Cost-Effectiveness of Scaling Up Modern Family Planning Interventions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Economic Modeling Analysis in Indonesia and Uganda
ConclusionScaling up family planning interventions could improve women ’s health outcomes substantially and be cost-effective or even cost saving across a range of scenarios compared to the current situation. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - September 4, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Budget Impact Analysis of a Renal Point-of-Care Test in Dutch Community Pharmacies to Prevent Antibiotic-Related Hospitalizations
ConclusionObtaining and evaluating renal function in community pharmacies by point of care tests is expected to be cost-saving in the Netherlands. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - September 3, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Level of Evidence in Economic Evaluations of Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices: A Systematic Review
ConclusionsDespite the recent development of left atrial appendage closure devices, most economic evaluations conducted here were well-designed studies. Furthermore, different tools used to assess the quality of these studies were complementary, but none gave a global vision of the quality of economic studies. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 31, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Projections of the Healthcare Costs and Disease Burden due to Hepatitis C Infection under Different Treatment Policies in Malaysia, 2018 –2040
AbstractIntroductionThe World Health Organisation (WHO) has set ambitious goals to reduce the global disease burden associated with, and eventually eliminate, viral hepatitis. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 25, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Ethically Acceptable Compensation for Living Donations of Organs, Tissues, and Cells: An Unexploited Potential?
We present and discuss three categories of compensation with the potential to increase donation rates in an ethically acceptable way. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 25, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Effects of the ACA on Preventive Care Disparities
ConclusionsEarly effects of the ACA ’s provision of free preventive care are significant for Hispanics and African Americans. Further research is needed for the later years as more individuals became aware of these benefits. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 24, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Potential Impact of Sweetener Input Tax on Public Health
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 24, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Generic Drug Industry Embraces a Faster, Cheaper Pathway for Challenging Patents
ConclusionIn the pharmaceutical market, the inter partes review process can meaningfully contribute to ensuring that invalid patents do not block timely availability of generic drugs. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 24, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Estimation of the Direct Cost of Poliomyelitis Rehabilitation Treatment to Pakistani Patients: A 53-Year Retrospective Study
ConclusionThe cost of poliomyelitis rehabilitation in Pakistan is high; it has an economic effect on the lives of patients and their families. Despite good education, polio survivors in Pakistan appear to have low socioeconomic status, lower chances of employment and marriage, as well as fewer children. Further research is recommended to explore the burden of disease on society, i.e., indirect costs and suffering. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 21, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

SecurAcath for Securing Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters: A NICE Medical Technology Guidance
AbstractCentral venous catheters are commonly used to deliver therapies and to monitor patients, and require securing at the point of percutaneous entry to avoid dislodgement. SecurAcath is a catheter securement device designed for central venous catheters. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, as a part of its Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme, selected this device for evaluation and invited the manufacturer, Interrad Medical, to submit clinical and economic evidence. The King ’s Technology Evaluation Centre, an External Assessment Centre commissioned by the National Institute for Health and...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 20, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Willingness-to-Pay for One Quality-Adjusted Life-Year: A Population-Based Study from Iran
ConclusionOur results provided a threshold range of WTP and insights into rigorous scientific decision making about healthcare technology for the future. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 20, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Standardized Questionnaire for the Measurement, Valuation, and Estimation of Costs of Informal Care Based on the Opportunity Cost and Proxy Good Method
AbstractCosts of informal care account for a significant component of total societal costs for many chronic and disabling illnesses. Yet, costs associated with the provision of informal care is seldom included in economic evaluations of new health technologies, increasing the risk of suboptimal decisions on the allocation of resources from the perspective of society. Our objective was to propose a standardized questionnaire for the measurement, valuation, and estimation of caregiver indirect (productivity) and informal care costs as separate mutually exclusive subsets of total costs in cost-of-illness studies and as an inp...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 13, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Friction Cost Estimates of Productivity Costs in Cost-of-Illness Studies in Comparison with Human Capital Estimates: A Review
AbstractCost-of-illness (COI) studies often include the ‘indirect’ cost of lost production resulting from disease, disability, and premature death, which is an important component of the economic burden of chronic conditions assessed from the societal perspective. In most COI studies, productivity costs are estimated primarily as the economic value o f production forgone associated with loss of paid employment (foregone gross earnings); some studies include the imputed value of lost unpaid work as well. This approach is commonly but imprecisely referred to as the human capital approach (HCA). However, there is ...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 9, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Projecting Pharmaceutical Expenditure in EU5 to 2021: Adjusting for the Impact of Discounts and Rebates
ConclusionsOur results suggest that future growth in pharmaceutical expenditure in Europe is likely to be (1) lower than previously understood from forecasts based on list prices and (2) below predicted healthcare expenditure growth in Europe and in line with long-term economic growth rates. For policy makers concerned about the sustainability of pharmaceutical expenditure, this study may provide some comfort, in that the perceived problem is not as large as expected. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 7, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Use of Expert Judgement Across NICE Guidance-Making Programmes: A Review of Current Processes and Suitability of Existing Tools to Support the Use of Expert Elicitation
ConclusionsNICE uses expert judgement across all its guidance-making programmes, but its uses vary considerably. There is no currently available tool for expert elicitation suitable for use by NICE. However, adaptation of an existing tool or ongoing research in the area could address this in the future. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - August 3, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Economic Implications of Pathogen Reduced and Bacterially Tested Platelet Components: A US Hospital Budget Impact Model
ConclusionThe model predicts minimal cost increase for PR-PC versus RT-PC, including cost offsets such as elimination of bacterial detection and irradiation, and reimbursement. Additional safety provided by PR, including risk mitigation of transfusion-transmission of a broad spectrum of viruses, parasites, and emerging pathogens, may justify this increase. Effective PC shelf life may increase with RT, but platelets can be available sooner with PR due to elimination of bacterial detection, depending on blood center logistics. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 31, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Paying for Drugs After the Medicare Part D Beneficiary Reaches the Catastrophic Limit: Lessons on Cost Sharing from Other US Policy Partnerships Between Government and Commercial Industry
In conclusion, a variety of federal cost-sharing approaches provide precedent for altering PDP cost sharing. The government tends to prefer options that have been tried elsewhere. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 30, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Costs in the Treatment of Schizophrenia in Adults Receiving Atypical Antipsychotics: An 11-Year Cohort in Brazil
ConclusionsAtypical antipsychotics were responsible for the majority of the schizophrenia treatment costs, and psychiatric hospitalization costs were the highest mean annual cost per patient. Authorities should ensure efficient use of atypical antipsychotics and encourage outpatient psychiatric care over psychiatric hospitalization where possible. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 27, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Gun Policy in the United States: Evidence-Based Strategies to Reduce Gun Violence
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 26, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Treatment of Chronic HCV with Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir in Italy
ConclusionsExtending the treatment of HCV to patients at an early stage of HCV infection is estimated to be cost effective from the perspective of the Italian Healthcare System. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 24, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Choice of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implementation (TAVI): Do Patient Co-morbidity and Hospital Ownership Type Matter?
ConclusionOverall, the effects of co-morbidity suggest that providers acted responsibly when adopting TAVI while evidence was still emerging. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 23, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Economic Burden of Abuse of Prescription Opioids: A Systematic Literature Review from 2012 to 2017
ConclusionsThis systematic literature review shows that abuse of prescription opioids is characterized by substantial direct healthcare costs, medical utilization, and related societal costs. Future research should further investigate the indirect costs of opioid abuse. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 20, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Integrating Qualitative Techniques in Model Development: A Case Study Using the Framework Approach
ConclusionThe two settings in Ghana have different care pathways and any cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the alternative pathways separately. This study demonstrated that framework analysis is a qualitative methodology that is likely to be accessible and feasible across a wide range of health economic settings. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 18, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Opportunities for Use of Blockchain Technology in Medicine
AbstractBlockchain technology is a decentralized database that stores a registry of assets and transactions across a peer-to-peer computer network, which is secured through cryptography, and over time, its history gets locked in blocks of data that are cryptographically linked together and secured. So far, there have been use cases of this technology for cryptocurrencies, digital contracts, financial and public records, and property ownership. It is expected that future uses will expand into medicine, science, education, intellectual property, and supply chain management. Likely applications in the field of medicine could ...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 18, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Impact of Patent Expiry on Drug Prices: A Systematic Literature Review
ConclusionDrug prices decrease significantly after patent expiry. The extent of this price reduction varied greatly between products and countries. For this reason, country-specific analyses on price developments after patent expiry should be used when these are considered in decision making. Future research should be dedicated to gathering more country-specific data to reduce the uncertainty with regard to price developments. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 17, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Real-World Cost-Effectiveness of Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Versus Stenting in High-Risk Patients: Propensity Score-Matched Analysis of a Single-Centre Experience
ConclusionsAt early follow-up, high-risk subgroups had lower ICERs than the overall cohort when CABG was compared with PCI. A personalised, multidisciplinary approach to treatment of patients may enhance cost containment, as well as improving clinical outcomes following revascularisation strategies. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 12, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Shaping Pharmaceutical Tenders for Effectiveness and Sustainability in Countries with Expanding Healthcare Coverage
AbstractPolicy makers in countries, aiming to build and expand their healthcare systems and coverage, need effective procedures to support the most efficient use of limited financial resources. Tendering is commonly deployed to minimize and fix the purchasing price for the contract duration, especially for off-patent pharmaceuticals. While tenders can reduce acquisition costs, they may also expose the healthcare systems to risks including drug shortages, quality trade-offs, and ultimately, compromised patient health outcomes. Careful planning is therefore required. The effectiveness and impact of tendering were examined in...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 10, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Economic Evaluations of Guideline-Based Care for Chronic Wounds: a Systematic Review
Conclusions and Implications of Key FindingsWe found that guideline-based care may be cost-saving or cost-effective in most circumstances. The quality and usefulness of reviewed studies for decision making were variable. Better information and higher-quality economic evaluations will increase decision makers ’ confidence to promote guideline-based care.Systematic Review Registration NumberPROSPERO CRD42017051859. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - July 2, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Development of Conversion Functions Mapping the FACT-B Total Score to the EQ-5D-5L Utility Value by Three Linking Methods and Comparison with the Ordinary Least Square Method
ConclusionThe problem of shrinkage in the variance occurred in the OLS method, but it provided an unbiased estimate for the mean and better agreement. Among the other three linking methods, the mean rank method better described the distribution, whereas the equipercentile and linear equating methods better assessed the association with risk factors. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 26, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Impact of Reducing Glycated Hemoglobin on Healthcare Costs Among a Population with Uncontrolled Diabetes
DiscussionIn our analysis, A1C reduction among patients with T1DM and T2DM was associated with slower growth in healthcare costs within 1 –2 years. These findings suggest that programs aimed at reducing A1C over a short timeframe may lead to substantial savings and may be worth pursuing by health plans and other payers. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 23, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Demand and Tax Simulation for Federal Food Assistance Participants: A Case of Two New England States
ConclusionA beverage price increase in the form of an excise tax would reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and increase healthier beverage purchases among low-income families. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 19, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of Obinutuzumab in Combination with Bendamustine Followed by Obinutuzumab Maintenance versus Bendamustine Alone in Treatment of Patients with Rituximab-Refractory Follicular Lymphoma in Norway
ConclusionsThe cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway is not public, but based on previous decisions it is estimated to be up to approximately €89,000 per QALY (NOK 800,000). The results of the analysis indicate that obinutuzumab in combination with bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab maintenance may be cost-effective compared to bendamustine alone in Norway. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 19, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Public ’s Willingness to Pay Towards a Medical Device for Detecting Foot Ulceration in People with Diabetes
ConclusionThis study demonstrated that people are willing to pay for this device and they tend to contribute when they have experience of diabetes or similar devices and perceive self-benefit. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 9, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Consequences of Biomarker Analysis on the Cost-Effectiveness of Cetuximab in Combination with FOLFIRI as a First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Personalised Medicine at Work
ConclusionScreening for mutations in both KRAS and NRAS may provide the most cost-effective approach to patient selection. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 9, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost Analysis of Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Cambodia with and without Xpert ® MTB/RIF for People Living with HIV/AIDS and People with Presumptive Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis
ConclusionsXpert test unit costs could be reduced through lower cartridge prices, longer usable life of GeneXpert® (Cepheid, USA) instruments, and increased test volumes; however, epidemiological and test eligibility conditions in Cambodia limit the number of specimens received at laboratories, leading to sub-optimal utilization of current instruments. Improvements to patient referral and specimen transport could increase test volumes and reduce Xpert test unit costs in this setting. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - June 4, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

EMA and NICE Appraisal Processes for Cancer Drugs: Current Status and Uncertainties
(Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 28, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intracapsular Tonsillectomy and Total Tonsillectomy for Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea
ConclusionStudy results suggest that overall monopolar-technique total tonsillectomy is more cost effective. However, with varying adjustments for disutility caused by procedural complications, intracapsular tonsillectomy could become a more cost-effective technique for treating pediatric OSA. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - May 24, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Efficiency Measurement in Health Facilities: A Systematic Review in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
ConclusionThis review highlights the potential for methodological improvement and policy impacts in efficiency measurements. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 20, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Inference Procedures to Quantify the Efficiency –Equality Trade-Off in Health from Stated Preferences: A Case Study in Portugal
ConclusionsRespondents revealed some aversion to health inequality. However, the extent of this aversion seems to be sensitive to (1) the identification of the groups by occupation status, (2) the size of the health gain, and (3) the inference procedure used. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 20, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Uptake of and Expenditure on Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents for Hepatitis C Treatment in Australia
ConclusionsUptake of DAAs has been enthusiastic in the first 18  months of this funding agreement. However, the lack of transparency due to the confidential special pricing agreements means actual government expenditure is unknown. Post-marketing review by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee may enable renegotiation of DAA prices with the sponsors. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 19, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Out of Pocket Costs and Health Insurance Take-Up Rates
ConclusionIn general, we found that the estimated elasticities are too small to explain the overall drop in take-up rates even in light of the large increases in required worker contributions and expected expenditures. Still, we highlight the growing importance of expected expenditures in explaining take-up rates. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 12, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-Consequence Analysis Alongside a Randomised Controlled Trial of Hospital Versus Telephone Follow-Up after Treatment for Endometrial Cancer
ConclusionTelephone follow-up was estimated to be cost-neutral for the NHS and may free up clinic time for other patients. There was some evidence that telephone follow-up may be more efficient for patients and wider society, and is not associated with additional psychological morbidity, lower patient satisfaction or reduced quality of life.Trial RegistrationISRCTN: 75220876, prospectively registered 28 October 2011. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 12, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of Genome and Exome Sequencing in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
ConclusionStrategic integration of ES into ASD care could be a cost-effective strategy. Long wait times for genetic services and uncertain utility, both clinical and personal, of sequencing results could limit broader clinical implementation. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 12, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Spillover Effects of Long-Term Disabilities on Close Family Members
ConclusionsRecognizing the presence of health spillovers can help to design policies to better support families. Being the perceived health status a good indicator of the use of health services and mortality, the health system should focus on the entire family, and not only on the patient or the main caregiver. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 12, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) Compared to the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) for Universal Mass Vaccination Implementation in New Zealand
AbstractObjectivesInvasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) still represent a significant medical burden in children  
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 9, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Case for a Private Healthcare Insurance Monopoly
This article advocates for a regulated private monopoly as an audacious solution to replace Obamacare, help manage Medicare and Medicaid and reform the US healthcare insurance industry. Contemporary economics vilifies monopolies and praises the ‘magic wand’ of perfect competition without much debate on the merits of these assumptions. The problems with the perfect competition model as applied to healthcare insurance are well established, but exploration of other possible economic models (i.e. monopoly and oligopoly) as a replacement fo r Obamacare is non-existent. New thinking about the role of monopolies may h...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 6, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Memokath-051 Stent for the Treatment of Ureteric Obstruction: A NICE Medical Technology Guidance
AbstractMemokath-051 is a thermo-expandable, nickel-titanium alloy spiral stent used to treat ureteric obstruction resulting from malignant or benign strictures. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) selected Memokath-051 for evaluation. The company, PNN Medical, claimed Memokath-051 has clinical superiority and cost savings compared with double-J stents. It identified five studies reporting clinical evidence on Memokath-051 and constructed a de novo cost model comparing Memokath-051 to double-J stents. Results indicated that Memokath-051 generated cost savings of £4156 per patient over 2.5&nbs...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 3, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Economic Studies on Non-Communicable Diseases and Injuries in India: A Systematic Review
ConclusionsThe results indicate the lack of engagement of economists generally and health economists in particular in research on NCDI in India. Demand from health policy makers for evidence-based decision making appears to be lacking, which in turn solidifies the divergence between economics and health policy, and highlights  the need to prioritize scarce resources based on evidence regarding what works. Capacity building in health economics needs focus, and the government’s support in this is recommended. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - April 2, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Understanding Treatment Effect Estimates When Treatment Effects Are Heterogeneous for More Than One Outcome
ConclusionsIf estimator assumptions are valid, estimates across outcomes can be used to assess the optimality of treatment rates in a study population. However, because true treatment effect parameters are sensitive to correlations of treatment effects across outcomes, decision makers should be cautious about generalizing estimates to other populations. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 27, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Individual and Institutional Corruption in European and US Healthcare: Overview and Link of Various Corruption Typologies
AbstractIn recent years, the fight against healthcare corruption has intensified. Estimates from the European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network calculate an approximate €56 billion annual loss to Europe as a result of corruption. To promote understanding of the complexity and interconnection of corrupt activities, we aim to present healthcare-related corruption typologies of the European Union and European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network. We subsequently link them to the typology of individual and institutional corruption introduced by Dennis Thompson in the context of investigating misconduct of US Cong...
Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy - March 23, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research