milne Kevin J. Milne Sarah J. Woodruff Source Type: research

Canadian newcomer children ’s bone health and vitamin D status
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Adequate calcium intake and supply of vitamin D during childhood play important roles in ensuring adequate bone mass gain to achieve optimal peak bone mass. The Healthy Immigrant Children study employed a mixed-method cross-sectional study design to characterize the health and nutritional status of 300 immigrant and refugee children aged 3 –13 years who had been in Canada for less than 5 years. This paper presents bone mineral content and vitamin D status data along with qualitative data that deepen the understanding of newcomer bone health status. A si...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 24, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Ginny Lane Christine Nisbet Susan J. Whiting Hassan Vatanparast Source Type: research

Introducing Horizons
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism,Volume 44, Issue 5, Page iii-iii, May 2019. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 24, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Terry E. Graham Source Type: research

Gastroprotective activity of Loranthus acaciae flower extract in a rodent model of ethanol-induced ulcer
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Loranthus acaciae (Loranthaceae) is a perennial green semi-parasitic plant used in ethnopharmacological medicine for healing wounds. The protective effect of L. acaciae on gastric ulcer induced by ethanol was investigated in a rat model. Ulcer index and total glutathione level were measured and histological and immunohistochemical studies for the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 were performed. Furthermore, chemical constituents of the flower extract were analyzed. Ulcer index was significantly lowered in L. acaciae-treated groups. Protection ratios were 75.9%,...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 22, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Manal A. Abbas Yasser I. Kandil Ahmad M. Disi Sahar M. Jaffal Source Type: research

Bioelectrical impedance analysis does not detect an increase in total body water following isotonic fluid consumption
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Purpose: To determine if single-frequency foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) can detect acute changes in total body water (TBW) following consumption of isotonic saline. All participants ate a sodium-free meal at 4 h prior to the data collection visit and had euhydration confirmed using urine specific gravity at the beginning of the experimental visit. Subjects drank 466 mL of isotonic saline (Na+ 140 mmol ·L−1) following baseline measures. Blood sampling and BIA were performed at baseline and every 30 min for 3 h after saline co...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Evan L. Matthews Peter A. Hosick Source Type: research

Effect of β-alanine supplementation on carnosine and histidine content in the hippocampus of 14-month-old rats
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Carnosine and histidine content in the hippocampus of 14-month-old male rats was examined following 30 days of β-alanine supplementation. All animals were provided identical diets; however, 100 mg of β-alanine was mixed with glucomannan (80:20 blend) in the water of β-alanine supplemented animals. Hippocampal carnosine content was significantly greater (p = 0.005) for β-alanine compared with control, whi le no differences (p = 0.438) were noted in histidine content between groups. Results provide initial evidence that β-alanine supple...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Jay R. Hoffman John A. Rathmacher Jennifer Robinson Yftach Gepner Hagit Cohen Source Type: research

Protective effect of essential oil of Cinnamomum verum bark on hepatic and renal toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. The inner bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) is widely used as a spice. Cinnamon plants are also a valuable source of essential oil used for medicinal purposes. The present study aimed to investigate the composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of C. verum bark (CvEO) and its protective effects in vivo on CCl4-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in rats. Groups of animals were pretreated for 7 days with CvEO (70 or 100 mg/kg body weight) or received no treatment and on day 7 a single dose of CCl4 was used to induce oxidative stress. Twen...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Khaled Bellassoued Ferdaws Ghrab Houda Hamed Rim Kallel Jos van Pelt Amina Lahyani Fatma Makni Ayadi Abdelfattah El Feki Source Type: research

Canadian Nutrition Society: Scientific Abstracts from the 10th Annual Scientific Meeting / Soci été canadienne de nutrition: Résumés scientifiques de la 10e réunion scientifique annuelle
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism,Volume 44, Issue 4 (Suppl. 1), Page S1-S54, April 2019. (Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism)
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 15, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Reliability of methods to measure energy expenditure during and after resistance exercise
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of 3 methods estimating energy expenditure (EE) during and in response to resistance exercise. Ten males (aged 29.4 ± 10.2 years) with ≥2 months resistance training (RT) experience performed 3 training sessions incorporating the bench press and back-squat; sessions were separated by 48 to 72 h. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated using a Suunto T6D Heart Rate Monitor and 2 methods (named “Scott” a nd “Magosso”) that used oxygen uptake and blood lactate m...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Philip Lyristakis Nick Ball Andrew J. McKune Source Type: research

Elevated insulin levels following 7 days of increased sedentary time are due to lower hepatic extraction and not higher insulin secretion
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Higher insulin following sedentary behavior may be due to increased insulin secretion (IS), decreased hepatic insulin extraction (HIE), or a combination of both. Ten healthy adults completed glucose tolerance tests following 7 days of normal activity and 7 days of increased sitting. There were no differences in IS; however, HIE at 120 min after ingestion (85.4% ± 7.2% vs. 74.6% ± 6.6%, p
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Richard Viskochil Kate Lyden John Staudenmayer Sarah K. Keadle Patty S. Freedson Barry Braun Source Type: research

Sex differences in psychosocial and cardiometabolic health among patients completing cardiac rehabilitation
We examined whether CR would produce similar improvements in psychosocial and cardiometabolic health indicators in women compared with men. The records of patients who completed a 3-month outpatient CR program were examined. We compared health-related quality of life (i.e., Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores), anxiety, depression, and cardiometabolic health indicators between women and men completing CR. Of the 591 participants who completed CR, 155 (26.2%) were women and 436 (73.8%) were men. At baseline, women were older (64 ± 9 vs. 62 ± 9 years, p = 0.045), had lower...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Tasuku Terada Daniele Chirico Heather E. Tulloch Kyle Scott Andrew L. Pipe Jennifer L. Reed Source Type: research

Effects of high-velocity resistance training and creatine supplementation in untrained healthy aging males
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. The purpose was to investigate the effects of high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) and creatine supplementation in untrained healthy aging males. Participants were randomized to supplement with creatine (0.1 g ·kg−1·day−1 of creatine + 0.1 g·kg−1·day−1 of maltodextrin) or placebo (0.2 g·kg−1·day−1 of maltodextrin) during 8 weeks of HVRT. Prior to and following HVRT and supplementation, assessments were made for muscle strength, muscle thickness, peak torque, and physical perform...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Patrick Bernat Darren G. Candow Karolina Gryzb Sara Butchart Brad J. Schoenfeld Paul Bruno Source Type: research

β-Adrenoreceptors do not oppose sympathetic vasoconstriction in resting and contracting skeletal muscle of male rats
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) vasoconstriction is primarily achieved through the binding of norepinephrine (NE) to α-adrenoreceptors. However, NE may also bind to β-adrenoreceptors and cause vasodilation that may oppose/blunt SNS-mediated vasoconstriction. Therefore, this study investigated the hypothesis that β-adrenoreceptor–mediated vasodilation opposes evoked vasoconstriction in resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Male (n = 9) Sprague–Dawley rats were anesthetized and surgically instrumented for stimulation of the lumba...
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - April 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Ian R. Cooper Timothy P. Just Darren S. DeLorey Source Type: research