What do we know about parasites of wildlife in high biodiversity areas with anthropogenic disturbance? The special case of Mexico.
te;nez-Carrasco C Abstract The continual rise of anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystems has been associated with an increasing incidence of emerging diseases. The largest amount of data on emerging diseases relates to bacterial and viral pathogens, but there is a lack of parasite data, especially from wildlife. Monitoring wildlife parasitic diseases should be considered a priority, especially in high biodiversity regions with strong anthropogenic impacts, like Mexico, where the wildlife/livestock/human interface is associated with increased risk of disease transmission. Mexico belongs to the top-ten megadiverse c...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Muñoz-García CI, Berriatua E, Martínez-Carrasco C Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Parasitic fauna of Polish konik horses (Equus caballus gmelini Antonius) and their impact on breeding: a review.
This study includes consolidated data of different authors from the past 50 years, supplemented by results of more recent research. A total of 38 species of helminths (i.e., 37 Nematoda and one Cestoda) and five Diptera species were recorded from the horses. Protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium spp. and Theileria equi, and the Rickettsiales, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, were observed for the first time in Poland. PMID: 30683169 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Slivinska K, Karbowiak G, Gawor J, Wróblewski Z, Jaworski Z, Jastrzębska E, Demeshkant V Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of selenium source and level in diet on glutathione peroxidase activity, tissue selenium distribution, and growth performance in poultry.
MŽ Abstract Today, a few differing sources of selenium (Se), i.e. inorganic, organic, and nano forms of Se, are used as feed supplements for poultry. Published research indicates that nano-Se and organic Se possess comparable efficiency to inorganic Se in increasing GSH-Px activity of plasma and various tissues, but they deposit at higher rates in various tissues. However, there are principal differences in absorption mechanisms, metabolism, and efficiency of these three forms of Se. The aim of this review was to analyze the available literature on the effects of different Se sources and levels in the diet on g...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Marković R, Ćirić J, Starčević M, Šefer D, Baltić MŽ Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Bovine-like coronaviruses in domestic and wild ruminants.
Abstract Coronaviruses (CoVs) produce a wide spectrum of disease syndromes in different mammalian and avian host species. These viruses are well-recognized for their ability to change tissue tropism, to hurdle the interspecies barriers and to adapt ecological variations. It is predicted that the inherent genetic diversity of CoVs caused by accumulation of point mutations and high frequency of homologous recombination is the principal determinant of these competences. Several CoVs (e.g. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV) have been recorded to cross the interspecies barrier,...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Amer HM Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

A genetic profile of bovine pestiviruses circulating in Brazil (1998-2018).
This article provides a critical review of two decades of genetic identification of pestiviruses in Brazil. PMID: 30683172 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Flores EF, Cargnelutti JF, Monteiro FL, Bauermann FV, Ridpath JF, Weiblen R Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Mannheimia haemolytica in bovine respiratory disease: immunogens, potential immunogens, and vaccines.
Abstract Mannheimia haemolytica is the major cause of severe pneumonia in bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Early M. haemolytica bacterins were either ineffective or even enhanced disease in vaccinated cattle, which led to studies of the bacterium's virulence factors and potential immunogens to determine ways to improve vaccines. Studies have focused on the capsule, lipopolysaccharide, various adhesins, extracellular enzymes, outer membrane proteins, and leukotoxin (LKT) resulting in a strong database for understanding immune responses to the bacterium and production of more efficacious vaccines. The importance of...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Confer AW, Ayalew S Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of transportation on cattle health and production: a review.
Abstract The goal of this review is to present a concise and critical assessment of the literature related to physiologic responses in cattle that are subjected to transportation. Over two-thirds of US cattle are transported. Understanding trends in circulating physiologic parameters is an important part of mitigating the negative effects of transportation. For the producer, linking these effects after transportation to morbidity outcomes within the first 45 days on feed (i.e. especially development of bovine respiratory disease) is critical. Physiologic parameters in circulation are of primary importance and may ...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - November 21, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Van Engen NK, Coetzee JF Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Comparative study in the control of bovine viral diarrhea.
This study also concludes that there are potential wider benefits to a systematic BVD control program, such as a reduction in antimicrobial use and increases in the competitiveness of the cattle industry. PMID: 30348240 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - October 23, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Larghi M Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

A review of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) testing in livestock with an emphasis on the use of alternative diagnostic specimens.
an JJ Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) remains an important pathogen of livestock more than 120 years after it was identified, with annual costs from production losses and vaccination estimated at €5.3-€17 billion (US$6.5-US$21 billion) in FMDV-endemic areas. Control and eradication are difficult because FMDV is highly contagious, genetically and antigenically diverse, infectious for a wide variety of species, able to establish subclinical carriers in ruminants, and widely geographically distributed. For early detection, sustained control, or eradication, sensitive and specific FMDV surveilla...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - October 22, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Poonsuk K, Giménez-Lirola L, Zimmerman JJ Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Antimicrobial-based dry cow therapy approaches for cure and prevention of intramammary infections: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.
This article describes a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis to address three crucial points regarding antimicrobial usage at drying-off: (1) comparative efficacy of antimicrobials used for preventing new and eliminating existing intramammary infections (IMI); (2) comparison of selective and blanket dry cow therapy approaches in preventing new and eliminating existing IMI; and (3) assessment of the extra prevention against new IMI that can be gained from using antimicrobial-teat sealant combinations versus antimicrobials alone. Five PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) questions were formulated...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - June 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Afifi M, Kabera F, Stryhn H, Roy JP, Heider LC, Godden S, Montelpare W, Sanchez J, Dufour S Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Role of neutrophils in equine asthma.
e;n G Abstract Neutrophilic bronchiolitis is the primary lesion in asthma-affected horses. Neutrophils are key actors in host defense, migrating toward sites of inflammation and infection, where they act as early responder cells toward external insults. However, neutrophils can also mediate tissue damage in various non-infectious inflammatory processes. Within the airways, these cells likely contribute to bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion, and pulmonary remodeling by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators, including the cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-17, neutrophil elastase, reactive oxygen species (ROS...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - May 24, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Uberti B, Morán G Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Herd-level infectious disease surveillance of livestock populations using aggregate samples.
Abstract All sectors of livestock production are in the process of shifting from small populations on many farms to large populations on fewer farms. A concurrent shift has occurred in the number of livestock moved across political boundaries. The unintended consequence of these changes has been the appearance of multifactorial diseases that are resistant to traditional methods of prevention and control. The need to understand complex animal health conditions mandates a shift toward the collection of longitudinal animal health data. Historically, collection of such data has frustrated and challenged animal health ...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - May 21, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Rotolo ML, Main RG, Zimmerman JJ Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Gut immunity: its development and reasons and opportunities for modulation in monogastric production animals.
Abstract The intestine performs the critical roles of nutrient acquisition, tolerance of innocuous and beneficial microorganisms, while retaining the ability to respond appropriately to undesirable microbes or microbial products and preventing their translocation to more sterile body compartments. Various components contribute to antimicrobial defenses in the intestine. The mucus layer(s), antimicrobial peptides and IgA provide the first line of defense, and seek to trap and facilitate the removal of invading microbes. If breached, invading microbes next encounter a single layer of epithelial cells and, below this...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - April 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Broom LJ, Kogut MH Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Molecular serogrouping of Escherichia coli.
Abstract O-antigens present on the surface of Escherichia coli provide antigenic specificity for the strain and are the main components for O-serogroup designation. Serotyping using O-group-specific antisera for the identification of E. coli O-serogroups has been traditionally the gold-standard for distinguishing E. coli strains. Knowledge of the O-group is important for determining pathogenic lineage, classifying E. coli for epidemiological studies, for determining virulence, and for tracing outbreaks of diseases and sources of infection. However, serotyping has limitations, as the antisera generated against each...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - February 22, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: DebRoy C, Fratamico PM, Roberts E Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Impact of point sources on antibiotic resistance genes in the natural environment: a systematic review of the evidence.
Abstract There is a growing concern about the role of the environment in the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). In this systematic review, we summarize evidence for increases of ARG in the natural environment associated with potential sources of ARB and ARG such as agricultural facilities and wastewater treatment plants. A total of 5247 citations were identified, including studies that ascertained both ARG and ARB outcomes. All studies were screened for relevance to the question and methodology. This paper summarizes the evidence only for those studies with ...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 12, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Bueno I, Williams-Nguyen J, Hwang H, Sargeant JM, Nault AJ, Singer RS Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

A scoping review of the evidence for efficacy of acupuncture in companion animals.
Abstract Acupuncture has become increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. Within the scientific literature there is debate regarding its efficacy. Due to the complex nature of acupuncture, a scoping review was undertaken to identify and categorize the evidence related to acupuncture in companion animals (dogs, cats, and horses). Our search identified 843 relevant citations. Narrative reviews represented the largest proportion of studies (43%). We identified 179 experimental studies and 175 case reports/case series that examined the efficacy of acupuncture. Dogs were the most common subjects in the experimental ...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 11, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Rose WJ, Sargeant JM, Hanna WJB, Kelton D, Wolfe DM, Wisener LV Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Phage-mediated dissemination of virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria facilitated by antibiotic growth promoters in animals: a perspective.
Abstract Addition of sub-therapeutic antibiotics to the feed of food-producing animals for growth promotion and disease prevention has become a common agricultural practice in many countries. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a looming concern associated with the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) around the world. In addition, some studies have shown that AGPs may not only affect antibiotic resistance but may also stimulate the dissemination of virulence factors via bacteriophages. Although only a few studies are currently available in the literature regarding this topic, in this article w...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - November 29, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tamang MD, Sunwoo H, Jeon B Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance trends and mechanisms in the foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter.
Abstract Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and is commonly present in food producing animals. This pathogenic organism is highly adaptable and has become increasingly resistant to various antibiotics. Recently, both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization have designated antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter as a serious threat to public health. For the past decade, multiple mechanisms conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics have been described in Campylobacter, and new resistance mechanisms constantly emerge in the pathogen. Some of the recent exam...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - November 23, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tang Y, Fang L, Xu C, Zhang Q Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Historical and contemporary aspects of maternal immunity in swine.
Abstract Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune ...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - November 10, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Poonsuk K, Zimmerman J Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Rosmarinic acid: modes of action, medicinal values and health benefits.
Abstract The supplementation of livestock rations with herbs containing bioactive components, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), have shown promising results as a natural feed additive in promoting growth, productive and reproductive performance, feed utilization, fertility, anti-oxidant status and immunologic indices. Furthermore, RA reportedly reduces the risks of various animal diseases and mitigates side effects of chemical and synthetic drugs. RA is a natural polyphenol present in several Lamiaceae herbs like Perilla frutescens, and RA is becoming an integral component of animal nutrition as it counters the effect...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - November 7, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alagawany M, Abd El-Hack ME, Farag MR, Gopi M, Karthik K, Malik YS, Dhama K Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biofilms: Role in pathogenicity and potential impact for vaccination development.
Abstract Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is responsible for major economic losses in the global pork industry. The disease may present itself as a chronic or an acute infection characterized by severe pathology, including hemorrhage, fibrinous and necrotic lung lesions, and, in the worst cases, rapid death. A. pleuropneumoniae is transmitted via aerosol route, direct contact with infected pigs, and by the farm environment. Many virulence factors...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - November 7, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Hathroubi S, Loera-Muro A, Guerrero-Barrera AL, Tremblay YDN, Jacques M Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Types and prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in poultry.
Abstract For several billion years, bacteria have developed mechanisms to resist antibacterial substances. In modern time, antibiotics are frequently used in veterinary and human medicine for prevention and treatment of diseases, globally still also for their growth promoting effects as feed additives. This complex situation has evolved in accelerating development and prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in livestock and people. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are resistant to a wide range of ß-lactam antibiotics. They are currently considered as one of the main threats for ...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - June 23, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Saliu EM, Vahjen W, Zentek J Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Importance of bovine mastitis in Africa.
Abstract Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide econo...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - June 13, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Motaung TE, Petrovski KR, Petzer IM, Thekisoe O, Tsilo TJ Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

A proposed analytic framework for determining the impact of an antimicrobial resistance intervention.
Abstract Antimicrobial use (AMU) is increasingly threatened by antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The FDA is implementing risk mitigation measures promoting prudent AMU in food animals. Their evaluation is crucial: the AMU/AMR relationship is complex; a suitable framework to analyze interventions is unavailable. Systems science analysis, depicting variables and their associations, would help integrate mathematics/epidemiology to evaluate the relationship. This would identify informative data and models to evaluate interventions. This National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis AMR Working Group's rep...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - May 16, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Grohn YT, Carson C, Lanzas C, Pullum L, Stanhope M, Volkova V Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Alternatives to antibiotics for maximizing growth performance and feed efficiency in poultry: a review.
Abstract With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from 'Raised Without Antibiotics' or 'No Antibiotics Ever' flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great deal of research has focused on the development of antibiotic alternatives to maintain or improve poultry health and performance. This review describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial condi...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - May 9, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gadde U, Kim WH, Oh ST, Lillehoj HS Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Bacterial bile salt hydrolase: an intestinal microbiome target for enhanced animal health.
Abstract To effectively mitigate antimicrobial resistance in the agricultural ecosystem, there is an increasing pressure to reduce and eliminate the use of in-feed antibiotics for growth promotion and disease prevention in food animals. However, limiting antibiotic use could compromise animal production efficiency and health. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop effective alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). Increasing evidence has shown that the growth-promoting effect of AGPs was highly correlated with the reduced activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacterial enzyme that has a...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Geng W, Lin J Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Towards an understanding of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium persistence in swine.
Abstract Salmonella enterica is an important food borne pathogen that is frequently carried by swine. Carrier animals pose a food safety risk because they can transmit S. enterica to finished food products in the processing plant or by contamination of the environment. Environmental contamination has become increasingly important as non-animal foods (plant-based) have been implicated as sources of S. enterica. The prevalence of S. enterica in swine is high and yet carrier animals remain healthy. S. enterica has developed a highly sophisticated set of virulence factors that allow it to adapt to host environments an...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Patterson SK, Kim HB, Borewicz K, Isaacson RE Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Non-antibiotic approaches at drying-off for treating and preventing intramammary infections: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The objective of the current paper is to describe the protocol used for conducting a systematic review of the literature on non-antibiotic strategies that can be used on dairy cows at dry off to treat and prevent IMI. Relevant literature will be identified using a combination of database search strategies and iterative screening of references. To be included in the review, articles will have to: (1) be published after 1969; (2) be written in English, French, or Spanish; (3) use a study design such as a controlled trial, an observational study, or an experimental study conducted in vivo; (4) be conducted on commercial dairy...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Francoz D, Wellemans V, Roy JP, Lacasse P, Ordonez-Iturriaga A, Labelle F, Dufour S Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

The pathogenesis of proventricular dilatation disease.
Abstract Bornaviruses cause neurologic diseases in several species of birds, especially parrots, waterfowl and finches. The characteristic lesions observed in these birds include encephalitis and gross dilatation of the anterior stomach - the proventriculus. The disease is thus known as proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is characterized by extreme proventricular dilatation, blockage of the passage of digesta and consequent death by starvation. There are few clinical resemblances between this and the bornaviral encephalitides observed in mammals. Nevertheless, there are common virus-induced pathogenic pa...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tizard I, Shivaprasad HL, Guo J, Hameed S, Ball J, Payne S Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Health relevance of intestinal protein fermentation in young pigs.
tek J Abstract The physiological role of the gastrointestinal microbiota has become an important subject of nutrition research in pigs in the past years, and the importance of intestinal microbial activity in the etiology of disease is doubtless. This review summarizes the recent knowledge related to the microbial ecology of protein fermentation and the appearance of protein-derived metabolites along the pig intestine. The amount of fermentable protein depends on factors such as dietary protein concentration, protein digestibility due to secondary or tertiary structure, the interaction with dietary compounds or an...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - August 30, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pieper R, Villodre Tudela C, Taciak M, Bindelle J, Pérez JF, Zentek J Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Comments regarding Marco et al., 2015, 'The two sides of border disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica): silent persistence and population collapse'.
ano A, de Luco DF PMID: 27534435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - August 18, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Arnal MC, Herrero J, Fernández O, Martínez D, Prada C, García-Serrano A, de Luco DF Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Protocol for diversion of confirmed positive bulk raw milk tankers to calf ranches - A review of the Pharmacokinetics of tetracyclines and sulfonamides in veal calves.
The objective of this review is to provide a residue avoidance strategy for TTC and sulfonamide residues in veal. To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug a structured review of the literature was performed and the study inclusion criteria were that the publication used dairy breed calves, with body weight
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - August 18, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: DeDonder KD, Gehring R, Tell LA, Riviere JE Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of refractometer and Brix refractometer to assess failure of passive transfer in calves: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Calves are highly dependent of colostrum (and antibody) intake because they are born agammaglobulinemic. The transfer of passive immunity in calves can be assessed directly by dosing immunoglobulin G (IgG) or by refractometry or Brix refractometry. The latter are easier to perform routinely in the field. This paper presents a protocol for a systematic review meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of refractometry or Brix refractometry versus dosage of IgG as a reference standard test. With this review protocol we aim to be able to report refractometer and Brix refractometer accuracy in terms of s...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - June 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Buczinski S, Fecteau G, Chigerwe M, Vandeweerd JM Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

What is the evidence that point sources of anthropogenic effluent increase antibiotic resistance in the environment? Protocol for a systematic review.
Abstract Herein we describe a protocol for a systematic review of the evidence on whether point sources of anthropogenic effluent are associated with an increase in antibiotic resistance in the adjacent environment. The review question was based on the Population, Exposure, Comparator, Outcome, Study Design (PECOS) framework as follows: Is the prevalence or concentration of antibiotic resistant bacteria or resistance genes (O) in soil, water, air or free-living wildlife (P) higher in close proximity to, or downstream from, known or suspected sources of anthropogenic effluent (E) compared to areas more distant from...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - June 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Williams-Nguyen J, Bueno I, Sargeant JM, Nault AJ, Singer RS Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Prevalence of tuberculosis, brucellosis and trypanosomiasis in cattle in Tanzania: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract A meta-analysis was performed to derive prevalence estimates for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in cattle in Tanzania using data derived from a systematic review of zoonotic hazards in cattle production systems. Articles published before 2012 reporting prevalence and considered at least moderate in quality were included in the analysis. Results showed high heterogeneity between studies, with wide ranges in the reported prevalence: Brucella (0.3-60.8%), Mycobacterium (0.1-13.2%) and Trypanosoma (0.82-33.3%). Overall meta-analytic mean prevalence estimates were 8.2% (95% CI 6.5-10.2)...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - June 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alonso S, Dohoo I, Lindahl J, Verdugo C, Akuku I, Grace D Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Where literature is scarce: observations and lessons learnt from four systematic reviews of zoonoses in African countries.
Abstract The success of a systematic review depends on the availability, accessibility and quality of literature related to the review question. This paper presents the literature found in four systematic reviews conducted for a selection of zoonotic hazards in four livestock value chains in Africa, as well as setting out the challenges in conducting the reviews. The protocol was designed following international standards, and addressed four questions around prevalence, risk factors, control options and impact of various hazards and populations. Searches were conducted in four online databases. Articles were scree...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - June 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alonso S, Lindahl J, Roesel K, Traore SG, Yobouet BA, Ndour AP, Carron M, Grace D Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Systematic review of the magnitude of change in prevalence and quantity of Salmonella after administration of pathogen reduction treatments on pork carcasses.
CONCLUSION: There was no strong evidence that any one intervention protocol (acid temperature, acid concentration, water temperature) was clearly superior to others for Salmonella control. PMID: 27427192 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - June 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Totton SC, Glanville JM, Dzikamunhenga RS, Dickson JS, O'Connor AM Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the antibiotic treatment for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: an update.
Abstract Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is a common and important disease of calves. Without effective vaccines, antibiotic therapy is often implemented to minimize the impact of IBK. This review updates a previously published systematic review regarding comparative efficacy for antibiotic treatments of IBK. Available years of Centre for Biosciences and Agriculture International and MEDLINE databases were searched, including non-English results. Also searched were the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and World Buiatrics Congress conference proceedings from 1996 to 2016, reviews since 2013...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - June 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Cullen JN, Yuan C, Totton S, Dzikamunhenga R, Coetzee JF, da Silva N, Wang C, O'Connor AM Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

The potential of Nigerian bioactive plants for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infection in livestock.
Abstract Bioactive compounds from marine and terrestrial organisms have been used extensively in the treatment of many diseases in both their natural form and as templates for synthetic modifications. This review summarizes present knowledge about anthelmintic effects of the extracts of bioactive plants in Nigeria against helminth parasites of ruminants. Plants traditionally used in livestock production are discussed. The main focus is hinged on in vitro and in vivo activities of secondary plant metabolites against nematodes of livestock. This review provides insight into preliminary studies of medicinal plants, w...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - June 1, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ademola IO Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

The pathogenesis of bornaviral diseases in mammals.
Abstract Natural bornavirus infections and their resulting diseases are largely restricted to horses and sheep in Central Europe. The disease also occurs naturally in cats, and can be induced experimentally in laboratory rodents and numerous other mammals. Borna disease virus-1 (BoDV-1), the cause of most cases of mammalian Borna disease, is a negative-stranded RNA virus that replicates within the nucleus of target cells. It causes severe, often lethal, encephalitis in susceptible species. Recent events, especially the discovery of numerous new species of bornaviruses in birds and a report of an acute, lethal born...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - May 23, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tizard I, Ball J, Stoica G, Payne S Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Vaccination of calves against common respiratory viruses in the face of maternally derived antibodies(IFOMA).
Abstract Vaccination of calves in the face of maternal antibodies (IFOMA) often does not result in seroconversion as maternally derived immunity interferes with the activation of adequate antibody responses to vaccination; however, it can prime T and B cell memory responses that protect calves against clinical disease when maternal immunity has decayed. The activation of B and T cell memory responses in calves vaccinated IFOMA varies and is affected by several factors, including age, level of maternal immunity, type of vaccine, and route of administration. These factors influence the adequate priming of humoral an...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - April 4, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Chamorro MF, Woolums A, Walz PH Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of 18 World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable viral diseases of ruminants, swine and poultry
Review Articles Shimaa M. G. Mansour, Haytham Ali, Christopher C. L. Chase, Arnost Cepica, Animal Health Research Reviews, Volume 16 Issue 02, pp 89-106Abstract (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 22, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Role of endothelial cells in bovine mammary gland health and disease
Review Articles Valerie E. Ryman, Nandakumar Packiriswamy, Lorraine M. Sordillo, Animal Health Research Reviews, Volume 16 Issue 02, pp 135-149Abstract (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 22, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in Pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease
Review Articles K.D. DeDonder, M.D. Apley, Animal Health Research Reviews, Volume 16 Issue 02, pp 125-134Abstract (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 22, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Beef cattle welfare in the USA: identification of priorities for future research
Review Articles Cassandra B. Tucker, Johann F. Coetzee, Joseph M. Stookey, Daniel U. Thomson, Temple Grandin, Karen S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Animal Health Research Reviews, Volume 16 Issue 02, pp 107-124Abstract (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 22, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Passive immunization with hyperimmune egg-yolk IgY as prophylaxis and therapy for poultry diseases – A review
Review Articles U. Gadde, T. Rathinam, Hyun S. Lillehoj, Animal Health Research Reviews, Volume 16 Issue 02, pp 163-176Abstract (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 22, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii : history and diagnostic test development
Review Articles Heidi M. Wyrosdick, John J. Schaefer, Animal Health Research Reviews, Volume 16 Issue 02, pp 150-162Abstract (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 22, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The history of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) 1920–2014
Review Articles Robert P. Ellis, L. Susanne Squires Ellis, Erwin M. Kohler, Animal Health Research Reviews, Volume 16 Issue 02, pp 177-192Abstract (Source: Animal Health Research Reviews)
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 22, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The history of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) 1920-2014.
Abstract The following history has been compiled and written by the authors. The historical facts are available from the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) archives, dating back to letters and summaries written by the founders, and by a few of the Secretary-Treasurers from the early decades through 2014. The Organization and Purpose: The CRWAD is a non-profit organization and has been since its origin. The sole purpose of CRWAD is to discuss and disseminate the most current research advances in animal diseases. Graduate students and industry and academic professionals present and discuss the...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ellis RP, Ellis LS, Kohler EM Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research

Volume 16 Issue 02
Animal Health Research Reviews, Volume 16 Issue 02 Animal Health Research Reviews provides an international forum for the publication of reviews and commentaries on all aspects of animal health. Papers include in-depth analyses and broader overviews of all facets of health and science in both domestic and wild animals. Major subject areas include physiology and pharmacology, parasitology, bacteriology, food and environmental safety, epidemiology and virology. The journal will be of interest to researchers involved in animal health, parasitologists, food safety experts and academics interested in all aspects of animal produ...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - December 1, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research