Protection of surface layer protein from Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 against Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007 infection by modulating intestinal permeability and immunity
In this study, the protective of SLP of E. faecium WEFA23 against infection of L. monocytogenes CMCC54007 was systemically investigated. In vitro assay showed that SLP actively inhibited L. monocytogenes internalization into Caco-2 cell line, with decreasing mRNA level of pro-inflammation cytokines and virulence factors and restoring destroyed intestinal barrier. In vivo assay through excluding SLP of E. faecium WEFA23 by 5 M LiCl represented that SLP increased body weight, reduced mortality and cell counts of L. monocytogenes CMCC54007 in tissues of mice. Further researches showed that SLP protected against L. monocytogen...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yao He Qin Yang Linlin Tian Zhihong Zhang Liang Qiu Xueying Tao Hua Wei Source Type: research

Fatty acids promote the expansion of NK-92 cells in vitro by improving energy metabolism
This study optimized the medium (EM) for NK-92 cells by designing an experiment to expand cells efficiently. EM, an in-house designed chemically defined serum-free medium, was used as the basal medium. Fatty acids as additive ingredients were screened and optimized by the experimental design method. Three additives, arachidonic acid, myristic acid and palmitoleic acid, were screened; therefore, the optimized medium was named EM-FA. The total cell expansion of NK-92 cells in EM-FA was 72.61±11.95-fold on day 8, which was significantly higher than the 28.55±8.67-fold expansion in EM. To explore the mechanism by...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhepei Xie Yan Fu Wen-Song Tan Haibo Cai Source Type: research

Reconstruction of the glutamate decarboxylase system in Lactococcus lactis for biosynthesis of food-grade γ-aminobutyric acid
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 15. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11328-5. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an important bioactive compound, is synthesized through the decarboxylation of L-glutamate (L-Glu) by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as catalysts opens interesting avenues for the biosynthesis of food-grade GABA. However, a key obstacle involved in the improvement of GABA production is how to resolve the discrepancy of optimal pH between the intracellular GAD activity and cell growth. In this work, a potential GAD candidate (LpGadB) from Lactobacillus p...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Changjiang Lyu Lili Yao Qi Zhu Jiaqi Mei Yucheng Cao Sheng Hu Weirui Zhao Jun Huang Lehe Mei Shanjing Yao Guocheng Du Source Type: research

Bacillus subtilis High Cell Density Fermentation Using a Sporulation-Deficient Strain for the Production of Surfactin
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 15. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11330-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBacillus subtilis 3NA is a strain capable of reaching high cell densities. A surfactin producing sfp+ variant of this strain, named JABs32, was utilized in fed-batch cultivation processes. Both a glucose and an ammonia solution were fed to set a steady growth rate μ of 0.1 h-1. In this process, a cell dry weight of up to 88 g L-1 was reached after 38 h of cultivation, and surfactin titers of up to 26.5 g L-1 were detected in this high cell density fermentation process, achieving a YP/X value of 0.23 g g-1 as well as a ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peter Klausmann Katja Hennemann Mareen Hoffmann Chantal Treinen Moritz Aschern Lars Lilge Kambiz Morabbi Heravi Marius Henkel Rudolf Hausmann Source Type: research

Protection of surface layer protein from Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 against Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007 infection by modulating intestinal permeability and immunity
In this study, the protective of SLP of E. faecium WEFA23 against infection of L. monocytogenes CMCC54007 was systemically investigated. In vitro assay showed that SLP actively inhibited L. monocytogenes internalization into Caco-2 cell line, with decreasing mRNA level of pro-inflammation cytokines and virulence factors and restoring destroyed intestinal barrier. In vivo assay through excluding SLP of E. faecium WEFA23 by 5 M LiCl represented that SLP increased body weight, reduced mortality and cell counts of L. monocytogenes CMCC54007 in tissues of mice. Further researches showed that SLP protected against L. monocytogen...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yao He Qin Yang Linlin Tian Zhihong Zhang Liang Qiu Xueying Tao Hua Wei Source Type: research

Fatty acids promote the expansion of NK-92 cells in vitro by improving energy metabolism
This study optimized the medium (EM) for NK-92 cells by designing an experiment to expand cells efficiently. EM, an in-house designed chemically defined serum-free medium, was used as the basal medium. Fatty acids as additive ingredients were screened and optimized by the experimental design method. Three additives, arachidonic acid, myristic acid and palmitoleic acid, were screened; therefore, the optimized medium was named EM-FA. The total cell expansion of NK-92 cells in EM-FA was 72.61±11.95-fold on day 8, which was significantly higher than the 28.55±8.67-fold expansion in EM. To explore the mechanism by...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhepei Xie Yan Fu Wen-Song Tan Haibo Cai Source Type: research

Reconstruction of the glutamate decarboxylase system in Lactococcus lactis for biosynthesis of food-grade γ-aminobutyric acid
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 15. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11328-5. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an important bioactive compound, is synthesized through the decarboxylation of L-glutamate (L-Glu) by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as catalysts opens interesting avenues for the biosynthesis of food-grade GABA. However, a key obstacle involved in the improvement of GABA production is how to resolve the discrepancy of optimal pH between the intracellular GAD activity and cell growth. In this work, a potential GAD candidate (LpGadB) from Lactobacillus p...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Changjiang Lyu Lili Yao Qi Zhu Jiaqi Mei Yucheng Cao Sheng Hu Weirui Zhao Jun Huang Lehe Mei Shanjing Yao Guocheng Du Source Type: research

In situ approaches show the limitation of the spoilage potential of Juniperus phoenicea L. essential oil against cold-tolerant Pseudomonas fluorescens KM24
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 14. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11338-3. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to elucidate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of juniper essential oil (EO), α-pinene, and sabinene on the quorum-sensing (QS)-mediated proteolytic and lipolytic properties of Pseudomonas fluorescens KM24. These activities were verified under in situ conditions, in which sub-MICs of the agents altered the morphology of KM24 cells. RNA-Seq studies revealed key coding sequences (CDSs)/genes related to QS and the proteolytic/lipolytic activities of pseudomonads. In this work...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kamila Myszka Natalia Toma ś Łukasz Wolko Artur Szwengiel Anna Grygier Katarzyna Nuc Ma łgorzata Majcher Source Type: research

An ADH toolbox for raspberry ketone production from natural resources via a biocatalytic cascade
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 14. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11332-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRaspberry ketone is a widely used flavor compound in food and cosmetic industry. Several processes for its biocatalytic production have already been described, but either with the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or incomplete conversion of the variety of precursors that are available in nature. Such natural precursors are rhododendrol glycosides with different proportions of (R)- and (S)-rhododendrol depending on the origin. After hydrolysis of these rhododendrol glycosides, the formed rhododendrol enantiomer...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aileen Becker Dominique B öttcher Werner Katzer Karsten Siems Lutz M üller-Kuhrt Uwe T Bornscheuer Source Type: research

Nicotine concentration and mentholation affect bacterial community diversity in SPECTRUM research cigarettes
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11327-6. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrevious studies have characterized bacterial communities in menthol versus non-menthol cigarettes. However, these studies evaluated commercial cigarettes, for which levels of chemical constituents are largely unknown, and therefore, could not assess the impact of varying nicotine and menthol concentrations on tobacco bacterial communities. To address this knowledge gap, we performed time-series experiments using SPECTRUM research cigarettes with varying nicotine and menthol levels. Cigarettes were incubated under three s...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Suhana Chattopadhyay Leena Malayil Emmanuel F Mongodin Amy R Sapkota Source Type: research

Correction to: High cell density perfusion process for high yield of influenza A virus production using MDCK suspension cells
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 12. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11286-y. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33978779 | DOI:10.1007/s00253-021-11286-y (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xuping Liu Source Type: research

Nicotine concentration and mentholation affect bacterial community diversity in SPECTRUM research cigarettes
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11327-6. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrevious studies have characterized bacterial communities in menthol versus non-menthol cigarettes. However, these studies evaluated commercial cigarettes, for which levels of chemical constituents are largely unknown, and therefore, could not assess the impact of varying nicotine and menthol concentrations on tobacco bacterial communities. To address this knowledge gap, we performed time-series experiments using SPECTRUM research cigarettes with varying nicotine and menthol levels. Cigarettes were incubated under three s...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Suhana Chattopadhyay Leena Malayil Emmanuel F Mongodin Amy R Sapkota Source Type: research

Correction to: High cell density perfusion process for high yield of influenza A virus production using MDCK suspension cells
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 12. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11286-y. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33978779 | DOI:10.1007/s00253-021-11286-y (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xuping Liu Source Type: research

Nicotine concentration and mentholation affect bacterial community diversity in SPECTRUM research cigarettes
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11327-6. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrevious studies have characterized bacterial communities in menthol versus non-menthol cigarettes. However, these studies evaluated commercial cigarettes, for which levels of chemical constituents are largely unknown, and therefore, could not assess the impact of varying nicotine and menthol concentrations on tobacco bacterial communities. To address this knowledge gap, we performed time-series experiments using SPECTRUM research cigarettes with varying nicotine and menthol levels. Cigarettes were incubated under three s...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Suhana Chattopadhyay Leena Malayil Emmanuel F Mongodin Amy R Sapkota Source Type: research

Correction to: High cell density perfusion process for high yield of influenza A virus production using MDCK suspension cells
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 12. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11286-y. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33978779 | DOI:10.1007/s00253-021-11286-y (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xuping Liu Source Type: research

Rapid in vitro differentiation of bacteria by ion mobility spectrometry
In conclusion, MCC-IMS is able to differentiate the tested bacterial species, even the non-resistant and their corresponding resistant strains, based on VOC patterns after 90 min of cultivation. Although this result is very promising, in vivo studies need to be performed to investigate if this technology is able to also classify clinical samples. With a short analysis time of 5 min, MCC-IMS is quite attractive for a rapid screening for possible infections in various locations from hospitals to airports.Key Points• Differentiation of bacteria by MCC-IMS is shown after 90-min cultivation.• Non-resistant and resista...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Isabel Steppert Jessy Sch önfelder Carolyn Schultz Dirk Kuhlmeier Source Type: research

Correction to: Seed coating as a delivery system for the endophyte Trichoderma koningiopsis Th003 in rice (Oryza sativa)
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11334-7. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33974117 | DOI:10.1007/s00253-021-11334-7 (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Diego Cort és-Rojas Camilo Beltr án-Acosta Yimmy Zapata-Narvaez Martha Chaparro Martha G ómez Mauricio Cruz-Barrera Source Type: research

Mitochondrial damage produced by phytotoxic chromenone and chromanone derivatives from endophytic fungus Daldinia eschscholtzii strain GsE13
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11318-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extracts of the endophyte Daldinia eschscholtzii strain GsE13 led to the isolation of several phytotoxic compounds, including two chromenone and two chromanone derivatives: 5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one, 1; 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one, 2; 5-methoxy-2-methyl-chroman-4-one, 3; and 5-methoxy-2-methyl-chroman-4-ol, 4; as well as other aromatic compounds: 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone, 5; 1,8-dimethoxynaphthalene, 6; and 4,9-dihydroxy-1,2,11,12-tetrahydroperyl-en...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: M ónica Flores-Reséndiz Patricia Lappe-Oliveras Martha Lydia Mac ías-Rubalcava Source Type: research

β-Glucan phosphorylases in carbohydrate synthesis
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11320-z. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTβ-Glucan phosphorylases are carbohydrate-active enzymes that catalyze the reversible degradation of β-linked glucose polymers, with outstanding potential for the biocatalytic bottom-up synthesis of β-glucans as major bioactive compounds. Their preference for sugar phosphates (rather than nucleotide sugars) as donor substrates further underlines their significance for the carbohydrate industry. Presently, they are classified in the glycoside hydrolase families 94, 149, and 161 ( www.cazy.org ). Since the dis...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zorica Ubiparip Marc De Doncker Koen Beerens Jorick Franceus Tom Desmet Source Type: research

Robotics for enzyme technology: innovations and technological perspectives
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11302-1. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe use of robotics in the life science sector has created a considerable and significant impact on a wide range of research areas, including enzyme technology due to their immense applications in enzyme and microbial engineering as an indispensable tool in high-throughput screening applications. Scientists are experiencing the advanced applications of various biological robots (nanobots), fabricated based on bottom-up or top-down approaches for making nanotechnology scaffolds. Nanobots and enzyme-powered nanomotors are p...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mandeep Dixit Kusum Panchal Dharini Pandey Nikolaos E Labrou Pratyoosh Shukla Source Type: research

Mitochondrial damage produced by phytotoxic chromenone and chromanone derivatives from endophytic fungus Daldinia eschscholtzii strain GsE13
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11318-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extracts of the endophyte Daldinia eschscholtzii strain GsE13 led to the isolation of several phytotoxic compounds, including two chromenone and two chromanone derivatives: 5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one, 1; 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one, 2; 5-methoxy-2-methyl-chroman-4-one, 3; and 5-methoxy-2-methyl-chroman-4-ol, 4; as well as other aromatic compounds: 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone, 5; 1,8-dimethoxynaphthalene, 6; and 4,9-dihydroxy-1,2,11,12-tetrahydroperyl-en...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: M ónica Flores-Reséndiz Patricia Lappe-Oliveras Martha Lydia Mac ías-Rubalcava Source Type: research

β-Glucan phosphorylases in carbohydrate synthesis
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11320-z. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTβ-Glucan phosphorylases are carbohydrate-active enzymes that catalyze the reversible degradation of β-linked glucose polymers, with outstanding potential for the biocatalytic bottom-up synthesis of β-glucans as major bioactive compounds. Their preference for sugar phosphates (rather than nucleotide sugars) as donor substrates further underlines their significance for the carbohydrate industry. Presently, they are classified in the glycoside hydrolase families 94, 149, and 161 ( www.cazy.org ). Since the dis...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zorica Ubiparip Marc De Doncker Koen Beerens Jorick Franceus Tom Desmet Source Type: research

Robotics for enzyme technology: innovations and technological perspectives
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11302-1. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe use of robotics in the life science sector has created a considerable and significant impact on a wide range of research areas, including enzyme technology due to their immense applications in enzyme and microbial engineering as an indispensable tool in high-throughput screening applications. Scientists are experiencing the advanced applications of various biological robots (nanobots), fabricated based on bottom-up or top-down approaches for making nanotechnology scaffolds. Nanobots and enzyme-powered nanomotors are p...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mandeep Dixit Kusum Panchal Dharini Pandey Nikolaos E Labrou Pratyoosh Shukla Source Type: research

Mastering the control of the Rho transcription factor for biotechnological applications
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 8. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11326-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe present review represents an update on the fundamental role played by the Rho factor, which facilitates the process of Rho-dependent transcription termination in the prokaryotic world; it also provides a summary of relevant mutations in the Rho factor and the insights they provide into the functions carried out by this protein. Furthermore, a section is dedicated to the putative future use of Rho (the 'taming' of Rho) to facilitate biotechnological processes and adapt them to different technological contexts. Novel bac...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tom ás G Villa Ana G Abril Angeles S ánchez-Pérez Source Type: research

Mastering the control of the Rho transcription factor for biotechnological applications
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 8. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11326-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe present review represents an update on the fundamental role played by the Rho factor, which facilitates the process of Rho-dependent transcription termination in the prokaryotic world; it also provides a summary of relevant mutations in the Rho factor and the insights they provide into the functions carried out by this protein. Furthermore, a section is dedicated to the putative future use of Rho (the 'taming' of Rho) to facilitate biotechnological processes and adapt them to different technological contexts. Novel bac...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tom ás G Villa Ana G Abril Angeles S ánchez-Pérez Source Type: research

Process development and scale-up optimization of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-based vaccine candidate, RBD219-N1C1
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 7:1-13. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11281-3. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA SARS-CoV-2 RBD219-N1C1 (RBD219-N1C1) recombinant protein antigen formulated on Alhydrogel® has recently been shown to elicit a robust neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in mice. The antigen has been produced under current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) and is now in clinical testing. Here, we report on process development and scale-up optimization for upstream fermentation and downstream purification of the antigen. This includes production at the 1-L and 5-L scales in the yeast,...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jungsoon Lee Zhuyun Liu Wen-Hsiang Chen Junfei Wei Rakhi Kundu Rakesh Adhikari Joanne Altieri Rivera Portia M Gillespie Ulrich Strych Bin Zhan Peter J Hotez Maria Elena Bottazzi Source Type: research

Bacterial α-diglucoside metabolism: perspectives and potential for biotechnology and biomedicine
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 7. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11322-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn a competitive microbial environment, nutrient acquisition is a major contributor to the survival of any individual bacterial species, and the ability to access uncommon energy sources can provide a fitness advantage. One set of soluble carbohydrates that have attracted increased attention for use in biotechnology and biomedicine is the α-diglucosides. Maltose is the most well-studied member of this class; however, the remaining four less common α-diglucosides (trehalose, kojibiose, nigerose, and isomaltose) ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cecelia A Garcia Jeffrey G Gardner Source Type: research

Process development and scale-up optimization of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-based vaccine candidate, RBD219-N1C1
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 7. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11281-3. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA SARS-CoV-2 RBD219-N1C1 (RBD219-N1C1) recombinant protein antigen formulated on Alhydrogel® has recently been shown to elicit a robust neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in mice. The antigen has been produced under current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) and is now in clinical testing. Here, we report on process development and scale-up optimization for upstream fermentation and downstream purification of the antigen. This includes production at the 1-L and 5-L scales in the yeast, Pich...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jungsoon Lee Zhuyun Liu Wen-Hsiang Chen Junfei Wei Rakhi Kundu Rakesh Adhikari Joanne Altieri Rivera Portia M Gillespie Ulrich Strych Bin Zhan Peter J Hotez Maria Elena Bottazzi Source Type: research

Bacterial α-diglucoside metabolism: perspectives and potential for biotechnology and biomedicine
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 7. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11322-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn a competitive microbial environment, nutrient acquisition is a major contributor to the survival of any individual bacterial species, and the ability to access uncommon energy sources can provide a fitness advantage. One set of soluble carbohydrates that have attracted increased attention for use in biotechnology and biomedicine is the α-diglucosides. Maltose is the most well-studied member of this class; however, the remaining four less common α-diglucosides (trehalose, kojibiose, nigerose, and isomaltose) ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cecelia A Garcia Jeffrey G Gardner Source Type: research

Potential role of IFN- α in COVID-19 patients and its underlying treatment options
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 5:1-11. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11319-6. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly worldwide. Given that this contagious viral outbreak is still unfolding, it is urgent to understand the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and explore effective treatments to protect patients from developing a severe illness related to COVID-19. Recently, IFN-α has been considered a potential therapeutic strategy to treat COVID-19 disease, mainly because the innate immune system rapidl...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lei Yang Jianhui Wang Pei Hui Timur O Yarovinsky Saiaditya Badeti Kien Pham Chen Liu Source Type: research

CpG ODN as an adjuvant arouses the vigor of B cells by relieving the negative regulation of surface TLR9 to enhance the antibody response to vaccine
In this study, we immunized mice with hepatitis B vaccine adjuvanted by CpG ODN (CpG 5805) and found that CpG 5805 enhanced the antibody response to vaccine and meanwhile down-regulated the sTLR9 levels on B cells. With antibody feeding assay and flow cytometry analysis, we further found that CpG 5805 induced a movement of the sTLR9 in B cells, internalized first and then mobilized to endosomes. Accompanied with the movement, CD80, CD86, CD40, and MHC II molecules were significantly up-regulated on the B cells. Interestingly, the B cells with internalized sTLR9 enlarged morphologically, and the sTLR9 levels were obviously ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wenting Lu Cuiyun Cui Yangyang Wang Xiaomeng Sun Shengnan Wang Ming Yang Yongli Yu Liying Wang Source Type: research

The pentose phosphate pathway in industrially relevant fungi: crucial insights for bioprocessing
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 5. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11314-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is one of the most targeted pathways in metabolic engineering. This pathway is the primary source of NADPH, and it contributes in fungi to the production of many compounds of interest such as polyols, biofuels, carotenoids, or antibiotics. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the PPP are still not fully known. This review provides an insight into the current comprehension of the PPP in fungi and the limitations of this current understanding. It highlights how this knowledge contributes ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Audrey Masi Robert L Mach Astrid R Mach-Aigner Source Type: research

Aspergillus niger uses the peroxisomal CoA-dependent β-oxidative genes to degrade the hydroxycinnamic acids caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid
In this study, several pathway genes were identified using whole-genome transcriptomic data of A. niger grown on different hydroxycinnamic acids. The genes are involved in the CoA-dependent β-oxidative pathway in fungi. This pathway is well known for the degradation of fatty acids, but not for hydroxycinnamic acids. However, in plants, it has been shown that hydroxycinnamic acids are degraded through this pathway. We identified genes encoding hydroxycinnamate-CoA synthase (hcsA), multifunctional β-oxidation hydratase/dehydrogenase (foxA), 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase (katA), and four thioesterases (theA-D) of A. niger...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: R J M Lubbers A Dilokpimol J Visser R P de Vries Source Type: research

Potential role of IFN- α in COVID-19 patients and its underlying treatment options
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 5:1-11. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11319-6. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly worldwide. Given that this contagious viral outbreak is still unfolding, it is urgent to understand the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and explore effective treatments to protect patients from developing a severe illness related to COVID-19. Recently, IFN-α has been considered a potential therapeutic strategy to treat COVID-19 disease, mainly because the innate immune system rapidl...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lei Yang Jianhui Wang Pei Hui Timur O Yarovinsky Saiaditya Badeti Kien Pham Chen Liu Source Type: research

CpG ODN as an adjuvant arouses the vigor of B cells by relieving the negative regulation of surface TLR9 to enhance the antibody response to vaccine
In this study, we immunized mice with hepatitis B vaccine adjuvanted by CpG ODN (CpG 5805) and found that CpG 5805 enhanced the antibody response to vaccine and meanwhile down-regulated the sTLR9 levels on B cells. With antibody feeding assay and flow cytometry analysis, we further found that CpG 5805 induced a movement of the sTLR9 in B cells, internalized first and then mobilized to endosomes. Accompanied with the movement, CD80, CD86, CD40, and MHC II molecules were significantly up-regulated on the B cells. Interestingly, the B cells with internalized sTLR9 enlarged morphologically, and the sTLR9 levels were obviously ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wenting Lu Cuiyun Cui Yangyang Wang Xiaomeng Sun Shengnan Wang Ming Yang Yongli Yu Liying Wang Source Type: research

The pentose phosphate pathway in industrially relevant fungi: crucial insights for bioprocessing
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 5. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11314-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is one of the most targeted pathways in metabolic engineering. This pathway is the primary source of NADPH, and it contributes in fungi to the production of many compounds of interest such as polyols, biofuels, carotenoids, or antibiotics. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the PPP are still not fully known. This review provides an insight into the current comprehension of the PPP in fungi and the limitations of this current understanding. It highlights how this knowledge contributes ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Audrey Masi Robert L Mach Astrid R Mach-Aigner Source Type: research

Aspergillus niger uses the peroxisomal CoA-dependent β-oxidative genes to degrade the hydroxycinnamic acids caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid
In this study, several pathway genes were identified using whole-genome transcriptomic data of A. niger grown on different hydroxycinnamic acids. The genes are involved in the CoA-dependent β-oxidative pathway in fungi. This pathway is well known for the degradation of fatty acids, but not for hydroxycinnamic acids. However, in plants, it has been shown that hydroxycinnamic acids are degraded through this pathway. We identified genes encoding hydroxycinnamate-CoA synthase (hcsA), multifunctional β-oxidation hydratase/dehydrogenase (foxA), 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase (katA), and four thioesterases (theA-D) of A. niger...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: R J M Lubbers A Dilokpimol J Visser R P de Vries Source Type: research

Bacterial bioreporters for the detection of trace explosives: performance enhancement by DNA shuffling and random mutagenesis
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 4. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11290-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLandmines and other explosive remnants of war pose a global humanitarian problem that claims numerous casualties long after the conflict has ended. As there are no acceptable methodologies for the remote discovery of such devices, current detection practices still require the risky presence of personnel in the minefield. We have recently described bacterial sensor strains capable of reporting the existence of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapors in the soil above 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-based landmines, by generating a biol...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Etai Shpigel Benjamin Shemer Tal Elad Anat Glozman Shimshon Belkin Source Type: research

Identification of functional cytochrome P450 and ferredoxin from Streptomyces sp. EAS-AB2608 by transcriptional analysis and their heterologous expression
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 4. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11304-z. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBioconversion using microorganisms and their enzymes is an important tool in many industrial fields. The discovery of useful new microbial enzymes contributes to the development of industries utilizing bioprocesses. Streptomyces sp. EAS-AB2608, isolated from a soil sample collected in Japan, can convert the tetrahydrobenzotriazole CPD-1 (a selective positive allosteric modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5) to its hydroxylated form at the C4-(R) position. The current study was performed to identify the genes encod...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shinya Okubo Eri Ena Akifumi Okuda Ikuko Kozone Junko Hashimoto Yoshie Nishitsuji Manabu Fujie Noriyuki Satoh Haruo Ikeda Kazuo Shin-Ya Source Type: research

Diversity of nitrogen cycling genes at a Midwest long-term ecological research site with different management practices
In conclusion, the microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism were sensitive to different agricultural practices, which in turn, likely has implications for N2O emissions. KEY POINTS: • Four genes were less abundant in NT compared to one or more of the others soils (nifH, nirK, nirS, norB). • The most abundant sequences for many of the genes classified within the Proteobacteria. • Higher diversity and richness indices were observed for four genes (napA, narG, nirA, nirB). • Based on nirS/nirK ratios, CT represents the highest N2O consumption potential.PMID:33944983 | DOI:10.1007/s00253-021-11...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zheng Li Alison M Cupples Source Type: research

Bacterial bioreporters for the detection of trace explosives: performance enhancement by DNA shuffling and random mutagenesis
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 4. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11290-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLandmines and other explosive remnants of war pose a global humanitarian problem that claims numerous casualties long after the conflict has ended. As there are no acceptable methodologies for the remote discovery of such devices, current detection practices still require the risky presence of personnel in the minefield. We have recently described bacterial sensor strains capable of reporting the existence of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapors in the soil above 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-based landmines, by generating a biol...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Etai Shpigel Benjamin Shemer Tal Elad Anat Glozman Shimshon Belkin Source Type: research

Identification of functional cytochrome P450 and ferredoxin from Streptomyces sp. EAS-AB2608 by transcriptional analysis and their heterologous expression
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 4. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11304-z. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBioconversion using microorganisms and their enzymes is an important tool in many industrial fields. The discovery of useful new microbial enzymes contributes to the development of industries utilizing bioprocesses. Streptomyces sp. EAS-AB2608, isolated from a soil sample collected in Japan, can convert the tetrahydrobenzotriazole CPD-1 (a selective positive allosteric modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5) to its hydroxylated form at the C4-(R) position. The current study was performed to identify the genes encod...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shinya Okubo Eri Ena Akifumi Okuda Ikuko Kozone Junko Hashimoto Yoshie Nishitsuji Manabu Fujie Noriyuki Satoh Haruo Ikeda Kazuo Shin-Ya Source Type: research

Diversity of nitrogen cycling genes at a Midwest long-term ecological research site with different management practices
In conclusion, the microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism were sensitive to different agricultural practices, which in turn, likely has implications for N2O emissions. KEY POINTS: • Four genes were less abundant in NT compared to one or more of the others soils (nifH, nirK, nirS, norB). • The most abundant sequences for many of the genes classified within the Proteobacteria. • Higher diversity and richness indices were observed for four genes (napA, narG, nirA, nirB). • Based on nirS/nirK ratios, CT represents the highest N2O consumption potential.PMID:33944983 | DOI:10.1007/s00253-021-11...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zheng Li Alison M Cupples Source Type: research

Impact of a fermented soy beverage supplemented with acerola by-product on the gut microbiota from lean and obese subjects using an in vitro model of the human colon
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11252-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soy-based beverages manufactured with water-soluble soy extract, containing probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium longum BB-46) and/or acerola by-product (ABP) on pooled faecal microbiota obtained from lean and obese donors. Four fermented soy beverages (FSs) ("placebo" (FS-Pla), probiotic (FS-Pro), prebiotic (FS-Pre), and synbiotic (FS-Syn)) were subjected to in vitro digestion, followed by inoculation in the TIM-2 system, a dyn...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Antonio Diogo Silva Vieira Carlota Bussolo de Souza Marina Padilha Erwin Gerard Zoetendal Hauke Smidt Susana Marta Isay Saad Koen Venema Source Type: research

Comparison of N-linked glycosylation on hemagglutinins derived from chicken embryos and MDCK cells: a case of the production of a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine
In this study, we compared glycosylation patterns, including the occupancy of potential glycosylation sites and the distribution of different glycans, on the HAs of three strains of influenza viruses for the production a trivalent seasonal flu vaccine for the 2015-2016 Northern Hemisphere season (i.e., A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) X179A, A/Switzerland/9715293/2013 (H3N2) NIB-88, and B/Brisbane/60/2008 NYMC BX-35###). Of the 8, 12, and 11 potential glycosylation sites on the HAs of H1N1, H3N2, and B strains, respectively, most were highly occupied. For the H3N2 and B strains, MDCK-derived HAs contained more sites being partially occupied (
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jingqi Li Sixu Liu Yanlin Gao Shuaishuai Tian Yu Yang Ningning Ma Source Type: research

Peculiarities of meroterpenoids and their bioproduction
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11312-z. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMeroterpenoids are a class of terpenoid-containing hybrid natural products with impressive structural architectures and remarkable pharmacological activities. Remarkable advances in enzymology and synthetic biology have greatly contributed to the elucidation of the molecular basis for their biosynthesis. Here, we review structurally unique meroterpenoids catalyzed by novel enzymes and unusual enzymatic reactions over the period of last 5 years. We also discuss recent progress on the biomimetic synthesis of chrome meroterpe...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jianying Han Lan Jiang Lixin Zhang Ronald J Quinn Xueting Liu Yunjiang Feng Source Type: research

Ile258Met mutation of Brucella melitensis 7 α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase significantly enhances catalytic efficiency, cofactor affinity, and thermostability
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11299-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNAD(H)-dependent 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of chenodeoxycholic acid to 7-oxolithocholic acid. Here, we designed mutations of Ile258 adjacent to the catalytic pocket of Brucella melitensis 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The I258M variant gave a 4.7-fold higher kcat, but 4.5-fold lower KM, compared with the wild type, resulting in a 21.8-fold higher kcat/KM value for chenodeoxycholic acid oxidation. It presented a 2.0-fold lower KM value with NAD+, suggesting stronger binding to th...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhiyong Liu Rongzhen Zhang Wenchi Zhang Yan Xu Source Type: research

Molecular strategies to increase keratinase production in heterologous expression systems for industrial applications
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11321-y. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTKeratinase is an important enzyme that can degrade recalcitrant keratinous wastes to form beneficial recyclable keratin hydrolysates. Keratinase is not only important as an alternative to reduce environmental pollution caused by chemical treatments of keratinous wastes, but it also has industrial significance. Currently, the bioproduction of keratinase from native keratinolytic host is considered low, and this hampers large-scale usage of the enzyme. Straightforward approaches of cloning and expression of recombinant kerat...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Radin Shafierul Radin Yahaya Yahaya M Normi Lai Yee Phang Siti Aqlima Ahmad Janna Ong Abdullah Suriana Sabri Source Type: research

Biotech in China 2021, at the beginning of the 14th five-year period ("145")
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 3:1-15. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11317-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAs China assumes a more and more dominant role in global science, this mini-review attempts to provide a bird's eye view on how the bio-digital revolution impacts China's biosciences and bioindustry. Triggered by top-down political programs and the buildup of an impressive infrastructure in science, information technology, and education, China's biomedical and MedTech industries prosper. Plant and animal breeding programs transform agriculture and food supply as much as the Internet of things, and synthetic biology of...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rolf D Schmid Xin Xiong Source Type: research

Exploring the molecular content of CHO exosomes during bioprocessing
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11309-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn biopharmaceutical production, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells derived from Cricetulus griseus remain the most commonly used host cell for recombinant protein production, especially antibodies. Over the last decade, in-depth multi-omics characterization of these CHO cells provided data for extensive cell line engineering and corresponding increases in productivity. However, exosomes, extracellular vesicles containing proteins and nucleic acids, are barely researched at all in CHO cells. Exosomes have been proven to be ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Christoph Keysberg Oliver Hertel Louise Schelletter Tobias Busche Chiara Sochart J örn Kalinowski Raimund Hoffrogge Kerstin Otte Thomas Noll Source Type: research