Modifications of diketopiperazines assembled by cyclodipeptide synthases with cytochrome P < sub > 450 < /sub > enzymes
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11178-1. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACT2,5-Diketopiperazines are the smallest cyclic peptides comprising two amino acids connected via two peptide bonds. They can be biosynthesized in nature by two different enzyme families, either by nonribosomal peptide synthetases or by cyclodipeptide synthases. Due to the stable scaffold of the diketopiperazine ring, they can serve as precursors for further modifications by different tailoring enzymes, such as methyltransferases, prenyltransferases, oxidoreductases like cyclodipeptide oxidases, 2-oxoglutarate-dependent mon...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lauritz Harken Shu-Ming Li Source Type: research

Micromonospora species from rarely-exploited Egyptian habitats: chemical profile, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities through antioxidant property
In this study, some extracted metabolites of Micromonospora exhibited potent antimicrobial with microbial inhibition zone ≥ 7 mm, and cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines with promising activities ≥ 85%. Additionally, treatment of DENA/CCl4 rats with the strain Micromonospora sp1 has induced a substantial amelioration of the liver functions, enhancing liver architecture near normal and antioxidant properties through elevation of antioxidant enzyme levels. So that these preliminary results can provide metabolites from Micromonospora sp1 as an anti-liver cancer therapy. Finally, we introduced the che...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mohamed S Nafie Noha M Awad Hend M Tag Ibrahim M Abd El-Salam Mohamed K Diab Sahar A El-Shatoury Source Type: research

Revealing the salinity adaptation mechanism in halotolerant bacterium Egicoccus halophilus EGI 80432 < sup > T < /sup > by physiological analysis and comparative transcriptomics
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11190-5. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEgicoccus halophilus EGI 80432T, a halotolerant bacterium isolated from a saline-alkaline soil, belongs to a member of the class Nitriliruptoria, which exhibits high adaptability to salt environments. At present, the detailed knowledge of the salinity adaptation strategies of Nitriliruptoria was limited except for one research by using comparative genomics analysis. Here, we investigated the salinity adaptation mechanism of E. halophilus EGI 80432T by comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses. The results of p...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dai-Di Chen Bao-Zhu Fang Ahmad Manzoor Yong-Hong Liu Li Li Osama Abdalla Abdelshafy Mohamad Wen-Sheng Shu Wen-Jun Li Source Type: research

Gut microbiota alterations associated with antibody-mediated rejection after kidney transplantation
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00253-020-11069-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAntibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has become the major challenge for kidney transplantation, and the efficacy of existing therapies was limited to prevent AMR. Increasing evidences have demonstrated the link between gut microbiota alterations and allograft outcome. However, there has been no comprehensive analysis to profile the gut microbiota associated with AMR after kidney transplantation. We performed this study to characterize the gut microbiota possibly associated with AMR. Fecal specimens were collected from 24 kid...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Junpeng Wang Xin Li Xiaoqiang Wu Zhiwei Wang Chan Zhang Guanghui Cao Shun Liu Tianzhong Yan Source Type: research

Degradation of the low-calorie sugar substitute 5-ketofructose by different bacteria
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11168-3. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThere is an increasing public awareness about the danger of dietary sugars with respect to their caloric contribution to the diet and the rise of overweight throughout the world. Therefore, low-calorie sugar substitutes are of high interest to replace sugar in foods and beverages. A promising alternative to natural sugars and artificial sweeteners is the fructose derivative 5-keto-D-fructose (5-KF), which is produced by several Gluconobacter species. A prerequisite before 5-KF can be used as a sweetener is to test whether...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jacqueline Schiessl Konrad Kosciow Laura S Garschagen Juliane J Hoffmann Julia Heymuth Thomas Franke Uwe Deppenmeier Source Type: research

Enhanced in vitro anticancer activity of yeast expressed recombinant glucose oxidase versus commercial enzyme
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11179-0. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCancer treatments continue to have many disadvantages. Reactive oxygen species, such as H2O2, in high concentrations, can cause cytotoxicity to cells, being even greater in cancer cells. One of the H2O2-producing enzymes is glucose oxidase; its application in cancer treatment should be explored. In this work, the extracellular expression of the mutated recombinant enzyme glucose oxidase was carried out in the eukaryotic expression system Pichia pastoris SMD1168, through the modification and optimization of the gox gene of...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Evelyn Mart ínez-Mora Mar ía Del Rosario González-González Xristo Zarate Pilar Carranza-Rosales M ónica A Ramírez-Cabrera Isa ías Balderas-Rentería Eder Arredondo-Espinoza Source Type: research

Correction to: Transcriptome analysis of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7735 under ethanol stress
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11185-2. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33616699 | DOI:10.1007/s00253-021-11185-2 (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Raphael Hermano Santos Diniz Juan C Villada Mariana Caroline Tocantins Alvim Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal N ívea Moreira Vieira M ónica Lamas-Maceiras Mar ía Esperanza Cerdán Mar ía-Isabel González-Siso Petri-Jaan Lahtvee Wendel Batista da Silveira Source Type: research

Degradation of the low-calorie sugar substitute 5-ketofructose by different bacteria.
Abstract There is an increasing public awareness about the danger of dietary sugars with respect to their caloric contribution to the diet and the rise of overweight throughout the world. Therefore, low-calorie sugar substitutes are of high interest to replace sugar in foods and beverages. A promising alternative to natural sugars and artificial sweeteners is the fructose derivative 5-keto-D-fructose (5-KF), which is produced by several Gluconobacter species. A prerequisite before 5-KF can be used as a sweetener is to test whether the compound is degradable by microorganisms and whether it is metabolized by the hu...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Schiessl J, Kosciow K, Garschagen LS, Hoffmann JJ, Heymuth J, Franke T, Deppenmeier U Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Enhanced in vitro anticancer activity of yeast expressed recombinant glucose oxidase versus commercial enzyme.
ute;a I, Arredondo-Espinoza E Abstract Cancer treatments continue to have many disadvantages. Reactive oxygen species, such as H2O2, in high concentrations, can cause cytotoxicity to cells, being even greater in cancer cells. One of the H2O2-producing enzymes is glucose oxidase; its application in cancer treatment should be explored. In this work, the extracellular expression of the mutated recombinant enzyme glucose oxidase was carried out in the eukaryotic expression system Pichia pastoris SMD1168, through the modification and optimization of the gox gene of Aspergillus niger to improve its expression in yeast a...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Martínez-Mora E, González-González MDR, Zarate X, Carranza-Rosales P, Ramírez-Cabrera MA, Balderas-Rentería I, Arredondo-Espinoza E Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Correction to: Transcriptome analysis of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7735 under ethanol stress.
Silveira WB PMID: 33616699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Diniz RHS, Villada JC, Alvim MCT, Vidigal PMP, Vieira NM, Lamas-Maceiras M, Cerdán ME, González-Siso MI, Lahtvee PJ, da Silveira WB Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The storage stability of Bacillus subtilis spore displaying cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis and its effect on improving the gut microbiota of mice.
In this study, Gram staining was used to observe the morphology of B.s-CsCP in different form, and the storage of liquid spores and lyophilized spores at different temperatures was compared. The mice were orally immunized with three different doses of spores (2×108, 1×109, and 5×109 CFU/day) for three times in total at biweekly interval. Then, antibody levels of mice were measured, the safety of spores was evaluated, and the changes of gut microbiota after oral gavage of spores (1×109 dose) were investigated. Results showed that B. subtilis was a typical Gram-positive bacterium, and its spore had go...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tang Z, Wu Z, Sun H, Zhao L, Shang M, Shi M, Jiang H, Lin Z, Zhou X, Li X, Yu X, Huang Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Response characteristics of the membrane integrity and physiological activities of the mutant strain Y217 under exogenous butanol stress.
In this study, based on the addition of exogenous butanol, the tangible macro indicators of changes in the carbon ion beam irradiation-mutant Y217 morphology were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mutant has lower microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon (MATH) value than C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 strain. FDA fluorescence intensity and conductivity studies demonstrated the intrinsically low membrane permeability of the mutant membrane, with membrane potential remaining relatively stable. Monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) accounted for 35.17% of the mutant membrane, and the saturated fatty acids (SFA)/unsaturated f...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gao Y, Zhou X, Zhang MM, Liu YJ, Guo XP, Lei CR, Li WJ, Lu D Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Production of β-glucan exopolysaccharide lasiodiplodan by Lasiodiplodia theobromae CCT 3966 from corn bran acid hydrolysate.
Production of β-glucan exopolysaccharide lasiodiplodan by Lasiodiplodia theobromae CCT 3966 from corn bran acid hydrolysate. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Feb 18;: Authors: Philippini RR, Martiniano SE, Franco Marcelino PR, Chandel AK, Dos Santos JC, Da Silva SS Abstract The potential utilization of corn bran acid hydrolysate (CBAH) was evaluated as an inexpensive feedstock for the production of a rich carbohydrate and protein medium for lasiodiplodan (LAS) production using the filamentous fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae CCT 3966. Experiments were performed according to a 22 CCRD experimental d...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Philippini RR, Martiniano SE, Franco Marcelino PR, Chandel AK, Dos Santos JC, Da Silva SS Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Advances in monitoring and control of refolding kinetics combining PAT and modeling.
Abstract Overexpression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli results in misfolded and non-active protein aggregates in the cytoplasm, so-called inclusion bodies (IB). In recent years, a change in the mindset regarding IBs could be observed: IBs are no longer considered an unwanted waste product, but a valid alternative to produce a product with high yield, purity, and stability in short process times. However, solubilization of IBs and subsequent refolding is necessary to obtain a correctly folded and active product. This protein refolding process is a crucial downstream unit operation-commonly done as a di...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pauk JN, Raju Palanisamy J, Kager J, Koczka K, Berghammer G, Herwig C, Veiter L Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Major aldehyde dehydrogenase AldFGH of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is independent of pyrroloquinoline quinone but dependent on molybdopterin for acetic acid fermentation.
This study aimed to address the dependency of ALDH of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 on PQQ and the physiological role of ALDH in acetic acid fermentation. We constructed deletion mutant strains for both the ALDH gene clusters of PAL5, aldFGH and aldSLC. In addition, the adhAB operon for ADH was eliminated, since it shows ALDH activity. The triple-deletion derivative ΔaldFGH ΔaldSLC ΔadhAB failed to show ALDH activity, which suggested that ALDH activity in PAL5 is derived from these three enzyme complexes. Since the single-gene cluster deletion derivative ΔaldFGH lost most ALDH activit...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Miah R, Nina S, Murate T, Kataoka N, Matsutani M, Matsushita K, Yakushi T Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biogenesis of silver nanoparticles to treat cancer, diabetes, and microbial infections: a mechanistic overview.
Abstract Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) by harnessing the natural abilities of plant secondary metabolites has advantages over routine physical and chemical synthetic approaches due to their one-step experimental setup to reduce and stabilize the bulk silver into SNPs, biocompatible nature, and therapeutic significance. The unique size, shape, and biochemical functional corona of SNPs embellish them with the potential to perform therapeutic actions by adopting various mechanistic approaches including but not limited to the disruption of the electron transport chain, mitochondrial damage, DNA fragme...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Javed B, Ikram M, Farooq F, Sultana T, Mashwani ZU, Raja NI Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Antibacterial and safety tests of a flexible cold atmospheric plasma device for the stimulation of wound healing.
This study demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo safety and efficacy in bacterial reduction of a flexible cold plasma device. Trial registration number NCT03007264, January 2, 2017 KEY POINTS: • CAP strongly reduced bacterial numbers both in vitro and in vivo. • Re-epithelialization of burn wound models was not affected by repeated CAP. • CAP treatment of intact skin was well tolerated in volunteers. PMID: 33587156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Boekema B, Stoop M, Vlig M, van Liempt J, Sobota A, Ulrich M, Middelkoop E Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Diagnosis of histoplasmosis: current status and perspectives.
Abstract Histoplasmosis is a worldwide-distributed systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Its clinical manifestations range from subclinical or mild respiratory illness to progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH), a life-threatening disease, whose accurate diagnosis is still challenging and limited in many countries, where this disease is highly endemic. In this regard, Histoplasma antigen testing is now included in the WHO Essential Diagnostics List. The final diagnosis of histoplasmosis is established by culture and/or visualization of the yeast cells by cytology or histopat...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Toscanini MA, Nusblat AD, Cuestas ML Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Diverse β-lactam antibiotic-resistant bacteria and microbial community in milk from mastitic cows.
In this study, we analyzed 169 milk samples from cows with mastitis in two independent dairy farms (Farm A and B) in which 19.4% (Farm A) and 14.3% (Farm B) of the antibiotic treated cows were not cured. The prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant bacteria (CRB) in milk was 72.0% and 42.1% in Farm A and B, respectively. Nineteen and nine bacterial genera were identified in Farm A and B respectively, with the most abundant genus being Staphylococcus (27.1%; Farm A) and Bacillus (63.5%; Farm B). However, no strong relationship between the treatment failure rate and the CRB prevalence was observed. Furthermore, the metagenomic ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ma Z, Lee S, Fan P, Zhai Y, Lim J, Galvão KN, Nelson C, Jeong KC Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Selection of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for the biocontrol of Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Western Canada.
In this study, nine isolates of B. bassiana were examined for insect virulence characteristics, including conidiation rate, pigmentation, and infection rate in laboratory-reared D. ponderosae, to assess for their potential as biocontrol agents. The strains were categorized into three phenotypic groups based on pigmentation, conidial density, and myceliation rate. Virulence screening utilizing insect-based agar medium (D. ponderosae and European honeybee Apis mellifera carcasses) revealed no difference in selection of fungal growth. However, infection studies on D. ponderosae and A. mellifera showed contrasting results. In ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rosana ARR, Pokorny S, Klutsch JG, Ibarra-Romero C, Sanichar R, Engelhardt D, van Belkum MJ, Erbilgin N, Bohlmann J, Carroll AL, Vederas JC Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A MALDI-TOF MS database for fast identification of Vibrio spp. potentially pathogenic to marine mollusks.
This study documents the first development of a freely accessible database exclusively devoted to Vibrio found in marine environments, taking into account the high diversity of this genus. KEY POINTS: • Development of a MALDI-TOF MS database to quickly affiliate Vibrio species. • Increase of the reactivity when faced with Vibrio associated with mollusk diseases. • Validation of MALDI-TOF MS as routine diagnostic tool. PMID: 33590268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Moussa M, Cauvin E, Le Piouffle A, Lucas O, Bidault A, Paillard C, Benoit F, Thuillier B, Treilles M, Travers MA, Garcia C Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Effect of pluronic block polymers and N-acetylcysteine culture media additives on growth rate and fatty acid composition of six marine microalgae species.
Abstract The efficiency of microalgal biomass production is a determining factor for the economic competitiveness of microalgae-based industries. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pluronic block polymers are two compounds of interest as novel culture media constituents because of their respective protective properties against oxidative stress and shear-stress-induced cell damage. Here we quantify the effect of NAC and two pluronic (F127 and F68) culture media additives upon the culture productivity of six marine microalgal species of relevance to the aquaculture industry (four diatoms-Chaetoceros calcitrans, Chaetoceros ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sauvage J, Wikfors GH, Li X, Gluis M, Nevejan N, Sabbe K, Joyce A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori infection worsens impaired glucose regulation in high-fat diet mice in association with an altered gut microbiome and metabolome.
This study aimed to investigate the interaction among H. pylori, a high-fat diet (HFD), and the gut microbiota with glucose regulation and alterations in microbial metabolites. Mice were randomly allocated to H. pylori-infected and noninfected groups fed a chow diet or an HFD. After 4 weeks, two of the HFD groups were given antibiotic cocktails for 8 weeks to eliminate the gut microbiota. The results showed that an HFD significantly promoted increases in body weight, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, which were alleviated to normal after antibiotic treatment. H. pylori infection aggravated HFD-induced hyperglyce...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peng C, Xu X, He Z, Li N, Ouyang Y, Zhu Y, Lu N, He C Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The role of transport proteins in the production of microbial glycolipid biosurfactants.
t INA Abstract Several microorganisms are currently being used as production platform for glycolipid biosurfactants, providing a greener alternative to chemical biosurfactants. One of the reasons why these processes are commercially competitive is the fact that microbial producers can efficiently export their product to the extracellular environment, reaching high product titers. Glycolipid biosynthetic genes are often found in a dedicated cluster, amidst which genes encoding a dedicated transporter committed to shuttle the glycolipid to the extracellular environment are often found, as is the case for many other ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Claus S, Jenkins Sánchez L, Van Bogaert INA Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Identification of new proteins related with cisplatin resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
rtero F, Ruiz-Gómez MJ Abstract The aim of this study is to select a cisplatin-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to look for new molecular markers of resistance and the identification of mechanisms/interactions involved. A resistant strain was obtained after 80 days of cisplatin exposure. Then, total protein extraction, purification, and identification were carried out, in wild-type (wt) and resistant strains, by tandem mass spectrometry using a "nano HPLC-ESI-MS/MS" ion trap system. The increase in the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) (resistant vs wt strains) was ca...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Burgos-Molina AM, Mercado-Sáenz S, Cárdenas C, López-Díaz B, Sendra-Portero F, Ruiz-Gómez MJ Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Detection and identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and pv. raphani by multiplex polymerase chain reaction using specific primers.
Abstract Black rot and bacterial spots threaten the cultivation of cruciferous vegetables worldwide, and the development of a method that can easily detect, identify, and distinguish their respective pathogens Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and X. campestris pv. raphani (Xcr) is required. Multiple whole-genome sequences of Xcc and Xcr were aligned to identify specific regions and subsequently design gene markers. A region present in Xcr, but absent in Xcc, was detected, which was approximately 11.5 kbp in length, sandwiched between the serine protease homolog (SPH) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransfe...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Inoue Y, Fujikawa T, Takikawa Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Inducing red pigment and inhibiting citrinin production by adding lanthanum(III) ion in Monascus purpureus fermentation.
Abstract Monascus pigments (MPs) are widely used natural colorants in Asian countries. The problems of low extracellular red pigment (ERP) and high citrinin remain to be solved in Monascus pigment production. The effect of lanthanum(III) ion (LaCl3) on Monascus purpureus fermentation was investigated in this study. The yields of ERP and biomass respectively reached maxima of 124.10 U/mL and 33.10 g/L by adding 0.4 g/L La3+ on the second day in the total 8-day fermentation; simultaneously, citrinin was decreased by 59.93% and 38.14% in the extracellular and intracellular fractions, respectively. Reactive oxygen spe...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu HQ, Huang ZF, Yang SZ, Tian XF, Wu ZQ Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Host defence peptides identified in human apolipoprotein B as promising antifungal agents.
Abstract Therapeutic options to treat invasive fungal infections are still limited. This makes the development of novel antifungal agents highly desirable. Naturally occurring antifungal peptides represent valid candidates, since they are not harmful for human cells and are endowed with a wide range of activities and their mechanism of action is different from that of conventional antifungal drugs. Here, we characterized for the first time the antifungal properties of novel peptides identified in human apolipoprotein B. ApoB-derived peptides, here named r(P)ApoBLPro, r(P)ApoBLAla and r(P)ApoBSPro, were found to ha...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dell'Olmo E, Gaglione R, Cesaro A, Cafaro V, Teertstra WR, de Cock H, Notomista E, Haagsman HP, Veldhuizen EJA, Arciello A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Substrate properties as controlling parameters in attached algal cultivation.
Abstract There is growing interest in attached algae cultivation systems because they could provide a more cost- and energy-efficient alternative to planktonic (suspended algae) cultivation systems for many applications. However, attached growth systems have been far less studied than planktonic systems and have largely emphasized algae strains of most interest for biofuels. New algal biorefinery pathways have assessed the commercial potentials of algal biomass beyond biofuel production and placed more emphasis on value-added products from that biomass. Therefore, algal strain selection criteria and biomass cultiv...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karimi Z, Laughinghouse HD, Davis VA, Blersch DM Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Engineering of primary metabolic pathways for titer improvement of milbemycins in Streptomyces bingchenggensis.
Abstract Milbemycins are used commercially as insect repellents and acaricides; however, their high cost remains a significant challenge to commercial production. Hence, improving the titer of milbemycins for commercial application is an urgent priority. The present study aimed to effectively increase the titer of milbemycins using a combination of genome re-sequencing and metabolic engineering. First, 133 mutation sites were identified by genome re-sequencing in the mutagenized high-yielding strain BC04. Among them, three modifiable candidate genes (sbi_04868 encoding citrate synthase, sbi_06921 and sbi_06922 enc...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu Y, Wang H, Li S, Zhang Y, Cheng X, Xiang W, Wang X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Structure-based substrate specificity analysis of GH11 xylanase from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis E-86.
In this study, the substrate specificity of a GH11 xylanase from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis E-86 (SoXyn11B) was elucidated based on its three-dimensional structure. Subsite mapping suggests that SoXyn11B has seven subsites (four subsites on the - side and three subsites on the + side), and it is one longer than the GH10 xylanase from S. olivaceoviridis (SoXyn10A). SoXyn11B has no affinity for the subsites at either end of the scissile glycosidic bond, and the sugar-binding energy at subsite - 2 was the highest, followed by subsite + 2. These properties were very similar to those of SoXyn10A. In contrast, SoXyn11B produce...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fujimoto Z, Kishine N, Teramoto K, Tsutsui S, Kaneko S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Research progress and the biotechnological applications of multienzyme complex.
Abstract The multienzyme complex system has become a research focus in synthetic biology due to its highly efficient overall catalytic ability and has been applied to various fields. Multienzyme complexes are formed by cascading complexes, which are multiple functionally related enzymes that continuously and efficiently catalyze the production of substrates. Compared with current mainstream microbial cell catalytic systems, in vitro multienzyme molecular machines have many advantages, such as fewer side reactions, a high product yield, a fast reaction speed, easy product separation, a tolerable toxic environment, ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jiang Y, Zhang X, Yuan H, Huang D, Wang R, Liu H, Wang T Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

An efficient system for stable markerless integration of large biosynthetic gene clusters into Streptomyces chromosomes.
e;s J, Kormanec J Abstract The bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are among the most important producers of biologically active secondary metabolites. Moreover, recent genomic sequence data have shown their enormous genetic potential for new natural products, although many new biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) are silent. Therefore, efficient and stable genome modification techniques are needed to activate their production or to manipulate their biosynthesis towards increased production or improved properties. We have recently developed an efficient markerless genome modification system for streptomycetes based on...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Csolleiova D, Knirschova R, Rezuchova B, Homerova D, Sevcikova B, Matulova M, Núñez LE, Novakova R, Feckova L, Javorova R, Cortés J, Kormanec J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Calcium-crosslinked alginate-encapsulated bacteria for remediating of cadmium-polluted water and production of CdS nanoparticles.
In this study, we used a novel biomaterial based on calcium-crosslinked alginate-encapsulated bacteria to precipitate Cd2+ in polluted water. Our results show that calcium-crosslinked alginate-encapsulated bacteria effectively removed Cd2+ ions from cadmium-polluted water. Approximately 100% of Cd2+ ions were removed by 10 g (wet weight) of this biomaterial when the loading concentration of Cd2+ reached 1 mM in a volume of 50 ml water. During this process, a CdS nanoparticle, showing good crystallinity in the quantum range, was simultaneously produced. To validate the activity and stability of this biomaterial, we measured...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xu S, Luo X, Huang Q, Chen W Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Effect of cross-linked enzyme aggregate strategy on characterization of sn-1,3 extracellular lipase from Aspergillus niger GZUF36.
Abstract The sn-1,3 extracellular lipase from Aspergillus niger GZUF36 (EXANL1) has important potential applications. The cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) of purified EXANL1 (CLEA-EXANL1) achieved optimum activity recovery (148.5 ± 0.9%), immobilization yield (100 ± 0%), and recovered activity (99.7 ± 0.6%) with 80% tert-butanol as the precipitant, glutaraldehyde (GA) concentration of 30 mM, GA treatment time of 1.5 h, and centrifugal speed of 6000×g. The effect of CLEA strategy on the characterization of EXANL1 was evaluated in this work. CLEA-EXANL1 exhibited a broader optimum pH r...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhu R, Li C, Chen C, Xing S, Cai Y, Zeng X, He L Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Seed coating as a delivery system for the endophyte Trichoderma koningiopsis Th003 in rice (Oryza sativa).
In conclusion, seed coating is a promising alternative for the formulation of beneficial microbial agents such as Trichoderma sp., maintaining cell survival and further promoting the establishment in rice systems.Key points• Enhancing drying survival of T. koningiopsis formulates• Seed coating formulation approach for T. koningiopsis in rice• Colonization capacity of formulated T. koningiopsis in rice tissue. PMID: 33559719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cortés-Rojas D, Beltrán-Acosta C, Zapata-Narvaez Y, Chaparro M, Gómez M, Cruz-Barrera M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Comparison of the fermentation and bacterial community in the colon of Hu sheep fed a low-grain, non-pelleted, or pelleted high-grain diet.
This study aimed to investigate commensal bacteria in the colon influenced by diverse dietary niches. Fifteen male sheep were randomly allotted into three feeding groups: non-pelleted low-grain (CON, n = 5), non-pelleted high-grain (HG, n = 5), and pelleted high-grain (HP, n = 5) diets. The HG and HP groups had higher fermentation parameters than the CON group, especially acetate concentration (CON = 46.91; HG = 61.66; HP = 77.99). The HG diet altered the composition of commensal bacteria in the colon in comparison to the CON group, including the increase of genera related to acetate production (e.g., Acetitomaculum spp.),...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lin L, Trabi EB, Xie F, Mao S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Panorama of intron dynamics and gene rearrangements in the phylum Basidiomycota as revealed by the complete mitochondrial genome of Turbinellus floccosus.
Abstract In the present study, the complete mitogenome of Turbinellus floccosus was sequenced, assembled, and compared with other basidiomycete mitogenomes. The mitogenome of T. floccosus consists of a circular DNA molecule, with a size of 62,846 bp. Gene arrangement analysis indicated that large-scale gene rearrangements occurred in the levels of family and genus of basidiomycete species, and the mitogenome of T. floccosus contained a unique gene order. A significant correlation between the number of introns and the mitochondrial genome size of Basidiomycota were detected (P
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cheng J, Luo Q, Ren Y, Luo Z, Liao W, Wang X, Li Q Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metagenomic insights into the effect of sulfate on enhanced biological phosphorus removal.
Abstract Excess phosphorus in water supplies causes eutrophication, which degrades water quality. Hence, the efficient removal of phosphorus from wastewater represents a highly desirable process. Here, we evaluated the effect of sulfate concentration on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), in which phosphorus is typically removed under anaerobic-oxic cycles, with sulfate reduction the predominant process in the anaerobic phase. Two sequencing batch EBPR reactors operated under high- (SBR-H) vs. low-sulfate (SBR-L) concentrations for 189 days and under three periods, i.e., start-up, sufficient acetate, an...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Matsuura N, Masakke Y, Karthikeyan S, Kanazawa S, Honda R, Yamamoto-Ikemoto R, Konstantinidis KT Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

The formation of fungus-serpentine aggregation and its immobilization of lead(II) under acidic conditions.
Abstract Serpentine has weak immobilization capacity for Pb(II), especially under acidic conditions. In order to improve its application potential, a new biological modification method was adopted, i.e., the serpentine powder was weathered by Aspergillus niger and the fungus-serpentine aggregation (FSA) formed was investigated for its Pb(II) immobilization potential and underlying mechanism. Batch adsorption of Pb(II) by FSA closely followed the Langmuir model, while the maximum adsorption capacity of FSA (370.37 mg/g) was significantly higher than fungal mycelium (31.85 mg/g) and serpentine (8.92 mg/g). The adsor...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yu C, Zhang L, Syed S, Li Y, Xu M, Lian B Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Contribution of pathogenic fungi to N2O emissions increases temporally in intensively managed strawberry cropping soil.
Abstract Intensively managed agriculture land is a significant contributor to nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which adds to global warming and the depletion of the ozone layer. Recent studies have suggested that fungal dominant N2O production may be promoted by pathogenic fungi under high nitrogen fertilization and continuous cropping. Here, we measured the contribution of fungal communities to N2O production under intensively managed strawberry fields of three continuous cropping years (1, 5, and 10 years) and compared this adjacent bare soil. Higher N2O emission was observed from the 10-year field, of which fungi...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huang Y, Jing J, Yan M, Hazard C, Chen Y, Guo C, Xiao X, Lin J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Characterization and function of membrane vesicles in Gram-positive bacteria.
Abstract In recent years, extracellular vesicles have gained more attention. However, studies on membrane vesicles in Gram-positive bacteria were carried out relatively late because of the thick bacterial wall and the low production of membrane vesicles. Thanks to the research in recent years, the cognition of the composition and function of the membrane vesicles of Gram-positive bacteria has made significant progress. Membrane vesicles are spherical in shape comprising bilayer membranous structures with a diameter of 20-400 nm. Components of membrane vesicles are diverse, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 6, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cao Y, Lin H Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Thiamine-producing lactic acid bacteria and their potential use in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.
In this study, 23 LAB able to produce thiamine were identified by growth in thiamine-free synthetic medium. Intra- and extracellular thiamine concentrations were determined using a microbiological method and results confirmed by HPLC techniques. A wide variation in vitamin production was found showing that this property was not only species specific but also a strain-dependent trait. Five of these strains were pre-selected for their capacity to produce higher concentrations of thiamine. Only the pre-treatment with the intracellular extract of Lactiplantibacillus (L.) plantarum CRL 1905 increased significantly neuronal surv...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 6, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Teran MDM, de Moreno de LeBlanc A, Savoy de Giori G, LeBlanc JG Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Spatial and seasonal variations of sediment bacterial communities in a river-bay system in South China.
In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to analyze the diversity and composition of sediment bacterial communities from the Shenzhen river-bay system during dry and wet seasons. The results showed that sediment bacterial community structure was varied according to habitats (river vs. estuary) and seasons (wet season vs. dry season). The alpha diversity of sediment bacterial community was significantly higher in the dry season than in the wet season, while no significant difference of alpha diversity was found between river and estuary. Neutral community model revealed a significant influence of ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lu Z, Liu Z, Zhang C, Wei Q, Zhang S, Li M Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

An ATP-free in vitro synthetic enzymatic biosystem facilitating one-pot stoichiometric conversion of starch to mannitol.
This study not only provides a high-efficient strategy for the synthesis of mannitol but also expands the product scope of sugar alcohols by the in vitro synthetic enzymatic biosystems using low-cost starch-based materials as the input. KEY POINTS : • We described a design-build-test-learn pipeline to construct in vitro biosystems. • The designed system comprised six key enzymes and another three enzymes. • The system converted maltodextrin stoichiometrically to mannitol in one pot. PMID: 33544214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wei X, Li Q, Hu C, You C Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Comparative proteomic analyses reveal the metabolic aspects and biotechnological potential of nitrate assimilation in the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.
is MA Abstract The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is well-known for its adaptation to industrial ethanol fermentation processes, which can be further improved if nitrate is present in the substrate. To date, the assimilation of nitrate has been considered inefficient because of the apparent energy cost imposed on cell metabolism. Recent research, however, has shown that nitrate promotes growth rate and ethanol yield when oxygen is absent from the environment. Given this, the present work aimed to identify the biological mechanisms behind this physiological behaviour. Proteomic analyses comparing four contrasting growt...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Peña-Moreno IC, Parente DC, da Silva KM, Pena EPN, Silva FAC, Calsa Junior T, de Barros Pita W, de Morais MA Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A recombinant fungal defensin-like peptide-P2 combats Streptococcus dysgalactiae and biofilms.
In this study, in vivo and in vitro multiple mechanisms of action of P2, a mutant of fungal defensin plectasin, against S. dysgalactiae were systematically and comprehensively investigated for the first time. P2 showed potent antibacterial activity against S. dysgalactiae (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC = 0.23-0.46 μM) and rapid bactericidal action by 3.0 lg units reduction in 2-4 h. No resistant mutants appeared after 30-d serial passage of S. dysgalactiae in the presence of P2. The results of electron microscopy and flow cytometer showed that P2 induced membrane damage of S. dysgalactiae, causing the leakage of...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang Q, Yang N, Mao R, Hao Y, Ma X, Teng D, Fan H, Wang J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A single nucleotide mutation drastically increases the expression of tumor-homing NGR-TNF α in the E. coli M15-pQE30 system by improving gene transcription.
A single nucleotide mutation drastically increases the expression of tumor-homing NGR-TNFα in the E. coli M15-pQE30 system by improving gene transcription. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Feb 02;: Authors: Chen J, Yang H, Feng Y, Shi Q, Li Z, Tao Z, Fan J, Jin Y, Li S, Cheng J, Lu X Abstract Due to their potent immune stimulation, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) variants with tumor-homing activity are attractive as novel antitumor drugs. The promising antitumor effect of NGR-TNFα in clinical trials triggered extensive interest in developing novel tumor-homing TNFα variants i...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 2, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen J, Yang H, Feng Y, Shi Q, Li Z, Tao Z, Fan J, Jin Y, Li S, Cheng J, Lu X Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A bottom-up approach towards a bacterial consortium for the biotechnological conversion of chitin to L-lysine.
Abstract Chitin is an abundant waste product from shrimp and mushroom industries and as such, an appropriate secondary feedstock for biotechnological processes. However, chitin is a crystalline substrate embedded in complex biological matrices, and, therefore, difficult to utilize, requiring an equally complex chitinolytic machinery. Following a bottom-up approach, we here describe the step-wise development of a mutualistic, non-competitive consortium in which a lysine-auxotrophic Escherichia coli substrate converter cleaves the chitin monomer N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) into glucosamine (GlcN) and acetate, but u...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vortmann M, Stumpf AK, Sgobba E, Dirks-Hofmeister ME, Krehenbrink M, Wendisch VF, Philipp B, Moerschbacher BM Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Strategic aromatic residues in the catalytic cleft of the xyloglucanase MtXgh74 modifying thermostability, mode of enzyme action, and viscosity reduction ability.
Abstract The thermostable endo-processive xyloglucanase MtXgh74 from Myceliophthora thermophila was used to study the influence of aromatic amino acids in the catalytic cleft on the mode of action and the ability of enzyme to reduce xyloglucan viscosity. The enzyme derivative Mut I with mutations W64A/W67A in the "negative" subsites of the catalytic cleft resulted in a 5.5-fold increase of the Km value. Mut I produced oligosaccharides of various lengths in addition to xyloglucan building blocks. The W320A/W321A substitutions in the "positive" subsites of the mutated enzyme Mut II catalytic clef...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Berezina OV, Rykov SV, Polyakova AK, Bozdaganyan ME, Sidochenko AV, Baudrexl M, Schwarz WH, Zverlov VV, Yarotsky SV Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research