DFSP of the Breast: Histomorphological, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features of a Rare Case in an Unusual Location
We present a case of a 21-year-old female with a vague nontender mass in the lower inner quadrant of the left breast discovered incidentally on chest imaging following trauma. A breast ultrasound demonstrated an 8×6×8 mm irregular hyperechoic mass at the 7 o’clock position of the left breast, 9 cm from the nipple. The mass was graded Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4 (suspicious finding). An ultrasound-guided biopsy of the mass showed a proliferation of monotonous spindled cells in a storiform pattern with tapered nuclei with infiltration into the adipose tissue. ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Research Articles Source Type: research

Valosin-containing Protein in Psoriasis: A Clinical and Immunohistochemical Study
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, affects about 2% to 3% of the world population. Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is one of the newly discovered markers that is highly expressed in neoplasms and hyperproliferative lesions. This work aimed to study the role of VCP in psoriasis vulgaris by immunohistochemical study and correlate its expression with the available clinicopathologic data. This prospective case-control study was conducted on 25 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 25 age-matched and sex-matched healthy individuals as a control group. Skin biopsies were taken under local anesthesi...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Research Articles Source Type: research

Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Must be Preferred to pan-TRK Immunohistochemistry to Diagnose NTRK3-rearranged Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST)
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Nevertheless, some GISTs do not contain any targetable KIT or PDGFRA mutations classically encountered in this field. Novel approved therapies targeting TRK chimeric proteins products of NTRK genes fusions consist in a promising approach to treat some patients with GISTs lacking any identified driver oncogenic mutation in KIT, PDGFRA or BRAF genes. Thus, an adequate testing strategy permitting to diagnose the rare NTRK-rearranged GISTs is required. In this work, we studied about the performances of pan-TRK...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Technical Article Source Type: research

Expression of Nectin-4 in Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma, in Morphologic Variants, and Nonurothelial Histotypes
The antibody-drug conjugate enfortumab-vedotin acts by targeting nectin-4, a protein that is nearly ubiquitously expressed in conventional urothelial cancer. However, expression of nectin-4 in morphologic variants of urothelial carcinoma and nonurothelial histotypes was unknown. Immunohistochemistry for nectin-4 using was performed on 169 patients including 83 with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer and 86 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Staining was scored for intensity (0 to 3) and extent (% positive cells) using the histological score system, where>15 was considered positive. Overall, 72/83 (87%) samples...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

MLH1, MSH2, MRE11, and XRCC1 in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusions: This study supports the effect of the overexpression of MSH2 protein in samples of OL with dysplasia and OSCC, most notably in patients who present with comorbidities and negativity for OL without dysplasia. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Langerhans Cells Correlate With Macrophages for Defense Mechanisms in the Atrophic Epithelium of Radicular Cysts
In conclusion, LCs participate in defense mechanisms and were present in all cases evaluated. Along with macrophages, these cells release proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, which is responsible for inducing the continued proliferation of cystic epithelium. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

SDHC Methylation Pattern in Patients With Carney Triad
Carney triad is a multitumor syndrome affecting almost exclusively young women in a nonfamilial setting, which manifests by multifocal gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors, paragangliomas, and pulmonary chondroma. The Carney triad–associated tumors are characterized by a deficiency of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex. Recently, it has been observed that the deficiency results from epigenetic silencing of the SDHC gene by its promoter hypermethylation. To elucidate anatomic distribution of SDHC promoter methylation in Carney triad patients and thus to shed some light on the possible natur...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Application of Chromosome Microarray Analysis in the Diagnosis of Lipomatous Tumors
In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CMA on routine formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue is a sensitive and specific clinical test for detection of MDM2 gene amplification. Moreover, CMA allows simultaneous detection of genomic changes of interest including CDK4 and others, which provides enriched information for diagnosing lipomatous tumors. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

UBE2V2 Positively Correlates With PD-L1 Expression and Confers Poor Patient Survival in Lung Adenocarcinoma
This research aims to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2 (UBE2V2) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). The expression of UBE2V2 in clinical specimens was evaluated by bioinformatics analyses and immunohistochemistry. Bioinformatics analyses relying on the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database suggested the elevated UBE2V2 mRNA levels in LUAD in comparison to adjacent normal tissues. Gene set enrichment analyses and gene ontology term enrichment analyses further showed the involvement of UBE2V2 in the modulation of cell cycle and immune associated signaling. The correlation ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Nuclear EGFR Expression Is Associated With Poor Survival in Laryngeal Carcinoma
The membrane EGFR (mEGFR) protein overexpression in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is considered to cause increased EGFR activity which adds to tumorigenicity and therapy resistance. The mEGFR upon stimulation can translocate to the nucleus nuclear EGFR (nEGFR) where it has been associated with poor prognosis and worse survival in many cancers. The relevance of differentially located EGFR proteins in laryngeal lesions has not been studied enough and remains unclear. Aim of our study was to examine nEGFR and mEGFR protein expression as well as EGFR gene status and cell cycle proliferation markers in the lar...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Expression and Mutation Alterations of ZMYM4 Gene in Gastric and Colonic Cancers
In this study, we analyzed 4 sites of mononucleotide repeats in the coding sequence of ZMYM4 in gastric (GC) and colonic cancers (CC). Seven of the 32 high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) GCs (21.9%) and 23 of 113 MSI-H CCs (20.4%) harbored ZMYM4 frameshift mutations with no significant difference between the 2 organs (P>0.05). There was no ZMYM4 frameshift mutations in microsatellite-stable GCs and CCs. We also identified that 6 of 16 MSI-H CCs (37.5%) exhibited intratumoral heterogeneity of the ZMYM4 frameshift mutations. In both GC and CC with MSI-H, ZMYM4 expression in ZMYM4-mutated cases was significantly lower ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

High Expression of PRSS3 Indicates Unfavorable Clinical Outcomes in Colon Adenocarcinoma
Conclusions: High expression of PRSS3 was significantly related to the unfavorable clinical features and poor prognosis in CAC patients. It suggested that PRSS3 might serve as a novel prognostic indicator and potential drug target for CAC treatment. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Immune Microenvironment in Gallbladder Adenocarcinomas
In this study we examined PD1 expression in gallbladder cancer to explore the correlation between PD1 expression and the clinicopathologic parameters. We found that 98% (46/47) cases expressed programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) with 85% cases being PD-L1 3+. PD1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were present in 78.7% cases (37/47). The tumor size was significantly smaller and the stromal CD3+ TILs were significantly higher in tumors with PD1+ TILs than those with PD1− TILs. In the tumors with size of 115/HPF or stromal CD8+ TILs>45/HPF were associated with much better survival than those with stromal CD3+ TILs...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Mast Cells and Proteins Related to Myofibroblast Differentiation (PAR-2, IL-6, and TGFβ1) in Salivary Cancers: A Preliminary Study
This study evaluated the distribution of mast cells and related proteins (PAR-2, TGFβ1, IL-6) to the myofibroblastic differentiation in malignant tumors of salivary glands with and without myoepithelial differentiation. Immunohistochemical assessement for tryptase mast cells, SMA, PAR-2, TGFβ1, IL-6 was performed in 10 cases of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, 14 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and 10 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma. When the density of mast cells were compared between tumors, their density was significantly higher in MEC (P=0.08). Tumors with high expression of PAR-2 (79.4%) exhi...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Article: Research Article Source Type: research

A Simple and Quick Method for Decalcification Using Mouse Tail as a Model for Preparation of Lymphedema Study
The disadvantage of 10% EDTA decalcification is a long time-consuming. It needs to identify a quick and straightforward decalcification method when the preparation of lymphedema models using mouse tail which was a sample of bone wrapped in other tissues. In the present study, mouse tail samples were decalcified in 10% EDTA at 25, 37, and 42°C, respectively, with continuous shaking (150 rpm/min). The histologic integrity of samples was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and the preservation of antigenicity was tested by either immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence. The decalcification was distinctl...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Technical Article Source Type: research

Identification of a Novel De Novo COMP Gene Variant as a Likely Cause of Pseudoachondroplasia
In this study, we identify and report a novel variation in the COMP gene, c.1420_1422del (p.Asn47del), causing a spontaneous form of PSACH in our patient. Our in silico model indicated that any mutational changes in this region are very susceptible to PASCH phenotype. Overall, this study is the first PSACH case in the Turkish Cypriot population. Moreover, this finding contributes to the concept that the genotype-phenotype correlation in COMP is still unknown and also improves our understanding of this complex disorder. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

CDH17+/CDX2+ Can be Helpful in Providing Support for Small Intestinal Origin Versus Pancreatic or Biliary Origin
In this study, we evaluated 78 patient samples, including 26 small intestinal adenocarcinomas, 35 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, and 17 cholangiocarcinomas by immunohistochemical detection of cadherin-17 (CDH17), CDX2, CK20, and CK19 protein expression. The result showed that CDH17 and CDX2 expression was higher in small intestinal adenocarcinoma (73.1% and 65.4%) than in pancreatic (14.3% and 2.9%) and bile duct (41.2% and 23.5%) cancers, respectively. CK20 expression was low in 78 tumor tissues, but relatively high in small intestinal adenocarcinoma (42.3%). CK19 showed a strong positive expression in all 78 adenocar...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

The Role of CK7, S100A1, and CD82 (KAI1) Expression in the Differential Diagnosis of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma and Renal Oncocytoma
In this study, we immunohistochemically investigated the expressions of CK7, S100A1, and CD82 in 30 chromophobe RCC (23 classic and 7 eosinophilic variant) and 19 oncocytomas. When these markers were evaluated separately and together, their expressions in chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytoma show statistically significant difference (P (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

mTOR Pathway Activation Assessed by Immunohistochemistry in Cervical Biopsies of HPV-associated Endocervical Adenocarcinomas (HPVA): Correlation With Silva Invasion Patterns
The Silva pattern of invasion, recently introduced to stratify patients at risk for lymph node metastases in human papillomavirus-associated endocervical adenocarcinomas (HPVAs), can only be assessed in cone and loop electrosurgical excision procedure excisions with negative margins or in a hysterectomy specimen. Previous studies found associations between destructive stromal invasion patterns (Silva patterns B and C) and mutations in genes involved in the MEK/PI3K pathways that activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The primary aim of this study was to use cervical biopsies to determine whether markers...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

GPBAR1 Promotes Proliferation of Serous Ovarian Cancer by Inducing Smad4 Ubiquitination
Conclusions: GPBAR1 was overexpressed in SOC and predicted the poor prognosis of SOC. We showed that GPBAR1 promoted SOC proliferation by activating ERK and ubiquitining Smad4. Our results suggested that GPBAR1 was a supplement to better classify SOC on the basis of the molecular profile and that GPBAR1 may be a potential drug target of SOC. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Increased PA2G4 Expression Is an Unfavorable Factor in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
PA2G4 plays a dual role in tumors. However, the correlation of its expression with clinical feature and prognosis has never been reported in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Using immunohistochemical staining, we examined PA2G4 protein level in clinicopathologically characterized 201 NPC cases (138 male and 63 female) with age ranging from 21 to 83 years and 45 nasopharyngeal (NP) tissues. Statistical methods were used to assess the difference in PA2G4 expression and its relationship with clinical parameters and prognosis in NPC. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the protein expression of PA2G4 examined in NPC tissue...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Digital Imaging Analysis Reveals Reduced Alveolar α-Smooth Muscle Actin Expression in Severe Asthma
The objective of this study was to evaluate α-SMA expression in the alveolated parenchyma of individuals with severe asthma (SA), compared with healthy controls or individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Using quantitative digital image analysis and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lung biopsies, we show that alveolated parenchyma α-SMA expression is markedly reduced in SA in comparison to healthy controls (mean %positive pixels: 12% vs. 23%, P=0.005). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cases showed a similar, but trending, decrease in α-SMA positivity compared with controls (mean %...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Digital Image Analysis of the Proliferation Markers Ki67 and Phosphohistone H3 in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Accuracy of Grading Compared With Routine Manual Hot Spot Evaluation of the Ki67 Index
This study aimed to evaluate digital image analysis (DIA) as an objective assessment of proliferation markers in GEP-NENs. A consecutive cohort of patients with automated DIA measurement of Ki67 (DIA Ki67) and phosphohistone H3 (DIA PHH3) on immunohistochemical slides was analyzed using Visiopharm image analysis software (Hoersholm, Denmark). The results were compared with the Ki67 index from routine pathology reports (pathology Ki67). The study included 159 patients (57% males). The median pathology Ki67 was 2.0% and DIA Ki67 was 4.1%. The interclass correlation coefficient of the DIA Ki67 compared with the pathology Ki67...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Digital Pathology Slides-based Measurement of Tumor Cells and Lymphocytes Within Cytology Samples Supports the Relevance of the Separation by Size of Nonhematological Tumor and Hematological Nontumor Cells in Liquid Biopsies
Filtration by size is one method used to study circulating tumor cells in blood samples. Filtration-migration ability is highly dependent of the size of cell nucleus. This implies to search for the appropriate nucleus size able to separate between hematological nucleated and nonhematological nucleated blood cells to maximize circulating tumor cell isolation. Digitalized cytology slides [May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) stained and immunocytochemistry (ICC) slides] from various cancer metastases served for manual measurements of nuclei about tumor cells and adjacent lymphocytes to determine the diameters the more able to sepa...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Technical Article Source Type: research

Quantitative Image Analysis for Tissue Biomarker Use: A White Paper From the Digital Pathology Association
Tissue biomarkers have been of increasing utility for scientific research, diagnosing disease, and treatment response prediction. There has been a steady shift away from qualitative assessment toward providing more quantitative scores for these biomarkers. The application of quantitative image analysis has thus become an indispensable tool for in-depth tissue biomarker interrogation in these contexts. This white paper reviews current technologies being employed for quantitative image analysis, their application and pitfalls, regulatory framework demands, and guidelines established for promoting their safe adoption in clini...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Immunostaining for NeuN Does Not Show all Mature and Healthy Neurons in the Human and Pig Brain: Focus on the Hippocampus
We report on the techniques and results used to enhance the staining for NeuN in that tissue. In parallel, we stained NeuN in piglet brain tissue, sourced from an experimental model where methodological parameters, including those for tissue fixation and storage, were tightly controlled. In human FFPE brain tissue, we were unable to enhance NeuN immunostaining to a degree sufficient for cell counting. In contrast, we found consistently high levels of staining in the piglet brain tissue. We conclude that processes used for fixation and storage of human FFPE brain tissue are responsible for the reduced staining. These result...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Article: Research Article Source Type: research

Optimization of Mouse-on-Mouse Immunohistochemistry by Utilizing Fluorescent-dye Conjugated Secondary Anti-Mouse Antibody
In this study, we provide evidence showing the potential of the fluorescent-dye conjugated secondary anti-mouse antibody for reducing the background noise in the mouse-on-mouse immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate the inadequacy of goat serum/protein-blocking solution alone as an immunohistochemistry blocking system for reducing the background noise. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Technical Article Source Type: research

A Retrospective Study and Literature Review of Cervical Villoglandular Adenocarcinoma: A Candidate Paradigm of Silva System Pattern A
In conclusion, VGA is a rare subtype of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix with distinct exophytic, villous-papillary growth pattern and extremely excellent prognosis, which corresponds with pattern A in Silva system, while its underlying mechanism and genetic background is still far from well known. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

PD-L1 Expression Harmonization in Gastric Cancer Using 22C3 PharmDx and SP263 Assays
The immune checkpoint inhibitor Pembrolizumab has been FDA-approved for the treatment of gastric cancer (GC) and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer in patients who fail second-line therapy and test positive by a companion programed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) assay, the 22C3 PharmDx. It would be useful to investigate the potential interchangeability of other PD-L1 assays in order to develop a more sustainable diagnostic strategy. We investigated the possibility of harmonizing different PD-L1 assays, utilizing samples from 94 GC and GEJ patients to compare their expression using 2 laboratory developed tests (LDTs): The Dako ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical Staining With Neuroendocrine Markers is Essential in the Diagnosis of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Esophagogastric Junction
In conclusion, immunohistochemical staining with neuroendocrine markers is essential for the diagnosis of NENs, and to detect all NENs, we recommend to perform this routinely on all resected tumors of the EGJ. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical Examination is Highly Sensitive and Specific for Detection of the V600E BRAF Mutation in Colorectal Serrated Lesions
Mutations in BRAF are important events in colorectal serrated lesions and specific genetic markers for the serrated pathway. However, examination of BRAF mutations is not easy in routine histopathologic analyses. Here, the authors examined 73 colorectal serrated lesions, including 21 hyperplastic polyps, 32 traditional serrated adenomas, and 30 sessile serrated lesions, for comparison of BRAF mutation status with immunopositive expression of the anti-BRAF V600E mutation-specific antibody VE1. Thirty-two tubular adenomas (TAs) were examined as controls. In addition, 5 examples of sessile serrated lesion with dysplasia were ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Positive MITF and NKI/C3 Expression in Cellular Neurothekeoma and Dermatofibroma
Conclusion: CNT and DF share demographic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features, including shared expression of MITF and NKI/C3, especially cellular DF. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Hybrid Schwannoma/Perineurioma: Morphologic Variations and Genetic Profiles
To clarify the morphologic spectrum and molecular profiles of hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma (HSP), we investigated 15 tumors clinicopathologically and cytogenetically. HSP was classified into 2 morphologic types: mixed cellular and combined tumor types. The former comprising of 14 tumors mostly arose in the subcutaneous tissue of the extremities and the trunk of middle-aged adults. They were well-circumscribed and composed of elongated spindle-shaped tumor cells arranged in storiform and whorl patterns. Immunostaining revealed a mixed cellular proliferation of S-100 protein-positive and SOX10-positive Schwann cells and ep...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

The Usefulness of 4 Immunoperoxidase Stains Applied to Urinary Cytology Samples in the Pathologic Stage of Urothelial Carcinoma: A Study With Histologic Correlation
Conclusion: Using (CD44, ProExC, Laminin, and Fascin) on urinary cytology is a simple, reliable, and noninvasive method for the staging of urothelial carcinoma with 99% total accuracy. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

PLA2R Immunohistochemistry Staining in Membranous Glomerulopathy: A Challenging Stain to Interpret But a Potentially Useful Diagnostic Tool
Circulating autoantibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R-Ab) are detected in>70% of patients with primary membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN). Detection of PLA2R antigen in renal tissue, with immunohistochemistry (PLA2R IHC), strongly correlates with serum PLA2R-Ab, although it is more sensitive. As PLA2R IHC in literature has no univocal interpretation, we suggest reliable criteria for a standard approach for the assessment of immunostaining for differential diagnosis between primary and secondary MGN. We analyzed PLA2R IHC expression in 40 biopsies of patients with MGN and serum PLA2R-Ab titer at the time of bio...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Coexpress of GATA-3 and ER in Anorectal and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mimicking Metastatic Breast Cancer
In this study, we sought to characterize GATA-3 and ER expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of various origins to compare with breast carcinoma. Sixty-four SqCC of anorectum (35), head and neck (15), lung (11), and breast (3) as well as urothelial carcinoma (31) were included. In anorectal and head and neck SqCC, GATA-3, and ER was observed in 23/50 (46.0%) and 18/50 (36.0%) of the cases, respectively. The expression of GATA-3 and ER were present in both male and female patients without significant sex predominance. In 2 metastatic SqCC, the GATA-3 and ER expressed similar immunoreactivity compatible with their ano...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Expression of Immune Checkpoint Regulators, Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-4, and Programmed Death-Ligand 1 in Epstein-Barr Virus-associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer arising from the nasopharynx with a poor prognosis. Targeting immune checkpoint is one of the new promising lines in cancer treatment. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are immune checkpoints that regulate T-cell immune function. Aim: This work aimed to assess the immunohistochemical expression of PD-L1 and CTLA-4 in NPC and their ability to predict survival and response therapy and to check their validity as immunotherapy targets. Twenty-six cases of NPC were studied by immunohistochemistry for PD-...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - July 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Orabase Promotes Oral Epithelization in a Wound Healing Rat Model: An Immunohistochemical Study
Conclusions: Orabase promotes epithelial gap closure in a primary wound healing model in rats. The effect is exerted through promotion of epithelial differentiation from stem cells. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Article: Research Article Source Type: research

Report of a Rare Case of Spindle Cell Ameloblastic Carcinoma and the Diagnostic Utility of Immunohistochemistry
Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare aggressive malignant epithelial odontogenic tumor. The spindle cell variant of ameloblastic carcinoma (SCAC) is exceedingly rare with 15 cases of SCAC having been reported. Therefore, because of the paucity of cases in literature related to SCAC, the biological behavior of the entity has not been well evaluated. Herein the authors report a case of incidentally diagnosed SCAC in a 20-year-old woman identified on imaging as part of the evaluation of a work-related facial injury. Histologically, the tumor had background of cystic ameloblastoma with areas of dense hypercellular spindle cells wi...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Update on Oral Pathology: Research Articles Source Type: research

Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and DNA Sequencing for BRAF V600E Mutation Detection in Mandibular Ameloblastomas
This study aimed to investigate the presence of BRAF V600E mutation in mandibular ameloblastoma by comparing the results of molecular detection and immunohistochemical analysis. A 128 cases of mandibular ameloblastoma and 30 cases of dentigerous cyst (control group) were selected for analysis. Detection of BRAF V600E mutation was performed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction techniques. Clinico-pathologic data were collected in order to investigate possible associations with the mutation. Of the 128 cases submitted to IHC, 81.2% (108 cases) showed positivity for anti-BRAF V600E antibody, whereas 2...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Update on Oral Pathology: Research Articles Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical Expression of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and Vimentin and its Correlation With Inflammatory Reaction and Clinical Parameters in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia
The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and vimentin (VIM) and its association with the inflammatory reaction (IR) and clinical parameters in oral epithelial dysplasia (ED). The sample was composed of 66 cases of ED, 27 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and 28 non-neoplastic epithelium (NNE). ED was graded according to the binary system as low-risk ED (n=42) and high-risk epithelial dysplasia (HRED: n=24). The IR was defined as the median number of inflammatory cells present on the connective tissue in 5 consec...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Update on Oral Pathology: Research Articles Source Type: research

Immunoexpression of Apoptosis and Cell-cycle Arrest Markers in Oral Lichen Planus
The expression pattern of a panel of 5 molecular markers (p53, cyclin D1, Ki-67, BCL-2, and BAX) was studied in samples from patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) of healthy controls to investigate the implications of cell cycle and apoptosis in OLP. The 59 OLP and 16 NOM biopsies were stained by an inmunoperoxidase technique for p53, cyclin D1, Ki-67, BCL-2, and BAX and assessed microscopically for semiquantitative analysis. Positivity for BCL-2 and Ki-67 was significantly more frequent in NOM than in OLP (P (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Update on Oral Pathology: Research Articles Source Type: research

BDNF/TrkB/Akt Signaling Pathway Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors and Keratocyst: An Immunohistochemical Study Comparative With Dental Germs
In conclusion, BDNF seems to participate in the development of cystic, benign, and malignant odontogenic epithelium to similar degrees. The acquisition of the invasive or malignant phenotype in odontogenic neoplasms is not associated with alterations in the BDNF/TrkB/Akt/RPS6 axis, which could be implicated in the differentiation process. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Update on Oral Pathology: Research Articles Source Type: research

Prognostic Relevance of Macrophage Phenotypes in High-grade Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinomas
This study evaluated the macrophage polarization in OTSCC specimens to examine their prognostic relevance. To this end, specimens from 71 OTSCC patients graded as G1 or G3 were investigated for CD11c and CD163 expression. Immunohistochemical staining of TAMs was evaluated in tumor nests, tumor inflammation area (TIA), and tumor stroma. To analyze the expression of CD11c and CD163, the percentage of positive cells was scored as 0 (negative), 1 (80%). The staining intensity was scored as 0 (negative), 1 (weak), 2 (moderate), and 3 (intense). Higher expression of both CD163+ and CD11c+ macrophages in inflammation area positiv...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Update on Oral Pathology: Research Articles Source Type: research

Differentiated Immunohistochemical Expression of Osteoclastogenic Markers in Radicular Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Ameloblastoma
The aim of this study was to investigate the osteoclastogenesis process by means of immunohistochemical markers for receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cathepsin K (CTSK) antigens in osteolytic lesions of maxillary bones. The sample consisted of 23 radicular cysts (RC), 25 odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), and 25 ameloblastomas (AM). RANKL was statistically higher in RC (49.6±15.2/53.7±18) and OKC (48.6±15.1/51.4±16.8) when compared with AM (37.2±12.5/36.4±13) in the epithelium and connective tissue. OPG was lo...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Update on Oral Pathology: Research Articles Source Type: research

Glypican-1, -3, -5 (GPC1, GPC3, GPC5) and Hedgehog Pathway Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
This study aimed to investigate the gene and protein expression of glypican-1 (GPC1), -3 (GPC3), and -5 (GPC5) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and tumor-free lateral margins (TM) and their association with the HH pathway. Quantitative PCR was performed for GPC1, GPC3, GPC5, SHH, PTCH1, SMO, and GLI1 genes in samples of OSCC (n=31), TM (n=12), and non-neoplastic oral mucosa (NNM) of healthy patients (n=6), alongside an immunohistochemical evaluation of GPC1, GPC3, and GPC5 proteins and HH proteins SHH and glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1). Double staining for GPC3/SHH, GPC5/SHH, GPC3/tubulin [ac Lys40], GPC...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Update on Oral Pathology: Research Articles Source Type: research

Immunodetection of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Tumor Proliferation Markers in GLi-1-positive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), involvement and activation of the Hedgehog pathway (HH) may be related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell proliferation. The present study aimed to evaluate epithelial-mesenchymal transition and proliferative potential in OSCC cases demonstrating activation of the HH pathway. Twenty-three GLi-1-positive OSCC cases were submitted to immunohistochemical detection of Snail, Slug, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and MCM3 proteins. Clinical-pathologic immunoexpression data were obtained from the invasion front and tumor islets, and then compared. At the invasion front, ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Update on Oral Pathology: Research Articles Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical Validation of Rare Tissues and Antigens With Low Frequency of Occurrence: Recommendations From The Anatomic Pathology Patient Interest Association (APPIA)
Laboratories worldwide find it challenging to identify enough tissues and cases for verification and validation studies of low-incidence, rare antigens. These antigens have a low frequency of occurrence in the population, or have little or no expression in normal tissues. Validation studies are essential to assure testing standardization before introducing a new instrument, product, or test into the clinical laboratory. The College of American Pathologists has published comprehensive guidelines for the verification and validation of new immunohistochemical tests introduced into the laboratory menu. Within the guidelines, v...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - May 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Overexpression of the TRIM24 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase is Linked to Genetic Instability and Predicts Unfavorable Prognosis in Prostate Cancer
Tripartite motif containing 24 (TRIM24) is a multifunctional protein involved in p53 degradation, chromatin binding, and transcriptional modulation of nuclear receptors. Emerging research has revealed that upregulation of TRIM24 in numerous tumor types is linked to poor prognosis, attributing an important role to TRIM24 in tumor biology. In order to better understand the role of TRIM24 in prostate cancer, we analyzed its immunohistochemical expression on a tissue microarray containing>17,000 prostate cancer specimens. TRIM24 immunostaining was detectable in 61% of 15,321 interpretable cancers, including low expression i...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - April 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Article: Research Article Source Type: research

HER2 Mutated and Nonmutated Non–small Cell Lung Carcinomas Can Harbor Heterogeneous HER2 Gene Amplification and HER2 Protein Expression
Molecular analyses have become mandatory for treatment choices in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Among them, HER2 gene mutation, HER2 gene amplification, and HER2 protein expression consist in potential targets of various treatments. Tumor heterogeneity and overlapping of molecular alterations may cause dilemmas in treatment choices but to date there are few that reported about HER2 with discrepant data. We led a retrospective study evaluating HER2 protein expression and HER2 gene/chromosome 17 copy number variations across different tumor areas and samples from patients with advanced NSC...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - April 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Technical Article Source Type: research