Evolution of microbial dynamics with the introduction of real seawater portions in a low-strength feeding anammox process.
In this study, an anammox process at mainstream conditions without pre-enriching anammox bacteria was shifted to the feeds of a synthetic wastewater with a portion of seawater mixture. It achieved over 0.180 kg-N/(m3 day) of nitrogen removal rate with an additional seawater proportion of 20% in the influent. The bacterial biodiversity was significantly increased with the increase of seawater proportions. High relative abundance of anammox bacteria (34.24-39.92%) related to Ca. Brocadia was enriched and acclimated to the saline environment. However, the introduction of seawater caused the enrichment of nitrite-oxi...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ji X, Wang Y, Lee PH Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Role of the ClpX from Corynebacterium crenatum involved in stress responses and energy metabolism.
Abstract ClpX and ClpP are involved in many important functions, including stress responses and energy metabolism, in microorganisms. However, the ClpX and ClpP of microbes used in industrial scale have rarely been studied. Industrial bacterial fermentation experiences a variety of stresses, and energy metabolism is extremely important for industrial bacteria. Thus, the role played by the ClpX and ClpP of industrial bacteria in fermentation should be investigated. Most microorganisms have a single clpP gene, while Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542 possesses two clpPs. Herein, the clpX, clpP1, and clpP2 of C. crena...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huang M, Zhao Y, Feng L, Zhu L, Zhan L, Chen X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biotechnological advancements in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.
Abstract Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, also known as Madagascar periwinkle or Sadabahar, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the family Apocynaceae. Being a reservoir for more than 200 alkaloids, it reserves a place for itself in the list of important medicinal plants. Secondary metabolites are present in its leaves (e.g., vindoline, vinblastine, catharanthine, and vincristine) as well as basal stem and roots (e.g., ajmalicine, reserpine, serpentine, horhammericine, tabersonine, leurosine, catharanthine, lochnerine, and vindoline). Two of its alkaloids, vincristine and vinblastine (possessing anticancerous prope...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Das A, Sarkar S, Bhattacharyya S, Gantait S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Novel unexpected functions of PHA granules.
Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polyesters accumulated by numerous prokaryotes in the form of intracellular granules, have been for decades considered being predominantly storage molecules. However, numerous recent discoveries revealed and emphasized their complex biological role for microbial cells. Most of all, it was repeatedly reported and confirmed that the presence of PHA granules in prokaryotic cells enhances stress resistance and robustness of microbes against various environmental stress factors such as high or low temperature, freezing, oxidative, and osmotic pressure. It seems that protective mech...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Obruca S, Sedlacek P, Slaninova E, Fritz I, Daffert C, Meixner K, Sedrlova Z, Koller M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Hydrogen production driven by formate oxidation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.
In this study, we investigated the electron transfer pathway from formate to hydrogen, given that formate is commonly a key chemical for bacterial hydrogen production. We revealed that two formate dehydrogenases FdhA1B1C1 and FdhA2B2C2, rather than FdnGHI, played a dominant role in formate-driven hydrogen production. Menaquinone was indispensable for the electron transfer from formate to hydrogen, which excluded the presence of formate hydrogen-lyase in S. oneidensis MR-1. A previously proposed formate dehydrogenase subunit HydC was identified as a menaquinone-binding subunit of [FeFe] hydrogenase HydAB, and the hydABC ope...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiong J, Chan D, Guo X, Chang F, Chen M, Wang Q, Song X, Wu C Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Heterologous expression of a cryptic gene cluster from Grimontia marina affords a novel tricyclic peptide grimoviridin.
Abstract Microviridins are a class of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) that have been isolated from a wide variety of cyanobacterial strains. There are similar gene clusters of RiPPs distributed in the genomes of bacteria belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A cryptic gene cluster for the production of microviridin-type peptide was found in the genome of the marine γ-Proteobacterium Grimontia marina. Heterologous production of new microviridin-type peptide named grimoviridin was accomplished in Escherichia coli using the biosynthetic gene cluster ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Unno K, Kaweewan I, Nakagawa H, Kodani S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Transaminases for industrial biocatalysis: novel enzyme discovery.
Abstract Transaminases (TAms) are important enzymes for the production of chiral amines for the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. Novel TAms for use in these industries have been discovered using a range of approaches, including activity-guided methods and homologous sequence searches from cultured microorganisms to searches using key motifs and metagenomic mining of environmental DNA libraries. This mini-review focuses on the methods used for TAm discovery over the past two decades, analyzing the changing trends in the field and highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of the respective approaches use...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kelly SA, Mix S, Moody TS, Gilmore BF Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Dispersal limitation drives biogeographical patterns of anammox bacterial communities across the Yangtze River.
This study investigated biogeographical patterns of anammox bacterial communities using 42 sediment samples along a 4300-km stretch of the Yangtze River, the longest river in Asia. A significant distance-decay relationship was observed for anammox bacterial community similarity, which was significantly influenced by mean dendritic distance rather than environmental factors. This implied that dispersal limitation plays an important role in shaping biogeographical pattern of anammox community. Furthermore, our results revealed that neutral processes played vital role in shaping community assembly of anammox bacteria, and the...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen L, Liu S, Chen Q, Zhu G, Wu X, Wang J, Li X, Hou L, Ni J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Investigation of monoterpenoid resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas putida and their consequences for biotransformations.
Abstract Monoterpenoids are widely used in industrial applications, e.g. as active ingredients in pharmaceuticals, in flavor and fragrance compositions, and in agriculture. Severe toxic effects are known for some monoterpenoids making them challenging compounds for biotechnological production processes. Some strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas putida show an inherent extraordinarily high tolerance towards solvents including monoterpenoids. An understanding of the underlying factors can help to create suitable strains for monoterpenoids de novo production or conversion. In addition, knowledge about tolerance mecha...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Schempp FM, Hofmann KE, Mi J, Kirchner F, Meffert A, Schewe H, Schrader J, Buchhaupt M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Performance of an acoustic settler versus a hollow fiber-based ATF technology for influenza virus production in perfusion.
l U Abstract Process intensification and integration is crucial regarding an ever increasing pressure on manufacturing costs and capacities in biologics manufacturing. For virus production in perfusion mode, membrane-based alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) and acoustic settler are the commonly described cell retention technologies. While acoustic settlers allow for continuous influenza virus harvesting, the use of commercially available membranes for ATF systems typically results in the accumulation of virus particles in the bioreactor vessel. Accordingly, with one single harvest at the end of a cultiva...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gränicher G, Coronel J, Trampler F, Jordan I, Genzel Y, Reichl U Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Enzymatic reactions and microorganisms producing the various isomers of hydroxyproline.
Abstract Hydroxyproline is an industrially important compound with applications in the pharmaceutical, nutrition, and cosmetic industries. trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline is recognized as the most abundant of the eight possible isomers (hydroxy group at C-3 or C-4, cis- or trans-configuration, and L- or D-form). However, little attention has been paid to the rare isomers, probably due to their limited availability. This mini-review provides an overview of recent advances in microbial and enzymatic processes to develop practical production strategies for various hydroxyprolines. Here, we introduce three screening strateg...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hara R, Kino K Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Integrated strain engineering and bioprocessing strategies for high-level bio-based production of 3-hydroxyvalerate in Escherichia coli.
This study not only represents one of the most effective bio-based production of 3-HV from structurally unrelated carbons to date, but also highlights the importance of integrated strain engineering and bioprocessing strategies to enhance bio-based production.Key points • TCA cycle engineering was applied to enhance 3-HV biosynthesis in E. coli. • Effects of oxygenic conditions on 3-HV in E. coli biosynthesis were investigated. • Bioreactor characterization of 3-HV biosynthesis in E. coli was performed. PMID: 32291486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Miscevic D, Mao JY, Kefale T, Abedi D, Huang CC, Moo-Young M, Chou CP Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Current advances on waste biomass transformation into value-added products.
This study was carefully designed to critically review state of the art in the transformation of waste biomass into value-added products. Even though extensive reviews on biomass utilization have been published in the past few years, the current study basically focused on new trends and prospective in this area. Here, global biomass potential, research developments and practices, novel biomass transformation approaches, and future perspectives were broadly discussed. More importantly, in addition to revising published researches, already implemented and ongoing large-scale projects on valorization of waste biomass have bee...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dessie W, Luo X, Wang M, Feng L, Liao Y, Wang Z, Yong Z, Qin Z Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

From sequence to function: a new workflow for nitrilase identification.
In conclusion, we provided a setup for simple and rapid analysis of putative nitrilase-encoding genes from sequence to function. The suitability was demonstrated by identification, isolation, and characterization of the arylacetonitrilase. KEY POINTS: • A simple and fast high-throughput nitrilase screening was developed. • A set of putative nitrilases was successfully screened with the assay. • A novel arylacetonitrilase was identified, purified, and characterized in detail. PMID: 32291488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Egelkamp R, Friedrich I, Hertel R, Daniel R Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Correction to: Combining mutagenesis on Glu281 of prenyltransferase NovQ and metabolic engineering strategies for the increased prenylated activity towards menadione.
Abstract The published online version contains some errors. PMID: 32291489 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ni W, Zheng Z, Liu H, Wang P, Wang H, Sun X, Yang Q, Fang Z, Tang H, Zhao G Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Improvement of the production of an Arctic bacterial exopolysaccharide with protective effect on human skin cells against UV-induced oxidative stress.
In this study, we improved the EPS production of SM1127 and evaluated its protective effect on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) against UV-induced oxidative stress. With glucose as carbon source, the EPS yield was increased from 2.11 to 6.12 g/L by optimizing the fermentation conditions using response surface methodology. To lower the fermentation cost and decrease corrosive speed in stainless steel tanks, whole sugar, whose price is only 8% of that of glucose, was used to replace glucose and NaCl concentration was reduced to 4 g/L in the medium. With the optimized conditions, fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L biore...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sun ML, Zhao F, Zhang XK, Zhang XY, Zhang YZ, Song XY, Chen XL Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Processes and purposes of extraction of grape components during winemaking: current state and perspectives.
Abstract The quality of red wine is dependent on the presence not only of volatile compounds that influence wine aroma but also on phenolic compounds due to their impact on mouthfeel, colour, flavour and ageing potential. Whereas wine aroma arises from the grapes, action of microorganisms and maturation phenomena, red wine phenolics are predominantly found in the grape berry skins and seeds and are extracted during maceration into the fermenting must (i.e. grape solids and juice). Thus, although every step in winemaking has a significant impact on the outcome of the finished product, it can be considered that ferm...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Unterkofler J, Muhlack RA, Jeffery DW Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

De novo biosynthesis of complex natural product sakuranetin using modular co-culture engineering.
Abstract Flavonoids are a large family of plant and fungal natural products, among which many have been found to possess outstanding biological activities. Utilization of engineered microbes as surrogate hosts for heterologous biosynthesis of flavonoids has been investigated extensively. However, current microbial biosynthesis strategies mostly rely on using one microbial strain to accommodate the long and complicated flavonoid pathways, which presents a major challenge for production optimization. Here, we adapt the emerging modular co-culture engineering approach to rationally design, establish and optimize an E...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang X, Li Z, Policarpio L, Koffas MAG, Zhang H Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microbial acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's therapy: recent trends on extraction, detection, irradiation-assisted production improvement and nano-structured drug delivery.
Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders especially Alzheimer's disease (AD) are significantly threatening the public health. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are compounds of great interest which can be used as effective agents for the symptomatic treatment of AD. Although plants are considered the largest source for these types of inhibitors, the microbial production of AChE inhibitors represents an efficient, easily manipulated, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and alternative approach. This review highlights the recent advances on the microbial production of AChE inhibitors and summarizes all the previousl...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zaki AG, El-Sayed ER, Abd Elkodous M, El-Sayyad GS Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A coupled enzymatic reaction of tyrosinase and glucose dehydrogenase for the production of hydroxytyrosol.
In this study, a continuous two-enzyme reaction system of sol-gel-immobilized tyrosinase and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was developed for the synthesis of HT. Purified tyrosinase from Bacillus megaterium (TyrBm) and E. coli cell extract expressing GDH from B. megaterium were encapsulated in a sol-gel matrix based on triethoxysilane precursors. While tyrosinase oxidized tyrosol to 3,4-quinone-phenylethanol, GDH catalyzed the simultaneous reduction of the cofactor NAD+ to NADH, which was the reducing agent enabling the accumulation of HT. Using 50 mM tyrosol, the immobilized system under optimized conditions, enabled a...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Deri-Zenaty B, Bachar S, Rebroš M, Fishman A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Archaea, specific genetic traits, and development of improved bacterial live biotherapeutic products: another face of next-generation probiotics.
re JF Abstract Trimethylamine (TMA) and its oxide TMAO are important biomolecules involved in disease-associated processes in humans (e.g., trimethylaminuria and cardiovascular diseases). TMAO in plasma (pTMAO) stems from intestinal TMA, which is formed from various components of the diet in a complex interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and the human host. Most approaches to prevent the occurrence of such deleterious molecules focus on actions to interfere with gut microbiota metabolism to limit the synthesis of TMA. Some human gut archaea however use TMA as terminal electron acceptor for producing methane, th...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fadhlaoui K, Arnal ME, Martineau M, Camponova P, Ollivier B, O'Toole PW, Brugère JF Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

An unusual GH1 β-glucosidase from marine sediment with β-galactosidase and transglycosidation activities for superior galacto-oligosaccharide synthesis.
An unusual GH1 β-glucosidase from marine sediment with β-galactosidase and transglycosidation activities for superior galacto-oligosaccharide synthesis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Apr 11;: Authors: Deng P, Meng C, Wu Y, Xu J, Tang X, Zhang X, Xiao Y, Wang X, Fang Z, Fang W Abstract A novel β-glucosidase, BglD1 with high β-galactosidase and transglycosidation activities, was screened and cloned from the deep-sea bacterium Bacillus sp. D1. BglD1 exhibited the maximal β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase activities at 55-60 °C and pH 5.5-6.0. The enzyme maint...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Deng P, Meng C, Wu Y, Xu J, Tang X, Zhang X, Xiao Y, Wang X, Fang Z, Fang W Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A novel thermostable aspartic protease from Talaromyces leycettanus and its specific autocatalytic activation through an intermediate transition state.
In this study, a novel aspartic protease precursor (proTlAPA1) from Talaromyces leycettanus was identified and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Subsequently, the auto-activation processing of the zymogen proTlAPA1 was studied by SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing, under different processing conditions. TlAPA1 shared the highest identity of 70.3% with the aspartic endopeptidase from Byssochlamys spectabilis (GAD91729) and was classified into a new subgroup of the aspartic protease A1 family, based on evolutionary analysis. Mature TlAPA1 protein displayed an optimal activity at 60 °C and remained stable at...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Guo Y, Tu T, Zheng J, Ren Y, Wang Y, Bai Y, Su X, Wang Y, Yao B, Huang H, Luo H Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The deubiquitinating enzyme MoUbp8 is required for infection-related development, pathogenicity, and carbon catabolite repression in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Abstract Deubiquitination is an essential regulatory step in the Ub-dependent pathway. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) mediate the removal of ubiquitin moieties from substrate proteins, which are involved in many regulatory mechanisms. As a component of the DUB module (Ubp8/Sgf11/Sus1/Sgf73) in the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) complex, Ubp8 plays a crucial role in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. In S. cerevisiae, Ubp8-mediated deubiquitination regulates transcriptional activation processes. To investigate the contributions of Ubp8 to physiological and pathological development of filamentous fung...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yang J, Chen D, Matar KAO, Zheng T, Zhao Q, Xie Y, Gao X, Li M, Wang B, Lu GD Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Mushroom extracts and compounds with suppressive action on breast cancer: evidence from studies using cultured cancer cells, tumor-bearing animals, and clinical trials.
This article reviews mushrooms with anti-breast cancer activity. The mushrooms covered which are better known include the following: button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, Brazilian mushroom Agaricus blazei, Amauroderma rugosum, stout camphor fungus Antrodia camphorata, Jew's ear (black) fungus or black wood ear fungus Auricularia auricula-judae, reishi mushroom or Lingzhi Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma sinense, maitake mushroom or sheep's head mushroom Grifola frondosa, lion's mane mushroom or monkey head mushroom Hericium erinaceum, brown beech mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus, sulfur polypore mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus, Lent...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wong JH, Ng TB, Chan HHL, Liu Q, Man GCW, Zhang CZ, Guan S, Ng CCW, Fang EF, Wang H, Liu F, Ye X, Rolka K, Naude R, Zhao S, Sha O, Li C, Xia L Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

CRISPR interference-based gene repression in the plant growth promoter Paenibacillus sonchi genomovar Riograndensis SBR5.
VF Abstract Gene repression using the endonucleolytically deactivated dCas9 protein and sgRNAs (CRISPR interference or CRISPRi) is a useful approach to study gene functions. Here, we established CRISPRi in Paenibacillus sonchi genomovar Riograndensis SBR5, a plant growth promoting bacterium. CRISPRi system with sgRNAs targeting SBR5 endogenous genes spo0A, yaaT and ydjJ and plasmid-borne gfpUV was constructed and analyzed. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant decrease of reporter protein GFPUV signal in P. sonchi strains expressing gfpUV sgRNA in comparison with non-targeting controls. CRISPRi-based rep...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brito LF, Schultenkämper K, Passaglia LMP, Wendisch VF Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Yeast metabolic engineering for the production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites.
Abstract In the last few decades, there has been a rapid increase in the discovery of drugs from natural products, particularly secondary metabolites. Various efforts have been undertaken to enhance and optimize the production system of these secondary metabolites to meet the increasing global market demand. Recently, metabolic engineering has been used for the heterologous synthesis of secondary metabolites in the engineered yeast strains. Here, we highlight the recent advancements in the production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites in metabolically engineered yeast, such as Saccharomyces cerevi...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rahmat E, Kang Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Development and production of nanobodies specifically against green fluorescence protein.
In this study, an alpaca was immunized with purified green fluorescence protein (GFP) and a VHH library from lymphocytes of the immunized alpaca was constructed with a capacity of 6.7 × 107. The library was biopanned against GFP by phage display technique and four unique DNA sequences coding for anti-GFP nanobodies were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, named a12, e6, d5, and b9. The four DNA sequences were then cloned into pADL-10b-6×His or pBAD24-Flag-6×His for expression in bacteria. Purified A12, E6, D5, and B9 were demonstrated to bind GFP specifically both in vitro by en...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fang Z, Cao D, Qiu J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Expression of a β-glucosidase in bacteria with biotechnological interest confers them the ability to deglycosylate lignans and flavonoids in vegetal foods.
Expression of a β-glucosidase in bacteria with biotechnological interest confers them the ability to deglycosylate lignans and flavonoids in vegetal foods. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Apr 08;: Authors: Gaya P, Peirotén Á, Landete JM Abstract Lignans and flavonoids are found in plants in their glycosylated forms and need to be hydrolyzed to aglycones to become bioavailable. Putative β-glucosidase genes from Lactobacillus mucosae INIA P508 were inserted into the plasmid pNZ:TuR. The strain Lactococcus lactis MG1363 harboring the plasmid pNZ:TuR.glu913 showed high β-gluco...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gaya P, Peirotén Á, Landete JM Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Dps protein is related to resistance of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense against stressful conditions.
is A Abstract Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense (Mycma) belongs to the Mycobacterium abscessus complex and is a rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium. The chronic pulmonary, skin, and soft tissue infections that it causes may be difficult to treat due to its intrinsic resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial drugs, making it a serious world public health problem. Iron is an essential nutrient for the growth of microorganisms; nonetheless, it can be toxic when in excess. Thus, bacteria require an iron homeostasis mechanism to succeed in different environments. DNA-binding proteins from starved...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: de Alcântara NR, de Oliveira FM, Garcia W, Dos Santos OAL, Junqueira-Kipnis AP, Kipnis A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Preclinical functional characterization methods of nanocomposite hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications.
Abstract Nanocomposite hydrogels that contain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are especially attractive for various biomedical applications (e.g., antimicrobial wound dressings, coatings and soft tissue implants) due to strong antimicrobial activity of released silver nanoparticles and/or ions over prolonged times. However, all potential biomedical products have to be thoroughly specified fulfilling strict safety requirements. Characterization of nanocomposites is additionally complicated due to potential harmful effects of nanoparticles and accumulation in cells and tissues. This paper summarizes methods for preclin...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stojkovska J, Zvicer J, Obradovic B Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Characterization of a novel xylanase from an extreme temperature hot spring metagenome for xylooligosaccharide production.
In this study, the metagenomic resource generated from an aquatic habitat of extreme temperature was screened for the identification of a novel xylanase, XynM1. Gene sequence analysis designated it as a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10. The metagenomic DNA fragment was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified protein was biochemically characterized. The optimum temperature and pH for the XynM1 xylanase were found to be at 80 °C and 7, respectively. It exhibited worthwhile pH stability by retaining about 70% activity in the range of pH 6 to 9 after the exposure for 12 h at ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Joshi N, Sharma M, Singh SP Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Open microbiome dominated by Clostridium and Eubacterium converts methanol into i-butyrate and n-butyrate.
In this study, we steered i-butyrate production in a bioreactor fed with methanol and acetate under various conditions, achieving maximum i-butyrate productivity of 5.0 mM day-1, with a concurrent production of n-butyrate of 7.9 mM day-1. The production of i-butyrate was reversibly inhibited by methanogenic inhibitor 2-bromoethanesulfonate. The microbial community data revealed the co-dominance of two major OTUs during co-production of i-butyrate and n-butyrate in two distinctive phases throughout a period of 54 days and 28 days, respectively. The cross-comparison of product profile with micro...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huang S, Kleerebezem R, Rabaey K, Ganigué R Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Effects of mutations of GID protein-coding genes on malate production and enzyme expression profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
In this study, the mechanism by which this mutation led to high malate production in yeast cells was investigated. The evaluation of disruptants and mutants of gluconeogenic enzymes revealed that cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (Mdh2) participated in the malate production. Furthermore, target proteome analysis indicated that an increase in malate production resulted from the accumulation of Mdh2 in gid4 disruptant due to the loss of GID complex-mediated degradation. Next, we investigated the effects of GID protein-coding genes (GID1-GID9) on organic acid production and enzyme expression profiles in yeast. The disruptants of...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Negoro H, Matsumura K, Matsuda F, Shimizu H, Hata Y, Ishida H Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Activities of Nerol, a natural plant active ingredient, against Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo.
In this study, we found that Nerol (NEL) had strong antimicrobial activity and 0.77 μL/mL NEL was the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) effective against C. albicans. We determined the change of the growth curve of NEL for C. albicans, to identify the trend of NEL activity against C. albicans. Through the determination of the ergosterol content and glucose-induced extracellular fluid acidification of NEL on C. albicans, we found that NEL inhibits the growth of C. albicans by destroying cell membranes. This finding was also supported by the expression of SAP (secreted aspartyl proteinase) involved in cell membr...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Z, Yang K, Chen L, Yan R, Qu S, Li YX, Liu M, Zeng H, Tian J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Mannosylerythritol lipids: dual inhibitory modes against Staphylococcus aureus through membrane-mediated apoptosis and biofilm disruption.
This study is aimed to explore the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of mannosylerythritol lipids against foodborne gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The results of growth curve and survival rate revealed the significant inhibitory effect of MELs against S. aureus. The visualized pictures by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope exposed apparent morphological and ultrastructure changes of MEL-treated cells. Furthermore, flow cytometry confirmed that MELs have promoted cell apoptosis and damaged the cell membrane. Notably, MEL-A also exhibited outstanding antibiofilm activity against S. a...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shu Q, Wei T, Lu H, Niu Y, Chen Q Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The redox-sensing transcriptional repressor Rex is important for regulating the products distribution in Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense SCUT27.
This study confirms that Rex is an important regulator for determining products distribution in SCUT27 and deletion of rex and ldh is a promising strategy for enhanced ethanol production. PMID: 32248440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Qu C, Chen L, Li Y, Fu H, Wang J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Isolation and application of bacteriophages alone or in combination with nisin against planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious foodborne pathogen since it has ability to produce variety of toxins including heat-stable enterotoxin, form biofilm, and acquire resistance to antibiotics. Biocontrol of foodborne pathogens by lytic bacteriophages garners increasing interest from both researchers and food industry. In the present study, 29 phages against S. aureus were successfully isolated from chicken, pork, and fish. Characterization of the isolates revealed that phage SA46-CTH2 belonging to Podoviridae family had a number of features suitable for food industry applications such as wide host range,...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Duc HM, Son HM, Ngan PH, Sato J, Masuda Y, Honjoh KI, Miyamoto T Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Quorum sensing inhibition and tobramycin acceleration in Chromobacterium violaceum by two natural cinnamic acid derivatives.
Abstract Chromobacterium violaceum, one free-living Gram-negative bacterium, is abundantly presented in tropics and sub-tropics soil and aquatic environment; it is also an opportunistic human pathogen. Here, two cinnamic acid derivatives, i.e., 4-dimethylaminocinnamic acid (DCA) and 4-methoxycinnamic acid (MCA), were identified as potential quorum sensing (QS) and biofilm inhibitors in C. violaceum ATCC12472. Both DCA (100 μg/mL) and MCA (200 μg/mL) inhibited the levels of N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and reduced the production of certain virulence factors in C. violaceum, including viol...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cheng WJ, Zhou JW, Zhang PP, Luo HZ, Tang S, Li JJ, Deng SM, Jia AQ Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The effect of anode potential on current production from complex substrates in bioelectrochemical systems: a case study with glucose.
This study used glucose as a model substrate to comprehensively investigate the effect of different anode potentials (- 150 mV, 0 mV and + 200 mV) on the relationship between current production, the electrogenic pathway and the abundance of the electrogenic microorganisms involved in batch mode fed BESs. Current production in glucose-acclimatized reactors was a function of the abundance of Geobacteraceae and of the availability of acetate and formate produced by glucose degradation. Current production was increased by high anode potentials during acclimation (0 mV and + 200 mV)...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhao F, Heidrich ES, Curtis TP, Dolfing J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Regulation of filamentation by bacteria and its impact on the productivity of compounds in biotechnological processes.
Abstract The bacteria wall fulfills important physiological functions at the cell, depending on its composition and organization. Many researches focused their studies in understanding the change of its properties not only in strength and permeability, but also in morphological plasticity due to both chemical and physical stresses. In particular, filamentation morphology is a cryptic phenomenon, with involve for great variety of bacteria, which allow them to acquire adaptive benefits. This phenotypic alteration consists of an alteration or lack of cell septation during the cell growth, as consequence of DNA damage...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rizzo MG, De Plano LM, Franco D Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Rainstorm effects on the biocontrol efficacy of the decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum against birch sprouting in boreal forests.
Abstract In forest regeneration areas, alongside roads and railways, under electric power lines and above gas pipe lines, there is a need for regular sprout control. A biocontrol method against broadleaved sprouting with formulations including the decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr.) Pouzar has been shown to be effective. Yet, heavy rain during spreading of this fungal inoculum on freshly cut stumps may affect the efficacy of the treatment, i.e., stump mortality during the following years. Thus, we performed an experiment where freshly cut birch stump surfaces (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubesc...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hamberg L, Saarinen VM, Rantala M, Hantula J, Seiskari P, Saksa T Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A novel regulatory pathway consisting of a two-component system and an ABC-type transporter contributes to butanol tolerance in Clostridium acetobutylicum.
In this study, a two-component system (TCS), BtrK/BtrR, was identified and demonstrated to positively regulate butanol tolerance and ABE solvent formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum, a representative species of solventogenic clostridia. The transcriptomic analysis results showed that BtrK/BtrR has a pleiotropic regulatory function, affecting a large number of crucial genes and metabolic pathways. Of the differentially expressed genes, btrTM, encoding a putative ABC-type transporter (named BtrTM), was shown to be under the direct control of BtrR, the response regulator of the BtrK/BtrR TCS. Furthermore, BtrTM was shown t...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yang Y, Lang N, Zhang L, Wu H, Jiang W, Gu Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Genome shuffling based on different types of ribosome engineering mutants for enhanced production of 10-membered enediyne tiancimycin-A.
Abstract Tiancimycin-A (TNM-A) is an anthraquinone-fused ten-membered enediyne produced by Streptomyces sp. CB03234, which is very promising for the development of anticancer antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). To improve the titer of TNM-A, we have generated high-producing mutants CB03234-S and CB03234-R through ribosome engineering, but still not sufficient for pilot production of TNM-A. As the follow-up work, gentamycin-induced ribosome engineering was further adopted here to generate the mutant CB03234-G, which produced similar level of TNM-A as in CB03234-S and CB03234-R. Benefiting from the distinct antibiotic ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu H, Jiang C, Lin J, Zhuang Z, Kong W, Liu L, Huang Y, Duan Y, Zhu X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Orange peel waste-based liquid medium for biodiesel production by oleaginous yeasts.
Abstract Orange peel waste (OPW), the primary byproduct of the juice extraction process, is annually generated in massive amounts (21 Mton), and its aqueous extraction in biorefining operations yields a liquid fraction, referred to as orange peel extract (OPE). Although OPE contains significant amounts of easily assimilable carbohydrates, such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose, no investigations have been conducted yet to assess its possible use in biodiesel production by oleaginous yeasts. Consequently, the objective of the present study was to assess whether OPE might act as the basis of a liquid medium for...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carota E, Petruccioli M, D'Annibale A, Gallo AM, Crognale S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropical reduces the fat deposition in white-feather broilers through cecum bacteria-host metabolic cross-talk.
Abstract In the present study, effects of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis (FCSM) on fat deposition, cecum microbiota, and metabolites and their interactions were studied in broilers. A total of 180 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into two groups with six replicates of 15 birds in each. The birds were offered two diets consisted one control, i.e., supplemented with 0% FCSM (CON) and an experimental, with 6% FCSM (FCSM). Illumina MiSeq sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to investigate the profile changes of the cecum microbes and metabolites and the interaction...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Niu J, Zhang J, Wei L, Ma X, Zhang W, Nie C Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Engineering novel S-glycosidase activity into extremo-adapted β-glucosidase by rational design.
Engineering novel S-glycosidase activity into extremo-adapted β-glucosidase by rational design. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Mar 30;: Authors: Almulhim N, Moody NR, Paradisi F Abstract The breakdown of sulphur glycosidic bonds in thioglycosides can produce isothiocyanate, a chemoprotective agent linked to the prevention of cancers; however, only a handful of enzymes have been identified that are k0nown to catalyse this reaction. Structural studies of the myrosinase enzyme, which is capable of hydrolysing the thioglycosidic bond, have identified residues that may play important roles in sulphur...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Almulhim N, Moody NR, Paradisi F Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Production and immunogenicity of Fubc subunit protein redesigned from DENV envelope protein.
Abstract Dengue virus (DENV) is a vector-borne human pathogen that usually causes dengue fever; however, sometime it leads to deadly complications such as dengue with warning signs (DWS+) and severe dengue (SD). Several studies have shown that fusion (Fu) and bc loop of DENV envelope domain II are highly conserved and consist some of the most dominant antigenic epitopes. Therefore, in this study, Fu and bc loops were joined together to develop a short recombinant protein as an alternative of whole DENV envelope protein, and its immunogenic potential as fusion peptide was estimated. For de novo designing of the ant...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rathore AS, Sarker A, Gupta RD Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Requirement of de novo synthesis of pyruvate carboxylase in long-term succinic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
Abstract Protein turnover through de novo synthesis is critical for sustainable cellular functions. We previously found that glucose consumption rate in Corynebacterium glutamicum under anaerobic conditions increased at temperature higher than the upper limit of growth temperature. Here, we showed that production of lactic and succinic acids increased at higher temperature for long-term (48 h) anaerobic reaction in metabolically engineered strains. At 42 °C, beyond the upper limit of growth temperature range, biomass-specific lactic acid production rate was 8% higher than that at 30 °C, the ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Uchikura H, Ninomiya K, Takahashi K, Tsuge Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Separation of phenolics from peony flowers and their inhibitory activities and action mechanism on bacterial biofilm.
In conclusion, PPF-ESGCC exhibited strong inhibitory effect on biofilm formation and gallic acid, kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, and apigenin-7-O-glucoside might play a crucial role in inhibiting biofilm formation. Meanwhile, this study indicated that PPF-ESGCC, a new natural QS inhibitor and biofilm inhibitor, could be used as a novel intervention strategy to enhance the safety and quality of food. PMID: 32232531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li C, Jiang C, Jing H, Jiang C, Wang H, Du X, Lou Z Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research