One-Step Salvage of Infected Prosthetic Breast Reconstructions Using Antibiotic-Impregnated Polymethylmethacrylate Plates and Concurrent Tissue Expander Exchange
Conclusions: Sustained local antibiotic delivery using PMMA implants and expander device exchange can successfully salvage an infected breast implant. Perceived benefits include shorter time to completed reconstruction, preserved skin envelope integrity, and possibly improved long-term aesthetic outcomes. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - August 13, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Breast Surgery Source Type: research

Buttock Reshaping With Intramuscular Gluteal Augmentation in an Asian Ethnic Group: A Six-Year Experience With 130 Patients
Abstract: Although the definition of what constitutes “beautiful buttocks” has been changing with time, the buttocks are generally perceived as an important element of sexual attraction and beauty in every culture. In Asian culture, “beautiful buttocks” are defined by an aggregate of the following 4 components: S-shaped curvature from the lower back to the buttocks, sufficient muscle volume, sufficient fat volume, and appropriate skin elasticity. The goal of our gluteal augmentation was therefore to restore the back curvature, provide sufficient hip volume (projection), and reposition the point of m...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - August 13, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Aesthetic Surgery Source Type: research

Tip-Oriented Closed Rhinoplasty Built on Septocolumellar Suture and a New Caudal Septal Graft Technique
Conclusions: The septocolumellar suture combined with caudal septal graft in closed rhinoplasty substantially facilitates the achievement of a cosmetically and functionally pleasing end result, bringing the solution for a wide array of problems such as short nose, supratip deformity, nasolabial angle change, or columellar bowing. Nevertheless, the technique has a steep learning curve; therefore, a meticulous preoperative evaluation should be exerted, a precise surgical planning should be prosecuted, and an excessive reduction of the nasal tip or exaggerated columellar retraction should be avoided. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - August 13, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Aesthetic Surgery Source Type: research

Course Review: North East Microsurgery Training Course and Workshop: A New Two Day Microsurgery Course for Trainees in Plastic Surgery, Otolaryngology and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Abstract: Undertaking a microsurgical course is a key adjunct to trainee development in plastic surgery, otololaryngology and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Traditionally, these courses last approximately 5 days and can cost upward of US $2000 (£1500). The North East Microsurgery Training Course and Workshop is a new 2-day course costing just US $760 (£500). This course was set up in 2015 by reconstructive microsurgeon Mr Maniram Ragbir at the Freeman Hospital in Newcastle, England. The aim of the course is provide maximum hands-on experience in microsurgery for surgical trainees interested in relevant speci...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - August 13, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Circumspectus Medicinae: Text and Context Source Type: research

Citations From Commercial Media and Medical Literature
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - August 13, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcomes of Failed Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Letters and Invited Commentary Source Type: research

Triggering of the Digits After Carpal Tunnel Surgery
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Letters and Invited Commentary Source Type: research

Plastic Surgery and the Affordable Care Act
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Letters and Invited Commentary Source Type: research

Pyoderma Gangrenosum After Breast Surgery: Diagnostic Pearls and Treatment Recommendations Based on a Systematic Literature Review
Conclusions: Pertinent clinical features were identified that may aid in timely diagnosis and treatment of PG after breast surgery. Appearance of discrete wounds involving multiple surgical sites that surround but spare the nipples should raise suspicion for PG rather than infection or ischemia, even with concomitant fever and leukocytosis. Wound debridement should be minimized and skin grafting considered only after medical therapy is initiated. Cognizance of these features may enable prompt therapeutic intervention that minimizes morbidity and improves outcomes. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Impact of Breast Implant Location on the Risk of Capsular Contraction
Conclusion: This analysis demonstrated a more than 2-fold increase in the risk of capsular contraction with subglandular compared to submuscular breast implant location. Clinical Question: Risk (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Effects of Rat Bone Marrow–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Demineralized Bone Matrix on Cranial Bone Healing
Conclusions: Allogeneic rMSC applications have created a statistically significant radiologic reduction of the bone defect areas at the end of the 12 weeks. The MSC applications have also increased the bone density and changed the healing patterns. Combined use of the DBM and rMSCs has created more osteoinductive responses. This combination can provide better results in craniofacial bone reconstruction. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Transplantation Surgery and Research Source Type: research

A Meta-analysis of Outcomes Using Acellular Dermal Matrix in Breast and Abdominal Wall Reconstructions: Event Rates and Risk Factors Predictive of Complications
Conclusion: This study evaluates the overall complication rates associated with ADM use by conducting a meta-analysis of published data. This will offer physicians a single comprehensive source of information during informed consent discussions as well as an awareness of the risk factors predictive of complications. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Is It Possible to Increase Flap Viability by Hydrostatic Dilation?: An Experimental Study in the Rat Abdominal Fasciocutaneous Flap Model
Introduction: Ergun et al previously demonstrated the efficacy of hydrostatic dilation in a TRAM flap model in an experimental study. We investigated the effect of hydrostatic dilation on a fasciocutaneous flap model. Methods: Eighteen female Wistar rats were equally divided into 3 groups, of which 1 served as a control. In the second, the abdominal fasciocutaneous flap surgical delay procedure was performed by division of the left superficial inferior epigastric (SIE) vessels. In the third, hydrostatic dilation was performed on the left SIE artery and vein, with a mean pressure of 300 mm Hg, while elevating the flap on t...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Chlorogenic Acid Enhances Abdominal Skin Flap Survival Based on Epigastric Artery in Nondiabetic and Diabetic Rats
This study showed that CGA significantly improved flap survival by its antioxidant activities with intra-arterial local injections. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Extracorporal Shock Wave Therapy as a Delay Procedure to Improve Viability of Zone 4: An Experimental Study in a Rat TRAM Flap Model
Background: The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that preoperative application of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) as a delay procedure would improve the survival of zone 4 of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap and reduce the resulting necrotic area. Methods: Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomized and divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 8 each). Caudally based TRAM flap model, with the right rectus abdominis muscle as the carrier and right inferior epigastric vessels as the vascular pedicle, was used in this study. In group 1 (control), after being raised, the TRA...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone) on Random Pattern Skin Flap Survival in Rat Model
In this study, the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CQ10) on flap survival was investigated. Methods: Fifty Wistar Albino rats were divided into 5 groups. The survival rates of the skin flaps were assessed 10 days after complete elevation of the flaps. Regions of survival and necrosis were drawn on transparent acetate sheets and scanned into a computer. Tissue samples were assessed histopathologically after staining with hematoxylin-eosin, vascular endothelial growth factor staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-Biotin Nick End-labeling staining. To evaluate the antioxidant effect of ...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

The Protective Effects of Botulinum Toxin A Against Flap Necrosis After Perforator Twisting and Its Underlying Molecular Mechanism in a Rat Model
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine our hypotheses that botulinum toxin A (BoTA) protect necrosis of perforator flap from perforator twisting. Methods: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Twelve International Units of BoTA versus 1.2 mL normal saline was injected subdermally 3 days before flap elevation. In each group, bilateral before deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps, 5 × 3 cm in size, were created. The right and left (180 and 360 degrees of perforator twisting) DIEP flaps were separated. At 1 and 3 days postoperatively, skin above the perforator of the DIEP flaps was...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Understanding and Optimizing the Patient Experience in Breast Reconstruction
Conclusions: Patients undergoing breast reconstruction perceive significant gaps in their knowledge and understanding of expected outcomes. Immediate reconstruction patients and minority racial groups may require additional resources and attention. As a means to improve quality of care, these findings highlight an important unmet need and suggest that improving patient education may be central to providing patient-centered care. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Plastic Surgery Residents' Understanding and Attitudes Toward Biostatistics: A National Survey
Background: An understanding of biostatistics is a critical skill for the practicing plastic surgeon. The purpose of the present study was to assess plastic surgery residents' attitudes and understanding of biostatistics. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of plastic surgery residents. A survey assessing resident attitudes regarding biostatistics, confidence with biostatistical concepts, and objective knowledge of biostatistics was distributed electronically to trainees in plastic surgery programs in the United States. Bivariate and regression analyses were used to identify significant associations and adjust for c...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

The Impact of Financial Conflicts of Interest in Plastic Surgery: Are They All Created Equal?
Background: Recently, several studies have demonstrated that articles that disclose conflicts of interests (COI) are associated with publication of positive results. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the different types of COI as they relate to the general topic of COI in plastic surgery. Specifically, we aimed to examine whether different types of COI are more likely than others to be associated with the presentation of positive findings. Methods: We reviewed all original articles in Annals of Plastic Surgery, Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, and Plastic & Reconstructive Surg...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Primary On-top Plasty for Treatment of Short-type Postaxial Polydactyly of the Foot
Conclusions: This on-top procedure is useful for improving toe lengthening and bone alignment correction with minimal functional disturbance. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Reconstructive Surgery Source Type: research

Outcomes After Combined Radical Resection and Targeted Biologic Therapy for the Management of Recalcitrant Hidradenitis Suppurativa
We present our experience with combined biologic and surgical therapy for recalcitrant HS. Methods: Between 2011 and 2014, 21 patients (57 cases) with Hurley Stage III HS underwent radical resection with delayed primary closure alone, or in combination with adjuvant biologic therapy. Demographic data, treatment regimen, outcomes, and complications were retrospectively reviewed for all cases. Results: Eleven patients underwent combined surgical and biologic therapy, whereas radical resection alone was performed in 10 patients. The average soft tissue deficit, before closure, for the combined and surgery-only patients was ...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Reconstructive Surgery Source Type: research

Indocyanine Green Lymphographic Signs of Lymphatic Collateral Formation in Lower Extremity Lymphedema After Cancer Resection
Abstract: Indocyanine green lymphography has recently been used to assess lymphatic vessel function in lymphedema patients. Postoperative collateral lymphatic vessels toward ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes are rarely seen above the umbilical level in lower lymphedema patients. Between January 2012 and December 2014, we performed indocyanine green lymphography of 192 limbs in 96 lower extremity lymphedema cases. As a result, dermal back flow appeared in 95 cases, with 38 in the lower abdominal area and 31 in the genital area. We confirmed 3 cases of superficial lymphatic collateral ways extending above the umbilical level ...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Reconstructive Surgery Source Type: research

Comparison of Neurosensory Assessment Methods in Plastic Surgery
Abstract: Sensory assessment of the skin is essential to document the function of the sensory fibers of the tested nerves. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, disk-criminator, electrodiagnostic testing, and Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (PSSD) have been currently used to assess sensory function of peripheral nerves. None of these methods is optimal because of different drawbacks; however, an increasing number of articles, which recognize the reliability of PSSD, have been published during the last decade. In this review, following a short overview on basic physiology and assessment methods of the skin sensory receptors...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Peripheral Nerve Surgery and Research Source Type: research

Preoperative Imaging for Thoracic Branch of Supraclavicular Artery Flap: A Comparative Study of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound With Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Color Duplex Ultrasound
Conclusions: The branches of SCA have marked anatomical variations. CEUS with 3D reconstruction has advantages over CDUS for the preoperative assessment of the donor-site vascular supply of TBSA flaps. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Microsurgery Source Type: research

Surgical Treatment and Recurrence of Cutaneous Nasal Malignancies: A 26-Year Retrospective Review of 1795 Patients
Abstract: Frequent localization of facial malignancies in the nasal area and their required complete surgical extirpation pose a significant challenge to the plastic surgeon, who is called to perform a suitable delicate reconstruction of produced nasal skin defects. The present study was aimed to examine the role of tumor characteristics in the prognosis of patients with nasal skin cancer undergoing surgical management. A retrospective review of 1795 patients operated on for nasal cutaneous neoplasms during a 26-year period is presented in our study. Descriptive statistics were appropriately calculated; multivariate Cox r...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Head and Neck Surgery Source Type: research

Strategies for the Optimal Individualized Surgical Management of Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia
Background: The surgical management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is controversial. The purpose of this study was to report the surgical outcomes of individualized management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia of a single institution. Methods: Data from patients (n = 20) with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, who were surgically treated between 2007 and 2014, were analyzed. Surgical approach (radical or conservative surgery) was individualized according to age, craniofacial anatomical site (zones I to IV of Chen and Noordhoff), functional issues, aesthetic impairment, patients/parents’ preferences, and surgical tea...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Head and Neck Surgery Source Type: research

Comprehensive and Global Approach of Soft-Tissue Deformities in Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Conclusions: According to the experience and surgical outcomes presented in this study, the soft-tissue surgical approach of the craniofacial NF-1 should be global, comprehensive, and individualized. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Head and Neck Surgery Source Type: research

Surgical Technique for Whistler Deformity Repair in Bilateral Cleft Lip Patients: An Anthropometric Study
Conclusions: The findings suggest that the proposed technique is a good alternative to address the whistler deformity related to the bilateral cleft lip primary repair. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Head and Neck Surgery Source Type: research

Facial Artery Perforator and Depressor Anguli Oris Muscle Chimeric Flap: A New Design of an Old Flap
Conclusions: The facial artery perforator and depressor angel oris muscle chimeric flap is a valuable option for reconstruction of lower lip defects providing esthetically and functionally good results. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Head and Neck Surgery Source Type: research

Reconstruction of Large Cheek Defect With/Without Sideburn Using Malar-Posterior Auricular-Cervico Flap
In conclusion, we recommend our malar-posterior auricular-cervico flap to reconstruct the tissue defects of approximately 20 to 40 cm2 after tumor excision in the cheek region. If preauricular skin is included in the design of this flap, the sideburn can be reconstructed using a part of the nape region with hair. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Head and Neck Surgery Source Type: research

Flexor Tenosynovitis Due to Tuberculosis in Hand and Wrist: Is Tenosynovectomy Imperative?
Abstract: The treatment of flexor tenosynovitis in the hand and wrist due to tuberculosis is controversial. Although some authors recommend the antituberculous chemotherapy, the others recommend the surgical treatment. In this article, 12 patients with synovial tuberculosis of the flexor aspect of the hand and the wrist were evaluated with respect to diagnosis and treatment modalities. None of the patients had a history of tuberculosis, concomitant disease, immunosuppressive drug use, drug abuse, and human immunodefficiency virus positivity. A chest x-ray and family screening were performed in all of the cases, none had ev...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Hand Surgery Source Type: research

Amifostine Treatment Mitigates the Damaging Effects of Radiation on Distraction Osteogenesis in the Murine Mandible
Abstract: According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, in 2012, more than 53,000 new cases of head and neck cancers (HNCs) were reported in the United States alone and nearly 12,000 deaths occurred relating to HNC. Although radiotherapy (XRT) has increased survival, the adverse effects can be unrelenting and their management is rarely remedial. Current treatment dictates surgical mandibular reconstruction using free tissue transfer. These complex operations entail extended hospitalizations and attendant complications often lead to delays in initiation of adjuvant therapy, jeopardizing prognosis as well as qualit...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Burn Surgery and Research Source Type: research

Wound Healing Effect of Conditioned Media Obtained From Adipose Tissue on Human Skin Cells: A Comparative in Vitro Study
In this study, the effect of conditioned media (CMs) of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), adipocytes, or adipose tissue on human skin cells was evaluated for viability, proliferation, and migration in vitro. Differentiation potential of stem cells treated with CM was monitored by AdipoRed staining and qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Angiogenic potential of human endothelial cells treated with CM was tested via sprouting assay. Results: The CM of adipose tissue significantly enhanced ASC proliferation (P
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Burn Surgery and Research Source Type: research

Inverted Nipple With Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy
Conclusions: The simple method of baseline suturing that only tightens the nipple base with nipple-sparing mastectomy has been used in our center over a 10-year period in patients with breast cancer and an inverted nipple. The retractile duct or fibrous cord was completely cut with nipple-sparing mastectomy, and over 70% of inverted nipples in the patients were improved and maintained with only the tightening of the base of the nipple. Our results show that inverted nipple is caused by tight fibrous band or short duct rather than a lack of subareolar tissue. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Breast Surgery Source Type: research

Patient Satisfaction and Nipple-Areola Sensitivity After Bilateral Prophylactic Mastectomy and Immediate Implant Breast Reconstruction in a High Breast Cancer Risk Population: Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy Versus Skin-Sparing Mastectomy
Background: Prophylactic skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) both are associated with major risk reduction in women with high breast cancer risk. Skin-sparing mastectomy followed by nipple-areola complex (NAC) reconstruction is standard of care, but NSM is increasingly being performed. Preservation of the NAC in NSM may increase patient satisfaction. Therefore, we measured NAC sensitivity after NSM and compared patient satisfaction as well as body image after SSM with NSM. Methods: Women who underwent prophylactic bilateral SSM or NSM and immediate implant breast reconstruction between 2002 a...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Breast Surgery Source Type: research

Reduction Malarplasty With Face-Lift for Older Asians With Prominent Zygoma
Conclusions: The reduction malarplasty combined with face-lift effectively addressed the malar prominence and midface aging issues simultaneously. Therefore, this can be a useful technique to restore the youthful and proportionate facial relationships in older Asian patients. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Aesthetic Surgery Source Type: research

Book Review: Review of Plastic Surgery
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Circumspectus Medicinae: Text and Context Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Regulations
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - July 19, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Comparison of Delayed and Immediate Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction in the Setting of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Letters and Invited Commentary Source Type: research

Medical Student and Primary Care Physician Perception of the Surgical Management of Upper- and Lower-Extremity Peripheral Nerve Entrapment
No abstract available (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Letters and Invited Commentary Source Type: research

Functional Donor Site Morbidity After Vascularized Toe Transfer Procedures: A Review of the Literature and Biomechanical Consideration for Surgical Site Selection
Background: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and pooled analysis of vascularized toe-to-hand transfer to determine functional donor site morbidity among different techniques. Methods: Pubmed MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases search yielded 302 citations, with 56 meeting inclusion criteria. Pooled outcomes and analysis are reported based on donor site morbidity, specific toe transferred, technique used, and foot biomechanical changes. Results: A total of 802 digit transfers (418 isolated great toe transfers, 324 isolated second toe transfers, and 153 toes classified as “other”...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Anatomic Basis for Penis Transplantation: Cadaveric Microdissection of Penile Structures
We present a cadaveric dissection study to investigate the anatomic feasibility of penile transplantation. Seventeen male cadavers were dissected to reveal detailed anatomy of the dorsal neurovascular structures including dorsal arteries, superficial and deep dorsal veins, and dorsal nerves of the penis. Dorsal artery diameters showed a significant decrease from proximal to distal shaft. Dominance was observed in one side. Deep dorsal vein showed a straight course and less decrease in diameter compared to artery. Dorsal nerves showed proximal branching pattern. In a possible penile transplantation, level of harvest should ...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Transplantation Surgery and Research Source Type: research

Presurgical Botulinum Toxin A Treatment Increases Angiogenesis by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Subsequent Superiorly Based Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap Survival in a Rat Model
In this study, we hypothesized that pretreatment with BoTA could augment the survival of TRAM flaps via increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)–dependent angiogenesis. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a control group and a BoTA group. Five days before superiorly based TRAM flap elevation, the BoTA group was pretreated with BoTA, whereas the control group was pretreated with normal saline. Gross flap survival rates were assessed, and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were pe...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Closed Surgical Wounds With Dead Space: Animal Study Using a Swine Model
Conclusion: This study explains some of the mechanism for using NPWT in closed incision wounds with dead space. It demonstrates that NPWT significantly reduces drainage amount, increases skin perfusion, increases tensile strength, and has the tendency to promote collagen synthesis for closed wound with dead space indicating enhanced healing. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Status of Microsurgical Simulation Training in Plastic Surgery: A Survey of United States Program Directors
Discussion: There seems to be consensus that microsurgical simulation improves competence, and the majority of program directors agree it should be mandatory. Developing and implementing standardized simulation modules and assessment tools for trainees across the nation as part of a comprehensive competency-based training program for microsurgery is an important patient safety initiative that should be considered. Organizing with other departments to share facilities may improve their quality and hence utilization. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Redefining Vascular Anatomy of Posterior Tibial Artery Perforators: A Cadaveric Study and Review of the Literature
Conclusions: Clinically optimal perforators for the first time were precisely located in relation to subfascial directionality, vascular diameter, and length from the source artery. Continuous improving details of vascular anatomy will further evolve perforator flaps’ applications. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Metabolic Implications of Surgical Fat Removal: Increase of Adiponectin Plasma Levels After Reduction Mammaplasty and Abdominoplasty
Abstract: Recent studies tried to identify new indicators of risk in the development of insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome; recently, breast size has been proposed as a new measure of risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. To understand the role of breast adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue in lipidic and glucose metabolism, we decided to evaluate the variation on levels of adiponectin in plasma and other well-known metabolic markers before and after surgical fat reduction. We formed 2 groups: breast reduction group (M−) and abdominoplasty group (ADD). For all patients...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Arm Volumetry Versus Upper Extremity Lymphedema Index: Validity of Upper Extremity Lymphedema Index for Body-Type Corrected Arm Volume Evaluation
Conclusions: Arm volume significantly increased with increase of BMI, whereas UEL index stayed constant regardless of BMI. Upper extremity lymphedema index would allow better body-type corrected arm volume evaluation compared with arm volumetry. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Research Source Type: research

Modification of the Koyanagi Technique for the Single-Stage Repair of Proximal Hypospadias
We describe a modification of the Koyanagi technique for hypospadias in an attempt to reduce complications and improve results. Between January 2005 and July 2012, 21 patients underwent treatment of proximal hypospadias using a modified hypospadias repair. The procedure involved making a U-incision similar to that in a Thiersch-Duplay repair to preserve the blood supply to the tubular neourethra. The neourethra was reconstructed by island penile skin. An M-incision was made in the glans, and the meatus was attached to tip of glans. Flaps were harvested from both sides of the penis preventing postoperative penile turn. Cosm...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - May 17, 2016 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Reconstructive Surgery Source Type: research