SATB2 and TLE1 Expression in BCOR-CCNB3 (Ewing-like) Sarcoma, Mimicking Small Cell Osteosarcoma and Poorly Differentiated Synovial Sarcoma
No abstract available (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

TTF-1-positive Metastatic Endometrioid Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of Literature of a Potential Diagnostic Pitfall
A 75-year-old female patient, nonsmoker was addressed to our institution for a fracture of C5 vertebra with spinal cord compression by a tumor mass invading surrounding soft tissue. She had a previous history of breast ductal carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma. Biopsy of the tumor mass showed a TTF-1-positive carcinoma. Molecular study showed a E545K mutation of PIK3CA. Lung imaging showed multiple nodules evocative of metastasis rather than a primitive tumor. Reviewing of slides of endometrioid carcinoma showed areas positive for TTF1, and the same E545K mutation was found in endometrial tumor. The final diagnosis was e...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Case Reports Source Type: research

TTF1-positive Papillary Epithelial Tumor of Pituitary: An Epithelial Variant of Pituicytoma?
We describe a case of 20-year female who had a recurrent nonfunctioning pituitary tumor. Histologic examination revealed a low-grade epithelial tumor with predominant papillary architecture, lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells. The tumor cells were immunpositive for cytokeratin (CK), CK7, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and showed diffuse and strong nuclear positivity for thyroid transcription factor 1. They were negative for neuroendocrine markers and pituitary hormones. Ki-67 proliferation index was low (1%). Ultrastructural examination revealed presence of microvilli, intercellular tight...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Case Reports Source Type: research

The Application of FOXO1A Expression Predicts Aggressive Behavior and Poor Prognosis in Gliomas
Forkhead box, class O, 1A (FOXO1A) is an important factor related to some human malignancies. We tested the association between FOXO1A cytoplasmic expression and World Health Organization grading system in primary brain tumors (PBTs). First of all, Western blot analysis was also performed in normal brain tissue and U87MG, LN229, GBM8401, and U118MG glioma cell lines protein lysates. Then, in order to realize FOXO1A gene expression in gliomas, U87MG, LN229, GBM8401 mRNA were applied to performed quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At last, the immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of FOXO1A w...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

BAP1 Loss is a Useful Adjunct to Distinguish Malignant Mesothelioma Including the Adenomatoid-like Variant From Benign Adenomatoid Tumors
In conclusion, BAP1 loss demonstrated by IHC is seen in more than half of MM cases but none of ATs. Thus, BAP1 IHC represents a potential adjunct for distinguishing MM from benign mesothelial proliferations including in particular “MM with bland adenomatoid-like pattern versus benign ATs” on biopsy material and early mesothelioma with limited invasion. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

KPNA2/ERG Coexpression is Associated With Early Recurrence in Advanced Prostate Cancers
Most prostate cancers (PC) overexpress the ERG oncogene and karyopherin α 2 (KPNA2). These genes play a role in prostatic carcinogenesis, but their prognostic significance is still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of ERG and KPNA2 expression, and their association to early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biochemical recurrence in advanced PC with lymph node metastases. A series of 65 consecutive pN1 M0 R0 PC samples obtained by radical prostatectomy with lymphadenectomy has been analyzed for ERG and KPNA2 expression by immunohistochemistry. For each case, the following clini...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Intracholecystic Papillary-Tubular Neoplasms (ICPN) of the Gallbladder: A Short Review of Literature
Increasing use of radiographic studies of the hepatobiliary system has led to a growing diagnostic rate of many asymptomatic polyps of the gallbladder which would have gone undiagnosed otherwise. Neoplastic polyps of the gallbladder are 5% of the total number of polyps of this organ. However, due to their malignant potential, the correct diagnosis and classification become of crucial importance. Lack of unified terminology and reporting criteria have led to a limited body of scientific evidence regarding their classification and management. Therefore in 2012 the novel and unified terminology, Intracholecystic papillary-tub...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Mutation Status in Primary Lung Adenocarcinoma and Corresponding Bone Metastases
Conclusions: The concordance rate demonstrated the feasibility of EGFR mutations in corresponding metastases using Amplification Refractory Mutation System when the primary tumor tissue is unavailable in the lung adenocarcinoma patients, and the inconsistency indicates that corresponding metastasis being screened simultaneously with the primary tumor samples may present some supplementary information for the patients. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Role of Immunohistochemistry to Distinguish Grade 3 Endometrioid Carcinoma and Uterine Serous Carcinoma
Conclusions: The most appropriate IHC panel to differentiate endometrioid and serous endometrial carcinomas includes ER, PR, IMP3, p53, and p16. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Detection of mRNA of Telomerase Protein in Benign Naevi and Melanomas Using RNAscope
Telomerase is reactivated in most cancers and is possibly an early driver event in melanoma. Our aim was to test a novel in situ hybridization technique, RNAscope, for the detection of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and to compare the mRNA expression of melanomas and benign naevi. Furthermore, we wanted to see if hTERT mRNA could be a diagnostic or prognostic marker of melanoma. In situ hybridization for the detection of hTERT mRNA was performed on FFPE tissue of 17 melanomas and 13 benign naevi. We found a significant difference in the expres...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Assessment of Proliferative Index Between the Tumor Margin, Center of Tumor, and the Invasive Tumor Front of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma With the Help of Mcm-2: An Immunohistochemical Study
Conclusions: Cell proliferation by Mcm-2 at the ITF had a strong positive relationship with TC, TM. Mcm-2, a pan-cell cycle marker, is more sensitive in comparison with other conventional proliferative markers, which can be a better prognostic indicator. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Validation of the QR1 Antibody for the Evaluation of PD-L1 Expression in Non–Small Cell Lung Adenocarcinomas
The evaluation of Programmed cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in the tumor cells with immunohistochemistry is a mandatory diagnostic step in the treatment of lung cancer. It is important to utilize validated antibodies that can reliably detect PD-L1 positive cells. Different antibodies have already been studied. In this present study, we compared a new clone (QR1, Quartett) with reference clones to determine if it can be used in place of previously identified reference clones. We built a tissue micro array (TMA) from 110 lung adenocarcinomas and compared it using immunohistodetection of four different clones: QR1, 22...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Foci of Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive Tumor Areas With Tumor-infiltrating Leukocytes (TILs) Evocative of a PD-1/PD-L1-related Adaptive Immune Resistance are Frequent in Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis have revolutionized the treatment of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). To date, no biomarker conditions access to these ICIs in MCC. We compared the tumor microenvironment of PD-L1+ and PD-L1− areas in a case series of MCC searching for foci evocative of PD-1/PD-L1 adaptive immune resistance. Among 58 tumors studied on digitalized serial tissue sections, 11 (19%) were concluded as “PD-L1+ tumors” [≥1% positive tumor cells (TCs) using PD-L1 immunohistochemistry in the who...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Genetic Subtypes of Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Show Distinct Differences in PD-L1 Expression and Regulatory and Cytotoxic T Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment
Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) encompass several subgroups that differ in their clinical presentation, genetic features, and prognosis. We characterized the genetic subgroups of 74 patients with ALCL and correlated programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein expression and compared the densities and ratios of FOXP3+ T regulatory cells and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in tumor cells and the immune microenvironment. The subgroups included anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive (ALK+) ALCL and ALK-negative (ALK−) ALCL and DUSP22-rearranged and nonrearranged ALK− ALCL. None of our cases repre...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Programmed Death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) Expression in Thymic Epithelial Tumors
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are uncommon neoplasms of the mediastinum. The gold standard treatment is complete surgical resection which can be followed by radio/chemotherapy in selected cases. Targeted tyrosine kinase inhibition can be considered in only a limited number of aggressive or metastatic tumors as EGFR, BRAF, or c-kit mutations are rare. However, previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in epithelial neoplasias, such as in programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressing nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. Because of their rare occurrence the data on PD-L1 distribution in th...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

CD31 Immunohistochemical Expression in Tumors
No abstract available (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Letters to The Editor Source Type: research

Diffuse S-100 Positivity in a Meningioma Mimicking Schwannoma: A Diagnostic Pitfall!
No abstract available (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Letters to The Editor Source Type: research

Aberrant Cytokeratin 20 Reactivity in Epithelioid Malignant Mesothelioma: A Case Report
Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon neoplasm that should be distinguished from the more common pulmonary adenocarcinomas and other metastatic lesions. Although diagnosis is based on morphologic features, immunohistochemical stains such as Calretinin, WT-1, CK-5/6, D2-40, Ber-Ep4, and MOC-31 are routinely used. Other organ-specific immunohistochemical markers are used when metastases from unknown primary lesion is suspected clinically. Here, we report a case of pleural epithelioid malignant mesothelioma expressing CK20. A 68-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with nonproductive cough and progressive short...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Case Report Source Type: research

Paraffin Immunofluorescence: A Role Beyond Kidney Biopsies
Paraffin immunofluorescence is a well established “salvage” technique in renal pathology when representative glomeruli are not found in the fresh frozen tissue sent for routine direct immunofluorescence studies. A step of enzymatic digestion of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy exposes the antigenic immune complexes and allows staining with fluorochrome-tagged antibodies. We explored the utility of the technique of paraffin immunofluorescence outside the kidney in certain specific scenarios including extra renal amyloid and duodenal macroglobulinemia. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Improved Tumor Purity Metrics in Next-generation Sequencing for Clinical Practice: The Integrated Interpretation of Neoplastic Cellularity and Sequencing Results (IINCaSe) Approach
Neoplastic cellularity contributes to the analytic sensitivity of most present technologies for mutation detection, such that they underperform when stroma and inflammatory cells dilute a cancer specimen’s variant fraction. Thus, tumor purity assessment by light microscopy is used to determine sample adequacy before sequencing and to interpret the significance of negative results and mutant allele fraction afterwards. However, pathologist estimates of tumor purity are imprecise and have limited reproducibility. With the advent of massively parallel sequencing, large amounts of molecular data can be analyzed by comput...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Diagnostic Utility and Limitations of Immunohistochemistry of p16, CDK4, and MDM2 and Automated Dual-color In Situ Hybridization of MDM2 for the Diagnosis of Challenging Cases of Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma
The diagnosis of dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) is challenging when an atypical lipomatous tumor component is absent or obscure. To analyze the utility and limitations of ancillary techniques, we studied 11 cases of DDLPS in challenging conditions and 17 cases of nonlipogenic high-grade sarcomas with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for p16, CDK4, and MDM2 and automated dual-color in situ hybridization (DISH) for MDM2 amplification. All DDLPS specimens lacked clear lipogenic components and were immunoreactive for p16, CDK4, and MDM2. DISH analyses also revealed high-level amplification of MDM2 in all DDLPS. In contrast, am...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Correlating Changes in the Epithelial Gland Tissue With Advancing Colorectal Cancer Histologic Grade, Using IHC Stained for AIB1 Expression Biopsy Material
Conclusions: A systematic statistical analysis of AIB1-stained biopsy material showed that high-grade CRC lesions contain higher intensity levels, appear coarser, are more homogeneous with smooth variation across the image, have lower contrast that is slowly varying across the image, have lower AIB1 staining, and have lower edges. A combination of textural and color attributes, evaluating image gray-tone distribution, textural roughness, inhomogeneity, AIB1 staining, and image coarseness should be considered in evaluating AIB1-stained CRC lesions. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

High-throughput Sequencing of Subcutaneous Panniculitis-like T-Cell Lymphoma Reveals Candidate Pathogenic Mutations
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a malignant primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that is challenging to distinguish from other neoplastic and reactive panniculitides. In an attempt to identify somatic variants in SPTCL that may be diagnostically or therapeutically relevant, we performed both exome sequencing on paired tumor-normal samples and targeted sequencing of hematolymphoid-malignancy–associated genes on tumor biopsies. Exome sequencing was performed on skin biopsies from 4 cases of skin-limited SPTCL, 1 case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified with secondary involvemen...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Impact of Primary Antibody Clone, Format, and Stainer Platform on Ki67 Proliferation Indices in Breast Carcinomas
In this study, we compare Ki67 PIs obtained by virtual double staining in 41 breast carcinomas stained using the most commonly used commercially available primary Ab clones and formats on the main stainer platforms. IHC protocols for the concentrated (conc) Ab and platform combinations were optimized for the highest analytical sensitivity and optimal signal-to-noise ratio, whereas ready-to-use (RTU) formats were used, as recommended by the vendor. Significant differences in the mean Ki67 PIs (relativized to the mean core Ki67) were observed not only between the different Ab clones but also the different formats and stainer...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Cytologic Diagnosis of Oncocytic Neoplasms of the Thyroid Gland: The Importance of the Clinical Scenario
It is a diagnostic challenge to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms made up of Hürthle (or oncocytic) cells on cytologic material. They are large, polygonal cells with marked eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm reflective of overly abundant mitochondria. These cells commonly occur in nodular goiters and dominant adenomatous or hyperplastic nodules though they may also be the predominant component of neoplastic lesions. There are significant controversies concerning the optimal management of patients with oncocytic cell carcinoma. This review provides an overview of the most significant studies addressing...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Determining IDH-Mutational Status in Gliomas Using IDH1-R132H Antibody and Polymerase Chain Reaction
Determination of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status, presence or absence of mutation in IDH genes (IDH1 or IDH2), has become one of the most important molecular features taken into account in the management of patients with diffuse gliomas. Tumors that are IDH-mutant have a better prognosis than their counterparts with similar histologic grade and IDH-wildtype phenotype. IDH1-R132H is the most common IDH mutation, present in ~90% of IDH-mutant cases. This mutation yields an altered protein that can be detected by immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the IDH1-R132H antibody (clone H09) to determine IDH mutatio...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

New Dimensions of Antigen Retrieval Technique: 28 Years of Development, Practice, and Expansion
This review article summarized recent advances in the heat-induced antigen retrieval technique with numerous scientific fields in addition to immunohistochemistry. Particularly, proteomics including imaging mass spectrometry, extraction of proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Some novel approaches such as FFPE tissue–based renal immunopathology based on modified double heating protocols are also introduced in this review for further development. In general, the FFPE tissue housed in pathology worldwide is an invaluable treasure, and the simple method of heat-induced antigen retrieval is the...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Fit-For-Purpose PD-L1 Biomarker Testing For Patient Selection in Immuno-Oncology: Guidelines For Clinical Laboratories From the Canadian Association of Pathologists-Association Canadienne Des Pathologistes (CAP-ACP)
The objective of this document is to provide evidence-based guidance to assist clinical laboratories in establishing fit-for-purpose PD-L1 biomarker assays that can accurately identify patients with specific tumor types who may respond to specific approved immuno-oncology therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint. These recommendations are issued as 38 Guideline Statements that address (i) assay development for surgical pathology and cytopathology specimens, (ii) reporting elements, and (iii) quality assurance (including validation/verification, internal quality assurance, and external quality assurance). The intent of...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Synchronous Ductal Carcinoma In Situ and Intravascular Large B-cell Lymphoma of the Breast
No abstract available (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Letter to The Editor Source Type: research

An Epithelioid Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach With Strong Expression of Keratin: Clinicopathologic Correlation and Follow-up Post-Imatinib Therapy
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. They are relatively rare neoplasms compared with gastrointestinal carcinomas and usually can readily be differentiated from carcinomas based on the morphology of the neoplastic cells that are typically spindled (70%), pure epithelioid, or mixed type. GISTs in general lack expression of cytokeratin and exhibit immunoreactivity toward CD117, CD34, or DOG1. GISTs can demonstrate a pure epithelioid morphology that can appear similar histologically to a carcinoma. Very few epithelioid GISTs have been reported to express cyto...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Case Report Source Type: research

Utilization Rate of Helicobacter pylori Immunohistochemistry Is Not Associated With the Diagnostic Rate of Helicobacter pylori Infection
Conclusions: Increasing use of IHC is not independently associated with the diagnostic rate of infection. Ultimately, if we assume that the case mix was similar for each pathologist, it suggests that more liberal criteria to order IHC does not result in more infections diagnosed. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

EZH2 Expression in Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from the cells present throughout the diffuse endocrine system. These neoplasms were previously regarded as rare, but in fact are increasing in incidence (3.65/100 000 individuals/y). Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) plays a crucial role in cell cycle regulation, and it was reported to be overexpressed in several tumors. The aim of the study was to investigate EZH2 expression, also related with proliferation rate, and p53 expression in NETs of the intestine encompassing a group of tumors primary to the stomach, appendix, small intestine, and colon. The specimens from 33 patients with ne...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Carcinoma-associated Fibroblasts are a Common Finding in the Microenvironment of HPV-positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
The important role of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely established in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). The behavior of a OPSCCs especially induced by HPV might be influenced by the tissue microenvironment and its changes according to the tumor nature. Recognition of the role of the tumor microenvironment on the behavior of neoplastic cells has led to utilization of the microenvironment to use as therapeutic target. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the most abundant cells in the tumor microenvironment, show wide-spread expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). We focused on CAFs, i...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Mismatch Repair Deficiency in Endometrial Cancer: Immunohistochemistry Staining and Clinical Implications
Conclusions: In summary, detection of DNA MMR deficiencies by IHC can effectively diagnose the MSI phenotype in endometrial carcinoma. Correlation between clinicopathologic parameters showed MMR deficiency was significantly associated with low-grade tumor and localized stage. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Clinical and Economic Value of p16INK4a for the Differential Diagnosis of Morphologic Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 2
This study analyzed 46 patients treated with excisional procedures because of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 lesions, using loop electrosurgical excision procedures. Immunostaining for the biomarker was performed. For the estimation of overtreatment, percentages (%) and their 95% confidence interval were calculated. Of the 41 patients analyzed, 32 (78%) showed overexpression of p16 and 9 (22%) were negative (95% confidence interval, 11%-38%). Mean follow-up was 2.9 years, using cervical cytology testing (Pap) and colposcopy. High-risk human papillomavirus DNA tests were performed in 83% of patients. These retrospecti...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Lepidic, Papillary Components and EGFR Mutations are Frequent in Patients With Lung Adenocarcinoma Who are Over 75 Years Old
Treatment for lung adenocarcinoma frequently diverges from standard treatment in older patients. Clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics of lung cancer in patients over 75 years old have not been fully described. The aim of our work was to describe the rate of EGFR, KRAS, BRAFV600, and HER2 mutations, and ALK rearrangement and pathologic characteristics in patients with lung adenocarcinoma over 75, compared with patients below 75 years old. This is a retrospective study from 2 cohorts: a histopathologic cohort of all consecutively resected lung adenocarcinoma in our institution for patients over 75 (n=54, from ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Comparison of 22C3 PharmDx and SP263 Assays to Test PD-L1 Expression in NSCLC
Immunohistochemical assays for programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are either required or recommended to guide therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Four commercially available immunohistochemical assays are currently available as either complimentary or companion diagnostic assay for their counterpart therapy. Harmonization or exchangeability of one assay for the other is a highly sought for goal. The aim of this study was to compare one assay, 22C3, with another, SP263, and examine whether they can be exchanged one for the other. Seventy samples from 70 patie...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Correlation of p16 Expression on Cancer and Stromal Cells With Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Features of Lobular Breast Carcinoma
Conclusions: ILC with p16+ cancer and p16− stromal cells were characterized by frequent nodal involvement, recurrence, and metastatic propensity. These results suggest that p16, has novel anticancer properties capable of suppressing cancer cell migration and invasion and pharmacologic restoration of p16 level in stromal fibroblasts may be exploited as therapeutic strategy to prevent nodal or distant metastasis. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical Expression of Microfibrillar-associated Protein 5 (MFAP5) in Invasive Breast Carcinoma of No Special Type
This study showed that MFAP5 is a novel myoepithelial cell marker that appears to be upregulated in duct epithelium in duct carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma of no special type during tumorogenesis and that its cytoplasmic expression in invasive tumors seems to have a poor prognostic role manifested by its association with poor prognostic parameters such as high grade, late stage, lymph node invasion, and increased microvessel density. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

nCounter NanoString Assay Shows Variable Concordance With Immunohistochemistry-based Algorithms in Classifying Cases of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma According to the Cell-of-Origin
Classifying diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) according to the cell-of-origin (COO) was first proposed using gene expression profiling; accordingly, DLBCL is classified into germinal-center B-cell type and activated B-cell type. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based classification using different algorithms is used widely due to the ability to use formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Recently, newer techniques using RNA expression from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded were introduced including the nCounter NanoString platform assay. In this brief report, we study the degree of concordance between the NanoString assay an...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Unexpected PAX8 Immunoreactivity in Metastatic High-grade Breast Cancer
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often critical for distinction between metastatic carcinomas of Mullerian organ and breast origin. Paired box family protein 8 (PAX8) has been described as a transcription factor highly specific to neoplasms derived from Mullerian organs, thyroid, and kidney. PAX8 IHC with polyclonal and monoclonal antibody reagents was performed on 27 primary and 22 metastatic breast carcinomas. Eight of 27 primary breast carcinomas (30%) were positive for PAX8 with the monoclonal antibody reagent only; 0 of 22 were polyclonal anti-PAX8 immunoreactive. Substantial numbers of metastases had positive immunoreac...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma: From Morphology to Molecular Biology
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (oCCC) is a distinctive subtype of ovarian carcinoma, with peculiar genetic and environmental risk factors, precursor lesions, molecular events during oncogenesis, patterns of spread, and response to treatment. Because of low response to chemotherapy and poor prognosis in advanced stages, there is growing interest in investigating the molecular pathways involved in oCCC development, in order to individualize novel/molecular targeted therapies. Until now, the main molecular genetic changes associated with oCCC remain to be identified, and, although several molecular changes have been reported in...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Thyroid-like Low-grade Nasopharyngeal Papillary Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report
Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (TL-LGNPPA) is an extremely rare neoplasm. It morphologically resembles papillary thyroid carcinoma and is immunochemically positive for thyroid transcription factor 1. Herein, we reported a case of TL-LGNPPA in a female patient of 35 years old. She felt pharyngeal foreign body sensation of unknown cause and subsequently developed dyspnea after activities. Nasopharyngeal plain computerized tomography showed no abnormalities, but laryngoscopy showed a peanut-sized smooth neoplasm with a pedicel at the posterior edge of the nasal septum. The mass was completely r...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Case Report Source Type: research

LI-cadherin and CDX2: Useful Markers in Metastatic Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinoma Cells in Serous Cavity Effusion
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and significance of liver-intestine cadherin (LI-cadherin) and CDX2 (caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2) in cytology specimens of metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in serous cavity effusion. Materials and Methods: The serous cavity effusion samples that were suspected of tumor metastasis in the last 5 years were made into paraffin-imbedded cell blocks, a total of 180 cases, including 97 cases of pleural effusion, 78 cases of ascites, and 5 cases of pericardial effusion. The expressions of LI-cadherin and CDX2 were detected by immunohi...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Research Article Source Type: research

Are Ski and SnoN Involved in the Tumorigenesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Through Smad4?
Transforming growth factor-β has been implicated in the tumorigenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Ski and SnoN are negative regulators of transforming growth factor-β/Smad pathway with both prooncogenic and antioncogenic functions in different cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of Ski and SnoN in OSCC for the first time. Smad4 was also evaluated in these tumors. Clinical data on 61 primary OSCCs were gathered, and the specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies against SKI, SnoN, and Smad4 and scored semiquantitatively. Spearman rank, Fi...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

The Expression of TMEM74 in Liver Cancer and Lung Cancer Correlating With Survival Outcomes
In conclusion, the results suggested that TMEM74 acts as an oncogene and a potential diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target for liver cancer and lung cancer. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Endoglin is Highly Expressed in Human Mast Cells
In conclusion, endoglin may assist in the diagnosis and pathogenesis study of various processes associated with mast cells. An endoglin-neutralizing treatment for solid cancers and leukemia could also affect mastocytes and the immunologic system. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

The Role of CD44 and RHAMM in Endometrial (Endometrioid Type) Cancer: An Immunohistochemical Study
Hyaluronan controls cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation, and it is involved in tumor invasion. The extracellular matrix containing hyaluronan regulates cell behavior via cell surface receptors such as CD44 and receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM, CD168). We investigated the expression of CD44 and RHAMM in tissue samples of endometrial cancer and the relation of their expression with clinicopathologic parameters of patients. In order to evaluate the value of CD44 and RHAMM as prognostic factors, we investigated the relation of their expression with patients’ survival. Our results demonstrat...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

APOBEC3B High Expression in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms and Association With Lymph Metastasis
Conclusions: In this study, APOBEC3B is highly expressed in GEP-NETs and is a predictor of lymph node metastasis in NET G3 and NEC cases. These findings might provide new insights into the biological mechanisms of GEP-NENs tumorigenesis and progression. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Genetic Alterations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Glioblastoma: The Usefulness of Immunohistochemistry
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification is one of the common alterations in IDH-wildtype glioblastoma. It is frequently associated with EGFRvIII mutation. To evaluate the correlation between EGFR overexpression, gene amplification, and EGFRvIII mutation, we performed immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization by Vysis LSI EGFR/CEP7 dual color probe, and polymerase chain reaction studies in 76 patients diagnosed with glioblastomas (67 IDH-wildtype and 9 IDH-mutant). EGFR expression was scored ranging from 0 to 3+. Using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections, real-time reverse tr...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research