Revisiting the Relationship Between Price Regulation and Pharmaceutical R & amp;D Investment
ConclusionThe findings suggest that investment decisions of firms are most likely driven by long-run inter-firm differences, and that firm effects strongly determine firm strategies in terms of R&D investment. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 15, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Systematic Review of Health State Utility Values Used in European Pharmacoeconomic Evaluations for Chronic Hepatitis C: Impact on Cost-Effectiveness Results
ConclusionsThe CUAs for CHC were found to apply to various HSUVs from different utility elicitation studies in the same health state. This variability in HSUVs has the potential to significantly affect ICER and ICER-based reimbursement decisions. A rigorous selection of HSUVs in CUAs to inform healthcare resource allocation is suggested for future studies of CUAs and for guideline development. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 14, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Implementing Lifestyle Change Interventions to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes in US Medicaid Programs: Cost Effectiveness, and Cost, Health, and Health Equity Impact
ConclusionsIn the long-term, investments in LCIs for Medicaid beneficiaries are likely to improve health and to decrease healthcare expenditures. However, population health and health equity impact would be low and healthcare expenditure savings from a narrow Medicaid perspective would be much smaller than from a healthcare system perspective. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 1, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Evaluating Equity in Health Financing Using Benefit Incidence Analysis: A Framework for Accounting for Quality of Care
AbstractEquity in health care financing has gained increased attention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) following the renewed global interest in universal health coverage (UHC), a key component of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). UHC requires that people have access to the health services they need without risking financial hardship. Health financing is central to UHC and many LMICs have initiated reforms to align their health financing systems with the goals of UHC. Evaluation of the equity impact of these reforms has become a growing area of research, especially in countries with large health inequali...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 22, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Using Eye-Tracking Technology with Older People in Memory Clinics to Investigate the Impact of Mild Cognitive Impairment on Choices for EQ-5D-5L Health States Preferences
ConclusionsThis exploratory study provided important insights into the information processes adopted by older people with varying levels of cognitive functioning when choosing between alternative EQ-5D-5L health states of varying survival duration and specifically the relationships between cognitive capacity, task complexity and the extent of ANA. Recent advances in econometric modelling of health state valuation data have demonstrated the added value of capturing ANA information as this can be accounted for in the DCE data analysis, thereby improving the precision of model estimates. Eye-tracking technology can usefully i...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 22, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Economic Modelling of Screen-and-Treat Strategies for Brazilian Women at Risk of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer
ConclusionAlthough there is no rigorous cost-effectiveness threshold in Brazil, the result of this cost-effectiveness analysis may support the inclusion ofBRCA1/2 testing for women at high-risk of cancer in the SUS. The ICER calculated for the provision of genetic testing forBRCA1/2 approximates the cost-effectiveness threshold proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for low- and middle-income countries. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 15, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

French Value-Set of the QLU-C10D, a Cancer-Specific Utility Measure Derived from the QLQ-C30
ConclusionThe results of the present study provide utility weights for the QLU-C10D and offer interesting prospects, as some cancer-specific dimensions also received sizeable utility weights (nausea and bowel problems). In fact, the EQ-5D and the HUI 3 are recommended in France and commonly used for cancer-related CUA; however, both these instruments are generic. The availability of a new cancer-specific utility instrument, such as the QLU-C10D, could improve the quality and the pertinence of future CUA in oncology (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 15, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Availability and Variability of Consumer Prices for Lumbar Discectomy Across US Hospitals in 2018
ConclusionA patient seeking to undergo a common surgical procedure in the USA will likely be met with difficulty and few options if motivated by price. A high degree of variability exists among US hospitals in 2018 with regards to availability and comprehensiveness of pricing information. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Efficacy of Lockdown Against COVID-19: A Cross-Country Panel Analysis
ConclusionResults suggest that lockdown is effective in reducing the R0, i.e. the number of people infected by each infected person, and that, unlike what has been suggested in previous analyses, its efficacy continues to hold 20  days after the introduction of the policy. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Factors Influencing the Cost-Effectiveness Outcomes of HPV Vaccination and Screening Interventions in Low-to-Middle-Income Countries (LMICs): A Systematic Review
ConclusionsHPV vaccination and screening interventions may be cost effective in LMICs and potentially reduce the lifetime risk, economic burden, and associated mortality. However, it is important to consider the factors that influence the cost effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention interventions for better outcomes to be realised. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 29, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Using a Formal Strategy of Priority Setting to Mitigate Austerity Effects Through Gains in Value: The Role of Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA) in the Brazilian Public Healthcare System
AbstractThe fiscal regime implemented in Brazil with the constitutional amendment 95 (EC-95) of December 2016 froze primary expenditures for 20  years, including healthcare spending. Previous studies have estimated strong negative effects of this policy on the health of Brazilians. Although there has been a constant pressure to repeal EC-95, this policy is unlikely to be changed in the near future. Thus, there is also a need to take action s within its own terms in order to mitigate its harmful consequences on population health. Shedding light on the existing evidence about the impact of austerity on health, the prese...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 29, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Italian NHS: What Lessons to Draw from COVID-19?
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 26, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Using Insights from Behavioral Economics to Mitigate the Spread of COVID-19
AbstractThe outbreak of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency of international concern. The number of COVID-infected individuals and related deaths continues to rise rapidly. Encouraging people to adopt and sustain preventive behaviors is a central focus of public health policies that seek to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Public health policy needs improved methods to encourage people to adhere to COVID-19-preventive behaviors. In this paper, we introduce a number of insights from behavioral economics that help explain why people may behave irrationally during the COVID-19 pandemic. In...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 21, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Effect of an Online Reimbursement Application System on Prescribing of Lidocaine 5% Medicated Plaster in the Republic of Ireland
This study was carried out using prescription dispensing data from the PCRS pharmacy claims database. We carried out segmented linear regression to assess changes in the Versatis® prescribing rate per 1000 GMS eligible population, before and after the introduction of the online reimbursement application system.ResultsThe results of the segmented regression analysis show that there was a statistically significant level ( − 4.91,p 
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 20, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Economic Evaluation of Senshio ® (Ospemifene) for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Atrophy in Scotland
ConclusionOspemifene is a cost-effective intervention that has recently been accepted by the SMC for the treatment of postmenopausal women with moderate to severe VVA who are not candidates for local oestrogen. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 11, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Impact of a Global Pandemic on Health Technology Assessment
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 7, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Inclusion of Comparative Environmental Impact in Health Technology Assessment: Practical Barriers and Unintended Consequences
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 7, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Economic Theory and Medical Assistance in Dying
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 6, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Case for a Temporary COVID-19 Income Tax Levy Now, During the Crisis
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 16, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Health Promoting Schools: An Update
AbstractThe concept of a Health Promoting School has been found to be effective to improve health and well-being of students as well as a help with teaching and learning in school. Effective implementation of Health Promoting School is a complex intervention involving multi-factorial and innovative activity in many domains such as curriculum, school environment and community. Many studies evaluating Health Promoting School do not include outcomes reflecting the organisational or structural change as many of those studies are quantitative in nature and the statistical assumptions are not valid reflecting the organisational ...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 15, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Association Between Hospital Cost/price and the Quality of Care
ConclusionOur results suggest that there is no general relationship between cost/price and the quality of care. However, the relationship seems to depend on the condition and specific resource utilization. Policy makers should be prudent with the measures used to reduce hospital costs to avoid endangering the quality of care, especially in resource-sensitive settings. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 15, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Why Only Test Symptomatic Patients? Consider Random Screening for COVID-19
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 8, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

COVID-19 Pandemic, a War to be Won: Understanding its Economic Implications for Africa
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 5, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

A Simple Decision Analysis of a Mandatory Lockdown Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 5, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy in Patients with Moderate to Severe Heart Failure in Germany: A Cost-Utility Analysis of the Additional Defibrillator
ConclusionsTherapy with CRT-D compared to CRT-P resulted in an additional gain of QALYs, but was more expensive. In addition, the ICER was subject to uncertainty, especially due to the uncertainty in the survival benefit. A randomised controlled trial and subgroup analyses would be desirable to further inform decision making. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 25, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Effects of Monetary Incentives in Physician Groups: A Systematic Review of Reviews
ConclusionsMonetary incentives in healthcare are often implemented as a control measure and are supposed to increase quality of care and reduce costs. The heterogeneity of the study results indicates that this is not always successful. The results reveal a need for research into the effects of monetary incentives in healthcare. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 23, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Authors ’ Reply to Hays: “A Multinational European Study of Patient Preferences for Novel Diagnostics to Manage Antimicrobial Resistance”
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 23, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Comment on: “A Multinational European Study of Patient Preferences for Novel Diagnostics to Manage Antimicrobial Resistance”
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 23, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Performance-Based Financing, Basic Packages of Health Services and User-Fee Exemption Mechanisms: An Analysis of Health-Financing Policy Integration in Three Fragile and Conflict-Affected Settings
ConclusionsOverall, we find that where national leadership is stronger, PBF is better integrated and more in line with the health-financing regulations and, during phases of acute crisis, can provide structure and organisation to the system. Where governmental stewardship is weaker, PBF may result in another parallel programme, potentially increasing fragmentation in health financing and inequalities between areas supported by different donors. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 20, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Modeling Medicaid and Medicare Savings from Reduced Poverty and Disability to Promote Investment in Mental Health and Substance Use Interventions in the USA
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 18, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Economics of Mental Health: Providing a Platform for Efficient Mental Health Policy
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 15, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Estimating the Unit Costs of Healthcare Service Delivery in India: Addressing Information Gaps for Price Setting and Health Technology Assessment
ConclusionThis is the first time cost estimates for inpatient admissions and outpatient visits for all states have been estimated using standardised data. The model demonstrates the usefulness of such an approach in the Indian context to help inform health technology assessment, budgeting and forecasting, as well as differential pricing, and could be applied to similar country contexts where cost data are limited. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 14, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of Subsequent Whole-Brain Radiotherapy or Hippocampal-Avoidant Whole-Brain Radiotherapy Versus Stereotactic Radiosurgery or Surgery Alone for Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases
ConclusionsHA-WBRT may be cost-effective for the treatment of melanoma brain metastases. The results predicted in our model can be validated with prospective trial data when available. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 11, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Supervised Exercise Training in Men with Prostate Cancer Previously Treated with Radiation Therapy and Androgen-Deprivation Therapy
DiscussionThis is the first cost-effectiveness analysis of exercise for PCa survivors. The intervention was effective, but unlikely to be cost-effective at the generally accepted willingness-to-pay of AU$50,000 per QALY. It is likely that evidence to support cost savings from post-intervention outcomes would reveal greater benefits and contribute to a more comprehensive cost-effectiveness analysis. Future RCTs should incorporate longer follow-up durations and collection of data to support modelling to capture future health benefits. Measures of quality of life or utility more sensitive to the impact of physical activity wo...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - February 28, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Potential Benefits of Deferred Payment for a Hypothetical Gene Therapy for Congestive Heart Failure: A Cost-Consequence Analysis
ConclusionsA DPM may result in faster access to CHF gene therapy and may thus reduce hospital admissions and mortality in contrast to a status quo payment with the same budget constraint. Although the financial benefits of a DPM in CHF gene therapy are limited, it is possible that deferred payments will show greater promise for treatments with higher cost offsets. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - February 24, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost –Utility of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Unipolar Depression: A Markov Model Simulation
ConclusionICBT has a strong potential to balance demand and supply of CBT in unipolar depression by reducing therapist time per patient. It is highly likely to generate more QALYs and reduce health care expenditure. In addition, ICBT may have further positive external effects, such as freeing up capacities for the most severely depressed patients. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - February 15, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Economic Evaluations of Anticancer Drugs Based on Medico-Administrative Databases: A Systematic Literature Review
ConclusionA comparison of the economic results was not relevant due to the high heterogeneity of the selected studies. Our SLR highlighted the benefits and pitfalls related to the use of medico-administrative databases in the economic evaluations of anticancer drugs. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - February 14, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Potential Role of Constrained Optimization Methods in Healthcare Decision Making
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - February 7, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

What Matters to Potential Patients in Chemotherapy Service Delivery? A Discrete Choice Experiment
ConclusionThese strong population preferences should be considered when designing chemotherapy care. This poses a significant challenge, both logistically and financially. However, this information can help policy makers identify the components of good value care. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - February 6, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Should Health Economic Evaluations Undertaken from a Societal Perspective Include Net Government Spending Multiplier Effects?
AbstractThe fiscal multiplier represents the ratio of the change in national income to an associated increase in government spending. Fiscal multiplier effects are commonly estimated to justify options for government spending. Multiplier effects are not considered in economic evaluations of healthcare, but alternate forms of healthcare spending are expected to have varying multiplier effects. This paper describes the estimation and application of net government spending multiplier effects to two published economic evaluations. Negative net multiplier effects are estimated for an evaluated pharmaceutical for the treatment o...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - February 4, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Estimating the Productivity Burden of Pediatric Pneumococcal Disease in Thailand
ConclusionsThe disease and financial burden of pneumococcal diseases in Thailand is significant, but a large proportion of this is potentially preventable with vaccination. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - February 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Authors ’ Reply to Garattini and Freemantle: “Value-Based Pricing Alternatives for Personalised Drugs: Implications of Asymmetric Information and Competition”
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - February 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Comment on: ‘Value-Based Pricing Alternatives for Personalised Drugs: Implications of Asymmetric Information and Competition’
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - February 3, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Promoting HIV Testing by Men: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Elicit Preferences and Predict Uptake of Community-based Testing in Uganda
ConclusionSubstantial opportunity exists to optimize the delivery of HIV testing to expand uptake by men; using an innovative DCE, we deliver timely, actionable guidance for promoting community-based testing by men in Uganda. We advance the stated preference literature methodologically by describing how we constructed and evaluated a pragmatic experimental design, used interaction terms to conduct subgroup analyses, and harnessed participant-specific preference estimates to predict and calibrate testing uptake. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - January 25, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Preferences for Weight Loss Treatment Amongst Treatment-Seeking Patients with Severe Obesity: A Discrete Choice Experiment
ConclusionThe findings provide insights into preferences that might assist the development of more appropriate treatments for severe obesity. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - January 23, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Payment Arrangements for Private Healthcare Purchasing Under Publicly Funded Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Issues and Implications
AbstractThis paper examines private healthcare purchasing under publicly financed health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to argue that the payment methods and rates applied to private and public health providers need careful attention to ensure equity, efficiency and quality in healthcare service provision. Specifically, public purchasers should develop a clear mechanism to establish justifiable payment rates for the purchase of private health services under publicly funded systems, using cost information and appropriate engagement with private health providers. In order to determine the validity of pay...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - January 22, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Health State Values of Deaf British Sign Language (BSL) Users in the UK: An Application of the BSL Version of the EQ-5D-5L
AbstractBackgroundDeaf people experience health inequalities compared to hearing populations. The EQ-5D, a widely used, standardised, generic measure of health status, which is available in over 100 languages, was recently translated into British Sign Language (BSL) and initial validation conducted. Using data from this previous study of the EQ-5D-5L BSL we aimed to assess (1) whether responses to the EQ-5D differed between a sample of Deaf BSL users and the general population (2) whether socio-demographic characteristics and clinical measures were associated with EQ-5D index scores in Deaf BSL users and (3) the impact of ...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - January 16, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Correction to: Cost Effectiveness of Cladribine Tablets for the Treatment of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in The Netherlands
The second author ’s name should be “Maria De Francesco” rather than “Maria de Fransesco”. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - January 14, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Comparison of Utilization Trends between Biosimilars and Generics: Lessons from the Nationwide Claims Data in South Korea
ConclusionBiosimilars captured the market rapidly, despite a heterogeneous uptake rate by product in South Korea. However, expansion of biosimilar use in the market and consequent expenditure savings need to be supported by pre-emptive policy measures to encourage price competition and boost utilization. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - January 13, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Do Research Groups Align on an Intervention ’s Value? Concordance of Cost-Effectiveness Findings Between the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and Other Health System Stakeholders
AbstractThe Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER) employs fixed cost-effectiveness (CE) thresholds that guide their appraisal of an intervention ’s long-term economic value. Given ICER’s rising influence in the healthcare field, we undertook an assessment of the concordance of ICER’s CE findings to the published CE findings from other research groups (i.e., “non-ICER” researchers including life science manufacturers, academics, and government institutions). Disease areas and pharmaceutical interventions for comparison were determined based on ICER evaluations conducted from 1 Janua...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - January 10, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research