Rapid identification of a subset of foodborne bacteria in live-cell assays.
Abstract The detection and identification of microbial pathogens in meat and fresh produce play an essential role in food safety for reducing foodborne illnesses every year. A new approach based on targeting a specific sequence of the 16S rRNA region for each bacterium is proposed and validated. The probe complex consists of a C60, a conjugated RNA detector which targets a specific 16S rRNA sequence, and a complementary fluorescent reporter. The RNA detectors were designed by integrating NIH nucleotide and Vienna RNA Webservice databases, and their specificities were validated by the RDP database. Probe compl...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cheng Q, Parvin B Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Campylobacter sp.: Pathogenicity factors and prevention methods-new molecular targets for innovative antivirulence drugs?
Abstract Infections caused by bacterial species from the genus Campylobacter are one of the four main causes of strong diarrheal enteritis worldwide. Campylobacteriosis, a typical food-borne disease, can range from mild symptoms to fatal illness. About 550 million people worldwide suffer from campylobacteriosis and lethality is about 33 million p.a. This review summarizes the state of the current knowledge on Campylobacter with focus on its specific virulence factors. Using this knowledge, multifactorial prevention strategies can be implemented to reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter in the food chain. In partic...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kreling V, Falcone FH, Kehrenberg C, Hensel A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Isolation of a gene cluster from Armillaria gallica for the synthesis of armillyl orsellinate-type sesquiterpenoids.
Abstract Melleolides and armillyl orsellinates are protoilludene-type aryl esters that are synthesized exclusively by parasitic fungi of the globally distributed genus Armillaria (Agaricomycetes, Physalacriaceae). Several of these compounds show potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, making them promising leads for the development of new antibiotics or drugs for the treatment of cancer. We recently cloned and characterized the Armillaria gallica gene Pro1 encoding protoilludene synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase catalyzing the pathway-committing step to all protoilludene-type aryl esters. Fungal enzymes rep...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Engels B, Heinig U, McElroy C, Meusinger R, Grothe T, Stadler M, Jennewein S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Amplification of EBNA-1 through a single-plasmid vector-based gene amplification system in HEK293 cells as an efficient transient gene expression system.
Abstract Our previous work showed that there is a limitation in the use of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr)/methotrexate (MTX)-mediated gene amplification systems in dhfr-non-deficient HEK293 cells, as endogenous dhfr may interfere with the amplification process. In the present study, we successfully generated Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1)-amplified HEK293 cells in a dhfr-non-deficient HEK293 cell background using a single-plasmid vector-based gene amplification system with shRNA targeting the 3'-UTR of endogenous dhfr. The introduction of this shRNA efficiently downregulated the expression of endoge...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Park SH, Park JH, Lee JH, Lee HM, Kang YJ, Lee EJ, Shin S, Lee GM, Kim YG Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A novel biosensor for the detection of organophosphorus (OP)-based pesticides using organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA)-FL variant.
In this study, recombinant expression of the OPAA-FL variant in Escherichia coli was performed, purified, and subsequently tested for activity against ethyl paraoxon. OPAA-FL variant showed its optimum activity at pH 8.5 and 50 °C. Colorimetric and fluorometric assays were used for estimation of ethyl paraoxon based on p-nitrophenol and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorescence intensity, respectively. Colorimetric and fluorometric assay estimation indicates that ethyl paraoxon can be estimated in the linear range of 0.01 to 1 mM and 0.1 to 0.5 mM, with LOD values 0.04 mM and 0.056 mM, respectively. Furthermore, t...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jain M, Yadav P, Joshi B, Joshi A, Kodgire P Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

In vitro and in silico evaluation of the inhibitory effect of a curcumin-based oxovanadium (IV) complex on alkaline phosphatase activity and bacterial biofilm formation.
Abstract The scientific interest in the development of novel metal-based compounds as inhibitors of bacterial biofilm-related infections and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) deregulating effects is continuous and rising. In the current study, a novel crystallographically defined heteroleptic V(IV)-curcumin-bipyridine (V-Cur) complex with proven bio-activity was studied as a potential inhibitor of ALP activity and bacterial biofilm. The inhibitory effect of V-Cur was evaluated on bovine ALP, with two different substrates: para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The obtained results suggested t...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Katsipis G, Tsalouxidou V, Halevas E, Geromichalou E, Geromichalos G, Pantazaki AA Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Genetic engineering of an industrial yeast Candida glycerinogenes for efficient production of 2-phenylethanol.
This study combined metabolic engineering and tolerance engineering strategies to maximize the valuable rose-smell 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) production in Candida glycerinogenes, a GRAS diploid industrial yeast. Firstly, 2-PE metabolic networks involved in Ehrlich pathway were stepwise rewired using metabolic engineering, including the following: (1) overexpressing L-phenylalanine permease Aap9 enhanced precursor uptake; (2) overexpressing enzymes (aminotransferase Aro9 and decarboxylase Aro10) of Ehrlich pathway increased catalytic efficiency; and (3) disrupting the formation of by-product phenylacetate catalyzed by Ald2 and...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Y, Zhang Z, Lu X, Zong H, Zhuge B Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Phytogenic products, used as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters, modify the intestinal microbiota derived from a range of production systems: an in vitro model.
Abstract The removal of antibiotics from the feeds used in the livestock industry has resulted in the use of a wide range of alternative antimicrobial products that aim to deliver the productivity and health benefits that have traditionally been associated with antibiotics. Amongst the most popular alternatives are phytogenic product-based extracts from herbs and spices with known antimicrobial properties. Despite embracing such alternatives, the industry is still largely unaware of modes of action, their overall effects on animal health, and interactions with other feed additives such as probiotics. To address so...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bajagai YS, Alsemgeest J, Moore RJ, Van TTH, Stanley D Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microbial communities and gene contributions in smokeless tobacco products.
Abstract Smokeless tobacco products (STP) contain bacteria, mold, and fungi due to exposure from surrounding environments and tobacco processing. This has been a cause for concern since the presence of microorganisms has been linked to the formation of highly carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines. These communities have also been reported to produce toxins and other pro-inflammatory molecules that can cause mouth lesions and elicit inflammatory responses in STP users. Moreover, microbial species in these products could transfer to the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, potentially altering the established resp...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rivera AJ, Tyx RE, Keong LM, Stanfill SB, Watson CH Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Living with sulfonamides: a diverse range of mechanisms observed in bacteria.
Abstract Sulfonamides are the oldest class of synthetic antibiotics still in use in clinical and veterinary settings. The intensive utilization of sulfonamides has been leading to the widespread contamination of the environment with these xenobiotic compounds. Consequently, in addition to pathogens and commensals, also bacteria inhabiting a wide diversity of environmental compartments have been in contact with sulfonamides for almost 90 years. This review aims at giving an overview of the effect of sulfonamides on bacterial cells, including the strategies used by bacteria to cope with these bacteriostatic age...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nunes OC, Manaia CM, Kolvenbach BA, Corvini PF Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Synergistic antimicrobial activity of N-methyl substituted pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids and melittin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Abstract In pharmaceutical industry, the prodrug approaches and drug-drug conjugates are being now vastly used to optimize the efficacy of the drugs for multipurpose. The combination or conjugation of antimicrobials agents with natural antimicrobials may lead to better synergistic antimicrobial activity. Currently, many publications show the potential of ionic liquids (ILs) as novel antimicrobials and even as active pharmaceutical ingredients. The current study showed the synthesis of novel pyrrolidinium-based ILs (Cx, x = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) and their antibacterial activity alone and in combination with antimicrobia...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saraswat J, Aldahmash B, AlOmar SY, Imtiyaz K, Rizvi MMA, Patel R Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Triton X-100 improves co-production of β-1,3-D-glucan and pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans.
Triton X-100 improves co-production of β-1,3-D-glucan and pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Nov 10;: Authors: Wang GL, Din AU, Qiu YS, Wang CL, Wang DH, Wei GY Abstract The effects of several surfactants on the biosynthesis of β-1,3-D-glucan (β-glucan) and pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M 2012259 were investigated, and Triton X-100 was found to decrease biomass formation but increase β-glucan and pullulan production. The addition of 5 g/L Triton X-100 to the fermentation medium and bioconversion broth significantly increased β...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang GL, Din AU, Qiu YS, Wang CL, Wang DH, Wei GY Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Antibacterial mechanism of brevilaterin B: an amphiphilic lipopeptide targeting the membrane of Listeria monocytogenes.
Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are recognized as promising safe alternatives to antibiotics for its low drug-resistance. Brevilaterin B, a newly discovered antimicrobial lipopeptide produced by Brevibacillus laterosporus S62-9, exhibits efficient antibacterial activity on Listeria monocytogenes with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 μg mL-1. The present research aimed to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of brevilaterin B against Listeria monocytogenes. Brevilaterin B caused membrane depolarization and the breakup of the cytomembrane as measured by 3,3-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine io...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu Y, Ma A, Han P, Chen Z, Jia Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Fungichromin production by Streptomyces sp. WP-1, an endophyte from Pinus dabeshanensis, and its antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum.
In this study, we isolated an endophytic Streptomyces sp. strain, WP-1, from surface-sterilized barks of Pinus dabeshanensis, an endangered Chinese plant. WP-1 showed strong antifungal activity against diverse pathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora infestan, and Candida albicans. Based on phylogenetic analyses, preliminary identification suggested that the WP-1 strain belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Column chromatogram and HPLC were employed to isolate the primary antifungal component from the culture medium of WP-1, and it was identified as the methylpentaene macrolide antibioti...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peng C, An D, Ding WX, Zhu YX, Ye L, Li J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Nitric oxide-inducing Genistein elicits apoptosis-like death via an intense SOS response in Escherichia coli.
In conclusion, the combined results demonstrated that the antibacterial mode of action(s) of genistein was a NO-induced apoptosis-like death, and the role of RecA suggested that it contributed to the SOS response of NO defense. KEY POINTS: • Genistein generates nitric oxide in E. coli. • Genistein exhibits intense SOS response in E. coli. • Genistein-induced NO causes apoptosis-like death in E. coli. PMID: 33170329 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kim H, Lee DG Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Genome shuffling improves pigment and other bioactive compound production in Monascus purpureus.
The objective of this study was to develop an improved pigment-producing strain of M. purpureus MTCC 1090 through genome shuffling followed by detailed analytical estimations of pigments and other bioactive compounds produced by the fusant. Protoplast formation was optimum with 12 h-old mycelia incubated at 30 °C with cellulase, lyticase, and chitinase (40:1:1) for 5 h. Four UV-induced mutants that produced 13.1-39.5% higher amount of yellow, orange, and red pigments in fermented low-grade (cheap) broken rice were used as parents for genome shuffling. After the first round of fusion, four fusants with 35.9-60.52% ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ghosh S, Dam B Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The effect of bile acids on the growth and global gene expression profiles in Akkermansia muciniphila.
Abstract Akkermansia muciniphila is a prominent member of the gut microbiota and the organism gets exposed to bile acids within this niche. Several gut bacteria have bile response genes to metabolize bile acids or an ability to change their membrane structure to prevent membrane damage from bile acids. To understand the response to bile acids and how A. muciniphila can persist in the gut, we studied the effect of bile acids and individual bile salts on growth. In addition, the change in gene expression under ox-bile condition was studied. The growth of A. muciniphila was inhibited by ox-bile and the bile salts mix...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hagi T, Geerlings SY, Nijsse B, Belzer C Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Development of a double monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting canine distemper virus.
In this study, after BABL/c mice were immunized with recombinant CDV-fusion (F) protein, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against recombinant CDV-F protein (designated 1A5, 1A6, and 7D5) were produced using traditional hybridoma cell technology. Next, capture antibody (1A6, 800 ng/well) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated detection antibody (HRP-7D5, 1:100, 500 ng/well) were used in a double monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for CDV detection after optimization of both mAb amounts per well using a checkerboard titration test. Based on sandwich ELISA test results for ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang Y, Xu G, Zhang L, Zhao J, Ji P, Li Y, Liu B, Zhang J, Zhao Q, Sun Y, Zhou EM Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Transcriptome response of Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 to high acetic acid stress during vinegar production.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the genome-wide transcriptional response of A. pasteurianus Ab3 to high acid stress during vinegar production. By comparing the transcriptional landscape of cells harvested from a long-term cultivation with high acidity (70 ± 3 g/L) to that of low acidity (10 ± 2 g/L), we demonstrated that 1005 genes were differentially expressed. By functional enrichment analysis, we found that the expression of genes related to the two-component systems (TCS) and toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) was significantly regulated under high acid stress. Cell...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xia K, Han C, Xu J, Liang X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Comparative genomics of the sequential Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from the continuous imipenem stress evolution.
This study aims to clarify the underlying mechanism of imipenem resistance and provide alternative strategies for reducing resistance in P. aeruginosa. KEY POINTS: • Strains with different imipenem MIC were obtained via laboratory selection evolution. • Whole genomes of two strains with different MIC of imipenem were sequenced. • Underlying mechanism of imipenem resistance was clarified via comparative genomics. PMID: 33151366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lu C, Zhou J, Zhang T, Li C, Chen J, Fan J, Qu L, Su X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Protein scaffold optimizes arrangement of constituent enzymes in indigoidine synthetic pathway to improve the pigment production.
Abstract Indigoidine is a dark-blue natural pigment with application prospect and synthesized from glutamine (Gln) by series of indigoidine synthetases (IndCs). Indigoidine production can be improved by enhancing Gln pool via supplementing Gln directly or converting metabolism glutamate (Glu) to Gln by glutamine synthetase (GlnA). But, Gln is expensive, and excess Gln inhibits indigoidine production of the recombinant strain. Supplementing Glu instead of Gln may improve the productive and economic efficiency of indigoidine, but the local activities and positions of the indigoidine pathway enzymes GlnA, Sc-IndC, an...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang L, Sun Y, Lv D, Liu B, Guan Y, Yu D Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Substrate specificity of 2-deoxy-D-ribose 5-phosphate aldolase (DERA) assessed by different protein engineering and machine learning methods.
ttilä M, Koivula A Abstract In this work, deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase (Ec DERA, EC 4.1.2.4) from Escherichia coli was chosen as the protein engineering target for improving the substrate preference towards smaller, non-phosphorylated aldehyde donor substrates, in particular towards acetaldehyde. The initial broad set of mutations was directed to 24 amino acid positions in the active site or in the close vicinity, based on the 3D complex structure of the E. coli DERA wild-type aldolase. The specific activity of the DERA variants containing one to three amino acid mutations was characterised using three di...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Voutilainen S, Heinonen M, Andberg M, Jokinen E, Maaheimo H, Pääkkönen J, Hakulinen N, Rouvinen J, Lähdesmäki H, Kaski S, Rousu J, Penttilä M, Koivula A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Identification of a novel cell-penetrating peptide derived from the capsid protein of chicken anemia virus and its application in gene delivery.
Abstract Cell membranes are a great obstacle for entrance of gene therapeutic agents. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been proven as a promising gene delivery tool. However, the early TAT peptide derived from the HIV transcription activator protein has been proven that the sequence contains Furin protease cleaved motifs which limited the TAT application in delivery of exogenous active molecules. In the present study, through the bioinformatics and experimental approach, we have identified a novel CPP derived from the N terminus of VP1 protein of chicken anemia virus (CAV), designated as CVP1-N2, which is ric...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hu G, Miao Y, Luo X, Chu W, Fu Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of Streptococcus mutans.
This study evaluated the reliability of MALDI-TOF MS coupled with statistical tools for the identification of Streptococcus mutans in comparison with PCR-based techniques. Bacterial isolates were identified and serotyped by conventional PCR, using S. mutans species and serotype-specific primers. For bacterial identification, mass spectra data from S. mutans and other streptococci were compared with Biotyper V 3.1 database and the mass peak lists were examined by cluster and principal component (PCA) analysis. Identification of potential biomarkers was performed using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL databases and ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saltos Rosero N, Torres Corral Y, Fernández Álvarez C, Aguilera Guirao A, Seoane Prado R, Santos Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Combined isoflavones biotransformation increases the bioactive and antioxidant capacity of soymilk.
This study evaluated the potential of microbial and enzymatic treatments in biotransformed isoflavones in their biologically active forms in soymilk. Seven different cultures of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria associated with the action of immobilized tannase enzyme were screened for isoflavone glycoside biotransformation ability. The biotransformed soymilk samples were characterized regarding isoflavone profile, total phenolic content, and in vitro antioxidant activities. All bacterial strains showed a good growth capacity in soymilk matrix and produced β-glucosidase enzyme, which hydrolyzed isoflavone glycos...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: de Queirós LD, de Ávila ARA, Botaro AV, Chirotto DBL, Macedo JA, Macedo GA Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Supplementation of Bacillus sp. DU-106 reduces hypercholesterolemia and ameliorates gut dysbiosis in high-fat diet rats.
In conclusion, Bacillus sp. DU-106 supplement ameliorated high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and showed potential probiotic benefits for the intestine. KEY POINTS: • A novel potential probiotic Bacillus sp. DU-106 ameliorated hypercholesterolemia in rats. • Bacillus sp. DU-106 supplement regulated gut microbiome structure and richness. • Bacillus sp. DU-106 supplement changed metabolic profiles in high-fat diet rats. • Significant correlations were observed between differential genera and metabolites. PMID: 33128611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huang J, Xiao N, Sun Y, Wu S, Tian W, Lai Y, Li P, Du B Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Acetylation of translation machinery affected protein translation in E. coli.
Abstract Reversible lysine acetylation (RLA) of translation machinery components, such as ribosomal proteins (RPs) and translation factors (TFs), was identified in many microorganisms, while knowledge of its function and effect on translation remains limited. Herein, we show that translation machinery is regulated by acetylation. Using the cell-free translation system of E. coli, we found that AcP-driven acetylation significantly reduced the relative translation rate, and deacetylation partially restored the translation activity. Hyperacetylation caused by intracellular AcP accumulation or carbon/nitrogen fluctuat...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang BQ, Bu HL, You D, Ye BC Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A bi-enzymatic cascade to yield pyruvate as co-substrate for L-tyrosine production.
Abstract L-Tyrosine is a versatile compound used in the fine chemical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. Here, we report a bi-enzymatic cascade involving alanine racemase (ALR) and D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) to produce pyruvate, as co-substrate for L-tyrosine production, from the cheap substrate L-alanine. The BpALR (ALR from Bacillus pseudofirmus) was used as a whole-cell biocatalyst, converting L-alanine to D, L-alanine. The FsDAAO (DAAO from Fusarium solani) was immobilized to oxidize the D-alanine generated in the first step to pyruvate. Both systems were combined as a continuous-flow reactor fo...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Guo X, Wu W, Zhang M, Wu L, Huang J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Staphylococcins: an update on antimicrobial peptides produced by staphylococci and their diverse potential applications.
Abstract Staphylococcins are antimicrobial peptides or proteins produced by staphylococci. They can be separated into different classes, depending on their amino acid composition, structural complexity, and steps involved in their production. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge on staphylococcins will be presented with emphasis on the information collected in the last decade, including a brief description of new peptides. Most staphylococcins characterized to date are either lantibiotics or linear class II bacteriocins. Recently, gene clusters coding for production of circular bacteriocins, sactip...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: de Freire Bastos MDC, Miceli de Farias F, Carlin Fagundes P, Varella Coelho ML Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Comparative genomic analysis reveals metabolic diversity of different Paenibacillus groups.
Abstract The genus Paenibacillus was originally recognized based on the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Recently, a standardized bacterial taxonomy approach based on a genome phylogeny has substantially revised the classification of Paenibacillus, dividing it into 23 genera. However, the metabolic differences among these groups remain undescribed. Here, genomes of 41 Paenibacillus strains comprising 25 species were sequenced, and a comparative genomic analysis was performed considering these and 187 publicly available Paenibacillus genomes to understand their phylogeny and metabolic differences. Phylogenetic analysis ind...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huang WC, Hu Y, Zhang G, Li M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Bacteria associated with cockroaches: health risk or biotechnological opportunity?
Abstract Cockroaches have existed for 300 million years and more than 4600 extant species have been described. Throughout their evolution, cockroaches have been associated with bacteria, and today Blattabacterium species flourish within specialized bacteriocytes, recycling nitrogen from host waste products. Cockroaches can disseminate potentially pathogenic bacteria via feces and other deposits, particularly members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, but also Staphylococcus and Mycobacterium species, and thus, they should be cleared from sites where hygiene is essential, such as hospitals and kitchens. On the other...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Guzman J, Vilcinskas A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Efficient production of the anti-aging drug Cycloastragenol: insight from two Glycosidases by enzyme mining.
Abstract The telomerase activator cycloastragenol (CA) is regarded as a potential anti-aging drug with promising applications in the food and medical industry. However, one remaining challenge is the low efficiency of CA production. Herein, we developed an enzyme-based approach by applying two enzymes (β-xylosidase: Xyl-T; β-glucosidase: Bgcm) for efficient CA production. Both key glycosidases, mined by activity tracking or homology sequence screening, were successfully over-expressed and showed prominent enzymatic activity profiles, including widely pH stability (Xyl-T: pH 3.0-8.0; Bgcm: pH 4.0-10.0), h...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cheng L, Zhang H, Cui H, Wang W, Yuan Q Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Introducing a hybrid artificial intelligence method for high-throughput modeling and optimizing plant tissue culture processes: the establishment of a new embryogenesis medium for chrysanthemum, as a case study.
This study was aimed at modeling and optimizing a new embryogenesis medium for chrysanthemum. Three individual data-driven models, including multi-layer perceptron (MLP), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and support vector regression (SVR), were developed for callogenesis rate (CR), embryogenesis rate (ER), and somatic embryo number (SEN). Consequently, the best obtained results were used in the fusion process by a bagging method. For medium reformulation, effects of eight ionic macronutrients on CR, ER, and SEN and effects of four vitamins on SEN were evaluated using data fusion (DF)-non-dominated sorting ge...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hesami M, Naderi R, Tohidfar M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Characterization of two extracellular arabinanases in Lactobacillus crispatus.
This study is aimed at identifying the function of an arabinan utilization operon in Lactobacillus crispatus DSM29598 and at characterizing two putative extracellular arabinanases that are located on that operon. The arabinan utilization operon of L. crispatus DSM29598 encodes enzymes for degradation of arabinan, α-galactosidases, β-galactosidases, and enzymes and for utilization of arabinose including phosphoketolase. The two putative extracellular arabinanases, AbnA and AbnB, are homologous to family GH43 endo-arabinanases. In Lactobacillaceae, homologs of these enzymes were identified exclusively in vertebrat...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li Q, Gänzle MG Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Stress induced by crude glycerol in a thermophilic digester: microbial community divergence and resilience, but slow process recovery.
Abstract Recovery from stress is an important property for anaerobic digestion (AD). Although AD is quite adaptable with regard to waste composition, new substrates added to stable systems may cause process decline. We tested whether crude glycerol would cause stress to a thermophilic AD microbiome previously stabilized long-term on a low C/N ratio feedstock. Three-percent (v/v) crude glycerol was added to the basal substrate (poultry litter) for two hydraulic retention time (HRT) periods. This caused stress where biogas volume and methane percentage dramatically decreased and VFA levels increased. When the basal ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huber DH, Ramirez-Garcia A, Chavarria-Palma JE, Espinosa-Solares T, Lhilhi Noundou V, Montenegro-Garcia NA, Adeleye A, Martin CS Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A putative transporter gene PtMMF1-deleted strain produces mono-acylated mannosylerythritol lipids in Pseudozyma tsukubaensis.
Abstract Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by various yeasts. Mmf1, a putative transporter of MELs, is conserved in the MEL biosynthesis gene clusters of diverse MEL producers, including the genera Ustilago, Pseudozyma, Moesziomyces, and Sporisorium. To clarify the function of Mmf1, we generated the gene-deleted strain of P. tsukubaensis ΔPtMMF1 and evaluated its MEL production. Using thin-layer chromatography analyses, we detected most MELs produced by ΔPtMMF1 in the culture supernatant. The spot size of diacylated MEL-B (the only product of the parental strain) w...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saika A, Fukuoka T, Koike H, Yamamoto S, Sugahara T, Sogabe A, Kitamoto D, Morita T Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Inducible expression of agar-degrading genes in a marine bacterium Catenovulum maritimus Q1T and characterization of a β-agarase.
Inducible expression of agar-degrading genes in a marine bacterium Catenovulum maritimus Q1T and characterization of a β-agarase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Oct 26;: Authors: Xu ZX, Yu P, Liang QY, Mu DS, Du ZJ Abstract Agar-degrading bacteria are crucial drivers for the carbon cycle in the marine environments due to their ability that use algae as a carbon source. Although numerous agar-degrading bacteria and agarases have been reported, little is known about expression levels of agar-degrading genes in wild strains. Here, the genome of an agar-hydrolyzing marine bacterium, Catenovulum mari...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xu ZX, Yu P, Liang QY, Mu DS, Du ZJ Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Advances in sophorolipid-producing strain performance improvement and fermentation optimization technology.
Abstract Sophorolipids (SLs), currently one of the most promising biosurfactants, are secondary metabolites produced by many non-pathogenic yeasts, among which Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 is the main sophorolipid-producing strain. SLs have gained much attention since they exhibit anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and other beneficial biological activities. In addition, as biosurfactants, SLs have a low toxicity level and are easily degradable without polluting the environment. However, the production cost of SLs remains high, which hinders the industrialization process of SL production. This paper de...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li Y, Chen Y, Tian X, Chu J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biotechnological production of lycopene by microorganisms.
Abstract Lycopene is a dark red carotenoid belonging to C40 terpenoids and is widely found in a variety of plants, especially ripe red fruits and vegetables. Lycopene has been shown to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, other cancers, and cardiovascular disease. It is one of the most widely used carotenoids in the healthcare product market. Currently, commercially available lycopene is mainly extracted from tomatoes. However, production of lycopene from plants is costly and environmentally unfriendly. To date, there have been many reports on the biosynthesis of lycopene by microorganisms, providing another route ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li L, Liu Z, Jiang H, Mao X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Δ6 fatty acid desaturases in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis: insights into the evolution, function with substrate specificities and biotechnological use.
Δ6 fatty acid desaturases in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis: insights into the evolution, function with substrate specificities and biotechnological use. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Oct 23;: Authors: Cui J, Chen H, Tang X, Zhao J, Zhang H, Chen YQ, Chen W Abstract Δ6 fatty acid desaturases (FADS6) have different substrate specificities that impact the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are involved in regulating multiple signalling pathways associated with various diseases. For decades, FADS6 with different substrate specificities have been characteriz...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cui J, Chen H, Tang X, Zhao J, Zhang H, Chen YQ, Chen W Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Octadecyl 3-(3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoate, an antifungal metabolite of Alcaligenes faecalis strain MT332429 optimized through response surface methodology.
Abstract In the current study, a soil bacterial isolate F2 expressed a significant antagonistic activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus niger clinical isolate confirmed through cross streak, dual culture, and agar well diffusion methods. The isolate F2 was identified using phenotypic and molecular approaches as Alcaligenes (A.) faecalis MT332429. The identification and structural characterization of the antifungal compound was performed using advanced spectroscopic techniques including UV absorbance, 1H and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and was identified as octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-ter...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: El-Sayed SE, Abdelaziz NA, El-Housseiny GS, Aboshanab KM Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The multifunctional lifestyles of Metarhizium: evolution and applications.
Abstract The genus Metarhizium is comprised of a diverse group of common soil fungi that exhibit multifunctional lifestyles with varying degrees of saprotrophic, endophytic, and insect pathogenic modes of nutrient acquisition. The transcriptome of these species is modulated to reflect immediate needs of the fungus and availability of resources-a form of transcriptional plasticity that allows for physiological adaptation to environments with diverse and dynamic exploitable nutrient sources. In this review, we discuss the endophytic, insect pathogenic lifestyles of Metarhizium spp., including their symbiotic interfa...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stone LBL, Bidochka MJ Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Comparative methods for fecal sample storage to preserve gut microbial structure and function in an in vitro model of the human colon.
This study aimed to assess the impact of three commonly used preserving methods, compared with fresh fecal samples used as a control, on the kinetics of lumen and mucus-associated microbiota colonization in the M-ARCOL model. Feces from two healthy donors were frozen 48 h at - 80 °C with or without cryoprotectant (10% glycerol) or lyophilized with maltodextrin and trehalose prior to inoculation of four parallel bioreactors (e.g., fresh stool, raw stool stored at - 80 °C, stool stored at - 80 °C with glycerol and lyophilized stool). Microbiota composition and diversity (qPCR and 16S metabarcoding) as well as met...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Deschamps C, Fournier E, Uriot O, Lajoie F, Verdier C, Comtet-Marre S, Thomas M, Kapel N, Cherbuy C, Alric M, Almeida M, Etienne-Mesmin L, Blanquet-Diot S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Lactobacillus casei CRL431 modulates hemostatic activation induced by protein malnourishment and pneumococcal respiratory infection.
In this study, we deepen in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory activity of L. casei CRL431 during a nutritional repletion process by evaluating (a) platelet and endothelial activation, (b) tissue factor (TF) expression, and (c) protease-activated receptor (PAR) activation in an experimental bacterial respiratory infection model in malnourished mice. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the repletion diet supplemented with L. casei CRL431 was effective to normalize platelet counts in blood, modulate platelet activation and their recruitment into the lung, and regulate local and ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zelaya H, Laiño J, Villena J, Marranzino G, Alvarez S, Agüero G Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Transdermal peptide conjugated to human connective tissue growth factor with enhanced cell proliferation and hyaluronic acid synthesis activities produced by a silkworm silk gland bioreactor.
In this study, two genetically modified silkworm strains were generated harboring artificially designed CTGF-8ht and pepCTGF-8ht genes, respectively, that contain an enhanced His-tag with eight histidine residues with or without a transdermal peptide (pep). Both recombinant CTGF-8ht and pepCTGF-8ht proteins were successfully expressed in the silkworm silk gland and cocoon, and could be easily extracted and purified from the cocoon by single-affinity immunoprecipitation column chromatography, achieving a purity of more than 95%. Moreover, compared with CTGF-8ht protein, pepCTGF-8ht protein exhibited better cell proliferatio...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Y, Wang F, Xu S, Wang R, Tian C, Ji Y, Yang Q, Zhao P, Xia Q Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Swine manure valorization in fabrication of nutrition and energy.
This article deeply focuses on biodegradation of swine manure. The components of this manure were evaluated and established several approaches to improve biogas production. Furthermore, recycling of co-digestates was discussed in detail as fertilizer consumption including hygienic aspects of manure and pretreatment strategies of biomass residues. KEY POINTS: • Co-digestion of manure and carcasses enhance bio-methane production. • Removel of ammonia from biogas digester may improve bio-methane gas. • A strong antimicrobial influence has been reported on biogas production. PMID: 33074416 [PubMed - as supp...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Giwa AS, Ali N, Asif M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Undaria pinnatifida improves obesity-related outcomes in association with gut microbiota and metabolomics modulation in high-fat diet-fed mice.
Abstract Dietary fiber has beneficial effects on obesity-related diseases and gut microbiota, contributing a key role in the interaction between dietary metabolism and host metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the cause of the improvement in multiple types of physiological states with seaweed Undaria pinnatifida treatment on high-fat diet-fed mice and to evaluate whether its consequent anti-adiposity and anti-hyperlipidemic effects are associated with gut microbiota and its metabolomics regulation. U. pinnatifida administration in our experiment was shown to significantly decrease high-fat diet-induced bod...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li L, Wang Y, Yuan J, Liu Z, Ye C, Qin S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Trehalose as an osmolyte in Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis.
Abstract Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis is an important microorganism for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). In a previous study, we found a remarkable flexibility regarding salinity, since this same microorganism could thrive in both freshwater- and seawater-based environments, but the mechanism for the tolerance to saline conditions remained unknown. Here, we identified and described the role of trehalose as an osmolyte in Ca. Accumulibacter phosphatis. A freshwater-adapted culture was exposed to a single batch cycle of hyperosmotic and hypo-osmotic shock, which led to the release of trehalose ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: de Graaff DR, van Loosdrecht MCM, Pronk M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Recent advances in biocatalytic derivatization of L-tyrosine.
Abstract L-Tyrosine is an aromatic, polar, non-essential amino acid that contains a highly reactive α-amino, α-carboxyl, and phenolic hydroxyl group. Derivatization of these functional groups can produce chemicals, such as L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, tyramine, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, which are widely employed in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. In this review, we summarize typical L-tyrosine derivatizations catalyzed by enzymatic biocatalysts, as well as the strategies and challenges associated with their production processes. Finally, we disc...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tan X, Song W, Chen X, Liu L, Wu J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Correction to: Microbiome and nitrate removal processes by microorganisms on the ancient Preah Vihear temple of Cambodia revealed by metagenomics and N-15 isotope analyses.
Gu JD Abstract The published online version contains mistake for the author the authors correction to change the name from Clara Uriz to Clara Urzì was missed. PMID: 33067684 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ding X, Lan W, Wu J, Hong Y, Li Y, Ge Q, Urzì C, Katayama Y, Gu JD Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research