The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum analysed via flow cytometry-a fast and statistically sound insight into morphology and viability.
Abstract Filamentous fungi serve as production host for a number of highly relevant biotechnological products, like penicillin. In submerged culture, morphology can be exceptionally diverse and is influenced by several process parameters, like aeration, agitation, medium composition or growth rate. Fungal growth leads to several morphological classes encompassing homogeneously dispersed hyphae and various forms of hyphal agglomerates and/or clump structures. Eventually, the so-called pellet structure can be formed, which represents a hyphal agglomerate with a dense core. Pellet structures can hinder oxygen and sub...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Veiter L, Herwig C Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Evaluation of induction conditions for plasmid pQE-30 stability and 503 antigen of Leishmania i. chagasi expression in E. coli M15.
s Santos ES Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of induction conditions (IPTG concentration, temperature, and induction time) on the plasmid pQE-30 stability and 503 antigen expression of Leishmania i. chagasi in Escherichia coli M15. Batch cultures were performed at 37 °C and induced by the addition of different IPTG concentrations (0.01 to 1.5 mM). Subsequently, experiments were carried out at different temperatures (27 to 42 °C), evaluating the influence of induction time (0.5 to 6 h after the start of the culture). The results showed that IPTG toxicity caused a metabolic stress i...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ribeiro VT, Asevedo EA, de Paiva Vasconcelos LTC, Filho MAO, de Araújo JS, de Macedo GR, de Sousa Júnior FC, Dos Santos ES Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The search of potential inhibitors of the AcrAB-TolC system of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli: an in silico approach.
Abstract The number of infections caused by multidrug antibiotic resistance (MDR) species is increasing globally. The efflux pump system, AcrAB-TolC, confers Escherichia coli resistance to many antibiotics and results in poor treatment outcomes. Different rational drug design techniques were employed to search for a safe and effective AcrAB-TolC system inhibitor. Ligand docking was performed to analyze the binding of different ArcB substrates and/or inhibitors in the different AcrAB crystal structure binding sites. The validated docking site using the established docking preferences was used to perform virtual hig...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abdel-Halim H, Al Dajani A, Abdelhalim A, Abdelmalek S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biological nitrogen removal from wastewater using sulphur-driven autotrophic denitrification.
Abstract Biological denitrification process in mainstream wastewater treatment often needs dosing supplemental electrons, consequently adding a remarkable operating cost. Organic carbon compounds are nowadays the most intensively used electron sources in full-scale wastewater treatment, corresponding with the well-understood carbon-nitrogen biogeochemistry for heterotrophic denitrification process. In the twenty-first century, the low-carbon technology is on calling to reduce the carbon footprint and relieve climate changing threatens. Autotrophic denitrification is highly recommended for mainstream wastewater tre...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cui YX, Biswal BK, Guo G, Deng YF, Huang H, Chen GH, Wu D Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Use of heavy metals resistant bacteria-a strategy for arsenic bioremediation.
Abstract A large number of industries release their untreated wastes in the environment causing an increase in the concentration of toxic pollutants including heavy metal ions in ground and drinking water which is above the WHO limit. The presence of toxic pollutants in the industrial wastes pollutes our environment. Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid. Its amount varies in different parts on the earth, and its concentration is increasing in our environment day by day both by natural and anthropogenic activities. It is found in two forms; one is arsenate (As5+) and other is arsenite (As3+) and the latter ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sher S, Rehman A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Impacts on soil microbial characteristics and their restorability with different soil disinfestation approaches in intensively cropped greenhouse soils.
Abstract The different impacts, especially on soil physicochemical and microbial characteristics, among disinfestation methods based on different principles (including physical, chemical, and biological) have not been illustrated well. Here, we used steam sterilization, dazomet fumigation, and reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) methods representative of physical, chemical, and biological soil disinfestation, respectively, to disinfest seriously degraded greenhouse soils before watermelon cultivation in one season. Compared with the control, RSD significantly decreased the soil nitrate content by 85.9% and the ele...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Meng T, Ren G, Wang G, Ma Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Two-week administration of engineered Escherichia coli establishes persistent resistance to diet-induced obesity even without antibiotic pre-treatment.
Abstract Adverse alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of obesity and a variety of chronic diseases. Re-engineering the gut microbiota to produce beneficial metabolites is a potential strategy for treating these chronic diseases. N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are a family of bioactive lipids with known anti-obesity properties. Previous studies showed that administration of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) engineered with Arabidopsis thaliana NAPE synthase to produce NAPEs imparted resistance to obesity induced by a high-fat diet that persisted aft...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dosoky NS, Chen Z, Guo Y, McMillan C, Flynn CR, Davies SS Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Selective antimicrobial activity of cell lytic enzymes in a bacterial consortium.
Abstract The role that the complex microbial communities play in human and environmental health cannot be understated. The increased information about community complexity, as well as the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, suggest that new approaches to target specific organisms within a community context are essential towards new antimicrobial therapies. Here, we have assessed the activity and selectivity of two cell wall lytic enzymes, lysostaphin (Lst) and PlyPH, in the presence of multiple bacteria and under varied media conditions. Lst and PlyPH target the clinically relevant pathogens Staphylococcus aure...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bhagwat A, Collins CH, Dordick JS Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Survival of probiotic bacteria in the presence of food grade nanoparticles from chocolates: an in vitro and in vivo study.
Abstract The use of probiotics to treat gastrointestinal diseases such as diarrhea especially in children is becoming increasingly popular. Besides, the use of nanomaterials in food products is increasing rapidly especially in candies and chocolates. How these nanomaterials influence probiotic bacteria and their activity remains unexplored. Therefore, nanomaterials from commercial chocolate were purified and characterized by using SEM-EDS and XRD. The tested chocolate contained nano-TiO2 with an average size of ~ 40 nm. The influence of the extracted TiO2 on a commercial probiotic formulation usually used to treat...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khan ST, Saleem S, Ahamed M, Ahmad J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Fluphenazine antagonizes with fluconazole but synergizes with amphotericin B in the treatment of candidiasis.
Abstract Candida albicans causes a high mortality rate in immunocompromised individuals, but the increased drug resistance challenges the current antifungal therapeutics. Fluphenazine (FPZ), a commonly used antipsychotic medication, can induce the expression of drug efflux pumps in C. albicans and, thus, may interfere with the therapeutic efficacy of antifungals, such as fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AmB). Here, we investigated the combined effects of FLC/FPZ and AmB/FPZ against C. albicans in vitro and in a systemic candidiasis mouse model. The antifungal activity of FLC was significantly reduced when sup...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lu Y, Zhou Z, Mo L, Guo Q, Peng X, Hu T, Zhou X, Ren B, Xu X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Updates in understanding the hypocholesterolemia effect of probiotics on atherosclerosis.
Abstract Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular diseases, which are considered the fatal ailment globally. Hypercholesterolaemia plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Many studies have been stated that probiotics could affect hypercholesterolemia via cholesterol metabolism. Probiotics are live bacteria which are good for our health when administered orally in high amounts. Recently, many studies have revealed the beneficial effects of the nutritional ingestion of probiotics which can decrease serum cholesterol levels. The aim of this review is, first...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hassan A, Din AU, Zhu Y, Zhang K, Li T, Wang Y, Luo Y, Wang G Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Enzymatic characteristics of D-mannose 2-epimerase, a new member of the acylglucosamine 2-epimerase superfamily.
In this study, Runella slithyformis Runsl_4512 and Dyadobacter fermentans Dfer_5652 were characterized from a cluster of uncharacterized proteins of the acylglucosamine 2-epimerase (AGE) superfamily. These proteins catalyzed the intramolecular conversion of D-mannose to D-glucose, whereas they did not act on β-(1 → 4)-mannobiose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and D-fructose, which are substrates of known AGE superfamily members. The kcat/Km values of Runsl_4512 and Dfer_5652 for D-mannose epimerization were 3.89 and 3.51 min-1 mM-1, respectively. Monitoring the Runsl_4512 reaction through 1H-NMR...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saburi W, Sato S, Hashiguchi S, Muto H, Iizuka T, Mori H Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Identification of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 GH57 α-amylase AmyC as a glycogen-branching enzyme with high hydrolytic activity.
Identification of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 GH57 α-amylase AmyC as a glycogen-branching enzyme with high hydrolytic activity. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Jun 13;: Authors: Zhang X, Leemhuis H, Janeček Š, Martinovičová M, Pijning T, van der Maarel MJEC Abstract AmyC, a glycoside hydrolase family 57 (GH57) enzyme of Thermotoga maritima MSB8, has previously been identified as an intracellular α-amylase playing a role in either maltodextrin utilization or storage polysaccharide metabolism. However, the α-amylase specificity of AmyC is questionable as extensive phylogen...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang X, Leemhuis H, Janeček Š, Martinovičová M, Pijning T, van der Maarel MJEC Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Conductive carbon nanoparticles inhibit methanogens and stabilize hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells.
Abstract Nanosized conductive carbon materials have been reported to stimulate methanogenesis by anaerobic microbiomes, while other studies have shown their antimicrobial activities. The present study examined effects of conductive carbon nanoparticles (carbon black Vulcan, CB) on methanogenesis from glucose by anaerobic sludge. We found that a relatively high concentration (e.g., 2% w/v) of CB entirely inhibited the methanogenesis, where a substantial amount of acetate was accumulated after degradation of glucose. Quantitative real-time PCR assays and metabarcoding of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed that, while bacte...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fujinawa K, Nagoya M, Kouzuma A, Watanabe K Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Insight into the roles of tyrosine on rCHO cell performance in fed-batch cultures.
Abstract Tyrosine (Tyr), as one of the least soluble amino acids, is essential to monoclonal antibody (mAb) production in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell cultures since its roles on maintaining the specific productivity (qmAb) and avoiding Tyr sequence variants. To understand the effects of Tyr on cell performance and its underlying mechanisms, rCHO cell-producing mAbs were cultivated at various cumulative Tyr addition concentrations (0.6 to 5.5 mM) in fed-batch processes. Low Tyr concentrations gave a much lower peak viable cell density (VCD) during the growth phase and also induced rapid cell death...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tang H, Zhang X, Zhang W, Fan L, Wang H, Tan WS, Zhao L Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Negative regulation of bleomycins biosynthesis by ArsR/SmtB family repressor BlmR in Streptomyces verticillus.
Abstract Bleomycin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been widely used for various tumor treatments. However, its poor fermentation yield is not satisfactory for industrial production. Here, the ArsR/SmtB family regulator BlmR was characterized as a repressor of bleomycin production. As an autoregulator, BlmR was found to bind to a 12-2-12 imperfect palindrome sequence in its own promoter, and deletion of blmR led to a 34% increase of bleomycin B2 production compared with the wild-type strain. Using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), blmT, which encoded a putative transporter, was identified as t...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen H, Wang J, Cui J, Wang C, Liang S, Liu H, Wen J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Utilisation/upgrading of orange peel waste from a biological biorefinery perspective.
Abstract Orange peel waste (OPW) (peels, pulp and seeds) is an underutilised residue coming from the orange juice industry. Its classical applications are cattle feeding and composting, while they cannot ensure a total use of OPW, so landfilling is also common practice. On the other side, OPW is very rich in sugars, polysaccharides, essential oils and polyphenols, so there is a vast literature focused on the development and optimization of technologies and processes to several products from OPW. In this review, papers on OPW-based bioprocesses are visited, discovering a wide landscape that goes from the composting...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: de la Torre I, Martin-Dominguez V, Acedos MG, Esteban J, Santos VE, Ladero M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of D-danshensu from L-DOPA using engineered Escherichia coli whole cells.
Abstract D-Danshensu (D-DSS), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, current isolation protocols for D-DSS both natural and synthetic are not ideal; therefore, in this study, we have developed a whole-cell biotransformation method to produce D-DSS from L-DOPA. This was done by co-expressing L-amino acid deaminase (aadL), D-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhD), and glucose dehydrogenase (gdh). To begin to optimize the production of D-DSS, varying copy number plasmids were used to express each of the required genes. The resulting strain, Escherichia coli ALG7, ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiong T, Jiang J, Bai Y, Fan TP, Zhao Y, Zheng X, Cai Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Bioengineering of a single long noncoding RNA molecule that carries multiple small RNAs.
Abstract Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), regulate target gene expression and can be used as tools for understanding biological processes and identifying new therapeutic targets. Currently, ncRNA molecules for research and therapeutic use are limited to ncRNA mimics made by chemical synthesis. We have recently established a high-yield and cost-effective method of producing bioengineered or biologic ncRNA agents (BERAs) through bacterial fermentation, which is based on a stable tRNA/pre-miR-34a carrier (~ 180 nt) t...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Petrek H, Batra N, Ho PY, Tu MJ, Yu AM Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Chemical, physical and biotechnological approaches to the production of the potent antioxidant hydroxytyrosol.
Abstract Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a polyphenol of interooest to the food, feed, supplements and pharmaceutical sectors. It is one of the strongest known natural antioxidants and has been shown to confer other benefits such as anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties, and it has the potential to act as a cardio- and neuroprotectant. It is known to be one of the compounds responsible for the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet. In nature, HT is found in the olive plant (Olea europaea) as part of the secoiridoid compound oleuropein, in its leaves, fruit, oil and oil production waste products. HT can be ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Britton J, Davis R, O'Connor KE Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Functional genetic analysis of the leucinostatin biosynthesis transcription regulator lcsL in Purpureocillium lilacinum using CRISPR-Cas9 technology.
In this study, the CRISPR-Cas9 system was introduced to increase the efficiency of homologous recombination for the disruption of lcsL. The expression of genes in the cluster was significantly reduced in lcsL disruption mutants, and the output of leucinostatins was decreased to undetectable levels. In the lcsL overexpression strain, the expression of genes in the cluster and the yield of leucinostatins were all increased. The antagonism of both the wild type and mutant against Phytophthora infestans was also consistent with the gene expression and the output of leucinostatins. These results indicate that the gene lcsL is c...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jiao Y, Li Y, Li Y, Cao H, Mao Z, Ling J, Yang Y, Xie B Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Soluble expression of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Escherichia coli using superfolder green fluorescent protein as fusion partner.
Abstract Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) has great prospect in medical therapies and diagnostic applications due to its binding affinity and low immunogenicity. However, the application of scFv is limited by its heterologous expression facing challenges of insoluble aggregation. sfGFP has been developed as fusion tag to facilitate the solubility of fusion partner in Escherichia coli. We designed fusion protein of anti-influenza PB2 scFv at C-terminus of sfGFP and successfully obtained soluble expression of sfGFP-scFv-His in Escherichia coli. The expression level of sfGFP-scFv-His reached at 20 mg/L of b...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu M, Wang B, Wang F, Yang Z, Gao D, Zhang C, Ma L, Yu X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The inhibitor of apoptosis protein MoBir1 is involved in the suppression of hydrogen peroxide-induced fungal cell death, reactive oxygen species generation, and pathogenicity of rice blast fungus.
Abstract The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family has been identified in a variety of organisms. All IAPs contain one to three baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domains, which are required for anti-apoptotic activity. Here, we identified a type II BIR domain-containing protein, MoBir1, in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Expression of the MoBIR1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suppressed hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and delayed yeast cell chronological aging. Delayed aging was found to require the carboxyl terminus of MoBir1. M. oryzae transformants overexpressing the MoBIR1 gene demonstrated i...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang L, Zhong K, Lv R, Zheng X, Zhang Z, Zhang H Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Differential effects of bioreactor process variables and purification on the human recombinant lysosomal enzyme β-glucuronidase produced from Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Differential effects of bioreactor process variables and purification on the human recombinant lysosomal enzyme β-glucuronidase produced from Chinese hamster ovary cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Jun 07;: Authors: Parhiz H, Ketcham SA, Zou G, Ghosh B, Fratz-Berilla EJ, Ashraf M, Ju T, Madhavarao CN Abstract β-Glucuronidase is a lysosomal enzyme and a molecular model of a class of therapeutics approved as enzyme replacement therapies for lysosomal storage diseases. Understanding the effect of bioreactor process variables on the production and quality of the biologics is critical for ma...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Parhiz H, Ketcham SA, Zou G, Ghosh B, Fratz-Berilla EJ, Ashraf M, Ju T, Madhavarao CN Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Current issues regarding the application of recombinant lactic acid bacteria to mucosal vaccine carriers.
Abstract Over the past two decades, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been intensively studied as potential bacterial carriers for therapeutic materials, such as vaccine antigens, to the mucosal tissues. LAB have several attractive advantages as carriers of mucosal vaccines, and the effectiveness of LAB vaccines has been demonstrated in numerous studies. Research on LAB vaccines to date has focused on whether antigen-specific immunity, particularly antibody responses, can be induced. However, with recent developments in immunology, microbiology, and vaccinology, more detailed analyses of the underlying mechanisms, e...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Takahashi K, Orito N, Tokunoh N, Inoue N Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Effect of ethanol supplementation on the transcriptional landscape of bionanocellulose producer Komagataeibacter xylinus E25.
Abstract Ethanol exerts a strong positive effect on the cellulose yields from the widely exploited microbial producers of the Komagataeibacter genus. Ethanol is postulated to provide an alternative energy source, enabling effective use of glucose for cellulose biosynthesis rather than for energy acquisition. In this paper, we investigate the effect of ethanol supplementation on the global gene expression profile of Komagataeibacter xylinus E25 using RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq). We demonstrate that when ethanol is present in the culture medium, glucose metabolism is directed towards cellulose production due...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ryngajłło M, Jacek P, Cielecka I, Kalinowska H, Bielecki S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Recombinant Ca2+-regulated photoproteins of ctenophores: current knowledge and application prospects.
Abstract Bright bioluminescence of ctenophores is conditioned by Ca2+-regulated photoproteins. Although they share many properties characteristic of hydromedusan Ca2+-regulated photoproteins responsible for light emission of marine animals belonging to phylum Cnidaria, a substantial distinction still exists. The ctenophore photoproteins appeared to be extremely sensitive to light-they lose the ability for bioluminescence on exposure to light over the entire absorption spectrum. Inactivation is irreversible because keeping the inactivated photoprotein in the dark does not recover its activity. The capability to emi...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Burakova LP, Vysotski ES Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Enzymatic characterization of a thermostable phosphatase from Thermomicrobium roseum and its application for biosynthesis of fructose from maltodextrin.
Abstract Phosphatases, which catalyze the dephosphorylation of compounds containing phosphate groups, are important members of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like superfamily. Herein, a thermostable phosphatase encoded by an open reading frame of Trd_1070 from Thermomicrobium roseum was enzymologically characterized. This phosphatase showed promiscuous activity against more than ten sugar phosphates, with high specific activity toward ribose 5-phosphate, followed by ribulose 5-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. The half-life of Trd_1070 at 70 °C and pH 7.0 was about 14.2 h. Given that the catalytic efficienc...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Meng D, Liang A, Wei X, You C Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Prophylactic effects of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. in the resolution of inflammation in arthritic rats.
Abstract In the present study, the modulatory effects of bifidobacterial spp. (Bifidobacterium breve NCIM 5671, Bifidobacterium longum NCIM 5672 and Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIM 5697) on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats were evaluated. Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting 250 μg of Freund's adjuvant directly into the paw. Fifteen days before and 15 days after the induction of arthritis, suspended cultures of bifidobacteria (109 cfu/ml) were administered by oral gavage. Paw volume, bone mineral content, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, cytokines, eicosanoids and e...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Achi SC, Talahalli RR, Halami PM Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Highly selective isolation and characterization of Lipomyces starkeyi mutants with increased production of triacylglycerol.
Abstract The oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi is an attractive organism for the industrial production of lipids; however, the amount of lipid produced by wild-type L. starkeyi is insufficient. The study aims to obtain L. starkeyi mutants that rapidly accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG). Mutagenized yeast cells at the early stages of cultivation were subjected to Percoll density gradient centrifugation; cells with increased production of TAG were expected to be enriched in the resultant upper fraction because of their lower density. Among 120 candidates from the upper fractions, five mutants were i...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yamazaki H, Kobayashi S, Ebina S, Abe S, Ara S, Shida Y, Ogasawara W, Yaoi K, Araki H, Takaku H Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Key sites insight on the stereoselectivity of four mined aldo-keto reductases toward α-keto esters and halogen-substituted acetophenones.
In this study, four novel aldo-keto reductases with significant activity and stereoselectivity toward a variety of α-keto esters and halogen-substituted acetophenones were identified by genome mining. Through analysis of the crystal structure and multiple-sequence alignment of the starting AKR YvgN from Bacillus subtilis, residues F25 and W113 were proposed as the key positions that might control the stereoselectivity of YvgN. F25S and F25S/W113F variants of YvgN were able to improve its activity and stereoselectivity toward some α-keto ester compounds and halogen-substituted acetophenone derivatives. In additi...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang W, Zhu T, Li H, Qin F, Zhang F, Zhang R, Jia X, Qin B, You S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Oral delivery of a Lactococcus lactis strain secreting bovine lactoferricin-lactoferrampin alleviates the development of acute colitis in mice.
Abstract Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing disease. Treatment of UC would benefit from specific targeting of therapeutics to the intestine. Previous studies have demonstrated that bovine lactoferricin and lactoferrampin have bactericidal, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we investigated whether oral administration of a bovine lactoferricin-lactoferrampin (LFCA)-encoding Lactococcus lactis (LL-LFCA) strain could alleviate experimental colitis. LFCA derived from LL-LFCA inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. In mice, administration of LL-LFCA d...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Song L, Xie W, Liu Z, Guo D, Zhao D, Qiao X, Wang L, Zhou H, Cui W, Jiang Y, Li Y, Xu Y, Tang L Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Effect of SDS on release of intracellular pneumocandin B0 in extractive batch fermentation of Glarea lozoyensis.
Abstract Pneumocandin B0 is a hydrophobic secondary metabolite that accumulates in the mycelia of Glarea lozoyensis and inhibits fungal 1,3-β-glucan synthase. Extractive batch fermentation can promote the release of intracellular secondary metabolites into the fermentation broth and is often used in industry. The addition of extractants has been proven as an effective method to attain higher accumulation of hydrophobic secondary metabolites and circumvent troublesome solvent extraction. Various extractants exerted significant but different influences on the biomass and pneumocandin B0 yields. The maximum pneu...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yuan K, Huang B, Qin T, Song P, Zhang K, Ji X, Ren L, Zhang S, Huang H Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Syntroph diversity and abundance in anaerobic digestion revealed through a comparative core microbiome approach.
In this study, a comparative core microbiome approach, i.e., determining taxa that are shared in functioning digesters but not shared in non-functioning digesters, was used to determine microbial taxa that could play key roles for effective anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digester functions were impaired by adding the broad-spectrum antimicrobial triclosan (TCS) or triclocarban (TCC) at different concentrations, and the core microbiomes in both functioning and non-functioning anaerobic digesters were compared. Digesters treated with high (2500 mg/kg) or medium (450 mg/kg) TCS and high (850 mg/kg) TCC con...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fujimoto M, Carey DE, Zitomer DH, McNamara PJ Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metabolomic analysis of quorum sensing inhibitor hordenine on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Abstract Proton magnetic resonance-based metabolomics analysis was performed to determine the global metabolite changes in pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 following exposure to quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor hordenine. Pyocyanin inhibition assay confirmed that hordenine exhibited potent QS inhibitory activity. A total of 40 metabolites were assigned by PMR spectra. Hordenine treatment resulted in the destruction of QS system in P. aeruginosa PAO1 by downregulating the expressions of genes involved in QS. The synthesis of antioxidant enzymes was repressed and the oxidative stress was enhanced due to...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhou JW, Muhammad J, Sun B, Yang R, Wadood A, Wang JS, Jia AQ Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biofilm reactors as a promising method for vitamin K (menaquinone-7) production.
Abstract Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is the most potent subtype of vitamin K with extraordinarily high half-life in the circulatory system. Therefore, MK-7 plays a critical role in promoting human wellbeing today. Studies on MK-7 every year show more and more magnificent benefits of it in preventing cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis to battling cancer cells, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Thus, it needs to be supplemented to daily diet for accumulative and long-term benefits. Chemical synthesis of MK-7 produces a significant cis-isomer form of it, which has no biological activity. Fortunately, due to its ke...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mahdinia E, Demirci A, Berenjian A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Secreted protein MoHrip2 is required for full virulence of Magnaporthe oryzae and modulation of rice immunity.
Abstract MoHrip2, identified from Magnaporthe oryzae as an elicitor, can activate plant defense responses either in the form of recombinant protein in vitro or ectopic expressed protein in rice. However, its intrinsic function in the infective interaction of M. oryzae-rice is largely unknown. Here, we found that mohrip2 expression was significantly induced at stages of fungal penetration and colonization. Meanwhile, the induced MoHrip2 mainly accumulated in the rice apoplast by outlining the entire invasive hyphae during infection, and its secretion was via the conventional endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi path...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nie H, Zhang L, Zhuang H, Yang X, Qiu D, Zeng H Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Identification of a thermostable fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase and evaluation of its effect on lignocellulosic degradation.
This study may offer an innovative solution for improving enzyme cocktail activity for lignocellulosic degradation. PMID: 31152202 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang R, Liu Y, Zhang Y, Feng D, Hou S, Guo W, Niu K, Jiang Y, Han L, Sindhu L, Fang X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Correction to: Phloretin reduces cell injury and inflammation mediated by Staphylococcus aureus via targeting sortase B and the molecular mechanism.
Abstract The images of cells under microscope in Figure 2 and Figure S2 were misused from Wang G et al. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018 Nov 30;8:418. These images were generated in the same set of assays. PMID: 31152203 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang G, Gao Y, Wang H, Wang J, Niu X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metal(loid) oxide (Al2O3, Mn3O4, SiO2 and SnO2) nanoparticles cause cytotoxicity in yeast via intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species.
Abstract In this work, the physicochemical characterization of five (Al2O3, In2O3, Mn3O4, SiO2 and SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) was carried out. In addition, the evaluation of the possible toxic impacts of these NPs and the respective modes of action were performed using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In general, in aqueous suspension, metal(loid) oxide (MOx) NPs displayed an overall negative charge and agglomerated; these NPs were practically insoluble (dissolution
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sousa CA, Soares HMVM, Soares EV Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Correction to: Glycerol metabolism and its regulation in lactic acid bacteria.
Abstract The original publication of this paper contains some errors. PMID: 31147755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Doi Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Discovery of novel fungal RiPP biosynthetic pathways and their application for the development of peptide therapeutics.
r M Abstract Bioactive peptide natural products are an important source of therapeutics. Prominent examples are the antibiotic penicillin and the immunosuppressant cyclosporine which are both produced by fungi and have revolutionized modern medicine. Peptide biosynthesis can occur either non-ribosomally via large enzymes referred to as non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) or ribosomally. Ribosomal peptides are synthesized as part of a larger precursor peptide where they are posttranslationally modified and subsequently proteolytically released. Such peptide natural products are referred to as ribosomally synth...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vogt E, Künzler M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metabolism of sucrose in a non-fermentative Escherichia coli under oxygen limitation.
Abstract Biotechnological industry strives to develop anaerobic bioprocesses fueled by abundant and cheap carbon sources, like sucrose. However, oxygen-limiting conditions often lead to by-product formation and reduced ATP yields. While by-product formation is typically decreased by gene deletion, the breakdown of oligosaccharides with inorganic phosphate instead of water could increment the ATP yield. To observe the effect of oxygen limitation during sucrose consumption, a non-fermentative Escherichia coli K-12 strain was transformed with genes enabling sucrose assimilation. It was observed that the combined dele...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Olavarria K, Fina A, Velasco MI, van Loosdrecht MCM, Wahl SA Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 growth performance and lipid accumulation on different carbon sources.
Abstract Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 is a microorganism with the potential to produce storage lipids. Here, a systematic study was carried out to evaluate growth performance and accumulation of wax esters and triacylglycerols using glycerol, xylose, glucose, acetate, ethanol, and pyruvate as carbon sources. High specific growth rates (μ) were found in gluconeogenic carbon sources (ethanol, acetate, and pyruvate: 0.94 ± 0.18, 0.93 ± 0.06, and 0.61 ± 0.01 h-1, respectively), and low in glucose (0.25 ± 0.01 h-1). Interestingly, these μ values were sustained in a broad range of concentr...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Salcedo-Vite K, Sigala JC, Segura D, Gosset G, Martinez A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Selenium-enriched Bacillus paralicheniformis SR14 attenuates H2O2-induced oxidative damage in porcine jejunum epithelial cells via the MAPK pathway.
Abstract Oxidative stress plays a detrimental role in gastrointestinal disorders. Although selenium-enriched probiotics have been shown to strengthen oxidation resistance and innate immunity, the potential mechanism remains unclear. Here, we focused on the biological function of our material, selenium-enriched Bacillus paralicheniformis SR14 (Se-BP), and investigated the antioxidative effects of Se-BP and its underlying molecular mechanism in porcine jejunum epithelial cells. First, we prepared Se-BP and quantified for its selenium and bacterial contents. Then, in vitro free radical scavenging activity was measure...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiao X, Cheng Y, Song D, Li X, Hu Y, Lu Z, Wang F, Wang Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Antifungal and antimicrobial proteins and peptides of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers and their applications.
a J, Jarošová M Abstract Potato proteins are well known for their nutritional, emulsifying, foaming, gel forming or antioxidant properties that all make from them valuable protein source for food industry. Antifungal, antimicrobial and also antiviral properties, described for potato proteins in the review, enrich the possibilities of potato protein usage. Potato proteins were divided into patatin, protease inhibitors and fraction of other proteins that also included, besides others, proteins involved in potato defence physiology. All these proteins groups provide proteins and peptides with antifungal...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bártová V, Bárta J, Jarošová M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Engineering Clostridium for improved solvent production: recent progress and perspective.
Abstract Clostridia are Gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria that can produce solvents such as acetone, ethanol, and butanol, which can be used as biofuels or building block chemicals. Many successful attempts have been made to improve solvent yield and titer from sugars through metabolic engineering of solventogenic and acidogenic clostridia. More recently, cellulolytic and acetogenic clostridia have also attracted high interests for their ability to utilize low-cost renewable substrates such as cellulose and syngas. Process engineering such as in situ butanol recovery and consolidated biopro...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cheng C, Bao T, Yang ST Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Impact of metabolite accumulation on the structure, viability and development of succinic acid-producing biofilms of Actinobacillus succinogenes.
Abstract Biofilms of Actinobacillus succinogenes have demonstrated exceptional capabilities as biocatalysts for high productivity, titre and yield production of succinic acid (SA). The paper presents a microscopic analysis of A. succinogenes biofilms developed under varied fermenter conditions. The concentration of excretion metabolites is controlled by operating the fermenter in a continuous mode where the liquid throughput is adjusted. It is clearly illustrated how the accumulation of excreted metabolites (concomitant with the sodium build-up due to base dosing) has a severe effect on the biofilm structure and p...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mokwatlo SC, Nchabeleng ME, Brink HG, Nicol W Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Establishment and application of CRISPR interference to affect sporulation, hydrogen peroxide detoxification, and mannitol catabolism in the methylotrophic thermophile Bacillus methanolicus.
ndisch VF Abstract Bacillus methanolicus is a thermophilic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium. It is a facultative methylotroph which can use carbon and energy sources including mannitol and the one-carbon (C1) and non-food substrate methanol for growth and overproduction of amino acids, which makes it a promising candidate for biotechnological applications. Despite a growing tool box for gene cloning and expression, tools for targeted chromosomal gene knockouts and gene repression are still missing for this organism. Here, the CRISPRi-dCas9 technique for gene repression was established in B. methanolicus MGA3. ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Schultenkämper K, Brito LF, López MG, Brautaset T, Wendisch VF Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Protein expression analysis revealed a fine-tuned mechanism of in situ detoxification pathway for the tolerant industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Abstract Inhibitory compounds liberated from lignocellulose pretreatment are representative toxic chemicals that repress microbial growth and metabolism. A tolerant strain of the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detoxify a major class of toxic compounds while producing ethanol. Knowledge on the yeast tolerance was mostly obtained by gene expression analysis and limited protein expression evidence is yet available underlying the yeast adaptation. Here we report a comparative protein expression profiling study on Y-50049, a tolerant strain compared with its parental industrial type strain Y-12632...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu ZL, Huang X, Zhou Q, Xu J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research