An Accidental Nutritionist.
Abstract My career as an accidental nutritionist began with my immersion in cholera control, a cyclone disaster, a smallpox epidemic, and formal training in ophthalmology and epidemiology. Interest in blindness prevention inexplicably led me to (re)pioneer the effects, treatment, and prevention of vitamin A deficiency, while faced with intense criticism by many leading scientists in the nutrition community. The resulting efforts by the World Health Organization and UNICEF in support of programs for the global control of vitamin A deficiency still face vocal opposition by some senior scientists, despite having been...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - September 23, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sommer A Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Policy Progress in Reducing Sodium in the American Diet, 2010-2019.
Abstract Most Americans consume dietary sodium exceeding age-specific government-recommended targets of 1,500-2,300 mg/day per person. The majority (71%) of US dietary sodium comes from restaurant and packaged foods. Excess sodium intake contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death in the United States. This review summarizes evidence for policy progress to reduce sodium in the US food supply and the American diet. We provide a historical overview of US sodium-reduction policy (1969-2010), then examine progress toward implementing the 2010 National Academy of Medicine...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - September 23, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Musicus AA, Kraak VI, Bleich SN Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Roles of Regulatory RNAs in Nutritional Control.
Abstract Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), are noncoding RNA (ncRNA) molecules involved in gene regulation. sRNAs play important roles in development; however, their significance in nutritional control and as metabolic modulators is still emerging. The mechanisms by which diet impacts metabolic genes through miRNAs remain an important area of inquiry. Recent work has established how miRNAs are transported in body fluids often within exosomes, which are small cell-derived vesicles that function in intercellular communication. The abundance of other recently identified ncRNAs and new insights regardi...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - September 23, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: McNeill EM, Hirschi KD Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

All Children Thrive: Integration of Nutrition and Early Childhood Development.
Abstract Building on the successes of child survival, we review the evidence needed to ensure both that children who survive also thrive and that recommendations promote equity, with no child left behind. To illustrate the critical roles played by nutrition and child development, we revise the Conceptual Framework for the Causes of Malnutrition and Death and the Nurturing Care Framework to create the Conceptual Framework of All Children Surviving and Thriving. The revised framework highlights the goals of child growth and development, supported by health, nutrition, learning, responsive caregiving, and security an...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - September 23, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Black MM, Trude ACB, Lutter CK Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Vitamin A and Retinoic Acid in Cognition and Cognitive Disease.
Abstract The history of vitamin A goes back over one hundred years, but our realization of its importance for the brain and cognition is much more recent. The brain is more efficient than other target tissues at converting vitamin A to retinoic acid (RA), which activates retinoic acid receptors (RARs). RARs regulate transcription, but their function in the cytoplasm to control nongenomic actions is also crucial. Controlled synthesis of RA is essential for regulating synaptic plasticity in regions of the brain involved in learning and memory, such as the hippocampus. Vitamin A deficiency results in a deterioration ...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - September 23, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Wołoszynowska-Fraser MU, Kouchmeshky A, McCaffery P Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Nutrition and the 2020 Pandemic.
PMID: 32966187 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annual Review of Nutrition)
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - September 23, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Stover PJ, Balling R Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Novel Approaches for Omega-3 Fatty Acid Therapeutics: Chronic Versus Acute Administration to Protect Heart, Brain, and Spinal Cord.
This article reviews novel approaches for omega-3 fatty acid (FA) therapeutics and the linked molecular mechanisms in cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In vitro and in vivo research studies indicate that omega-3 FAs affect synergic mechanisms that include modulation of cell membrane fluidity, regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, and production of bioactive mediators. We compare how chronic and acute treatments with omega-3 FAs differentially trigger pathways of protection in heart, brain, and spinal cord injuries. We also summarize recent omega-3 FA randomized clinical trials and meta-ana...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - September 23, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Zirpoli H, Chang CL, Carpentier YA, Michael-Titus AT, Ten VS, Deckelbaum RJ Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Drinking Water in the United States: Implications of Water Safety, Access, and Consumption.
We describe US regulations that seek to ensure that drinking water is safe to consume for most Americans and discuss strategies to reduce drinking water exposure to lead, a high-profile regulated drinking water contaminant. We discuss programs, policies, and environmental interventions that foster effective drinking water access, a concept that encompasses key elements needed to improve water intake. We conclude with recommendations for research, policies, regulations, and practices needed to ensure optimal water intake by all in the United States and elsewhere. PMID: 32966189 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annual Review of Nutrition)
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - September 23, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Patel AI, Hecht CE, Cradock A, Edwards MA, Ritchie LD Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

From Birth and Throughout Life: Fungal Microbiota in Nutrition and Metabolic Health.
Abstract The human gastrointestinal tract is home to a vibrant, diverse ecosystem of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. The gut fungi (mycobiota) have recently rose to prominence due to their ability to modulate host immunity. Colonization of the gut occurs through a combination of vertical transmission from the maternal mycobiota and environmental and dietary exposure. Data from human and animal studies demonstrate that nutrition strongly affects the mycobiota composition and that changes in the fungal communities can aggravate metabolic diseases. The mechanisms pertaining to the mycobiota's influence on ...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - July 17, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Fiers WD, Leonardi I, Iliev ID Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Nutritional Aspects of Spermidine.
Abstract Natural polyamines (spermidine and spermine) are small, positively charged molecules that are ubiquitously found within organisms and cells. They exert numerous (intra)cellular functions and have been implicated to protect against several age-related diseases. Although polyamine levels decline in a complex age-dependent, tissue-, and cell type-specific manner, they are maintained in healthy nonagenarians and centenarians. Increased polyamine levels, including through enhanced dietary intake, have been consistently linked to improved health and reduced overall mortality. In preclinical models, dietary supp...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - July 7, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Madeo F, Hofer SJ, Pendl T, Bauer MA, Eisenberg T, Carmona-Gutierrez D, Kroemer G Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Impacts and Echoes: The Lasting Influence of the White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health.
This article reviews the literature contributing to the first author's keynote speech at the conference, its influencers, and its influences. We focus on the highlights of five domains that set the stage for the conference: the social environment, the food environment, nutrition science, public health data, and policy events. We briefly describe the conference, its proposed directions, and its lasting legacy in these five domains. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition, Volume 40. 2020. PMID: 32631144 [PubMed - as supp...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - July 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Woteki CE, Kramer BL, Cohen S, Lancaster VA Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Nutrient Control of mRNA Translation.
Abstract The emergence of genome-wide analyses to interrogate cellular DNA, RNA, and protein content has revolutionized the study of control networks that mediate cellular homeostasis. mRNA translation represents the last step of genetic flow and primarily defines the proteome. Translational regulation is thus critical for gene expression, in particular under nutrient excess or deficiency. Until recently, it was unclear how the global effects of translational control are orchestrated by nutrient signaling pathways. An emerging concept of translational reprogramming addresses how to maintain the expression of speci...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - July 6, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Shu XE, V Swanda R, Qian SB Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Calorie Restriction and Aging in Humans.
The objectives of this review are to summarize the evidence for CR to modify primary and secondary aging; present caveats for implementation in special populations; describe newer, alternative approaches that have comparative effectiveness and fewer deleterious effects; and provide thoughts on the future of this important field of study. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition, Volume 40. 2020. PMID: 32559388 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annual Review of Nutrition)
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - June 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Flanagan EW, Most J, Mey JT, Redman LM Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Adipose Tissue: Inflammation and Browning.
Abstract White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are involved in whole-body energy homeostasis and metabolic regulation. Changes to mass and function of these tissues impact glucose homeostasis and whole-body energy balance during development of obesity, weight loss, and subsequent weight regain. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), which have known hypotriglyceridemic and cardioprotective effects, can also impact WAT and BAT function. In rodent models, these fatty acids alleviate obesity-associated WAT inflammation, improve energy metabolism, and increase thermogenic markers in...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - June 16, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Kalupahana NS, Goonapienuwala BL, Moustaid-Moussa N Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

The Role of Diet in Cancer Prevention and Chemotherapy Efficacy.
Abstract Despite great advances in treatment, cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Diet can greatly impact health, while caloric restriction and fasting have putative benefits for disease prevention and longevity. Strong epidemiological associations exist between obesity and cancer, whereas healthy diets can reduce cancer risk. However, less is known about how diet might impact cancer once it has been diagnosed and particularly how diet can impact cancer treatment. In the present review, we discuss the links between obesity, diet, and cancer. We explore potential mechanisms by which diet can improve ...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - June 16, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Mittelman SD Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Nutritional Requirements for Sustaining Health and Performance During Exposure to Extreme Environments.
Abstract Dietary guidelines are formulated to meet minimum nutrient requirements, which prevent deficiencies and maintain health, growth, development, and function. These guidelines can be inadequate and contribute to disrupted homeostasis, lean body mass loss, and deteriorated performance in individuals who are working long, arduous hours with limited access to food in environmentally challenging locations. Environmental extremes can elicit physiological adjustments that alone alter nutrition requirements by upregulating energy expenditure, altering substrate metabolism, and accelerating body water and muscle pro...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - June 12, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Pasiakos SM Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Nutrition Regulates Innate Immunity in Health and Disease.
Abstract Nutrient content and nutrient timing are considered key regulators of human health and a variety of diseases and involve complex interactions with the mucosal immune system. In particular, the innate immune system is emerging as an important signaling hub that modulates the response to nutritional signals, in part via signaling through the gut microbiota. In this review we elucidate emerging evidence that interactions between innate immunity and diet affect human metabolic health and disease, including cardiometabolic disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders, infections, and cancers. Furthermore...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - June 10, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Nobs SP, Zmora N, Elinav E Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

The Microbiota and Malnutrition: Impact of Nutritional Status During Early Life.
uri E, Collado MC Abstract According to the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, our health is determined by events experienced in utero and during early infancy. Indeed, both our prenatal and postnatal nutrition conditions have an impact on the initial architecture and activity of our microbiota. Recent evidence has underlined the importance of the composition of the early gut microbiota in relation to malnutrition, whether it be undernutrition or overnutrition, that is, in terms of both stunted and overweight development. It remains unclear how early microbial contact is linked to the risk of ...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gómez-Gallego C, García-Mantrana I, Martínez-Costa C, Salminen S, Isolauri E, Collado MC Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Addressing the Increased Expectations of Nutrition.
PMID: 31433739 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annual Review of Nutrition)
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Balling R, Stover PJ Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

FADS1 and FADS2 Polymorphisms Modulate Fatty Acid Metabolism and Dietary Impact on Health.
Abstract Variants in the FADS gene cluster modify the activity of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) desaturation and the lipid composition in human blood and tissue. FADS variants have been associated with plasma lipid concentrations, risk of cardiovascular diseases, overweight, eczema, pregnancy outcomes, and cognitive function. Studies on variations in the FADS genecluster provided some of the first examples for marked gene-diet interactions in modulating complex phenotypes, such as eczema, asthma, and cognition. Genotype distribution differs markedly among ethnicities, apparently reflecting an evolutionary adva...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Koletzko B, Reischl E, Tanjung C, Gonzalez-Casanova I, Ramakrishnan U, Meldrum S, Simmer K, Heinrich J, Demmelmair H Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Evidence Collection and Evaluation for the Development of Dietary Guidelines and Public Policy on Nutrition.
Abstract Dietary guidelines and recommendations, usually developed by government bodies or large authoritative organizations, have major downstream effects on public policy. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that there are serious deficiencies in the methods used to develop dietary guidelines. Such deficiencies include the failure to access or conduct comprehensive systematic reviews, a lack of systematic or rigorous evaluation of the quality of the evidence, a failure to acknowledge the limitations of the evidence base underlying recommendations, and insufficiently stringent management of conflicts o...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Zeraatkar D, Johnston BC, Guyatt G Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Mitochondrial DNA Mutation, Diseases, and Nutrient-Regulated Mitophagy.
Abstract A wide spectrum of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders, have been shown to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction through multiple molecular mechanisms. Mitochondria are particularly susceptible to nutrient deficiencies, and nutritional intervention is an essential way to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Recent advances in genetic manipulation and next-generation sequencing reveal the crucial roles of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in various pathophysiological conditions. Mitophagy, a term coined to describe autophagy that targets dysfunctional mitoch...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Yang X, Zhang R, Nakahira K, Gu Z Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Pancreas-Microbiota Cross Talk in Health and Disease.
g H Abstract The pancreas controls metabolism through endocrine and exocrine functions. Pancreatic diseases comprise a spectrum of mild to life-threatening conditions, including acute and chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, and pancreatic cancer, which affect endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function and impose a substantial disease burden on individuals. Increasing experimental evidence demonstrates that the intestinal microbiota has an important impact on pancreatic function and diseases. This influence may be conferred by bacterial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids, or the modulation of immune responses...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Adolph TE, Mayr L, Grabherr F, Schwärzler J, Tilg H Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Time-Restricted Eating to Prevent and Manage Chronic Metabolic Diseases.
Abstract Molecular clocks are present in almost every cell to anticipate daily recurring and predictable changes, such as rhythmic nutrient availability, and to adapt cellular functions accordingly. At the same time, nutrient-sensing pathways can respond to acute nutrient imbalance and modulate and orient metabolism so cells can adapt optimally to a declining or increasing availability of nutrients. Organismal circadian rhythms are coordinated by behavioral rhythms such as activity-rest and feeding-fasting cycles to temporally orchestrate a sequence of physiological processes to optimize metabolism. Basic research...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - June 10, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Chaix A, Manoogian ENC, Melkani GC, Panda S Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

The Role of Brain Barriers in Maintaining Brain Vitamin Levels.
Abstract It is increasingly recognized that tissue-specific nutrient deficiencies can exist in the absence of whole-body deficiency and that these deficiencies may result from disease or disease-related physiological processes. Brain and central nervous system tissues require adequate nutrient levels to function. Many nutrients are concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid relative to the serum in healthy individuals, and other nutrients resist depletion in the presence of whole-body nutrient depletion. The endothelial, epithelial, and arachnoid brain barriers work in concert to selectively transport, concentrate, a...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 31, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Tiani KA, Stover PJ, Field MS Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Copper Transport and Disease: What Can We Learn from Organoids?
Abstract Many metals have biological functions and play important roles in human health. Copper (Cu) is an essential metal that supports normal cellular physiology. Significant research efforts have focused on identifying the molecules and pathways involved in dietary Cu uptake in the digestive tract. The lack of an adequate in vitro model for assessing Cu transport processes in the gut has led to contradictory data and gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms involved in dietary Cu acquisition. The recent development of organoid technology has provided a tractable model system for assessing the detailed mechan...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 31, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Pierson H, Yang H, Lutsenko S Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Dietary Fuels in Athletic Performance.
Abstract Focusing on daily nutrition is important for athletes to perform and adapt optimally to exercise training. The major roles of an athlete's daily diet are to supply the substrates needed to cover the energy demands for exercise, to ensure quick recovery between exercise bouts, to optimize adaptations to exercise training, and to stay healthy. The major energy substrates for exercising skeletal muscles are carbohydrate and fat stores. Optimizing the timing and type of energy intake and the amount of dietary macronutrients is essential to ensure peak training and competition performance, and these strategies...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 28, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Fritzen AM, Lundsgaard AM, Kiens B Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

The Economics of Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: A Review of the Effects on Prices, Sales, Cross-Border Shopping, and Consumption.
Abstract During the past decade, dozens of countries, regions, and cities have enacted taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). They have been primarily motivated by a desire to raise prices, reduce sales and consumption, improve population health, and raise revenue. This review outlines the economic rationale for SSB taxes and illustrates their predicted effects. It reviews the research on the effects of these taxes on retail prices, sales, cross-border shopping, consumption, and product availability. The evidence indicates that the amount by which taxes increase retail prices (also called the pass-through of t...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 22, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Cawley J, Thow AM, Wen K, Frisvold D Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Ocular Carotenoid Status in Health and Disease.
Abstract Retinal carotenoids are dietary nutrients that uniquely protect the eye from light damage and various retinal pathologies. Their antioxidative properties protect the eye from many retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. As many retinal diseases are accompanied by low carotenoid levels, accurate noninvasive assessment of carotenoid status can help ophthalmologists identify the patients most likely to benefit from carotenoid supplementation. This review focuses on the different methods available to assess carotenoid status and highlights disease-related changes and potential nutritional ...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 15, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sauer L, Li B, Bernstein PS Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

The Benefits and Risks of Iron Supplementation in Pregnancy and Childhood.
Abstract Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world and disproportionately affects pregnant women and young children. Iron deficiency has negative effects on pregnancy outcomes in women and on immune function and neurodevelopment in children. Iron supplementation programs have been successful in reducing this health burden. However, iron supplementation of iron-sufficient individuals is likely not necessary and may carry health risks for iron-sufficient and potentially some iron-deficient populations. This review considers the physiology of iron as a nutrient and how this physiology i...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 15, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Georgieff MK, Krebs NF, Cusick SE Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Bile Acids as Metabolic Regulators and Nutrient Sensors.
Abstract Bile acids facilitate nutrient absorption and are endogenous ligands for nuclear receptors that regulate lipid and energy metabolism. The brain-gut-liver axis plays an essential role in maintaining overall glucose, bile, and immune homeostasis. Fasting and feeding transitions alter nutrient content in the gut, which influences bile acid composition and pool size. In turn, bile acid signaling mediates lipid and glucose use and protection against inflammation. Altered bile acid metabolism resulting from gene mutations, high-fat diets, alcohol, or circadian disruption can contribute to cholestatic and inflam...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - April 24, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Chiang JYL, Ferrell JM Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Maintaining Balance.
Abstract Writing this biography forced me to look back over my career as a scientist, teacher, wife, and mother. To my surprise, a lifelong theme emerged that I was unaware of, that is, the role of maintaining balance between work and family, science and teaching, mentorship and administration, and personal values and challenges. My primary mentor, Dr. Doris Calloway, demonstrated the importance of maintaining balance. My interest in nutrition started as a preschooler living on a farm where I learned firsthand the importance of balancing the expense of providing good nutrition to the livestock with potential incom...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - April 12, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: King JC Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Bioavailability of Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Phytochemicals in Humans: Effects of Genetic Variation.
Abstract Recent data have shown that interindividual variability in the bioavailability of vitamins A (β-carotene), D, and E, and carotenoids (lutein and lycopene), as well as that of phytosterols, is modulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identified SNPs are in or near genes involved in intestinal uptake or efflux of these compounds, as well as in genes involved in their metabolism and transport. The phenotypic effect of each SNP is usually low, but combinations of SNPs can explain a significant part of the variability. Nevertheless, results from these studies should be considered prelimina...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Borel P, Desmarchelier C Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Mechanisms Underlying Muscle Protein Imbalance Induced by Alcohol.
Abstract Both acute intoxication and longer-term cumulative ingestion of alcohol negatively impact the metabolic phenotype of both skeletal and cardiac muscle, independent of overt protein calorie malnutrition, resulting in loss of skeletal muscle strength and cardiac contractility. In large part, these alcohol-induced changes are mediated by a decrease in protein synthesis that in turn is governed by impaired activity of a protein kinase, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Herein, we summarize recent advances in understanding mTOR signal transduction, similarities and differences between the effects of a...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Kimball SR, Lang CH Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Introduction.
PMID: 30130466 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annual Review of Nutrition)
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Balling R, Stover PJ Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Nuclear Folate Metabolism.
Abstract Despite unequivocal evidence that folate deficiency increases risk for human pathologies, and that folic acid intake among women of childbearing age markedly decreases risk for birth defects, definitive evidence for a causal biochemical pathway linking folate to disease and birth defect etiology remains elusive. The de novo and salvage pathways for thymidylate synthesis translocate to the nucleus of mammalian cells during S- and G2/M-phases of the cell cycle and associate with the DNA replication and repair machinery, which limits uracil misincorporation into DNA and genome instability. There is increasin...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Field MS, Kamynina E, Chon J, Stover PJ Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Dietary Nitrate and Physical Performance.
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) plays a plethora of important roles in the human body. Insufficient production of NO (for example, during older age and in various disease conditions) can adversely impact health and physical performance. In addition to its endogenous production through the oxidation of l-arginine, NO can be formed nonenzymatically via the reduction of nitrate and nitrite, and the storage of these anions can be augmented by the consumption of nitrate-rich foodstuffs such as green leafy vegetables. Recent studies indicate that dietary nitrate supplementation, administered most commonly in the form of beet...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Jones AM, Thompson C, Wylie LJ, Vanhatalo A Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Iron and Cancer.
Abstract This review explores the multifaceted role that iron has in cancer biology. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excess iron and increased cancer incidence and risk, while experimental studies have implicated iron in cancer initiation, tumor growth, and metastasis. The roles of iron in proliferation, metabolism, and metastasis underpin the association of iron with tumor growth and progression. Cancer cells exhibit an iron-seeking phenotype achieved through dysregulation of iron metabolic proteins. These changes are mediated, at least in part, by oncogenes and tumor suppressors....
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - August 21, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Torti SV, Manz DH, Paul BT, Blanchette-Farra N, Torti FM Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Personalized Dietary Management of Overweight and Obesity Based on Measures of Insulin and Glucose.
Abstract During the past several decades, numerous trials have compared various diets for the management of overweight and obesity, assuming that a single dietary strategy would be appropriate for all individuals. These studies have failed to provide strong evidence for the efficacy of any particular diet, and it is likely that different people will have different levels of success on different diets. We identified studies investigating pretreatment glycemia or insulinemia status, or both, of the individual as prognostic markers of weight loss during periods in which the composition of a participant's diet was kno...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - June 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Hjorth MF, Zohar Y, Hill JO, Astrup A Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Key Pathways and Regulators of Vitamin K Function and Intermediary Metabolism.
Abstract Vitamin K (VK) is an essential cofactor for the post-translational conversion of peptide-bound glutamate to γ-carboxyglutamate. The resultant vitamin K-dependent proteins are known or postulated to possess a variety of biological functions, chiefly in the maintenance of hemostasis. The vitamin K cycle is a cellular pathway that drives γ-carboxylation and recycling of VK via γ-carboxyglutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), respectively. In this review, we show how novel molecular biological approaches are providing new insights into the pathophysiological mecha...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - June 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Shearer MJ, Okano T Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Brain Nutrition: A Life Span Approach.
Abstract Appraising success in meeting the world's nutritional needs has largely focused on infant mortality and anthropometric measurements with an emphasis on the first 1,000 days (conception to approximately age 2 years). This ignores the unique nutritional needs of the human brain. Although the intrauterine environment and the early postnatal years are important, equally critical periods follow during which the brain's intricate wiring is established for a lifetime of experience-driven remodeling. At the peak of this process during childhood, the human brain may account for 50% of the body's basal nutritional ...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - June 1, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Goyal MS, Iannotti LL, Raichle ME Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Crossing the Iron Gate: Why and How Transferrin Receptors Mediate Viral Entry.
Abstract Because both the host and pathogen require iron, the innate immune response carefully orchestrates control over iron metabolism to limit its availability during times of infection. Nutritional iron deficiency can impair host immunity, while iron overload can cause oxidative stress to propagate harmful viral mutations. An emerging enigma is that many viruses use the primary gatekeeper of iron metabolism, the transferrin receptor, as a means to enter cells. Why and how this iron gate is a viral target for infection are the focus of this review. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 31, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Wessling-Resnick M Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Nutrition and Inflammation: Are Centenarians Similar to Individuals on Calorie-Restricted Diets?
We present data suggesting that such a remarkable phenotype is largely similar to that found in adults following a calorie-restricted diet. Interviews with centenarians and historical data on the nutritional and lifestyle habits of Italians during the twentieth century suggest that as children and into adulthood, centenarians lived in an environment that was nonobesogenic, but at the same time the environment did not produce malnutrition. Centenarians appear to be creatures of habit, and we argue that their habit of eating meals at the same time each day favored the maintenance of circadian rhythms, including their sleep c...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 31, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Franceschi C, Ostan R, Santoro A Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Consumption of Sugars, Sugary Foods, and Sugary Beverages in Relation to Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.
In conclusion, most studies were indicative of a null association, but suggestive detrimental associations were reported for added sugars and sugary beverages. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 38 is August 21, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates. PMID: 29801420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annual Review of Nutrition)
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 25, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Makarem N, Bandera EV, Nicholson JM, Parekh N Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

An Overview of Attitudes Toward Genetically Engineered Food.
Abstract Genetically engineered food has had its DNA, RNA, or proteins manipulated by intentional human intervention. We provide an overview of the importance and regulation of genetically engineered food and lay attitudes toward it. We first discuss the pronaturalness context in the United States and Europe that preceded the appearance of genetically engineered food. We then review the definition, prevalence, and regulation of this type of food. Genetically engineered food is widespread in some countries, but there is great controversy worldwide among individuals, governments, and other institutions about the adv...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 25, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Scott SE, Inbar Y, Wirz CD, Brossard D, Rozin P Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Nutritional Influences on One-Carbon Metabolism: Effects on Arsenic Methylation and Toxicity.
Abstract Exposure to inorganic arsenic (InAs) via drinking water and/or food is a considerable worldwide problem. Methylation of InAs generates monomethyl (MMAsIII+V)- and dimethyl (DMAsIII+V)-arsenical species in a process that facilitates urinary As elimination; however, MMA is considerably more toxic than either InAs or DMAs. Emerging evidence suggests that incomplete methylation of As to DMAs, resulting in increased MMAs, is associated with increased risk for a host of As-related health outcomes. The biochemical pathway that provides methyl groups for As methylation, one-carbon metabolism (OCM), is influenced ...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 23, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Saxena R, Bozack AK, Gamble MV Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Nutritional Regulation of Intestinal Stem Cells.
l;H Abstract Dietary composition and calorie intake are major determinants of health and disease. Calorie restriction promotes metabolic changes that favor tissue regeneration and is arguably the most successful and best-conserved antiaging intervention. Obesity, in contrast, impairs tissue homeostasis and is a major risk factor for the development of diseases including cancer. Stem cells, the central mediators of tissue regeneration, integrate dietary and energy cues via nutrient-sensing pathways to maintain growth or respond to stress. We discuss emerging data on the effects of diet and nutrient-sensing pathways...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 23, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Alonso S, Yilmaz ÖH Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Intestinal Absorption of Fructose.
Abstract Increased understanding of fructose metabolism, which begins with uptake via the intestine, is important because fructose now constitutes a physiologically significant portion of human diets and is associated with increased incidence of certain cancers and metabolic diseases. New insights in our knowledge of intestinal fructose absorption mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT5 in the apical membrane and by GLUT2 in the basolateral membrane are reviewed. We begin with studies related to structure as well as ligand binding, then revisit the controversial proposition that apical GLUT2 is the ...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ferraris RP, Choe JY, Patel CR Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

Apocarotenoids: Emerging Roles in Mammals.
Abstract Apocarotenoids are cleavage products of C40 isoprenoid pigments, named carotenoids, synthesized exclusively by plants and microorganisms. The colors of flowers and fruits and the photosynthetic process are examples of the biological properties conferred by carotenoids to these organisms. Mammals do not synthesize carotenoids but obtain them from foods of plant origin. Apocarotenoids are generated upon enzymatic and nonenzymatic cleavage of the parent compounds both in plants and in the tissues of mammals that have ingested carotenoid-containing foods. The best-characterized apocarotenoids are retinoids (v...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 11, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Harrison EH, Quadro L Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research

The Obesity Paradox in Cancer: How Important Is Muscle?
Abstract Although higher body mass index (BMI) increases cancer incidence, it is associated with improved survival among patients with existing disease; thus, the relationship of BMI with mortality in cancer patients is often U-shaped, which is termed the obesity paradox. This review discusses possible explanations for the obesity paradox, the prevalence and consequences of low muscle mass in cancer patients, and future research directions. It is unlikely that methodological biases, such as reverse causality or confounding, fully explain the obesity paradox. Rather, up to a point, higher BMI may truly be associate...
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition - May 4, 2018 Category: Nutrition Authors: Cespedes Feliciano EM, Kroenke CH, Caan BJ Tags: Annu Rev Nutr Source Type: research