Relationship Between O-GlcNAcase Expression and Prognosis of Patients With Osteosarcoma
This study aimed to investigate the levels of O-GlcNAc and the expressions of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) in human osteosarcoma tissues, by using immunohistochemistry; and to find correlations between the levels or expressions and several clinicopathologic parameters. There were 109 first diagnosed osteosarcoma patients, including Enneking stage IIB (n=70) and III (n=39). Correlations between the immunoreactive score (IRS) and clinicopathologic parameters, overall survival, and metastasis-free survival were evaluated. A positive correlation was found between the IRS of OGA and the p...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Article: Research Article Source Type: research

Detecting Green Fluorescent Protein-tagged Cryptococcus neoformans by Immunofluorescence on Paraffin-embedded Brain Sections
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important pathogen causing opportunistic fungal meningitis. The pathogenic mechanism of cryptococcal meningitis remains unclear. We aimed to describe a practical approach for studying the pathologic features of cryptococcal central nervous system infection by immunofluorescence on paraffin-embedded brain of mice using different antigen retrieval methods. After 14 days of intratracheal inoculation of green fluorescent protein-tagged C. neoformans (H99-GFP), C57BL/6J mice brains were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Antigen retrieval methods such as microwaves, 1% sodium la...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Prognostic and Clinicopathologic Associations of LAG-3 Expression in Triple-negative Breast Cancer
In conclusion, LAG-3 expression is associated with improved survival in TNBC. LAG-3 is often coexpressed with PD-L1, confirming that TNBC is likely a suitable candidate for cotreatment with LAG-3 and programmed cell death protein 1/PD-L1 inhibitors. However, coexpression does not confer additional survival benefits. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

PD-L1 Tumor Cell Expression in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas is Associated With Higher Pathologic Stage
Conclusions: Our study using approved testing methods shows that PD-L1 expression in UTUC is more often associated with high pathologic stage, which may reflect an immune response evasion mechanism that UC cells acquire later in disease progression. In addition we show that 29.7% of UTUCs are positive for PD-L1 TPS expression, comparable to the 20% to 30% reported in UC literature. Finally, PD-L1 22C3 and 28-8 clones show similar overall patterns of staining in this setting. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Screening Strategy for Detecting Double-Hit Lymphoma in a Resource-Limited Setting
Conclusion: We propose a highly sensitive screening strategy for detection of MYC/BCL2 rearrangement in high-grade B-cell lymphoma in a resource-limited setting (pending validation in a larger cohort). (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

ERG Immunoreactivity in Blastic Hematolymphoid Neoplasms: Diagnostic Pitfall in the Workup of Undifferentiated Malignant Neoplasms
Undifferentiated malignant neoplasms pose diagnostic challenges, and reliable immunohistochemical markers with well-characterized staining profiles are desirable when characterizing them. Our initial observation of erythroblast transformation specific regulated gene-1 (ERG) reactivity in myeloid sarcomas led us to broadly explore the utility of ERG as a marker of immature hematolymphoid neoplasms presenting in extramedullary sites. We stained 207 immature and mature hematolymphoid lesions as well as 39 benign hematolymphoid tissues and found weak-to-moderate ERG immunopositivity in 15 of 16 (94%) acute myeloid leukemias/my...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Reliability and Role of Mutation-specific H3F3A (Histone 3-3) G34W Immunohistochemistry to Differentiate Giant Cell Tumor of Bone From its Clinicoradiologic and Histologic Mimics: An Institutional Study
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign neoplasm, which can sometimes be a diagnostic challenge, especially in small biopsies, due to its histologic benign and malignant mimics. We evaluated the role of H3.3 G34W immunohistochemistry (IHC) antibody in diagnosing GCTB and its role in differentiating it from its close histologic mimics. A total of 120 cases (80 cases of GCTB and 40 cases of histologic mimics) were retrieved and subjected to IHC. Of 80 cases of GCTB, 72 cases showed a positive nuclear immunoexpression, while all 40 cases of histologic mimics of GCTB showed a negative staining for H3.3 G34W IHC. Sensitivit...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Effects of Slide Storage on Detection of Molecular Markers by IHC and FISH in Endometrial Cancer Tissues From a Clinical Trial: An NRG Oncology/GOG Pilot Study
We performed a pilot study in anticipation of using long-aged precut formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections stored in real-world conditions for translational biomarker studies of topoisomerase 2A (TOP2A), Ki67, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in endometrial cancer. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks or unstained slides or both from GOG-0177 were collected centrally (1999-2000) and stored at room temperature. During 2004 to 2011 specimens were stored at 4°C. Matched pairs of stored slides and freshly cut slides from stored blocks were analyzed for TOP2A (KiS1), Ki67 (MIB1), and ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Histologic and Molecular Characterization of Non−Small Cell Lung Carcinoma With Discordant ROS1 Immunohistochemistry and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
Introduction: ROS1 immunohistochemical (IHC) positivity requires follow-up with confirmatory testing such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Identifying predictive characteristics of false positive ROS1 IHC cases could aid in optimizing testing algorithms, decrease testing costs and preserve tissue. Materials and Methods: Retrospective results were retrieved for 2054 patients with non−small cell lung carcinoma submitted to our laboratory for molecular testing. Reflex ROS1 FISH was done on all ROS1 immunoreactive cases using ROS1 D4D6 antibody. Staining intensity and histo-score was recorded for ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

HMB45/PRAME, a Novel Double Staining for the Diagnosis of Melanocytic Neoplasms: Technical Aspects, Results, and Comparison With Other Commercially Available Staining (PRAME and Melan A/PRAME)
PRAME (PReferentially expressed Antigen in MElanoma) is a tumor-associated antigen that was recently found to be expressed by malignant melanocytic lesions but not by benign ones, thus resulting useful in this diagnostic field. PRAME could also be expressed by some normal tissues and nonmelanocytic tumors, suggesting as caution should be adopted to use PRAME as a “pan-melanoma” marker for the differential diagnosis with other malignant tumors. Until now, PRAME expression was exclusively investigated through single staining with a monoclonal antibody targeting PRAME and with double staining for Melan A/PRAME fou...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Technical Article Source Type: research

Claudin-18 Immunohistochemical Staining Facilitates the Identification of Metastatic Carcinoma of Gastric or Pancreatic Origin in Effusion Specimens
In conclusion, membranous claudin-18 staining is a useful marker for metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in effusion specimens. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Intratumoral Budding and Tumor Microenvironment in Pretreatment Rectal Cancer Biopsies Predict the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy
Tumor budding at the invasive tumor front (peritumoral budding) is an established prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. However, the significance of intratumoral budding (ITB) in pretreatment biopsies is still uncertain. Our study aims to investigate the association of ITB and tumor microenvironment in pretreatment rectal cancer biopsies with pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Pretreatment biopsies of low-grade rectal cancer from 37 patients who underwent resection after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate ITB, type of tumor stroma, and intraepithelial lymphocytes. I...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Curcuma longa L. Effects on Akt/mTOR Pathway and NF-κB Expression During Skin Wound Healing: An Immunohistochemical Study
Skin ulcers, wounds, or burns represent a burden for health care worldwide. Our aim was to explore the effects of mucoadhesive formulation with Curcuma longa L. extract mucoadhesive formulation containing curcumin (MFC) on skin healing in Wistar rats. Fifty-four rats were randomly allocated into 3 groups: control, vehicle, and MFC. A full-thickness circular wound was induced on the back of each animal. Two daily applications of the products were performed according to the experimental group. On days 3, 10, and 21, 6 animals in each group were euthanized. Clinical analysis was based on wound area. Histologic analysis was pe...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Article: Research Article Source Type: research

TTF1-positive Papillary Epithelial Tumor of Pituitary: An Epithelial Variant of Pituicytoma?: Retraction
No abstract available (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Retraction Source Type: research

The Role of Immunohistochemistry for Primary Oral Diagnosis in a Brazilian Oral Pathology Service
A proper antibody panel selection is one of the most important factors to reach an adequate diagnosis in challenging cases. This retrospective study was designed to determine the contribution of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the primary diagnosis of oral diseases in one of the main services of oral pathology in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the most common antibodies used, and recommend diagnostic algorithms based on our experience with challenging lesions. A total of 1698 IHC stains were performed in 401 cases from a total of 28,804 cases received from public dental clinics and private dental prac...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Diminution of the Primary Cilia From the Intrahepatic Cholangiocytes in a Pediatric Choledochal Cyst
Choledochal cyst (CC) is a cystic disease predominantly involving the extrahepatic biliary tree. Biliary atresia (BA), another disorder of the extrahepatic biliary tree, is sometimes considered to be in the same spectrum as pediatric CC. Recently, the absence and/or the structural abnormality of the primary cilia in the intrahepatic cholangiocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of BA. We aimed to evaluate the expression of primary ciliary proteins in the intrahepatic cholangiocytes in cases of pediatric CC and compare it with normal control and BA. We performed immunohistochemistry for primary ciliary proteins (a...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Features, Molecular Alterations and Prognosis of Colorectal Adenocarcinoma With Mucinous Component in Chinese Patients
Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is conventionally diagnosed by WHO definition when the extracellular mucin is>50% of the tumor area, while tumors with (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Small Intestinal Adenocarcinomas Arising in Enteritis Cystica Profunda With Metaplasia: A Report of 2 Cases
We describe 2 cases of small intestinal adenocarcinomas associated with ECP at the distal ileum, one in a background of active Crohn ileitis (case 1), the other 22 years after pelvic radiation therapy (case 2). Both patients presented with small bowel obstruction and received ileocectomy. Macroscopic examination identified an indurated/strictured area in the distal ileum. Histologically, both cases showed a low-grade tubuloglandular adenocarcinoma arising in a background of chronic ischemic stricture and ECP lined by flat cuboidal cells with mild cytologic atypia resembling pancreatobiliary-type epithelium. There was no co...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Cytoplasmic P120ctn Promotes Gefitinib Resistance in Lung Cancer Cells by Activating PAK1 and ERK Pathway
Our previous studies indicated that cytoplasmic p120ctn mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) resistance in lung cancer. In the present study, we aim to further explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Immunohistochemistry detected PAK1, Cdc42, and Rac1 expression in lung cancer with cytoplasmic p120ctn. Immunoblotting, protein activity analysis, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide evaluated p120ctn location, PAK1, Cdc42/Rac1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity in response to TKI treatment in HCC827 and PC9 cell lines, as wel...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Effects of Risk Factors on In Situ Expression of Proinflammatory Markers Correlated to Carotid Plaque Instability
Conclusions: Plaque destabilization is certainly correlated with the presence of the major cardiovascular risk factors, however, our results showed that, with the exception of sex, their action in the evolutive process of plaque instability seems rather nonspecific, favoring a general release of proinflammatory cytokines. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Increased Expression of the lncRNA NRON Along With NFATc1/PIM-1 in Labial Salivary Glands of Sjögren’s Syndrome Patients
In this study, the expressions of NRON, NFATc1, CD3/CD4, and proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM)-1 were examined by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical analysis, and immunofluorescence in labial salivary glands (LSGs) obtained from 16 patients with SS and five controls. The microcell count method has been applied to calculate the NFATc1-positive area/infiltrating cell area in LSGs, and we compared those results to the infiltrating cell area, focus score, serum immunoglobulin G, and the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren’s Syndrome Disease Activity Index. The NRON expr...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Androgen Receptor is Expressed in Breast Cancer Brain Metastases
Conclusion: AR is expressed in more than one third of BC BM with the highest rates among the luminal/HER2-negative BC subtype and may therefore be a potential prognostic and predictive biomarker in this particular BC population. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Overexpression of Human Aspartyl (Asparaginyl) β-hydroxylase in NSCLC: Its Diagnostic Value by Means of Exosomes of Bronchoalveolar Lavage
The human aspartyl β-hydroxylase (ASPH) is overexpressed in tumor tissues. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a diagnostic procedure for infections and malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether tumor exosomes carrying ASPH gene marker were present in bronchoalveolar fluid of patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A tissue microarray analysis was applied to explore the expression of ASPH in different histologic NSCLC. The human NSCLC cell lines and normal bronchial cell lines were used to study exosomal ASPH exprerssion. A total of 27 NSCLC, 21 benign tumor, and 15 healthy controls un...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Clinical and Histopathologic Features Can Help Target Immunohistochemical Stain Use in the Diagnosis of Viral Esophagitis
Objectives: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunohistochemical stains (IHC) are frequently applied on esophageal biopsies. Our aims were to identify IHC use patterns in viral esophagitis (VE), and clinicopathologic features of VE that could guide IHC use. Methods: We included 58 VE cases and 60 controls, defined as patients with negative HSV/CMV IHC between January 2006 and July 2017. Biopsies were reviewed and histologic features and clinical data recorded. Results: Thirteen cases required IHC for diagnosis. IHC was performed in 13 HSV and 5 CMV cases where diagnostic viral inclusio...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - November 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical Expression Pattern of Mismatch Repair Genes in the Short-term Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rat Kidneys
We studied the expression of mismatch repair genes (MMRs)—mutS protein homolog 2 (MSH2), PMS2, MutL homolog 1 (MLH1), and yH2AFX in diabetic rat kidneys. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus type 1 rat model (DM1) was used. Renal samples were collected 2 weeks and 2 months after DM1 induction and immunohistochemical expression of MMR genes in the renal cortex was analyzed. Diabetic animals showed lower MSH2 and higher yH2AFX kidney expression both 2 weeks and 2 months after DM1 induction. MLH1 expression significantly increased 2 weeks after DM1 induction (P (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Article: Research Article Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical Characterization of Bcl-2 in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders
Bcl-2 is a group of apoptotic proteins that play a key role in cellular homeostasis. Overexpression of Bcl-2 has been associated with the poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study is to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 in healthy oral mucosa, different oral potentially malignant disorders and OSCC, and to determine its diagnostic value. A retrospective observational study was carried out in the Oral Medicine Unit of the University of Santiago de Compostela. All the clinicopathologic data were collected and paraffin-embedded blocks were available to perform the immunohis...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Significance and Prognostic Value of SOX2 Protein Expression in Patients With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusion: SOX2 may worsen the prognosis and be a progressive malignant factor, which can help clinicians investigate OSCC patients’ survival and plan the appropriate treatment accordingly. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Does Loss of Immunohistochemical Expression of Glypican 3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Play a Role in the Wnt/β-catenin Signaling Pathway?
Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a cell membrane protein and plays a dual role, as a tumor suppressor and oncogene, depending on its structure. It is known to regulate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and affect cell growth and proliferation. β-catenin plays a major oncogenic role in progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); thus, this study aimed to explore the relationship between β-catenin and GPC3 in OSCC. Immunoexpression of GPC3 and β-catenin was evaluated semiquantitatively in tumor tissue (n=80) and normal oral mucosa tissue (n=20). For GPC3, the percentage of stained cells and the staining int...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Low PDCD4 Expression Is Associated With Poor Prognosis of Colorectal Carcinoma
Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is a tumor suppressor gene that inhibits tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Decreased PDCD4 expression is associated with poor prognosis in various types of cancers. We evaluated PDCD4 expression and its clinicopathologic correlation, including patient survival, in 289 surgically resected colorectal cancers. Low nuclear PDCD4 expression was identified in 177 (61.2%) cases and was associated with large tumor size, high pT classification, and the presence of lymphovascular and perineural invasion. The 5-year survival rate of patients with low nuclear PDCD4 expression was significantl...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

PAX-8 Expression in Salivary Duct Carcinoma
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a high-grade adenocarcinoma resembling breast ductal carcinoma. It accounts for ~10% of malignant tumors of the salivary glands. Most cases show expression of CK7 and androgen receptor. PAX-8 is a transcription factor, with expression reported in renal, Müllerian, and thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have described an absence of PAX-8 immunostaining in most primary salivary gland neoplasms, including SDCs. However, PAX-8 expression is frequently found in neoplasms that can metastasize to salivary glands, suggesting the possibility that this protein can be used to differentiate SDC ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Variations of P40 and P63 Immunostains in Different Grades of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall
The distinction of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from adenocarcinoma (adenoCA) using targeted therapies has become critical for small biopsies. In the United States, esophageal SCC is relatively uncommon compared with AdenoCA, with only few detailed immunohistochemical (IHC) studies on esophageal SCC. We characterized p40 and p63 IHC across various grades of squamous differentiation in esophageal SCC and compared their sensitivities between esophageal SCC and adenoCA. Twenty-eight esophageal SCC and 26 esophageal adenoCA (control group) samples were stained for p40, p63, and CK5/6. All hematoxylin-and-eosin-stai...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Intrapatient Tumor Heterogeneity in IHC Interpretation Using PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx
This study aims to investigate tumor heterogeneity impact on IHC staining when evaluating PD-L1 expression using PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx. The effect of tumor heterogeneity was evaluated based on the PD-L1 diagnostic status of PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx stained tumor tissue sections at relevant diagnostic cutoffs for non–small cell lung carcinoma, gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal cancer and triple negative breast cancer. Overall agreement for the PD-L1 diagnostic status was assessed for each tumor type within a given specimen block ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

E-cadherin and N-cadherin Immunohistochemical Expression in Proliferating Urothelial Lesions: Potential Novel Cancer Predictive EMT Profiles
In this study, we tested CS signified by a reduction in urothelial cells E-cadherin expression and/or aberrant N-cadherin expression in proliferative epithelial changes (PEC) associating inflammation, non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Immunohistochemical study of both E-cadherin and N-cadherin was performed for 60 cases: 15 PEC, 8 NMIBC, and 37 MIBC. CS patterns were analyzed: abnormal CS patterns were expressed as deviated, hybrid, co-negative, and full CS patterns. E-cadherin expression was significantly preserved in PEC (86.7%) followed by NMIBC (62.5%) and then...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

ALK-Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL): Prognostic Implications of Molecular Subtyping and JAK-STAT Pathway
In this study, we subtyped ALK-negative ALCL based on DUSP22 rearrangements and TP63 expression and also looked for mutations in JAK-STAT pathway. The subtyping of the ALK-negative ALCL in relation to DUSP22 rearrangement and TP63 expression was done using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The hotspot JAK-STAT mutations were analyzed using Sanger sequencing and amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression by immunohistochemistry. Forty-eight cases of ALCL were included with median a...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

NordiQC Assessments of Synaptophysin Immunoassays
This paper is number 8 in a series developed through a partnership between ISIMM and NordiQC with the purpose of reporting research assessing the performance characteristics of immunoassays in an external proficiency testing program. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Technical Article Source Type: research

HER2 Testing: Insights From Pathologists’ Perspective on Technically Challenging HER2 FISH Cases
Objective: College of American Pathologists and the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines provide straightforward criteria for HER2 interpretation in breast carcinomas; however, a subset of cases present unusual diagnostic dilemmas. Materials and Methods: Ten challenging HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) cases were selected for analysis. The study included a variety of problematic cases such as those with discordant immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH results, cases with high intratumoral variability in HER2 copy number, a case with a highly amplified clone in 5% to 10% of the tumor sampl...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - October 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

DFSP of the Breast: Histomorphological, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features of a Rare Case in an Unusual Location
We present a case of a 21-year-old female with a vague nontender mass in the lower inner quadrant of the left breast discovered incidentally on chest imaging following trauma. A breast ultrasound demonstrated an 8×6×8 mm irregular hyperechoic mass at the 7 o’clock position of the left breast, 9 cm from the nipple. The mass was graded Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4 (suspicious finding). An ultrasound-guided biopsy of the mass showed a proliferation of monotonous spindled cells in a storiform pattern with tapered nuclei with infiltration into the adipose tissue. ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Research Articles Source Type: research

Valosin-containing Protein in Psoriasis: A Clinical and Immunohistochemical Study
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, affects about 2% to 3% of the world population. Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is one of the newly discovered markers that is highly expressed in neoplasms and hyperproliferative lesions. This work aimed to study the role of VCP in psoriasis vulgaris by immunohistochemical study and correlate its expression with the available clinicopathologic data. This prospective case-control study was conducted on 25 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 25 age-matched and sex-matched healthy individuals as a control group. Skin biopsies were taken under local anesthesi...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Articles: Research Articles Source Type: research

Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Must be Preferred to pan-TRK Immunohistochemistry to Diagnose NTRK3-rearranged Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST)
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Nevertheless, some GISTs do not contain any targetable KIT or PDGFRA mutations classically encountered in this field. Novel approved therapies targeting TRK chimeric proteins products of NTRK genes fusions consist in a promising approach to treat some patients with GISTs lacking any identified driver oncogenic mutation in KIT, PDGFRA or BRAF genes. Thus, an adequate testing strategy permitting to diagnose the rare NTRK-rearranged GISTs is required. In this work, we studied about the performances of pan-TRK...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Technical Article Source Type: research

Expression of Nectin-4 in Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma, in Morphologic Variants, and Nonurothelial Histotypes
The antibody-drug conjugate enfortumab-vedotin acts by targeting nectin-4, a protein that is nearly ubiquitously expressed in conventional urothelial cancer. However, expression of nectin-4 in morphologic variants of urothelial carcinoma and nonurothelial histotypes was unknown. Immunohistochemistry for nectin-4 using was performed on 169 patients including 83 with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer and 86 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Staining was scored for intensity (0 to 3) and extent (% positive cells) using the histological score system, where>15 was considered positive. Overall, 72/83 (87%) samples...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

MLH1, MSH2, MRE11, and XRCC1 in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusions: This study supports the effect of the overexpression of MSH2 protein in samples of OL with dysplasia and OSCC, most notably in patients who present with comorbidities and negativity for OL without dysplasia. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Langerhans Cells Correlate With Macrophages for Defense Mechanisms in the Atrophic Epithelium of Radicular Cysts
In conclusion, LCs participate in defense mechanisms and were present in all cases evaluated. Along with macrophages, these cells release proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, which is responsible for inducing the continued proliferation of cystic epithelium. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

SDHC Methylation Pattern in Patients With Carney Triad
Carney triad is a multitumor syndrome affecting almost exclusively young women in a nonfamilial setting, which manifests by multifocal gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors, paragangliomas, and pulmonary chondroma. The Carney triad–associated tumors are characterized by a deficiency of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex. Recently, it has been observed that the deficiency results from epigenetic silencing of the SDHC gene by its promoter hypermethylation. To elucidate anatomic distribution of SDHC promoter methylation in Carney triad patients and thus to shed some light on the possible natur...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Application of Chromosome Microarray Analysis in the Diagnosis of Lipomatous Tumors
In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CMA on routine formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue is a sensitive and specific clinical test for detection of MDM2 gene amplification. Moreover, CMA allows simultaneous detection of genomic changes of interest including CDK4 and others, which provides enriched information for diagnosing lipomatous tumors. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

UBE2V2 Positively Correlates With PD-L1 Expression and Confers Poor Patient Survival in Lung Adenocarcinoma
This research aims to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2 (UBE2V2) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). The expression of UBE2V2 in clinical specimens was evaluated by bioinformatics analyses and immunohistochemistry. Bioinformatics analyses relying on the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database suggested the elevated UBE2V2 mRNA levels in LUAD in comparison to adjacent normal tissues. Gene set enrichment analyses and gene ontology term enrichment analyses further showed the involvement of UBE2V2 in the modulation of cell cycle and immune associated signaling. The correlation ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Nuclear EGFR Expression Is Associated With Poor Survival in Laryngeal Carcinoma
The membrane EGFR (mEGFR) protein overexpression in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is considered to cause increased EGFR activity which adds to tumorigenicity and therapy resistance. The mEGFR upon stimulation can translocate to the nucleus nuclear EGFR (nEGFR) where it has been associated with poor prognosis and worse survival in many cancers. The relevance of differentially located EGFR proteins in laryngeal lesions has not been studied enough and remains unclear. Aim of our study was to examine nEGFR and mEGFR protein expression as well as EGFR gene status and cell cycle proliferation markers in the lar...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Expression and Mutation Alterations of ZMYM4 Gene in Gastric and Colonic Cancers
In this study, we analyzed 4 sites of mononucleotide repeats in the coding sequence of ZMYM4 in gastric (GC) and colonic cancers (CC). Seven of the 32 high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) GCs (21.9%) and 23 of 113 MSI-H CCs (20.4%) harbored ZMYM4 frameshift mutations with no significant difference between the 2 organs (P>0.05). There was no ZMYM4 frameshift mutations in microsatellite-stable GCs and CCs. We also identified that 6 of 16 MSI-H CCs (37.5%) exhibited intratumoral heterogeneity of the ZMYM4 frameshift mutations. In both GC and CC with MSI-H, ZMYM4 expression in ZMYM4-mutated cases was significantly lower ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

High Expression of PRSS3 Indicates Unfavorable Clinical Outcomes in Colon Adenocarcinoma
Conclusions: High expression of PRSS3 was significantly related to the unfavorable clinical features and poor prognosis in CAC patients. It suggested that PRSS3 might serve as a novel prognostic indicator and potential drug target for CAC treatment. (Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology)
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Immune Microenvironment in Gallbladder Adenocarcinomas
In this study we examined PD1 expression in gallbladder cancer to explore the correlation between PD1 expression and the clinicopathologic parameters. We found that 98% (46/47) cases expressed programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) with 85% cases being PD-L1 3+. PD1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were present in 78.7% cases (37/47). The tumor size was significantly smaller and the stromal CD3+ TILs were significantly higher in tumors with PD1+ TILs than those with PD1− TILs. In the tumors with size of 115/HPF or stromal CD8+ TILs>45/HPF were associated with much better survival than those with stromal CD3+ TILs...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - September 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Mast Cells and Proteins Related to Myofibroblast Differentiation (PAR-2, IL-6, and TGFβ1) in Salivary Cancers: A Preliminary Study
This study evaluated the distribution of mast cells and related proteins (PAR-2, TGFβ1, IL-6) to the myofibroblastic differentiation in malignant tumors of salivary glands with and without myoepithelial differentiation. Immunohistochemical assessement for tryptase mast cells, SMA, PAR-2, TGFβ1, IL-6 was performed in 10 cases of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, 14 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and 10 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma. When the density of mast cells were compared between tumors, their density was significantly higher in MEC (P=0.08). Tumors with high expression of PAR-2 (79.4%) exhi...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - August 1, 2021 Category: Chemistry Tags: Online Article: Research Article Source Type: research