Autonomous Vehicles and Public Health.
Abstract Autonomous vehicles (AVs) have the potential to shape urban life and significantly modify travel behaviors. "Autonomous technology" means technology that can drive a vehicle without active physical control or monitoring by a human operator. The first AV fleets are already in service in US cities. AVs offer a variety of automation, vehicle ownership, and vehicle use options. AVs could increase some health risks (such as air pollution, noise, and sedentarism); however, if proper regulated, AVs will likely reduce morbidity and mortality from motor vehicle crashes and may help reshape cities to prom...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 31, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Rojas-Rueda D, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Khreis H, Frumkin H Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Traffic Noise with a Focus on Nighttime Noise and the New WHO Noise Guidelines.
A, Sørensen M Abstract Exposure to traffic noise is associated with stress and sleep disturbances. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently concluded that road traffic noise increases the risk for ischemic heart disease and potentially other cardiometabolic diseases, including stroke, obesity, and diabetes. The WHO report focused on whole-day noise exposure, but new epidemiological and translational field noise studies indicate that nighttime noise, in particular, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) through increased levels of stress hormones and vascular oxidative stress, lead...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Münzel T, Kroeller-Schön S, Oelze M, Gori T, Schmidt FP, Steven S, Hahad O, Röösli M, Wunderli JM, Daiber A, Sørensen M Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Partnerships, Processes, and Outcomes: A Health Equity-Focused Scoping Meta-Review of Community-Engaged Scholarship.
This article seeks to synthesize the extant literature of systematic reviews, scoping reviews, and other related reviews regarding the context, processes, and research designs and interventions underlying CEnR that optimize its effectiveness. Through a scoping review, we have utilized an empirically derived framework of CBPR to map this literature and identify key findings and priorities for future research. Our study found 100 reviews of CEnR that largely support the CBPR conceptual framework. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 41 is April 1, 2020. Please see http://www.a...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Ortiz K, Nash J, Shea L, Oetzel J, Garoutte J, Sanchez-Youngman S, Wallerstein N Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Sedentary Behavior and Public Health: Integrating the Evidence and Identifying Potential Solutions.
We describe improvements in device-based measurement that are providing new insights into sedentary behavior and health. We consider the implications of research linking evidence from epidemiology and behavioral science with mechanistic insights into the underlying biology of sitting time. Such evidence has led to new sedentary behavior guidelines and initiatives. We highlight ways that this emerging knowledge base can inform public health strategy: First, we consider epidemiologic and experimental evidence on the health consequences of sedentary behavior; second, we describe solutions-focused research from initiatives in ...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Owen N, Healy GN, Dempsey PC, Salmon J, Timpero A, Clark BK, Goode AD, Koorts H, Ridgers ND, Hadgraft NT, Lambert G, Eakin EG, Kingwell BA, Dunstan DW Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Impacts of Coal Use on Health.
This article reviews evidence for the public health impacts of coal across the extraction, processing, use, and waste disposal continuum. Surface coal mining and processing impose public health risks on residential communities through air and water pollution. Burning coal in power plants emits more nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and heavy metals per unit of energy than any other fuel source and impairs global public health. Coal ash disposal exposes communities to heavy metals and particulate matter waste. Use of coal in domestic households causes public health harm concentrated in developing nations....
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Hendryx M, Zullig KJ, Luo J Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

External Societal Costs of Antimicrobial Resistance in Humans Attributable to Antimicrobial Use in Livestock.
Abstract Antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal agriculture contributes to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in humans, which imposes significant health and economic costs on society. Economists call these costs negative externalities, societal costs that are not properly reflected in market prices. We review the relevant literature and develop a model to quantify the external costs of AMU in animal agriculture on AMR in humans. Parameters required for this estimate include (a) the health and economic burden of AMR in humans, (b) the impact of AMU in animal agriculture on AMR in animals, (c) the fraction of AMR in humans ...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Innes GK, Randad PR, Korinek A, Davis MF, Price LB, So AD, Heaney CD Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Mental Health of Refugee Children and Youth: Epidemiology, Interventions, and Future Directions.
This article adopts a critical eye in summarizing current epidemiological knowledge of refugee youth mental health as well as interventions aimed to prevent or reduce mental health problems among children and adolescents in both high- and low-to-middle-income countries. We highlight current challenges and limitations of extant literature and present potential opportunities and recommendations in refugee child psychiatric epidemiology and mental health services research for moving forward. In light of the mounting xenophobic sentiments we are presently witnessing across societies, we argue that, as a first step, all epidemi...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Frounfelker RL, Miconi D, Farrar J, Brooks MA, Rousseau C, Betancourt TS Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Effects of Electronic Cigarettes on Indoor Air Quality and Health.
Abstract With the rapid increase in electronic cigarette (e-cig) users worldwide, secondhand exposure to e-cig aerosols has become a serious public health concern. We summarize the evidence on the effects of e-cigs on indoor air quality, chemical compositions of mainstream and secondhand e-cig aerosols, and associated respiratory and cardiovascular effects. The use of e-cigs in indoor environments leads to high levels of fine and ultrafine particles similar to tobacco cigarettes (t-cigs). Concentrations of chemical compounds in e-cig aerosols are generally lower than those in t-cig smoke, but a substantial amount ...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Li L, Lin Y, Xia T, Zhu Y Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Deregulation and the Assault on Science and the Environment.
Abstract The quality of the environment is a major determinant of the health and well-being of a population. The role of scientific evidence is central in the network of laws addressing environmental pollution in the United States and has been critical in addressing the myriad sources of environmental pollution and the burden of disease attributable to environmental factors. We address the shift away from reasoned action and science to a reliance on belief and document the efforts to separate regulation from science and to remove science-based regulations and policies intended to protect public health. We outline ...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Samet JM, Burke TA Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Social Media- and Internet-Based Disease Surveillance for Public Health.
Abstract Disease surveillance systems are a cornerstone of public health tracking and prevention. This review addresses the use, promise, perils, and ethics of social media- and Internet-based data collection for public health surveillance. Our review highlights untapped opportunities for integrating digital surveillance in public health and current applications that could be improved through better integration, validation, and clarity on rules surrounding ethical considerations. Promising developments include hybrid systems that couple traditional surveillance data with data from search queries, social media post...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Aiello AE, Renson A, Zivich PN Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Population-Based Approaches to Mental Health: History, Strategies, and Evidence.
Abstract There is growing recognition in the fields of public health and mental health services research that the provision of clinical services to individuals is not a viable approach to meeting the mental health needs of a population. Despite enthusiasm for the notion of population-based approaches to mental health, concrete guidance about what such approaches entail is lacking, and evidence of their effectiveness has not been integrated. Drawing from research and scholarship across multiple disciplines, this review provides a concrete definition of population-based approaches to mental health, situates these ap...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Purtle J, Nelson KL, Counts NZ, Yudell M Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Sleep Health: An Opportunity for Public Health to Address Health Equity.
Abstract The concept of sleep health provides a positive holistic framing of multiple sleep characteristics, including sleep duration, continuity, timing, alertness, and satisfaction. Sleep health promotion is an underrecognized public health opportunity with implications for a wide range of critical health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, mental health, and neurodegenerative disease. Using a socioecological framework, we describe interacting domains of individual, social, and contextual influences on sleep health. To the extent that these determinants of sleep health are modifiable, sleep and ...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Hale L, Troxel W, Buysse DJ Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Psychosocial Stressors and Telomere Length: A Current Review of the Science.
Abstract A growing literature suggests that exposure to adverse social conditions may accelerate biological aging, offering one mechanism through which adversity may increase risk for age-related disease. As one of the most extensively studied biological markers of aging, telomere length (TL) provides a valuable tool to understand potential influences of social adversity on the aging process. Indeed, a sizeable literature now links a wide range of stressors to TL across the life span. The aim of this article is to review and evaluate this extant literature with a focus on studies that investigate psychosocial stre...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Rentscher KE, Carroll JE, Mitchell C Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Disparities in Access to Oral Health Care.
Abstract In the United States, people are more likely to have poor oral health if they are low-income, uninsured, and/or members of racial/ethnic minority, immigrant, or rural populations who have suboptimal access to quality oral health care. As a result, poor oral health serves as the national symbol of social inequality. There is increasing recognition among those in public health that oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease and general health conditions such as obesity and diabetes are closely linked by sharing common risk factors, including excess sugar consumption and tobacco use, as well...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Northridge ME, Kumar A, Kaur R Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Addressing Health Equity in Public Health Practice: Frameworks, Promising Strategies, and Measurement Considerations.
Abstract This review describes the context of health equity and options for integrating equity into public health practice. We first discuss how the conceptualization of health equity and how equity considerations in US public health practice have been shaped by multidisciplinary engagements. We then discuss specific ways to address equity in core public health functions, provide examples of relevant frameworks and promising strategies, and discuss conceptual and measurement issues relevant to assessing progress in moving toward health equity. Challenges and opportunities and their implications for future directio...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Liburd LC, Hall JE, Mpofu JJ, Marshall Williams S, Bouye K, Penman-Aguilar A Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Public Health and Online Misinformation: Challenges and Recommendations.
Abstract The internet has become a popular resource to learn about health and to investigate one's own health condition. However, given the large amount of inaccurate information online, people can easily become misinformed. Individuals have always obtained information from outside the formal health care system, so how has the internet changed people's engagement with health information? This review explores how individuals interact with health misinformation online, whether it be through search, user-generated content, or mobile apps. We discuss whether personal access to information is helping or hindering healt...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - December 24, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Swire-Thompson B, Lazer D Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Comparative Approaches to Drug Pricing.
Abstract The United States relies primarily on market forces to determine prices for drugs, whereas most other industrialized countries use a variety of approaches to determine drug prices. Branded drug companies have patents and market exclusivity periods in most industrialized countries. During this period, pharmaceutical companies are allowed to set their list price as high as they prefer in the United States owing to the absence of government price control mechanisms that exist in other countries. Insured patients often pay a percentage of the list price, and cost sharing creates some pressure to lower the lis...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - December 24, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Kang SY, Bai G, DiStefano MJ, Socal MP, Yehia F, Anderson GF Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Housing and Healthy Child Development: Known and Potential Impacts of Interventions.
This article argues that a broad focus on healthy child development-as opposed to just physical health-coupled with a conceptual framework outlining specific attributes of housing with the potential to influence child health, should be adopted to guide a comprehensive approach to public health policy for healthy child development. Most housing interventions address direct pathways linking in-home hazard exposures to child health outcomes, with promising but mixed results. But few housing interventions address the broader aspects of healthy child development. This review addresses potential housing interventions that could ...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - December 24, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dunn JR Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Essential Ingredients and Innovations in the Design and Analysis of Group-Randomized Trials.
This article reviews the essential ingredients and innovations in the design and analysis of group-randomized trials. The methods literature for these trials has grown steadily since they were introduced to the biomedical research community in the late 1970s, and we summarize those developments. We review, in addition to the group-randomized trial, methods for two closely related designs, the individually randomized group treatment trial and the stepped-wedge group-randomized trial. After describing the essential ingredients for these designs, we review the most important developments in the evolution of their methods usin...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - December 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Murray DM, Taljaard M, Turner EL, George SM Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Measures of Racism, Sexism, Heterosexism, and Gender Binarism for Health Equity Research: From Structural Injustice to Embodied Harm-an Ecosocial Analysis.
Abstract Racism. Sexism. Heterosexism. Gender binarism. Together, they comprise intimately harmful, distinct, and entangled societal systems of self-serving domination and privilege that structure the embodiment of health inequities. Guided by the ecosocial theory of disease distribution, I synthesize key features of the specified "isms" and provide a measurement schema, informed by research from both the Global North and the Global South. Metrics discussed include (a) structural, including explicit rules and laws, nonexplicit rules and laws, and area-based or institutional nonrule measures; and (b) indi...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - November 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Krieger N Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Resetting Policies to End Family Homelessness.
Abstract Homelessness is a devastating experience for children and their families. Families, the majority of whose members are children, now comprise more than one-third of the overall homeless population. Most of these children are less than six years old. Various assumptions have driven policy and the allocation of resources to programs serving these families. Although decades of research and field experience suggest strategies for preventing and reducing this problem, perspectives differ, hindering the development of effective solutions. In this article, we explore some of these assumptions, including (a) ...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - November 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Bassuk EL, Hart JA, Donovan E Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Sick Individuals and Sick (Microbial) Populations: Challenges in Epidemiology and the Microbiome.
Abstract The human microbiome represents a new frontier in understanding the biology of human health. While epidemiology in this area is still in its infancy, its scope will likely expand dramatically over the coming years. To rise to the challenge, we argue that epidemiology should capitalize on its population perspective as a critical complement to molecular microbiome research, allowing for the illumination of contextual mechanisms that may vary more across populations rather than among individuals. We first briefly review current research on social context and the gut microbiome, focusing specifically on socio...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - October 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Renson A, Herd P, Dowd JB Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Machine Learning in Epidemiology and Health Outcomes Research.
This article provides a walkthrough for creating supervised machine learning models with current examples from the literature. From identifying an appropriate sample and selecting features through training, testing, and assessing performance, the end-to-end approach to machine learning can be a daunting task. We take the reader through each step in the process and discuss novel concepts in the area of machine learning, including identifying treatment effects and explaining the output from machine learning models. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 41 is April 1, 2020. Plea...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - October 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Wiemken TL, Kelley RR Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Introduction to the Symposium: Causal Inference and Public Health.
Abstract Assessing the extent to which public health research findings can be causally interpreted continues to be a critical endeavor. In this symposium, we invited several researchers to review issues related to causal inference in social epidemiology and environmental science and to discuss the importance of external validity in public health. Together, this set of articles provides an integral overview of the strengths and limitations of applying causal inference frameworks and related approaches to a variety of public health problems, for both internal and external validity. PMID: 30935304 [PubMed - in p...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - April 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Aiello AE, Green LW Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Ambient Air Pollution, Noise, and Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Dementia Risk.
Abstract Exposure to ambient air pollution and noise is ubiquitous globally. A strong body of evidence links air pollution, and recently noise, to cardiovascular conditions that eventually may also affect cognition in the elderly. Data that support a broader influence of these exposures on cognitive function during aging is just starting to emerge. This review summarizes current findings and discusses methodological challenges and opportunities for research. Although current evidence is still limited, especially for chronic noise exposure, high exposure has been associated with faster cognitive decline either medi...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - April 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Paul KC, Haan M, Mayeda ER, Ritz BR Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Introduction: ARPH Approach to Controversial Issues.
PMID: 30935306 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annual Review of Public Health)
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - April 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Fielding JE, Brownson RC, Green LW Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Hazardous Air Pollutants Associated with Upstream Oil and Natural Gas Development: A Critical Synthesis of Current Peer-Reviewed Literature.
Abstract Increased energy demands and innovations in upstream oil and natural gas (ONG) extraction technologies have enabled the United States to become one of the world's leading producers of petroleum and natural gas hydrocarbons. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lists 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects. Several of these HAPs have been measured at elevated concentrations around ONG sites, but most have not been studied in the context of upstream development. In this review, we analyzed recent global peer-reviewed articles th...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - April 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Garcia-Gonzales DA, Shonkoff SBC, Hays J, Jerrett M Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Making Health Research Matter: A Call to Increase Attention to External Validity.
Abstract Most of the clinical research conducted with the goal of improving health is not generalizable to nonresearch settings. In addition, scientists often fail to replicate each other's findings due, in part, to lack of attention to contextual factors accounting for their relative effectiveness or failure. To address these problems, we review the literature on assessment of external validity and summarize approaches to designing for generalizability. When investigators conduct systematic reviews, a critical need is often unmet: to evaluate the pragmatism and context of interventions, as well as their effective...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Huebschmann AG, Leavitt IM, Glasgow RE Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Causes and Patterns of Dementia: An Update in the Era of Redefining Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract The burden of dementia continues to increase as the population ages, with no disease-modifying treatments available. However, dementia risk appears to be decreasing, and progress has been made in understanding its multifactorial etiology. The 2018 National Institute on Aging- Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) research framework for Alzheimer's disease (AD) defines AD as a biological process measured by brain pathology or biomarkers, spanning the cognitive spectrum from normality to dementia. This framework facilitates interventions in the asymptomatic space and accommodates knowledge that many additional p...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: James BD, Bennett DA Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Environmental Exposures and Depression: Biological Mechanisms and Epidemiological Evidence.
Abstract Mental health and well-being are consistently influenced-directly or indirectly-by multiple environmental exposures. In this review, we have attempted to address some of the most common exposures of the biophysical environment, with a goal of demonstrating how those factors interact with central structures and functions of the brain and thus influence the neurobiology of depression. We emphasize biochemical mechanisms, observational evidence, and areas for future research. Finally, we include aspects of contextual environments-city living, nature, natural disasters, and climate change-and call for improve...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: van den Bosch M, Meyer-Lindenberg A Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Innovations in Mixed Methods Evaluations.
Abstract Mixed methods research-i.e., research that draws on both qualitative and quantitative methods in varying configurations-is well suited to address the increasing complexity of public health problems and their solutions. This review focuses specifically on innovations in mixed methods evaluations of intervention, program or policy (i.e., practice) effectiveness, and implementation. The article begins with an overview of the structure, function, and process of different mixed methods designs and then provides illustrations of their use in effectiveness studies, implementation studies, and combined effectiven...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Palinkas LA, Mendon SJ, Hamilton AB Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Television News Coverage of Public Health Issues and Implications for Public Health Policy and Practice.
Abstract Television (TV) news, and especially local TV news, remains an important vehicle through which Americans obtain information about health-related topics. In this review, we synthesize theory and evidence on four main functions of TV news in shaping public health policy and practice: reporting events and information to the public (surveillance); providing the context for and meaning surrounding health issues (interpretation); cultivating community values, beliefs, and norms (socialization); and attracting and maintaining public attention for advertisers (attention merchant). We also identify challenges for ...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Gollust SE, Fowler EF, Niederdeppe J Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Realist Synthesis for Public Health: Building an Ontologically Deep Understanding of How Programs Work, For Whom, and In Which Contexts.
Abstract Realist synthesis is a literature review methodology for understanding how, for whom, and under what circumstances complex interventions function in complex environments. Using a heuristic called the context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configuration, realist synthesis produces evidence-informed theories about the interactions between intervention mechanisms and their implementation contexts. Public health interventions and their effects unfold over time and develop differently in different contexts. Much of what causes programs to function remains in a realm beyond empirical measurement. By scrutinizing the t...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jagosh J Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Earth Observation: Investigating Noncommunicable Diseases from Space.
Abstract The United Nations has called on all nations to take immediate actions to fight noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which have become an increasingly significant burden to public health systems around the world. NCDs tend to be more common in developed countries but are also becoming of growing concern in low- and middle-income countries. Earth observation (EO) technologies have been used in many infectious disease studies but have been less commonly employed in NCD studies. This review discusses the roles that EO data and technologies can play in NCD research, including ( a) integrating natural and built en...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jia P, Stein A, James P, Brownson RC, Wu T, Xiao Q, Wang L, Sabel CE, Wang Y Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Global Environmental Change and Noncommunicable Disease Risks.
This article provides an overview of pathways linking GEC and NCDs, focusing on five pathways: ( a) energy, air pollution, and climate change; ( b) urbanization; ( c) food, nutrition, and agriculture; ( d) the deposition of persistent chemicals in the environment; and ( e) biodiversity loss. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 40 is April 1, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates. PMID: 30633714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annual Review of Public Health)
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Frumkin H, Haines A Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Causal Modeling in Environmental Health.
Abstract The field of environmental health has been dominated by modeling associations, especially by regressing an observed outcome on a linear or nonlinear function of observed covariates. Readers interested in advances in policies for improving environmental health are, however, expecting to be informed about health effects resulting from, or more explicitly caused by, environmental exposures. The quantification of health impacts resulting from the removal of environmental exposures involves causal statements. Therefore, when possible, causal inference frameworks should be considered for analyzing the effects o...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Bind MA Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Brain and Salivary Gland Tumors and Mobile Phone Use: Evaluating the Evidence from Various Epidemiological Study Designs.
In conclusion, epidemiological studies do not suggest increased brain or salivary gland tumor risk with MP use, although some uncertainty remains regarding long latency periods (>15 years), rare brain tumor subtypes, and MP usage during childhood. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 40 is April 1, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates. PMID: 30633716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annual Review of Public Health)
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Röösli M, Lagorio S, Schoemaker MJ, Schüz J, Feychting M Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Interventions to Support Behavioral Self-Management of Chronic Diseases.
Abstract A majority of the US adult population has one or more chronic conditions that require medical intervention and long-term self-management. Such conditions are among the 10 leading causes of mortality; an estimated 86% of the nation's $2.7 trillion in annual health care expenditures goes toward their treatment and management. Patient self-management of chronic diseases is increasingly essential to improve health behaviors, health outcomes, and quality of life and, in some cases, has demonstrated effectiveness for reducing health care utilization and the societal cost burden of chronic conditions. This revie...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Allegrante JP, Wells MT, Peterson JC Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Solving Homelessness from a Complex Systems Perspective: Insights for Prevention Responses.
Abstract Homelessness represents an enduring public health threat facing communities across the developed world. Children, families, and marginalized adults face life course implications of housing insecurity, while communities struggle to address the extensive array of needs within heterogeneous homeless populations. Trends in homelessness remain stubbornly high despite policy initiatives to end homelessness. A complex systems perspective provides insights into the dynamics underlying coordinated responses to homelessness. A constant demand for housing assistance strains service delivery, while prevention efforts...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Fowler PJ, Hovmand PS, Marcal KE, Das S Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Happiness and Health.
Abstract Research into the relationship between happiness and health is developing rapidly, exploring the possibility that impaired happiness is not only a consequence of ill-health but also a potential contributor to disease risk. Happiness encompasses several constructs, including affective well-being (feelings of joy and pleasure), eudaimonic well-being (sense of meaning and purpose in life), and evaluative well-being (life satisfaction). Happiness is generally associated with reduced mortality in prospective observational studies, albeit with several discrepant results. Confounding and reverse causation are ma...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Steptoe A Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Commentary: Causal Inference for Social Exposures.
Abstract Social epidemiology seeks to describe and quantify the causal effects of social institutions, interactions, and structures on human health.To accomplish this task, we define exposures as treatments and posit populations exposed or unexposed to these well-defined regimens. This inferential structure allows us to unambiguously estimate and interpret quantitative causal parameters and to investigate how these may be affected by biases such as confounding. This paradigm has been challenged recently by some critics who favor broadening the exposures that may be studied beyond treatments to also consider states...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Kaufman JS Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

The Use of Excise Taxes to Reduce Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sugary Beverage Consumption.
Abstract In countries around the world, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are significant contributors to the global epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. As a consequence, they contribute, as well, to excess health care costs and productivity losses. A large and growing body of research documents that taxes specific to such products, known as excise taxes, reduce consumption of these products and thereby diminish their adverse health consequences. Although such taxation has historically been motivated primarily by revenue generation, governments are in...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Chaloupka FJ, Powell LM, Warner KE Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Policies of Exclusion: Implications for the Health of Immigrants and Their Children.
Abstract Public policies play a crucial role in shaping how immigrants adapt to life in the United States. Federal, state, and local laws and administrative practices impact immigrants' access to education, health insurance and medical care, cash assistance, food assistance, and other vital services. Additionally, immigration enforcement activities have substantial effects on immigrants' health and participation in public programs, as well as effects on immigrants' families. This review summarizes the growing literature on the consequences of public policies for immigrants' health. Some policies are inclusive and ...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Perreira KM, Pedroza JM Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

The Next Generation of Diabetes Translation: A Path to Health Equity.
Abstract Disparities in diabetes burden exist in large part because of the social determinants of health (SDOH). Translation research and practice addressing health equity in diabetes have generally focused on changing individual behavior or providing supportive approaches to compensate for, rather than directly target, SDOH. The purpose of this article is to propose a pathway for addressing SDOH as root causes of diabetes disparities and as an essential target for the next generation of interventions needed to achieve health equity in diabetes prevention and treatment. This review describes ( a) the current burde...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Haire-Joshu D, Hill-Briggs F Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Health Impact Assessment of Transportation Projects and Policies: Living Up to Aims of Advancing Population Health and Health Equity?
Abstract Health impact assessment (HIA) is a forward-looking, evidence-based tool used to inform stakeholders and policy makers about the potential health effects of proposed projects and policies and to identify options for maximizing potential health benefits and minimizing potential harm. This review examines how health equity, a core principle of health impact assessment (HIA), has been operationalized in HIAs conducted in the United States in one sector, transportation. Two perspectives on promoting health equity appear in the broader public health research literature; one aims at reducing disparities in heal...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Cole BL, MacLeod KE, Spriggs R Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

The Economic Case for the Prevention of Mental Illness.
This article describes the potential role that can be played by economic evidence alongside experimental trials and observational studies, or through modeling, to substantiate the need for increased investment in prevention. It illustrates areas of action across the life course where there is already a good economic case. It also suggests some further areas of substantive public health concern, with promising effectiveness evidence, that may benefit from economic analysis. Financial and economic barriers to implementation are then presented, and strategies to address the barriers and increase investment in the prevention o...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: McDaid D, Park AL, Wahlbeck K Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Racism and Health: Evidence and Needed Research.
This article provides an overview of the evidence linking the primary domains of racism-structural racism, cultural racism, and individual-level discrimination-to mental and physical health outcomes. For each mechanism, we describe key findings and identify priorities for future research. We also discuss evidence for interventions to reduce racism and describe research needed to advance knowledge in this area. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 40 is April 1, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates. PMID: 30601726 [PubM...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Williams DR, Lawrence JA, Davis BA Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

The Digitization of Patient Care: A Review of the Effects of Electronic Health Records on Health Care Quality and Utilization.
Abstract Electronic health records (EHRs) adoption has become nearly universal during the past decade. Academic research into the effects of EHRs has examined factors influencing adoption, clinical care benefits, financial and cost implications, and more.We provide an interdisciplinary overview and synthesis of this literature, drawing on work in public and population health, informatics, medicine, management information systems, and economics.We then chart paths forward for policy, practice, and research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 40 is April 1, 2019. Ple...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - December 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Atasoy H, Greenwood BN, McCullough JS Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

School Health as a Strategy to Improve Both Public Health and Education.
Abstract Because schools materially influence both health and education, they substantially determine the future well-being and economic productivity of populations. Recent research suggests that healthier children learn better and that more educated adults are healthier. School health is a crossdisciplinary field of study and a fundamental strategy that can be used to improve both health and education outcomes. Modern school health programs include 10 interactive components: health education; physical education and physical activity; nutrition environment and services; health services; counseling, psychological, ...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - December 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Kolbe LJ Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research

Aligning Programs and Policies to Support Food Security and Public Health Goals in the United States.
We present a person-centered, multilevel framework for understanding how individuals living in food-insecure households cope with inadequate access to food themselves and within their households, communities, and broader food system. Many of these coping strategies can have an adverse impact on health, particularly when the coping strategies are sustained over time; others may be salutary for health. There exist multiple opportunities for aligning programs and policies so that they simultaneously support food security and improved diet quality in the interest of supporting improved health outcomes. Improved access to these...
Source: Annual Review of Public Health - November 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Seligman HK, Berkowitz SA Tags: Annu Rev Public Health Source Type: research