Valorisation of pectin-rich agro-industrial residues by yeasts: potential and challenges.
eia I Abstract Pectin-rich agro-industrial residues are feedstocks with potential for sustainable biorefineries. They are generated in high amounts worldwide from the industrial processing of fruits and vegetables. The challenges posed to the industrial implementation of efficient bioprocesses are however manyfold and thoroughly discussed in this review paper, mainly at the biological level. The most important yeast cell factory platform for advanced biorefineries is currently Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but this yeast species cannot naturally catabolise the main sugars present in pectin-rich agro-industrial residue...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Martins LC, Monteiro CC, Semedo PM, Sá-Correia I Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Diversity of locally produced IFN- α subtypes in human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and mouse lung tissues during influenza virus infection.
Diversity of locally produced IFN-α subtypes in human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and mouse lung tissues during influenza virus infection. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 May 30;: Authors: Yang L, Wang S, Wang Y, Zhao P, Cui C, Tu L, Li X, Yu Y, Li H, Wang L Abstract The excessively expressed interferon-α (IFN-α) might contribute to the uncontrolled inflammatory responses, causing pathological damage during influenza virus infection. However, the correlation of the pathological damage with the expression profile of IFN-α subtypes in the focus of infection with influenza vir...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yang L, Wang S, Wang Y, Zhao P, Cui C, Tu L, Li X, Yu Y, Li H, Wang L Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

ARTP mutation and adaptive laboratory evolution improve probiotic performance of Bacillus coagulans.
Abstract Bacillus coagulans is a thermophilic, facultative anaerobic, spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium, which is used as a probiotic in animal feed and human dietary supplements. In the present study, a bile-resistant thermophilic B. coagulans WT-03 strain was isolated and genetically identified. Atmospheric pressure room temperature plasma (ARTP)-induced mutation combined with adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was used to improve the probiotic performance of B. coagulans WT-03. After 15 s of ARTP mutation and 40 days of ALE culture, a mutant artp-aleBC15 was obtained and showed the improved toler...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu K, Fang H, Cui F, Nyabako BA, Tao T, Zan X, Chen H, Sun W Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Identification and importance of mitochondrial citrate carriers and ATP citrate lyase for glycolipid production in Starmerella bombicola.
Abstract Starmerella bombicola is a non-conventional yeast commercially used as a microbial cell factory for sophorolipid production. Sophorolipids are glycolipid biosurfactants composed of a glucose disaccharide sophorose and a fatty acid. In de novo sophorolipid synthesis, the fatty acid moiety is derived from the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) complex; therefore, the yeast's lipid metabolism plays a crucial role in sophorolipid biosynthesis. As a fatty acid precursor, citric acid is a key primary metabolite that connects carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and in S. bombicola, it also has a regulatory effect on soph...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jezierska S, Claus S, Van Bogaert INA Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Anti-atherosclerotic effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 in ApoE-/- mice through modulation of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.
In this study, 8-week-old atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were fed with or without Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 per day for 12 weeks. Serum was collected to analyse the lipid profile, oxidative status and proinflammatory cytokines. The heart was isolated to quantify the atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortic arch. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β in the aorta. The proteins extracted from the aorta were used for Western blot analysis to assess th...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hassan A, Din AU, Zhu Y, Zhang K, Li T, Wang Y, Xu S, Lei H, Yu X, Wang G Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Evidence for a mutualistic relationship between the cyanobacteria Nostoc and fungi Aspergilli in different environments.
Abstract Symbiotic partnerships are widespread in nature and in industrial applications yet there are limited examples of laboratory communities. Therefore, using common photobionts and mycobionts similar to those in natural lichens, we create an artificial lichen-like symbiosis. While Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger could not obtain nutrients from the green algae, Chlorella, and Scenedesmus, the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. PCC 6720 was able to support fungal growth and also elevated the accumulation of total biomass. The Nostoc-Aspergillus co-cultures grew on light and CO2 in an inorganic BG11 liquid medi...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jiang L, Li T, Jenkins J, Hu Y, Brueck CL, Pei H, Betenbaugh MJ Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Steviol glycosides profile in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni hairy roots cultured under oxidative stress-inducing conditions.
Abstract The ability to synthesize particular steviol glycosides (SvGls) was studied in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni hairy roots (HR) grown in the light or in the dark under the influence of different osmotic active compounds. Manipulation of culture conditions led to changes in the morphology and growth rate of HR, as well as to an increase in oxidative stress manifested as an enhancement in endogenous hydrogen peroxide concentration in the cultured samples. The highest level of H2O2 was noted in HR cultured under light or in the medium with the highest osmotic potential. This correlated with the highest increase in...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Libik-Konieczny M, Michalec-Warzecha Ż, Dziurka M, Zastawny O, Konieczny R, Rozpądek P, Pistelli L Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Near-perfect kinetic resolution of o-methylphenyl glycidyl ether by RpEH, a novel epoxide hydrolase from Rhodotorula paludigena JNU001 with high stereoselectivity.
Abstract In order to provide more alternative epoxide hydrolases for industrial production, a novel cDNA gene Rpeh-encoding epoxide hydrolase (RpEH) of Rhodotorula paludigena JNU001 identified by 26S rDNA sequence analysis was amplified by RT-PCR. The open-reading frame (ORF) of Rpeh was 1236 bp encoding RpEH of 411 amino acids and was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The substrate spectrum of expressed RpEH showed that the transformant E. coli/Rpeh had excellent enantioselectivity to 2a, 3a, and 5a-10a, among which E. coli/Rpeh had the highest activity (2473 U/g wet cells) and wonderful ena...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xu XF, Hu D, Hu BC, Li C, Liu YY, Wu MC Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Changes in microbial community in the presence of oil and chemical dispersant and their effects on the corrosion of API 5L steel coupons in a marine-simulated microcosm.
pio L Abstract The influence of crude oil and chemical dispersant was evaluated over planktonic bacteria and biofilms grown on API 5L steel surfaces in microcosm systems. Three conditions were simulated, an untreated marine environment and a marine environment with the presence of crude oil and a containing crude oil and chemical dispersant. The results of coupon corrosion rates indicated that in the oil microcosm, there was a high corrosion rate when compared with the other two systems. Analysis of bacterial communities by 16S rRNA gene sequencing described a clear difference between the different treatments. In ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Procópio L Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

No more cleaning up -  Efficient lactic acid bacteria cell catalysts as a cost-efficient alternative to purified lactase enzymes.
No more cleaning up - Efficient lactic acid bacteria cell catalysts as a cost-efficient alternative to purified lactase enzymes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 May 27;: Authors: Wang Q, Lillevang SK, Rydtoft SM, Xiao H, Fan MT, Solem C, Liu JM, Jensen PR Abstract β-galactosidases, commonly referred to as lactases, are used for producing lactose-free dairy products. Lactases are usually purified from microbial sources, which is a costly process. Here, we explored the potential that lies in using whole cells of a food-grade dairy lactic acid bacterium, Streptococcus thermophilus, as a substit...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Q, Lillevang SK, Rydtoft SM, Xiao H, Fan MT, Solem C, Liu JM, Jensen PR Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biogenic iron-silver nanoparticles inhibit bacterial biofilm formation due to Ag+ release as determined by a novel phycoerythrin-based assay.
Abstract Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) can be considered as a cost-effective alternative to antibiotics. In the presence of Fe(III)-citrate and Ag+, Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 produces biogenic Ag-NPs embedded in its peculiar exopolysaccharide (EPS). K. oxytoca DSM 29614 was cultivated in a defined growth medium-containing citrate (as sole carbon source) and supplemented with Ag+ and either low or high Fe(III) concentration. As inferred from elemental analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and dynamic light scattering, Ag-EPS NPs were produced in both con...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cusimano MG, Ardizzone F, Nasillo G, Gallo M, Sfriso A, Martino-Chillura D, Schillaci D, Baldi F, Gallo G Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against the sialidase of Gardnerella vaginalis using a synthetic peptide in a MAP8 format.
In conclusion, our results showed that the anti-SLD antibody recognized SLD from different sources and could be considered a new tool for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. KEY POINTS: • Anti-sialidase mAb was generated using a synthetic peptide • The mAb recognizes synthetic peptide and intact protein from multiple sources • The antibody was characterized by several immunological methods. PMID: 32462244 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cortés-Sarabia K, Rodríguez-Nava C, Medina-Flores Y, Mata-Ruíz O, López-Meza JE, Gómez-Cervantes MD, Parra-Rojas I, Illades-Aguiar B, Flores-Alfaro E, Vences-Velázquez A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Lipid metabolism of the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi.
Abstract The oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi is an excellent sustainable lipid producer, which can convert industrial wastes into lipids and accumulate triacylglycerols (TAG) by> 70% of its dry cell weight. Recent studies using omics technologies applied in L. starkeyi have aided in obtaining greater understanding of the important mechanisms of lipid metabolism in L. starkeyi. Therefore, the development of genetic engineering tools for L. starkeyi has led to accelerated efforts for a highly efficient production of lipids.This review focuses on the aspects of TAG and fatty acid synthesis pathways in L. stark...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Takaku H, Matsuzawa T, Yaoi K, Yamazaki H Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Assessment of overall microbial community shift during Cheddar cheese production from raw milk to aging.
This study characterizes the changes in the Cheddar cheese microbiome over the course of production from raw milk to a 6-month-aged final product. KEY POINTS: • 271 ASVs were acquired from cheese production from raw milk to 6-month aging. • Addition of SLAB changed the microbial diversity during Cheddar cheese making procedure. • NSLAB were detected more than 15 weeks after aging. Graphical Abstract. PMID: 32451588 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Choi J, In Lee S, Rackerby B, Frojen R, Goddik L, Ha SD, Park SH Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Unraveling the anti-biofilm potential of green algal sulfated polysaccharides against Salmonella enterica and Vibrio harveyi.
Abstract One of the main reasons for the bacterial resistance to antibiotics is caused by biofilm formation of microbial pathogens during bacterial infections. Salmonella enterica and Vibrio harveyi are known to form biofilms and represent a major health concern worldwide, causing human infections responsible for morbidity and mortality. The current study aims to investigate the effect of purified sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) on planktonic and biofilm growth of these bacteria. The effect of Cr-SPs on bacterial planktonic growth was assessed by using the agar well diffusion met...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vishwakarma J, V L S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Crosstalk between ER stress, NLRP3 inflammasome, and inflammation.
Abstract Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is a protective response to restore protein homeostasis by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, UPR can trigger cell death under severe and/or persistently high ERS. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a complex of multiple proteins that activates the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in a caspase-1-dependent manner to participate in the regulation of inflammation. The NLRP3 inflammasome involvement in ERS-induced inflammation has not been completely described. The intersection of ERS with multiple inflammatory pathways can initiate and aggra...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li W, Cao T, Luo C, Cai J, Zhou X, Xiao X, Liu S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Multidisciplinary characterization of melanin pigments from the black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus.
Abstract Melanin is a natural pigment present in almost all biological groups, and is composed of indolic polymers and characterized by black-brown colorization. Furthermore, it is one of the pigments produced by extremophiles including those living in the Antarctic desert, and is mainly involved in their protection from high UV radiation, desiccation, salinity and oxidation. Previous studies have shown that melanized species have an increased capability to survive high level of radiation compared with the non-melanized counterpart. Understanding the molecular composition of fungal melanin could help to understand...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pacelli C, Cassaro A, Maturilli A, Timperio AM, Gevi F, Cavalazzi B, Stefan M, Ghica D, Onofri S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Mentholation triggers brand-specific shifts in the bacterial microbiota of commercial cigarette products.
Abstract Bacterial communities are integral constituents of tobacco products. They originate from tobacco plants and are acquired during manufacturing processes, where they play a role in the production of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. In addition, tobacco bacterial constituents may play an important role in the development of infectious and chronic diseases among users. Nevertheless, tobacco bacterial communities have been largely unexplored, and the influence of tobacco flavor additives such as menthol (a natural antimicrobial) on tobacco bacterial communities is unclear. To bridge this knowledge gap, time seri...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Malayil L, Chattopadhyay S, Kulkarni P, Hittle L, Clark PI, Mongodin EF, Sapkota AR Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Early-life lactoferrin intervention modulates the colonic microbiota, colonic microbial metabolites and intestinal function in suckling piglets.
This study reports the effects of early-life lactoferrin (LF) intervention on the colonic microbiota, intestinal function and mucosal immunity in suckling piglets. A total of 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire suckling piglets from six sows were assigned to the control (CON) and LF groups in litters. The LF group piglets were fed 0.5 g/kg body weight of LF solution per day, and the CON group piglets were fed the same dose of physiological saline for a week. Six piglets from the two groups were randomly chosen and euthanised on days 8 and 21. The LF group piglets had higher ACE and Chao1 indices of colonic mic...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hu P, Zhao F, Wang J, Zhu W Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Fine mapping of linear B cell epitopes on capsid protein of porcine circovirus 3.
In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Cap protein of PCV3 were produced by the hybridoma technique. Subsequently, 12 serial overlapping peptides (P1 to P12) spanning the entire region of Cap were synthesized to determine the B cell epitope regions using the mAbs. Results from dot-blot and peptide ELISA identified that P3, P9, and P10 were the major B cell antigenic regions. Fine mapping by shorter N- and C-terminal truncated peptides confirmed that the motifs 57NKPWH61, 140KHSRYFT146, and 161QSLFFF166 were linear B cell epitopes, which were highly conserved among different PCV3 strains. Interestingly, we foun...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jiang M, Guo J, Zhang G, Jin Q, Liu Y, Jia R, Wang A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Genome-wide study of saprotrophy-related genes in the basal fungus Conidiobolus heterosporus.
Abstract Conidiobolus spp. are important saprophytic basal fungi. However, to date, no genomic-level data for decaying plant materials in the genus Conidiobolus has been reported. Here, we report that the 33.4-Mb genome of Conidiobolus heterosporus encodes 10,857 predicted genes. Conidiobolus heterosporus harbors 394 CAZyme-encoding genes belonging to 4 major modules but does not encode a polysaccharide lyase (PL). Many carbohydrate esterases (CEs) belonging to the family CE12 play crucial roles as pectin acetylesterases, and 14 genes were upregulated in the IM (fungus grown on inducing medium) among 17 expressed ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Y, Nie Y, Yu D, Xie X, Qin L, Yang Y, Huang B Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Piperazine ring formation by a single-module NRPS and cleavage by an α-KG-dependent nonheme iron dioxygenase in brasiliamide biosynthesis.
In this study, the biosynthetic gene cluster of brasiliamides, brs, was identified from the marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium brasilianum WZXY-M122-9. Deletion of a histone deacetylase-encoding gene using a CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system led to the production of a new compound, namely brasiliamide I (1). The brs-encoded single-module nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) BrsA is involved in the formation of the piperazine skeleton of brasiliamides. Full-length BrsA protein (113.6 kDa) was purified, and reconstitution of enzymatic activity in vitro confirmed that BrsA stereoselectively accepts L-phenylalanine ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yuan B, Liu D, Guan X, Yan Y, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Yang D, Ma M, Lin W Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

A novel β-galactosidase from Klebsiella oxytoca ZJUH1705 for efficient production of galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose.
In this study, a novel β-galactosidase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca ZJUH1705, identified by its 16S rRNA sequence (GenBank accession no. MH981243), was isolated. Two β-galactosidase genes, bga 1 encoding a 2058-bp fragment (GenBank accession no. MH986613) and bga 2 encoding a 3108-bp fragment (GenBank accession no. MN182756), were cloned from K. oxytoca ZJUH1705 and expressed in E. coli. The purified β-gal 1 and β-gal 2 had the specific activity of 217.56 U mg-1 and 57.9 U mg-1, respectively, at the optimal pH of 7.0. The reaction kinetic parameters Km, Vmax, and Kcat with oNPG as th...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huang J, Zhu S, Zhao L, Chen L, Du M, Zhang C, Yang ST Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metabolomics-guided analysis reveals a two-step epimerization of deoxynivalenol catalyzed by the bacterial consortium IFSN-C1.
Abstract Deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly found in wheat and wheat-derived foods, posing a threat to human health. Biodegradation is an efficient and eco-friendly measure for mycotoxin detoxification. Understanding the mechanism of DON biodegradation is hence of great importance. Herein, we report the application of metabolomics methods for the analysis of DON degradation by a bacterial consortium isolated from wheat leaves collected in Jiangsu Province. Metabolomics analysis combined with a nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed the main degradation product, 3-keto-DON, and a minor degradation product, 3-ep...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang G, Wang Y, Man H, Lee YW, Shi J, Xu J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Comparative genomics of Streptococcus parauberis: new target for molecular identification of serotype III.
Abstract This paper describes the predicted structure for the cps loci involved in capsule biosynthesis for Streptococcus parauberis serotypes III, IV, and V. Based on the specific serotype regions I, II, and III, a multiplex PCR protocol (mPCR) was designed to differentiate the main serotypes causing fish diseases. A real-time PCR method (qPCR) is also described to identify S. parauberis of serotype III in bacterial cultures and fish tissues. In silico and in vitro analyses revealed that both methods have a 100% specificity. The mPCR assay was optimized for the detection of S. parauberis strains of subtypes Ia (a...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Torres-Corral Y, Santos Y Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and its potential as fermentation feedstock.
Abstract Distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of bioethanol fermentation, which uses the dry milling technology for starch-rich grains such as corn, wheat, and barley. The current interest in bioethanol is increasing due to the need for renewable liquid fuels specifically in the transportation sector. Since DDGS is rich in crude protein, fat, fiber, vitamins, and minerals, it is currently used as aquaculture, livestock, and poultry feeds. In recent years, DDGS has been used as feedstock in the production of value-added products via microbial fermentation. Numerous studies reported the produc...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Iram A, Cekmecelioglu D, Demirci A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Application of dielectric spectroscopy to unravel the physiological state of microorganisms: current state, prospects and limits.
Discussion of correlation among dielectric properties and cell physiological states. • View of the potential use of dielectric spectroscopy in monitoring bioprocesses. PMID: 32440707 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Flores-Cosío G, Herrera-López EJ, Arellano-Plaza M, Gschaedler-Mathis A, Kirchmayr M, Amaya-Delgado L Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Obituary: Arnold Demain 1927-2020.
Authors: PMID: 32430535 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Rapid and efficient detection methods of pathogenic swine enteric coronaviruses.
Abstract Porcine enteric coronaviruses (CoVs) cause highly contagious enteric diarrhea in suckling piglets. These COV infections are characterized by clinical signs of vomiting, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and high morbidity and mortality, resulting in significant economic losses and tremendous threats to the pig farming industry worldwide. Because the clinical manifestations of pigs infected by different CoVs are similar, it is difficult to differentiate between the specific pathogens. Effective high-throughput detection methods are powerful tools used in the prevention and control of diseases. The immune syste...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fu Y, Li B, Liu G Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microorganisms of Lake Baikal-the deepest and most ancient lake on Earth.
Abstract Lake Baikal (Russia) is the largest (by volume) and deepest lake on Earth. The lake remains relatively pristine due to the low population density around its basin. Being very distant from any marine water body but having a remarkable number of similarities to oceans (depth, oxygen content, oligotrophy) provides a unique model of pelagic microbiota that is submitted to marine-like conditions minus the salt content of the water. It is also a model of lakes located at high latitudes and submitted to yearly ice cover (from January to April). The analysis by different approaches has indeed provided a view of t...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zemskaya TI, Cabello-Yeves PJ, Pavlova ON, Rodriguez-Valera F Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Production and secretion dynamics of prokaryotic Penicillin G acylase in Pichia pastoris.
h S, Kyslík P, Kovar K Abstract To take full advantage of recombinant Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffii) as a production system for heterologous proteins, the complex protein secretory process should be understood and optimised by circumventing bottlenecks. Typically, little or no attention has been paid to the fate of newly synthesised protein inside the cell, or its passage through the secretory pathway, and only the secreted product is measured. However, the system's productivity (i.e. specific production rate qp), includes productivity of secreted (qp,extra) plus intracellularly accumulated (qp,intr...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Borčinová M, Raschmanová H, Zamora I, Looser V, Marešová H, Hirsch S, Kyslík P, Kovar K Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Lizhong decoction ameliorates ulcerative colitis in mice via modulating gut microbiota and its metabolites.
In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing combining with untargeted metabolomics profiling was used to investigate how LZD worked. Results indicated that LZD could shape the gut microbiota structure and modify metabolic profiles. The abundance of opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Enterobacter, and Escherichia-Shigella correlated with intestinal inflammation markedly decreased, while the levels of beneficial bacteria including Blautia, Muribaculaceae_norank, Prevotellaceae UCG-001, and Ruminiclostridium 9 elevated in various degrees. Additionally, fecal metabolite profiles reflecting microbial activ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zou J, Shen Y, Chen M, Zhang Z, Xiao S, Liu C, Wan Y, Yang L, Jiang S, Shang E, Qian D, Duan J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Natural brominated phenoxyphenols kill persistent and biofilm-incorporated cells of MRSA and other pathogenic bacteria.
In this study, the marine sponge-derived natural compounds 4,6-dibromo-2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)phenol and 3,4,6-tribromo-2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)phenol were found to exhibit broad antibacterial activity against medically relevant gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. The compounds were not only bactericidal against both replicating and stationary phase-persistent planktonic cells of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; they also killed biofilm-incorporated cells of both species while not affecting biofilm structural integrity. Moreover, these compounds were active against carb...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: van Geelen L, Kaschani F, Sazzadeh SS, Adeniyi ET, Meier D, Proksch P, Pfeffer K, Kaiser M, Ioerger TR, Kalscheuer R Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Features and applications of Ent35-MccV hybrid bacteriocin: current state and perspectives.
oacute;n MC Abstract Bacteriocins are peptides of ribosomal synthesis that are active against bacteria related to the producing strain. They have been widely used in the food industry as biopreservatives. The generation of hybrid peptides by combining the genes that encode two different bacteriocins has made it possible to study the mechanisms of action of the bacteriocins that compose them and also develop new peptides with improved biotechnological applications. Hybrid bacteriocins may be obtained in several ways. In our laboratory, by combining enterocin CRL35 and microcin V (Ent35-MccV), we obtained a broad-sp...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Navarro SA, Lanza L, Acuña L, Bellomio A, Chalón MC Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Aerobic and oxygen-limited naphthalene-amended enrichments induced the dominance of Pseudomonas spp. from a groundwater bacterial biofilm.
In this study, we aimed at determining the impact of naphthalene and different oxygen levels on a biofilm bacterial community originated from a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater. By using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches, the enrichment, identification, and isolation of aerobic and oxygen-limited naphthalene degraders was possible. Results indicated that, regardless of the oxygenation conditions, Pseudomonas spp. became the most dominant in the naphthalene-amended selective enrichment cultures. Under low-oxygen conditions, P. veronii/P. extremaustralis lineage affiliating bacteria, ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Benedek T, Szentgyörgyi F, Szabó I, Farkas M, Duran R, Kriszt B, Táncsics A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Time-course transcriptome analysis reveals the mechanisms of Burkholderia sp. adaptation to high phenol concentrations.
This study provides the first insights into the specific response of Burkholderia sp. to high phenol stress and shows potential for application in remediation of polluted environments. KEY POINTS: • Shock, DNA repair and antioxidant-related genes contributed to phenol tolerance. • β-Ketoadipate pathway branches differed at different stages of phenol degradation. • Adaptation mechanisms transitioned from negative tolerance to positive degradation. PMID: 32415321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ma Y, Li L, Awasthi MK, Tian H, Lu M, Megharaj M, Pan Y, He W Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Impact of additive application on the establishment of fast and stable aerobic granulation.
Abstract Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a microbial biofilm self-aggregation, which is effective for nutrient and pollutant removal, through the development of dense microbial layers bound together with extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). However, long start-up times and granule disintegration are still challenges ahead. An array of external additives, including ion chelating agents, sludge-based enhancers, and magnetic influence have been tested to overcome these barriers. The application of such additives may promote enhanced EPS production, neutralization of charges on the bacterial surface, acts as a ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: da Costa NPAV, Libardi N, Schambeck CM, Filho PB, da Costa RHR Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Undernutrition shifted colonic fermentation and digest-associated bacterial communities in pregnant ewes.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of undernutrition on colonic microbiota and fermentation in pregnant ewes. Sixteen ewes bearing multiple fetuses for 115 days in the control (CON) and severe feed restriction (SFR) groups were fed 100% and 30% level of ad libitum feed intake, respectively. After 15-day treatment, all ewes were sacrificed to collect colonic digesta samples to extract DNA for 16S rRNA sequencing and to detect fermentation parameters. Our data showed that SFR increased (P 
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xue Y, Hu F, Guo C, Mei S, Xie F, Zeng H, Mao S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microaerobic fermentation alters lactose metabolism in Escherichia coli.
Abstract Microaerobic fermentation has been shown to improve lactose transport and recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. Mechanistic correlation between lactose and dissolved oxygen has been studied and it has been demonstrated that E. coli can switch its genetic machinery upon fluctuations in dissolved oxygen levels and thereby impact lactose transport, resulting in product formation. Continuous induction of lactose in microaerobic fermentation led to a 3.3-fold improvement in product titre of rLTNF oligomer and a 1.8-fold improvement in product titre of rSymlin oligomer as compared with traditional...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pandi K, Chauhan AS, Gupta JA, Rathore AS Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Enzymatic removal of dags from livestock: an agricultural application of enzyme technology.
Abstract The effective removal of dags (manure balls) from cattle, sheep and goats is a significant issue for the livestock industry. Dags are hard recalcitrant deposits composed of materials, such as faeces, hair, soil, urine, feed and straw, and attach to the animal through the hair rather than the skin. Dags build up during wet periods, especially on long haired breeds, and can weigh up to 40 kg per animal for cattle. Dag removal prior to slaughter reduces the risk of microbial meat contamination and damage to the hide during leather processing. Existing removal methods include hair trimming or extensive h...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Navone L, Speight R Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Lactobacillus plantarum FRT10 alleviated high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through regulating the PPAR α signal pathway and gut microbiota.
Lactobacillus plantarum FRT10 alleviated high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through regulating the PPARα signal pathway and gut microbiota. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 May 14;: Authors: Cai H, Wen Z, Li X, Meng K, Yang P Abstract Previous studies showed that probiotics supplementation contributed to alleviate obesity. This work was to assess the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum FRT10 from sour dough in alleviating obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), and the underlying mechanisms focusing on modulation of the gut microbiota profile. Kunming mice were fed with a regular diet ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cai H, Wen Z, Li X, Meng K, Yang P Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Phenotypic and molecular insights into heat tolerance of formulated cells as active ingredients of fungal insecticides.
Abstract Formulated conidia of insect-pathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria and Metarhizium, serve as the active ingredients of fungal insecticides but are highly sensitive to persistent high temperatures (32-35 °C) that can be beyond their upper thermal limits especially in tropical areas and during summer months. Fungal heat tolerance and inter- or intra-specific variability are critical factors and limitations to field applications of fungal pesticides during seasons favoring outbreaks of pest populations. The past decades have witnessed tremendous advances in improving fungal pesticides through selectio...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tong SM, Feng MG Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microbial astaxanthin biosynthesis: recent achievements, challenges, and commercialization outlook.
Abstract Astaxanthin is a natural pigment, known for its strong antioxidant activity and numerous health benefits to human and animals. Its antioxidant activity is known to be substantially greater than β-carotene and about a thousand times more effective than vitamin E. The potential health benefits have generated a growing commercial interest, and the escalating demand has prompted the exploration of alternative supply chain. Astaxanthin naturally occurs in many sea creatures such as trout, shrimp, and microalgae, some fungi, bacteria, and flowering plants, acting to protect hosts against environmental stre...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang C, Chen X, Too HP Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Smart drug delivery against Helicobacter pylori: pectin-coated, mucoadhesive liposomes with antiadhesive activity and antibiotic cargo.
Abstract The first step in the development of Helicobacter pylori pathogenicity is the receptor-mediated adhesion to the gastric epithelium. Inhibition of outer membrane proteins of H. pylori (e.g. BabA) by antiadhesive drugs will contribute to reduced recolonization and infection. Pectin from apple inhibits the BabA and LPS-mediated adhesion of H. pylori to human stomach cells. Pectin-coated liposomes with encapsulated amoxicillin were characterized for polydispersity, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, stability, and amoxicillin release. Coated liposomes did not influence the viability of AGS and HT29-MTX...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gottesmann M, Goycoolea FM, Steinbacher T, Menogni T, Hensel A Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of Lactobacillus gasseri and Cudrania tricuspidata on the modulation of body weight and gut microbiota structure in diet-induced obese mice.
This study serves as a potential basis for the application of L. gasseri 505 and C. tricuspidata in the prevention and treatment of diet-induced obesity. Key Points • Combination of L. gasseri (LG) and C. tricuspidata (CT) reduced body weight gain.• Microbial diversity significantly increased in LG_CT treatment.• Abundance of microorganisms involved with leanness increased in LG, CT, and LG_CT.• Body weight is associated with some metabolic functions of gut microbiota. PMID: 32394142 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Oh JK, Amoranto MBC, Oh NS, Kim S, Lee JY, Oh YN, Shin YK, Yoon Y, Kang DK Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Riboflavin-overproducing lactobacilli for the enrichment of fermented soymilk: insights into improved nutritional and functional attributes.
This study demonstrated the strategy for strain development for B2-bio-enriched fermentation to extend the health-promoting benefits of soymilk and soy-related foods. KEY POINTS: • B 2 -enriched fermentation enhanced the nutrition and functional status of soymilk. • Fermentation time significantly affected the apparent viscosity of fermented soymilk. • Off-flavor volatile substances were significantly reduced or even diminished. • Increased B 2 and bioactive isoflavones contributed to improved antioxidant potential. PMID: 32388761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhu YY, Thakur K, Feng JY, Cai JS, Zhang JG, Hu F, Russo P, Spano G, Wei ZJ Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biochemical characterization of a novel α-L-fucosidase from Pedobacter sp. and its application in synthesis of 3'-fucosyllactose and 2'-fucosyllactose.
In this study, human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) 2'-fucosyllactose (α-L-Fuc-(1,2)-D-Galβ-1,4-Glu, 2'FL) and its isomer 3'-fucosyllactose (α-L-Fuc-(1,3)-D-Galβ-1,4-Glu, 3'FL) with potential prebiotic effect were synthesized efficiently by a novel recombinant α-L-fucosidase. An α-L-fucosidase gene (PbFuc) from Pedobacter sp. CAU209 was successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The deduced amino acid sequence shared the highest identity of 36.8% with the amino sequences of other reported α-L-fucosidases. The purified α-L-fucosidase (PbFuc) had a molecular mas...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shi R, Ma J, Yan Q, Yang S, Fan Z, Jiang Z Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Engineering intracellular malonyl-CoA availability in microbial hosts and its impact on polyketide and fatty acid synthesis.
Abstract Malonyl-CoA is an important central metabolite serving as the basic building block for the microbial synthesis of many pharmaceutically interesting polyketides, but also fatty acid-derived compounds including biofuels. Especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, and Corynebacterium glutamicum have been engineered towards microbial synthesis of such compounds in recent years. However, developed strains and processes often suffer from insufficient productivity. Usually, tightly regulated intracellular malonyl-CoA availability is regarded as the decisive bottleneck limiting overall product formati...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Milke L, Marienhagen J Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Fungal RNA editing: who, when, and why?
Abstract RNA editing occurs in all kingdoms of life and in various RNA species. The editing of nuclear protein-coding transcripts has long been known in metazoans, but was only recently detected in fungi. In contrast to many metazoan species, fungal editing sites occur mostly in coding regions, and therefore, fungal editing can change protein sequences and lead to modified or new functions of proteins. Indeed, mRNA editing is thought to be generally adaptive on fungi. Although RNA editing has been detected in both, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, there seem to be considerable differences between these two classes of...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Teichert I Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Histoplasma capsulatum 100-kilodalton antigen: recombinant production, characterization, and evaluation of its possible application in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis.
Abstract The goal of the present work was to develop a novel reagent with potential for histoplasmosis diagnosis. For this purpose, the genetic sequence of the 100 kDa protein of Histoplasma capsulatum (Hcp100) was cloned and expressed as a secretory protein in Pichia pastoris. After optimizing the culture conditions and purifying by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, the highest yield of Hcp100 reached approximately 1.3 mg/l with> 90% purity in shake flasks using basal salt medium supplemented with casamino acids after 72 h of methanol induction. To investigate its potential f...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - May 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Toscanini MA, Maglio DG, Capece P, Posse G, Iovannitti CA, Nusblat AD, Cuestas ML Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research