Dimorphic Mechanism on cAMP Mediated Signal Pathway in Mucor circinelloides.
Abstract Mucor circinelloides is a dimorphic fungus that is a non-pathogen strain belonging to zygomycetes. In this research, a part of hypothetical mechanism on yeast-like cell induction of M. circinelloides in CO2 atmosphere was reported from the viewpoint of gene expression. To explain the relation between the change and the expressions of some genes involved in morphological changes of the strain, these were analyzed on the filamentous and yeast cell by real-time qPCR. The compared genes were Nce103, Ras3, Cyr1, Pde, and Efg1 encoding carbonic anhydrase, GTPase, adenylate cyclase, phosphodiesterase, and elonga...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 18, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Moriwaki-Takano M, Iwakura R, Hoshino K Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Cloning, Characterization, and Structural Modeling of an Extremophilic Bacterial Lipase Isolated from Saline Habitats of the Thar Desert.
In this study, we have used an integrated experimental and computational approach to identify the extremophilic microbial lipases from the saline habitats of the Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Lipase-producing bacteria were screened and a few samples showed significant lipase activity in both quantitative and qualitative experiments. 16S rRNA sequence analysis of the isolate F1 showed that its sequence is quite similar to that of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus haynesii, indicating that this isolate belongs to a new subspecies of Bacillus. The isolate F7 showed maximum sequence identity with Bacillus tequilensis strain 10b....
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 18, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Verma S, Kumar R, Kumar P, Sharma D, Gahlot H, Sharma PK, Meghwanshi GK Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Effect of Decellularization Parameters on the Efficient Production of Kidney Bioscaffolds.
This study evaluated the effects of decellularization parameters specifically SDS concentration (0.25%, 0.625%, and 1.0%wt/vol), flowrate (15, 30, and 45 mL/min), and sonicator power (0, 60, and 120 W) on the length of time needed to produce acellular and intact bioscaffolds. Decellularization was carried out by perfusing SDS to the renal artery of the cadaveric porcine kidney while exposed to sonication treatment. Results showed that a significant decrease in decellularization time was observed in producing acellular scaffold when perfusion decellularization was coupled with sonication. In addition, SDS concentr...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 16, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Manalastas TM, Dugos N, Ramos G, Mondragon JM Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metagenomic Insights in Activated Biomass Treating Industrial Wastewater at Different DO Levels.
Abstract Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an imperative parameter of the activated sludge process (ASP) for wastewater bioremediation. The effect of DO on microbial communities and corresponding metabolic functions in wastewater bioremediation was investigated using next-generation analysis techniques in this study. Illumina-based whole genome sequencing was applied to analyze the composition of the microbial community along with their functional diversity in activated sludge systems operating at three different DO levels. Activated biomass was collected from lab-scale reactors maintained at 1, 2, and 4 mg/L DO level...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 16, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yadav TC, Jadeja NB, Kapley A Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Rational Engineering of Formate Dehydrogenase Substrate/Cofactor Affinity for Better Performance in NADPH Regeneration.
Abstract Formate dehydrogenases are critical tools for nicotinamide cofactor regeneration, but their limited catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is a major drawback. A formate dehydrogenase from Burkholderia stabilis 15516 (BstFDH) was the first native NADP+-dependent formate dehydrogenase reported and has the highest kcat/Km toward NADP+ (kcat/KmNADP+) compared with other FDHs that can utilize NADP+ as a hydrogen acceptor. However, the substrate and cofactor affinities of BstFDH are inferior to those of other FDHs, making its practical application difficult. Herein, we engineered recombinant BstFDH to enhance its HCOO...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 13, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jiang HW, Chen Q, Pan J, Zheng GW, Xu JH Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biogas from Tannery Solid Waste Anaerobic Digestion Is Driven by the Association of the Bacterial Order Bacteroidales and Archaeal Family Methanosaetaceae.
Abstract The search for renewable energies has been one of the biggest challenges of the last decades. Sludge and solid wastes of many sources have been used to produce biogas of high calorific value. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the biogas production of solid waste originating from a tannery that uses chromium salts as a tanning agent and to characterize the physicochemical parameters and microbial composition of the biogas-producing biomass. Wastes were collected and the parameters were evaluated at the initial and final time points of the anaerobic incubation process. At the end of 150 days, there was...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 12, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Agustini CB, da Costa M, Gutterres M Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

High Productivity Ethanol from Solid-State Fermentation of Steam-Exploded Corn Stover Using Zymomonas mobilis by N2 Periodic Pulsation Process Intensification.
In this study, we applied N2 periodic pulsation process intensification (NPPPI) to ethanol solid-state fermentation, which displaced air with N2 and provided a proper anaerobic environment for Z. mobilis. Based on the water state distribution, the promotion effects of NPPPI on low solid loading and solid-state fermentation were analyzed to confirm the different degrees of oxygen inhibition in ethanol solid-state fermentation. During the simultaneous saccharification solid-state fermentation, the NPPPI group achieved 45.29% ethanol yield improvement and 30.38% concentration improvement compared with the control group. NPPPI...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 12, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sun L, Wang L, Chen H Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Concentration of Docosahexaenoic and Eicosapentaenoic Acid from Cobia Liver Oil by Acetone Fractionation of Fatty Acid Salts.
Abstract The production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrate from cobia liver oil by acetone fractionation of fatty acid salts was investigated in this study. A three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of reaction time, amount of NaOH added, and acetone ratio on the responses (DHA and EPA content and recovery). The results showed that the amount of NaOH added was the most important factor in the process. The DHA content showed an inverse relation with EPA content and recovery, whereas its content increased proportionally with the amount of Na...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 12, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kuo CH, Huang CY, Chen JW, Wang HD, Shieh CJ Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Differential Activation of Ferulic Acid Catabolic Pathways of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 in Submerged and Surface Cultures.
Soto EM, Asaff-Torres A Abstract Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 catabolizes ferulic acid by the non-oxidative deacetylation and β-oxidation pathways to produce vanillin and vanillic acid, respectively. In submerged culture, vanillin productivity decreased more than 8-fold, when ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids were employed in pre-cultures of the microorganism in order to activate the ferulic acid catabolic pathways, resulting in a carbon redistribution since vanillic acid and guaiacol productivities increased more than 5-fold compared with control. In contrast, in surface culture, the effects of ferulic ...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 12, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Contreras-Jácquez V, Rodríguez-González J, Mateos-Díaz JC, Valenzuela-Soto EM, Asaff-Torres A Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

In Vitro N-Terminal Acetylation of Bacterially Expressed Parvalbumins by N-Terminal Acetyltransferases from Escherichia coli.
Abstract Most eukaryotic proteins are N-terminally acetylated (Nt-acetylated) by specific N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Although this co-/post-translational protein modification may affect different aspects of protein functioning, it is typically neglected in studies of bacterially expressed eukaryotic proteins, lacking this modification. To overcome this limitation of bacterial expression, we have probed the efficiency of recombinant Escherichia coli NATs (RimI, RimJ, and RimL) with regard to in vitro Nt-acetylation of several parvalbumins (PAs) expressed in E. coli. PA is a calcium-binding protein of ver...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lapteva YS, Vologzhannikova AA, Sokolov AS, Ismailov RG, Uversky VN, Permyakov SE Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Lignocellulose-Based Waste Furniture Boards for Enzymatic Hydrolysis.
Abstract Three typical waste furniture boards, including fiberboard, chipboard, and blockboard, were pretreated with conventional hydrothermal method. The responses of chemical composition, physicochemical morphology, and performances of enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. Results indicated the almost complete hemicellulose removal at higher pretreatment temperatures, the enhanced crystallinity index, and disordered morphology of the pretreated substrates indicated that the hydrothermal pretreatment deconstructed these boards well. However, the very low enzymatic hydrolysis (
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhao J, Tian D, Hu J, Shen F, Zeng Y, Yang G, Huang C, Long L, Deng S Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Bioconversion of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid (FDCA) by a Native Obligate Aerobic Bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NL14.
This report could provide a potential native bacterium for furan chemicals bioconversion and bioelimination, especially for FDCA bioproduction. PMID: 32394319 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sheng Y, Tan X, Zhou X, Xu Y Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

An Innovator Support Material for Tyrosinase Immobilization: Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films (ATO-TF).
;yiğit A Abstract Tyrosinase (T3824, Sigma) enzymes were immobilized onto SnO2: Sb thin films (ATO-TF) which were synthesized in laboratory conditions by spray pyrolysis technique. Immobilization of tyrosinase onto SnO2: Sb thin film (ATO-TF) was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The optimum pH of the immobilized tyrosinase (tyrosinase-ATO-TF) was 6.0, and the optimum temperature was found to be 30 °C. In the presence of catechol substrate of immobilized enzymes, Km and Vmax values were determined as 0.34 mM and 312.5 U/cm2&nbs...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Türkhan A, Kaya ED, Koçyiğit A Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Anoxic Microbial Community Robustness Under Variation of Hydraulic Retention Time and Availability of Endogenous Electron Donors.
Abstract The ADNMED (Anaerobic Digestion, Nitrification, and Mixotrophic Endogenous Denitrification) system comprises a triple chamber configuration that was shown to provide high-quality effluent regarding carbon, nitrogen, and sulfide. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 7 h in the anaerobic and anoxic chambers, and 5 h in the aerobic chamber (stage A). Sewage was directly added to the anoxic chamber to provide extra organic electron donors for denitrification (stage B) to improve the nitrogen removal efficiency (stage A 47 ± 19%). The addition of sewage at a flow rate equivalent to...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 11, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Okada DY, Costa RB, Garcia CCB, Pozzi E, Souza TSO, Foresti E Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Expression of Highly Active Bacterial Phospholipase A2 in Yeast Using Intein-Mediated Delayed Protein Autoactivation.
We report here the development of an effective method for production of highly active PLA2 from Streptomyces violaceoruber strain A-2688 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method is based on the use of the PRP8 mini-intein (from Penicillium chrysogenum) inserted into the phospholipase sequence with the purpose of temporal inactivation of the enzyme and its subsequent delayed autoactivation. We demonstrate that the most effective site for intein insertion is Ser76 of the mature phospholipase. As a result of intein-containing precursor secretion from yeast cells and its subsequent autocatalytic splicing, highly activ...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 9, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cheperegin SE, Malysheva AV, Sannikova EP, Gubaidullin II, Efremov BD, Kozlov DG Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Enzymatic Synthesis of β-Sitosterol Laurate by Candida rugosa Lipase AY30 in the Water/AOT/Isooctane Reverse Micelle.
Enzymatic Synthesis of β-Sitosterol Laurate by Candida rugosa Lipase AY30 in the Water/AOT/Isooctane Reverse Micelle. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2020 May 09;: Authors: Chen S, Li J, Fu Z, Wei G, Li H, Zhang B, Zheng L, Deng Z Abstract Phytosterols are regarded as compounds able to reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood, and their esterified derivatives could help to improve the effectiveness of this function. In the present study, the water/sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reverse micelle (RM) system was set up as a reaction medium for Candida rug...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 9, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chen S, Li J, Fu Z, Wei G, Li H, Zhang B, Zheng L, Deng Z Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microalgae Cultivation Using Screened Liquid Dairy Manure Applying Different Folds of Dilution: Nutrient Reduction Analysis with Emphasis on Phosphorus Removal.
In this study, screened liquid dairy manure was used as the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris culture media. The aim was to optimize the dilution folds for the best growth of Chlorella vulgaris and nutrients' reduction with a special focus on phosphorus removal and recovery. Four folds of dilution, designated as 5*, 10*, 15*, 20*, were applied to the liquid dairy manure to alleviate hindrance of the high turbidity together with the high ammonium. Microalgal cultivation removed a significant amount of turbidity and major nutrients. For differently diluted liquid dairy manures, although the initial turbidities varied a lot, the ...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 8, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang L, Chen L, Wu SX Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

N-Terminal Fused Signal Peptide Prompted Extracellular Production of a Bacillus-Derived Alkaline and Thermo Stable Xylanase in E. coli Through Cell Autolysis.
Abstract Xylanases are extensively used as industrial enzymes for its ability of hydrolyzing xylan to oligosaccharides. Here, XynHB, a thermo and alkaline stable xylanase derived from Bacillus pumilus HBP8, was extracellularly produced in E. coli cells through N-terminal-fused signal peptides. We found that the matured XynHB itself could be auto-secreted out of E. coli BL21(DE3) cells at a very low level, and two Sec-pathway signal peptides, PelB and OmpA, and one dual Sec-Tat-pathway signal peptide, FhuD, could effectively prompt its extracellular production up to 12-fold. Our results showed that PelB signal pept...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang F, He H, Deng T, Ge H, Yu C, Feng L, Huang F, Yi L Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Micro-oxygen Process Improved Synthesis of PHAs with Undomesticated Excess Sludge.
Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a potential substitute for traditional plastics. Synthesis of PHAs using excess sludge without additional domestication as a mixed microbial culture can reduce production costs. PHAs were synthesized using excess sludge (R1) from a continuous flow system performing simultaneous nitrification/denitrification and phosphorus removal. Excess sludge (R2) from a A2O wastewater treatment plant was used as a mixed microflora culture (MMC) and the waste fermentation liquid was used as a carbon source. Results showed that with volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations of 430-520 ...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Fang Q, Huang Z, Liu Y, Ji S, Xie Y, Huang Z, Huang D, Zeng Y Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Stabilization of Glycosylated β-Glucosidase by Intramolecular Crosslinking Between Oxidized Glycosidic Chains and Lysine Residues.
In this study, we investigated if the intramolecular crosslinking occurs in the oxidized β-glucosidase and its effect on the stability of the enzyme. For this, the oxidation of glycosidic chains of β-glucosidase was carried out, allowing to demonstrate the formation of aldehyde groups and subsequent interaction with the amine groups and to verify the stability of the different forms of free enzyme (glycosylated and oxidized). Furthermore, we verified the influence of the glycosidic chains on the immobilization of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger and on the consequent stabilization. The results suggest th...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pinotti LM, Tardioli PW, Farinas CS, Fernández-Lorente G, Orrego AH, Guisan JM, Pessela BC Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Utilizing Gelatinized Starchy Waste from Rice Noodle Factory as Substrate for L(+)-Lactic Acid Production by Amylolytic Lactic Acid Bacterium Enterococcus faecium K-1.
Abstract To valorize starchy waste from rice noodle factory, bioconversion of gelatinized starchy waste (GSW) to value-added product as L(+)-lactic acid, the monomer for polylactate synthesis, was investigated using amylolytic lactic acid bacterium, Enterococcus faecium K-1. Screening for appropriate nitrogen source to replace expensive organic nitrogen sources revealed that corn steep liquor (CSL) was the most suitable regarding high efficacy for L(+)-LA achievement and low-cost property. The successful applying statistic experimental design, Plackett-Burman design incorporated with central composite design (CCD)...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 7, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Unban K, Khanongnuch R, Kanpiengjai A, Shetty K, Khanongnuch C Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Stronger Stimulation of Waste Activated Sludge Anaerobic Fermentation by a Particular Amount of Micron-Sized Zero Valent Iron.
This study will provide new insights into the mZVI application and its effect on WAS utilization. PMID: 32378079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 6, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Guo R, Liu X, Hu Y, Li J, Chen J, Pang L, Yang P Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

A Novel Cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) from Penicillium digitatum: Production, Purification, and Characterization.
Abstract A new cellulase producer strain of Penicillium digitatum (RV 06) was previously obtained from rotten maize grains. This work aim was to optimize the production and characterize this microorganism produced cellulase. A CMCase maximum production (1.6 U/mL) was obtained in stationary liquid culture, with an initial pH of 5.0, at 25 °C, with 1% lactose as carbon source, and cultured for 5 days. The produced enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and exclusion chromatography. The purified enzyme optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and 5.2, respectively. The experime...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 6, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dos Santos FC, de Oliveira MAS, Seixas FAV, Barbosa-Tessmann IP Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Genome-Scale Characterization of Fungal Phytases and a Comparative Study Between Beta-Propeller Phytases and Histidine Acid Phosphatases.
es VM Abstract This work intended to prospect new phytase-producing organisms. In silico genomic analyses allowed the selection of twelve potential phytase-producing fungi. Based on gene sequence, it was possible to identify four well-defined groups of phytate-degrading enzymes: esterase-like, β-propeller phytases (βPP), phosphoglycerate mutase-like, and phytases of the histidine acid phosphatases (HAP) family. Analysis of the predicted genes encoding phytases belonging to the HAP family and βPP phytases and in silico characterization of these enzymes indicated divergence among the catalytic activit...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 6, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ferreira RC, Tavares MP, Morgan T, da Silva Clevelares Y, Rodrigues MQRB, Kasuya MCM, de Oliveira Mendes TA, Guimarães VM Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Automated Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Microbial Lipids from Oleaginous Yeasts.
This study describes the automated pressurized liquid extraction (APLE) method for lipid extraction from dried cells of the oleaginous yeast species Rhodosporidium toruloides and Cryptococcus curvatus. Cells were mixed with diatomite in a mortar, added to the sample chamber, and treated with a mixture of chloroform and methanol at 105 °C. More than 95% lipids were extracted. Analysis by using high-performance thin-layer chromatography showed that the neutral lipid contents in the obtained samples by APLE method were similar to those by the ball milling-assisted extraction method. The lipids had an essentially iden...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 6, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Li Q, Kamal R, Chu Y, Wang Q, Yu X, Huang Q Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Pretreatment and Detoxification of Acid-Treated Wood Hydrolysates for Pyruvate Production by an Engineered Consortium of Escherichia coli.
In this study, woody biomass was used to generate glucose and xylose after pretreatment with 20% (w/v) sulfuric acid and 60-min reaction time. We compared several strategies for detoxification with charcoal and sodium borohydride treatments to improve the fermentability of this hydrolysate in a defined medium for the production of the growth-associated product pyruvate. In shake flask culture, the highest pyruvate yield on xylose of 0.8 g/g was found using pH 6 charcoal-treated hydrolysate. In bioreactor studies, a consortium of two engineered E. coli strains converted the mixture of glucose and xylose in batch s...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 5, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rajpurohit H, Eiteman MA Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

In Silico and In Vitro Analyses of Glucosamine and Indole Acetaldehyde Inhibit Pathogenic Regulator Gene phcA of Ralstonia solanacearum, a Causative Agent of Bacterial Wilt of Tomato.
In this study, medicinal plant (Solanum surattense)-associated bacteria were isolated and their extracellular secondary metabolites were extracted. Dual-plate application of crude secondary metabolites proved that SSL2I and SSL5 had a good inhibitory activity against Ralstonia solanacearum. These biocontrol bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus velezensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The crude extracts of secondary metabolites were identified based on high-resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HR-LCMS) analysis. On the basis of HR-LCMS analysis, we selected the compounds such as ...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 4, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jinal HN, Amaresan N Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Screening High CO2-Tolerant Oleaginous Microalgae from Genera Desmodesmus and Scenedesmus.
In this study, 16 strains from Scenedesmus sensu lato were obtained from different climate zones of China and their phylogenetic positions were determined. Seven strains out of the 16 showed high CO2 tolerance and grew much faster under 20% CO2 than air condition. Two representatives from genera Desmodesmus (NMD46) and Scenedesmus (HBX310) respectively were selected due to their higher lipid productivity, and the maximum value of 146 mg L-1 day-1 was achieved in NMD46. Triacylglycerols increased with the rising of CO2 levels from 0.04 to 15% in NMD46, while they changed little in HBX310. High CO2 level decre...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - May 1, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yang J, Zhang C, Hu H Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Enhanced Bioethanol Fermentation by Sonication Using Three Yeasts Species and Kariba Weed (Salvinia molesta) as Biomass Collected from Lake Victoria, Uganda.
Abstract Kariba weed (Salvinia molesta) was used as biomass feedstock for ethanol production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Monosaccharides from Kariba weed hydrolysate were produced using thermal acid hydrolysis, sonication, and enzymatic saccharification. The optimal conditions for thermal acid hydrolysis of 12% (w/v) Kariba weed slurry were evaluated as 200 mM HNO3 at 121 °C for 60 min yielding 10.2 g/L monosaccharides. Sonication for 45 min before enzymatic saccharification yielded more monosaccharides to 18.7 g/L. Enzymatic saccharification with 16 U/mL C...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - April 27, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kityo MK, Sunwoo I, Kim SH, Park YR, Jeong GT, Kim SK Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biodegradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye in Microbial Fuel Cell: An Innovative Way to Minimize Waste Along with Electricity Production.
This study opened the possibility of bioremediation of dyes at high concentrations in MFCs. PMID: 32338331 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - April 27, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Shahi A, Rai BN, Singh RS Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Surfactant as an Additive for the Recovery of Potent Antioxidants from Garcinia mangostana Pericarps Using a Polymer/Salt Aqueous Biphasic System.
In this study, the extraction of antioxidants from Garcinia mangostana pericarp was investigated using a polyethylene glycol (PEG)/citrate aqueous biphasic system (ABS) with the addition of surfactants. The optimum condition for the recovery of antioxidants was achieved in PEG 1000/citrate ABS of pH 8 with tie-line length (TLL) of 48.3% (w/w), volume ratio (VR) of 1.6, 0.2% (w/w) sample loading and addition of 1.0% (w/w) Tween 85. The antioxidants were recovered in the PEG-rich top phase with a high K value of 18.23 ± 0.33 and a recovery yield of 92.01% ± 0.09. The findings su...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - April 25, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ng HS, Kee PE, Tan GY, Yim HS, Lan JC Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Synthesizing Chiral Drug Intermediates by Biocatalysis.
Abstract The chiral feature is a critical factor for the efficacy and safety of many therapeutic agents. At present, about 57% of marketed drugs are chiral drugs and about 99% of purified natural products are chiral compounds. There has been a tremendous potential of functional microorganisms and biocatalysts derived from them for the bioconversion of synthetic chemicals into drugs with high enantio-, chemo-, and regio-selectivities. Biocatalysis is becoming a key subassembly in the medicinal chemist's toolbox. In fact, the intermediates of many important therapeutic agents such as sitagliptin, pregabalin, ragagli...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - April 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jiang W, Fang B Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Metal-Organic Frameworks Conjugated Lipase with Enhanced Bio-catalytic Activity and Stability.
In this study, monomer of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) material ZIF-8 (2-methyl imidazole-4-carboxylic acid) was innovatively used as a chemical modifier of Candida nrugosa lipase (CRL). The circular dichroism spectra results show that the CRL molecule was altered by chemical modification and thus its catalytic activity was 1.3 times higher than that of the free CRL. The modified CRL molecule was further immobilized in the "skeleton" of ZIF-8 through the monomer while in situ forming the cell skeleton of the MOFs, which prevent the active center from being destroyed. The results show that conjugation of ch...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - April 22, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zou B, Zhang L, Xia J, Wang P, Yan Y, Wang X, Adesanya IO Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of a Novel myovirus Infecting Shigella dysenteriae from the Aeration Tank Water.
Abstract The genome sequence, morphology, and genetic features of a novel phage, named SSE1, is reported here. Phage SSE1 that infects Shigella dysenteriae (China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center number: 1.1869) was isolated from the aeration tank water of a sewage treatment plant. SSE1 showed morphological features associated with those of phages in Myoviridae. The whole genome sequence of phage SSE1 is composed of 169,744 bp with the GC content of 37.51%. The double-stranded DNA of SSE1 contains 270 open reading frameworks (ORFs). Phylogenetically, phage SSE1 showed a stronger homology (who...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - April 8, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lu H, Liu H, Lu M, Wang J, Liu X, Liu R Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Delignification of Pinecone and Extraction of Formic Acid in the Hydrolysate Produced by Alkaline Fractionation.
The objectives of our research are to investigate the concept of delignification from pinecone through alkaline fractionation and then extraction of formic acid from the hydrolysate through esterification using ethanol. The pinecone is considered a promising material because of its relatively higher lignin content (35.80%) than other lignocellulosic biomass. The recovery yield of acid insoluble lignin (AIL) reached its maximum value of 79.20% at 8% NaOH, and the concentration of formic acid in the hydrolysate had its highest value under the same conditions. Moreover, the glucan content in fractionated solid remained high. ...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - April 8, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cha JS, Um BH Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Comprehensive Optimization of Culture Conditions for Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes of Trichoderma SG2 in Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation.
This study presents comprehensive optimization of production of biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes (BHE) by a high β-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma SG2 for bioconversion of lignocellulose biomass. Overall, a mixture of paper powder and switchgrass was most suited for production of BHE in submerged fermentation (SmF). BHE production was significantly different for various organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. The combination of peptone, yeast extract, and ammonium sulfate resulted in the highest activities (Units/mL) of BHE: 9.85 ± 0.55 cellulase, 38.91 ± 0.31 xylanase, 21.19&thi...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - April 4, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nanjundaswamy A, Okeke BC Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Development of a Reversible Indicator Displacement Assay Based on the 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphthol for Colorimetric Determination of Cysteine in Biological Samples and Its Application to Constructing the Paper Test Strips and a Molecular-Scale Set/Reset Memorized Device.
Abstract A new colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye detection and determination of cysteine (Cys) based on indicator displacement assay (IDA) was designed using 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). The indicator exchange occurred between PAN and Cys by the addition of Cys to the Cu(PAN)2 complex, which is accomplished by an immediate visible color change from magenta to yellow, in the solution phase and paper-based test strips. The proposed method exhibits 0.35 μmol L-1 detection limit and good linearity in the range of 2.25-42.91 μmol L-1. Paper test strips presented a detection limit of 38.0 μmol L-1, f...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - April 2, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Deilamy-Rad G, Asghari K, Tavallali H Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Purification and Biochemical Characterization of a Tyrosine Phenol-lyase from Morganella morganii.
Abstract Tyrosine phenol-lyase (TPL) is a valuable and cost-effective biocatalyst for the biosynthesis of L-tyrosine and its derivatives, which are valuable intermediates in the pharmaceutical industry. A TPL from Morganella morganii (Mm-TPL) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. Mm-TPL was determined as a homotetramer with molecular weight of 52 kDa per subunit. Its optimal temperature and pH for β-elimination of L-tyrosine were 45 °C and pH 8.5, respectively. Mm-TPL manifested strict substrate specificity for the reverse reaction of β-elimination and ortho- and met...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 31, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhu HQ, Tang XL, Zheng RC, Zheng YG Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Lipid Induction in Scenedesmus abundans GH-D11 by Reusing the Volatile Fatty Acids in the Effluent of Dark Anaerobic Fermentation of Biohydrogen.
This study aims to investigate the efficacy of lipid induction in Scenedesmus abundans by adding the effluent from dark fermentation of biohydrogen production. Four sets of experiments were conducted: control (sufficient nitrogen), nitrogen depletion, low concentration (0.3×) effluent addition, and high concentration (0.5×) effluent addition. The addition of low concentration effluent produced the highest biomass and lipid yields of 2.831 g/L and 1.238 g/L, corresponding to a lipid abundance of 43.72 wt%. Furthermore, S. abundans had high removal efficiencies for volatile fatty acids in the efflu...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 28, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lin YS, Yuwono W, Wang HY Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Simultaneously Improved Thermostability and Hydrolytic Pattern of Alpha-Amylase by Engineering Central Beta Strands of TIM Barrel.
This study reported simultaneously improved thermostability and hydrolytic pattern of α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis CN7 by rationally engineering the mostly conserved central beta strands in TIM barrel fold. Nine single point mutations and a double mutation were introduced at the 2nd site of the β7 strand and 3rd site of the β5 strand to rationalize the weak interactions in the beta strands of the TIM barrel of α-amylase. All the five active mutants changed the compositions and percentages of maltooligosaccharides in final hydrolytic products compared to the product spectrum of the wild-type. A mut...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 27, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang CH, Lu LH, Huang C, He BF, Huang RB Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Screening of Fungi Isolates for C-4 Hydroxylation of R-2-Phenoxypropionic Acid Based on a Novel 96-Well Microplate Assay Method.
Abstract R-2-(4-Hydroxyphenoxy)propionic acid (R-HPPA) is a pivotal intermediate for the synthesis of aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) herbicide. To rapidly screen microbial isolates with the capacity of hydroxylating R-2-phenoxypropionic acid to R-HPPA from various environmental samples, a convenient and safe 96-well microplate assay method with sodium nitrite (NaNO2) as chromogenic reagent was proposed and optimized. The optimum assay conditions were as follows: the detection wavelength was 420 nm, the concentration of NaNO2 solution was 6.0 g/L, color reaction temperature was 60 °C, the pH of t...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 25, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhou HY, Jiang R, Li YZ, Xu W, Wang YS, Xue YP, Zheng YG Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Characterization of Denitrifying Community for Application in Reducing Nitrogen: a Comparison of nirK and nirS Gene Diversity and Abundance.
Abstract Studies have shown that the addition of biochar to agricultural soils has the potential to mitigate climate change by decreasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions resulting from denitrification. Rice paddy field soils have been known to have strong denitrifying activity, but the response of microbes to biochar for weakening denitrification in rice paddy field soils is not well known. In this work, compared with the chemical fertilizer alone, the chemical fertilizer + 20 t hm-2 biochar fertilizer slightly decreased denitrifying the nitrite reductase activity (S-NiR) and N2O emission without st...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 25, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang Y, Qi L, Huang R, Wang F, Wang Z, Gao M Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Urinary Metabolomics and Biochemical Analysis of Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ficus deltoidea Jack Varieties in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Abstract Patients are turning into herbs for the management of diabetes, which cause increasing in the demand of plant-based alternative medicines. Ficus deltoidea or locally known as "Mas Cotek" in Malaysia is a famous herbal plant. However, many varieties of F. deltoidea existed with varied antidiabetic activities inspire us to evaluate in vivo antidiabetic activity of the most available varieties of F. deltoidea. Therefore, antihyperglycemic effect of different varieties of F. deltoidea at dose 250 mg/kg was evaluated on streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats and further assessed their...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 25, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Mohammad Noor HS, Ismail NH, Kasim N, Mediani A, Mohd Zohdi R, Ali AM, Mat N, Al-Mekhlafi NA Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Tyrosinase Inhibition by 4-Substituted Benzaldehydes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups.
Abstract The oxidation of 4-t-butylcatechol catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase was inhibited by 4-bromobenzaldehyde, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde, 4-cyanobenzaldehyde, and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 114 μM, 175 μM, 387 μM, 822 μM, and 1846 μM, respectively. The inhibition kinetics were analyzed by Dixon plots, which indicated that a series of 4-hallogenated benzaldehydes acted as partial noncompetitive inhibitors in the same manner as benzaldehyde. Although β values were decreased with an increase of the tyrosinase inhibitory a...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 24, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nihei KI, Kubo I Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Preparation of Biocompatible Liquid Marbles Stabilized by Food-Grade Stearate Microparticle for Aerobic Bacteria Cultivation.
In this study, safer and more biocompatible LMs were successfully prepared using a food-grade calcium stearate microparticle as a stabilizer. As the volume of core liquid increased, the height of LM increased and reached a constant value, as a similar trend has been reported in conventional LMs. The drying rate curve of the LMs confirmed that the LMs have a similar pattern with the drying of typical wet powders. The drying rate depended on the salt species in the core solution and the environmental humidity. For instance, in the case of MgCl2, by changing humidity from 40 to 80% RH, the lifetime of LMs (time in which the L...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 23, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tanaka S, Okano H, Matsuda N, Sawai J, Naoe K, Imai M Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Composition of Synthesized Cellulolytic Enzymes Varied with the Usage of Agricultural Substrates and Microorganisms.
This study revealed the dependency on substrate and microorganism to produce good quality enzyme cocktail to obtain maximum reducing sugars. PMID: 32206967 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 23, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kshirsagar S, Waghmare P, Saratale G, Saratale R, Kurade M, Jeon BH, Govindwar S Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Global Transcriptome Profiling of Enterobacter Strain NRS-1 in Response to Hydrogen Peroxide Stress Treatment.
In this study, transcriptomic profiling of glyphosate-tolerant Enterobacter strain NRS-1 was analyzed under 9 mM H2O2 stress using RNA-seq and qRT-PCR. The lag period in the growth of NRS-1 was very short compared with wild-type strain under H2O2 treatment. A total of 113 genes are identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under H2O2 that include 38 upregulated and 75 downregulated transcripts. But not any genes regulated by major oxidative regulons, viz., oxyR, soxR, rpoS, perR, ohrR, and σв, have been reported in DEGs, hence potentially reflecting that specific changes have occurred in NRS-1 for ada...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Fei YY, Bhat JA, Gai JY, Zhao TJ Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Exogenous Abscisic Acid Supplementation at Early Stationary Growth Phase Triggers Changes in the Regulation of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of exogenous ABA on growth, total oil content, fatty acid composition, and the expression level of beta ketoacyl-ACP synthase I (KAS I) and omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD) genes in Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1. ABA was applied to early stationary C. vulgaris cultures at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, and 80 μM for 48 h. The results showed that ABA significantly increased biomass production and total oil content. The increment of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids was coupled by decrement in linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3n3...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Norlina R, Norashikin MN, Loh SH, Aziz A, Cha TS Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Refolding with Simultaneous Purification of Recombinant Serratia marcescens Lipase by One-Step Ultrasonication Process.
Abstract A new lipase from Serratia marcescens SRICI-01 (Trx-SmL) was successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli with thioredoxin (Trx) fusion tag. Intriguingly, the concentration of potassium phosphate buffer (KPB) showed significant impact on the aggregation state of Trx-SmL during ultrasonic disruption. The proportion of inclusion bodies increased dramatically with the increase of KPB concentration from almost completely soluble in 10 mM KPB to insoluble in 200 mM KPB. Based on this new finding, a novel method for refolding and purification of recombinant Trx-SmL was developed by one-step ultrason...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yin YC, Li HQ, Wu XS Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

Polyvinyl Alcohol/Hydroxyethylcellulose Containing Ethosomes as a Scaffold for Transdermal Drug Delivery Applications.
In conclusion, the prepared PVA/HEC/FITC@Eth scaffold can serve as a promising transdermal scaffold for sustained FITC release. PMID: 32198603 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology)
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - March 21, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: El Fawal G, Hong H, Song X, Wu J, Sun M, Zhang L, He C, Mo X, Wang H Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research