ALPPS Improves Survival Compared With TSH in Patients Affected of CRLM: Survival Analysis From the Randomized Controlled Trial LIGRO
Objective: To evaluate the oncological outcome for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) randomized to associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) or 2-stage hepatectomy (TSH). Background: TSH with portal vein occlusion is an established method for patients with CRLM and a low volume of the future liver remnant (FLR). ALPPS is a less established method. The oncological outcome of these methods has not been previously compared in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: One hundred patients with CRLM and standardized FLR (sFLR) (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - February 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS Source Type: research

A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Safety, Efficacy, and Cost-effectiveness of the Surgisis Anal Fistula Plug Versus Surgeon's Preference for Transsphincteric Fistula-in-Ano: The FIAT Trial
Conclusions: The Biodesign Surgisis anal fistula plug is associated with similar FIQoL and healing rates to surgeon's preference at 12 months. Higher costs and highly uncertain gains in QALYs mean that the fistula plug may not be considered as a cost-effective treatment in the UK NHS. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - February 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS Source Type: research

Enhanced Stress Resilience Training in Surgeons: Iterative Adaptation and Biopsychosocial Effects in 2 Small Randomized Trials
Conclusions: This pilot work suggests ESRT can variably benefit executive function, burnout, and physiologic distress in PGY-1 trainees, with potential for tailoring to optimize effects. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - February 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS Source Type: research

Meta-analysis on Serial Intervals and Reproductive Rates for SARS-CoV-2
Conclusions: The study findings indicate that one SARS-CoV-2-infected person is likely to infect 3 persons, supporting that COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease. As an essential objective metrics implied in risk assessment for this emerging pandemic, monitoring R0 and Re is necessary to indicate the effectiveness or failures of mitigation efforts. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - February 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: COVID-19 Source Type: research

Increase in Pediatric Perforated Appendicitis in the New York City Metropolitan Region at the Epicenter of the COVID-19 Outbreak
Conclusions: Children in the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak demonstrated higher rates of perforated appendicitis compared to historical controls. Preoperative detection of SARS-CoV-2 was not associated with inferior outcomes. Although children likely avoid much of the morbidity directly linked to COVID-19, disruption to local healthcare delivery systems may negatively impact other aspects of pediatric surgical disease. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - February 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: COVID-19 Source Type: research

Percutaneous and Open Tracheostomy in Patients with COVID-19: Comparison and Outcomes of an Institutional Series in New York City
Conclusions: Tracheostomy under apneic conditions by either percutaneous or open technique can be safely performed in patients with respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Tracheostomy facilitated weaning from continuous intravenous sedation and mechanical ventilation. Continued follow-up of these patients to ascertain long-term outcome data is ongoing. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - February 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: COVID-19 Source Type: research

Getting the Right Outcome for Bleeding Interventions: A Call to the FDA
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - February 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: FEATURES Source Type: research

Evidence-Based and Clinically Relevant Outcomes for Hemorrhage Control Trauma Trials
Conclusions: For patients suffering hemorrhagic shock, and especially from truncal hemorrhage, the recommended primary outcome was 3 to 6-hour all-cause mortality, chosen to coincide with the physiology of hemorrhagic death and to avoid bias from competing risks. Particular attention was recommended to injury and treatment time, as well as robust assessments of multiple safety related outcomes. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - February 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: FEATURES Source Type: research

It can Happen to US… Surgeons and the Reality of Intimate Partner Violence
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - February 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: FEATURES Source Type: research

Intimate Partner Violence Among Surgeons: We are Not Immune
Objective: The incidence and risk factors for IPV are not well-studied among surgeons. We sought to fill this gap in knowledge by surveying surgeons to estimate the incidence and identify risk factors associated with IPV. Summary of Background Data: An estimated 36.4% of women and 33.6% of men in the United States have experienced IPV. Risk factors include low SES, non-White ethnicity, psychiatric disorders, alcohol and drug abuse, and history of childhood abuse. Families with higher SES are not exempt from IPV, yet there is very little data examining incidence and risk factors among these populations. Method...
Source: Annals of Surgery - February 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: FEATURES Source Type: research

Comment on “Efficacy of a Standardized Perioperative Clinical Care Pathway for Below Knee Amputation”
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: BRIEF CLINICAL REPORTS Source Type: research

Efficacy of a Standardized Perioperative Clinical Care Pathway for Below Knee Amputation
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: BRIEF CLINICAL REPORTS Source Type: research

Pediatric Liver Transplantation in a Center That is Neither East Nor West
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: BRIEF CLINICAL REPORTS Source Type: research

The Largest Single Center Report on Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Experiences and Lessons Learned
We described our experiences on pediatric liver transplantation (LT) from the largest LT center in the world termed the Shiraz Transplant Center. Background: After the first successful pediatric LT in 1967, pediatric LT has become the routine treatment for children with liver failure worldwide. Methods: Data on a total of 1141 pediatric cases of LT were collected. Specifics on baseline and anthropometric characteristics, clinicopathology, prognosis of recipients of LT, and donor characteristics are reported. Results: Mean age of patients was 7.83 ± 5.55 years old. Most common etiologies for ...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: BRIEF CLINICAL REPORTS Source Type: research

Comment on “Intraoperative Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging With Indocyanine Green Can Identify Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas”
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: BRIEF CLINICAL REPORTS Source Type: research

Intraoperative Near-infrared Fluorescence (NIR) Imaging With Indocyanine Green (ICG) Can Identify Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas Which May Provide Guidance for Oncological Resection
Conclusion: This is the first report of NIR fluorescence guidance in the setting of open sarcoma surgery. The technique is acceptable to patients and surgeons and was able to guide resection. Multicenter studies are required to assess the utility of this technique in a large cohort of patients with regards to quantification of fluorescence, resection guidance, and longer follow-up period. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: BRIEF CLINICAL REPORTS Source Type: research

How We Did It: Creating Virtual Interviews for Postgraduate Medical Trainee Recruitment and Keeping it Personal
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

Successful Virtual Interviews: Perspectives From Recent Surgical Fellowship Applicants and Advice for Both Applicants and Programs
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

It's OK to Ask for Help: Destigmatizing Mentoring for Junior Surgeons
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

The Development of a Surgical Care and Climate Change Matrix: A Tool to Assist With Prioritization and Implementation Strategies
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

A Crucial Moment for Reflection on the Importance of Ethical Leadership in Academic Medicine
The extreme disturbances caused by the COVID -19 pandemic on our academic medical centers compounded by a recurrent surge of violence against people of color have reopened our wounds exposing fragility, inequality, and continued racial disparities in society and health. At the center of this severe institutional disruption, leaders will be compelled to take action to keep their constituents and patients safe and their hospitals and departments afloat during and after a pandemic, all while simultaneously addressing and implementing the cultural changes required to eliminate systemic racism and discrimination. Organizational...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: SURGICAL PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

Death Comes Calling: When the Physician Becomes the Patient
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: COVID-19 Source Type: research

The Patient's Perspective on Returning to Elective Surgery After COVID-19
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: COVID-19 Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Elective Surgery: 7 Practical Tips for a Safe, Successful, and Sustainable Reboot
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: COVID-19 Source Type: research

Let's Get Uncomfortable
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: EQUITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE Source Type: research

One Size Does Not Fit All – Translating Knowledge to Bridge the Gaps to Diversity and Inclusion of Surgical Teams
Diverse teams have proven their ability to reach superior performance and improve patients’ outcomes. Nevertheless, differences in race, gender, age, nationality, skills, education, and experience act as powerful barriers to diversity and inclusion, which negatively impacts multiple healthcare organizations and limit the potential outcome of diverse teams. Knowledge Translation (KT) can help to bridge the gaps among all the various individuals involved, whether they be members of the surgical team or surgical patients. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: EQUITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE Source Type: research

Of Capes and White Coats: Championing Diversity and Inclusion in Medicine
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: EQUITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE Source Type: research

Best Buy in Public Health or Luxury Expense?: The Cost-effectiveness of a Pediatric Operating Room in Uganda From the Societal Perspective
Conclusion: Our model ICER suggests that the construction and maintenance of a dedicated pediatric operating room in sub-Saharan Africa is very-cost effective if hospital space and personnel pre-exist to staff the facility. This supports infrastructure implementation for surgery in sub-Saharan Africa as a worthwhile investment. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Characteristics of 1116 Consecutive Patients Diagnosed With Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES)
Conclusion: A combination of typical findings in history and physical examination, combined with a positive modified rectus sheath block, may allow for diagnosing ACNES in patients with chronic abdominal pain. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Long-term Comparison of Recurrence Rates Between Different Lightweight and Heavyweight Meshes in Open Anterior Mesh Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Nationwide Population-based Register Study
Objective: To compare the reoperation rate for recurrence of different lightweight to heavyweight meshes after an open anterior mesh (OAM) inguinal hernia repair. Summary Background Data: Lightweight meshes have shown benefits compared with heavyweight meshes in terms of accelerated recovery after surgery with less postoperative pain. The use of such meshes may, however, be associated with an increase in hernia recurrence. Studies of large cohorts with long-term follow-up regarding recurrence are lacking. Methods: All OAM groin hernia repairs registered in The Swedish Hernia Register between January 1, 20...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Prehospital Blood Product and Crystalloid Resuscitation in the Severely Injured Patient: A Secondary Analysis of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma Trial
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether prehospital blood products reduce 30-day mortality in patients at risk for hemorrhagic shock compared with crystalloid only resuscitation. Summary of Background Data: Hemorrhage is the primary cause of preventable death after injury. Large volume crystalloid resuscitation can be deleterious. The benefits of prehospital packed red blood cells (PRBCs), plasma, or transfusion of both products among trauma patients is unknown compared with crystalloid. Methods: Secondary analysis of the multicenter PAMPer trial was performed on hypotensive injured pati...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

A Nationwide Population-based Study From Taiwan Assessing the Influence of Preventable Hospitalization Rate on Mortality After Oncologic Surgery
Objective: To determine the effect of a previously unassessed measure of quality—preventable hospitalization rate—on mortality after oncologic surgery for 4 procedures with established volume–outcome relationships. We hypothesize that hospitals with higher preventable hospitalization rates (indicating poor quality of primary care) have increased hospital mortality. Additionally, patients having surgery at hospitals with higher preventable hospitalization rates have increased mortality. Summary Background Data: Although different factors have been used to measure healthcare quality, most have no...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Factors Predicting Response, Perioperative Outcomes, and Survival Following Total Neoadjuvant Therapy for Borderline/Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
Conclusion: Our TNT experience in resected BR/LA PDAC revealed high negative margin rates despite low radiologic downstaging. Extended duration chemotherapy with associated biochemical and pathologic responses highly predicted postoperative survival. Potential modifications of initial chemotherapy treatment include extending cycle duration to normalize CA19-9 or achieve complete metabolic response, or consideration of chemotherapeutic switch in order to achieve these factors may improve survival before moving forward with CRT and subsequent resection. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Updated Alternative Fistula Risk Score (ua-FRS) to Include Minimally Invasive Pancreatoduodenectomy: Pan-European Validation
Conclusions: The updated a-FRS (www.pancreascalculator.com) now includes male sex as a risk factor and is validated for both MIPD and open pancreatoduodenectomy. The increased risk of POPF in laparoscopic MIPD was associated with single-row pancreatojejunostomy, which should therefore be discouraged. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Twenty Years of Gut Transplantation for Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction: Technical Innovation, Long-term Outcome, Quality of Life, and Disease Recurrence
Conclusions: GT is life-saving for patients with end-stage CIPO and HPN-associated complications. Long-term survival is achievable with better quality of life and low risk of disease recurrence. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Surgeon Quality Control and Standardization of D2 Lymphadenectomy for Gastric Cancer: A Prospective Multicenter Observational Study (KLASS-02-QC)
Objective: To qualify surgeons to participate in a randomized trial comparing laparoscopic and open distal D2 gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer. Summary of Background Data: No studies have sought to qualify surgeons for a randomized trial comparing laparoscopic and open D2 gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer. Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective observational study evaluating unedited videos of laparoscopic and open D2 gastrectomy performed by 27 surgeons. Surgeons performed 3 of each laparoscopic and open distal gastrectomies with D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. Five peers rev...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Chronic Abdominal Pain After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Cohort Study
Conclusions: One in 10 patients undergoing RYGB surgery developed chronic abdominal pain requiring strong analgesics, and one in five suffered from severe abdominal pain. Risk factors were preoperative use of strong analgesics, unemployment, postoperative complications, and smoking. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Prospective Comparison of the Prognostic Relevance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Blood and Disseminated Tumor Cells in Bone Marrow of a Single Patient's Cohort With Esophageal Cancer
Objective: Aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in 1 cohort of patients with esophageal cancer (EC). Background: Hematogenous tumor cell dissemination is a key event in tumor progression, and clinical significance of DTCs and CTCs are controversially discussed in the literature. However, evaluation of both biomarker in 1 patient's cohort has not been described before. Methods: In this prospective, single-center study, 76 patients with preoperatively nonmetastatic staged EC were included. The CellSear...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Predicting Acute Pain After Surgery: A Multivariate Analysis
Conclusion: The presented analysis offers detailed insight into current practice patterns and reveals modifications that can be implemented in today's clinical practice. Our results also suggest that parameters other than those currently studied are relevant for postoperative pain including biological and psychological variables. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

A National Comparison of Operative Outcomes of New and Experienced Surgeons
Objective: To determine whether outcomes achieved by new surgeons are attributable to inexperience or to differences in the context in which care is delivered and patient complexity. Background: Although prior studies suggest that new surgeon outcomes are worse than those of experienced surgeons, factors that underlie these phenomena are poorly understood. Methods: A nationwide observational tapered matching study of outcomes of Medicare patients treated by new and experienced surgeons in 1221 US hospitals (2009–2013). The primary outcome studied is 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were examined...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research

Reinventing Extremity Amputation in the Era of Functional Limb Restoration
Conclusions: We propose a reinvention of the manner in which limb amputations are performed, framed in the context of time-tested reconstructive techniques, as well as novel, state-of-the-art surgical procedures. Implementation of the proposed techniques in the acute setting has the potential to elevate advanced limb replacement strategies to a clinical solution that perhaps exceeds what is possible through traditional surgical approaches to limb salvage. We therefore argue that amputation, performed with the intent of optimizing the residuum for interaction with either a bionic or a transplanted limb, should be viewed...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: REVIEW PAPERS Source Type: research

Metabolomic Profiling for Diagnosis and Prognostication in Surgery: A Scoping Review
Conclusions: Metabolomic profiling research would benefit from standardization of study design and analytic approaches. As technologies improve and knowledge garnered from research accumulates, metabolomic profiling has the potential to provide personalized diagnostic and prognostic information to support surgical decision-making from preoperative to postdischarge phases of care. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: REVIEW PAPERS Source Type: research

Treatment for Infected Pancreatic Necrosis Should be Delayed, Possibly Avoiding an Open Surgical Approach: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis
Conclusions: The first choice for suspected IPN seemed to be SUA-EnD. An alternative could be SUA-DD. PL, ED, and DD should be avoided. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: META-ANALYSES Source Type: research

Meta-analysis and Meta-regression of Survival After Liver Transplantation for Unresectable Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma
Conclusions: In unresectable pCC, NCR-OLT confers long-term survival in highly selected patients able to complete neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by transplantation. PSC patients appear to have the most favorable outcomes. A high recurrence rate is of concern when considering extending national graft selection policy to pCC. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: META-ANALYSES Source Type: research

Randomized Controlled Trial of Compression After Endovenous Thermal Ablation of Varicose Veins (COMETA Trial)
Conclusions: These results indicate that wearing compression stockings after endothermal ablation is advantageous in the first few days after treatment and is especially beneficial for those having concurrent phlebectomies. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS Source Type: research

Drain Placement After Uncomplicated Hepatic Resection Increases Severe Postoperative Complication Rate: A Japanese Multi-institutional Randomized Controlled Trial (ND-trial)
Objective: To assess the clinical impact of a no-drain policy after hepatic resection. Summary of Background Data: Previous randomized controlled trials addressing no-drain policy after hepatic resection seem inconclusive because they did not adopt appropriate study design to validate its true clinical impact. Methods: This unblinded, randomized controlled trial was done at 7 Japanese institutions. Patients undergoing hepatic resection without biliary reconstruction were randomized to either D group or ND group. When the risk of postoperative bile leakage or hemorrhage were considered high, the patients w...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS Source Type: research

Short-term Outcomes of Single-port Versus Multiport Laparoscopic Surgery for Colon Cancer: The SIMPLE Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial
Objective: To compare short-term perioperative outcomes of single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) and multiport laparoscopic surgery (MPLS) for colon cancer. Summary Background Data: Although many studies reported short- and long-term outcomes of SPLS for colon cancer compared with MPLS, few have reported results of randomized controlled trials. Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial with a noninferiority design. It was conducted between August 2011 and June 2017 at 7 sites in Korea. A total of 388 adults (aged 19–85 yrs) with clinical stage I, II, or III adenocar...
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS Source Type: research

A Risk Model of Admitting Patients With Silent SARS-CoV-2 Infection to Surgery and Development of Severe Postoperative Outcomes and Death: Projections Over 24 Months for 5 Geographical Regions
Conclusions: The model highlights a considerable risk of admitting patients with silent COVID-19 to surgery with an associated risk for adverse perioperative outcomes and deaths. Strategies to avoid excessive complications and deaths after surgery during the pandemic are needed. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: COVID-19 Source Type: research

Underrepresentation of Racial Minorities in Breast Surgery Literature: A Call for Increased Diversity and Inclusion
Conclusions: There is insufficient racial diversity visually represented in the breast-related plastic surgery literature with a small degree of progress made towards more equitable imagery over time. Increasing awareness of image content, and the need for equitable visual representation may allow for improved racial diversity in surgical literature. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: EQUITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE Source Type: research

Underemployment of Female Surgeons?
Conclusions: Female surgeons perform less complex cases than their male peers, even after accounting for subspecialty and seniority. These sex differences are not due to availability from competing professional or familial obligations. Future work should focus on determining the cause and mitigating this underemployment of female surgeons. (Source: Annals of Surgery)
Source: Annals of Surgery - January 18, 2021 Category: Surgery Tags: EQUITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE Source Type: research