Ultrasound evaluation of cricoid pressure vs. ‘paralaryngeal pressure’ – a reply
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - January 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: P. Andruszkiewicz, L. Wr óblewski, M. Kaczor, J. Wojtczak, D. Sobczyk, I. Kowalik Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Ultrasound evaluation of cricoid pressure vs. ‘paralaryngeal pressure’
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - January 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: A. Zeidan, A. Khorasani, M. Ramez Salem Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Presumed air entrainment through the gastric port of a paediatric i ‐gel® device – manufacturer's reply
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - January 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: D. Chapman Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Presumed air entrainment through the gastric port of a paediatric i ‐gel device
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - January 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: J. P. Seeley, K. Pearson, A. Baxter Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Issue Information – Editorial Board
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - January 16, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

A randomised controlled trial examining the effect of acupuncture at the EX ‐HN3 (Yintang) point on pre‐operative anxiety levels in neurosurgical patients
Summary Pre‐operative anxiety is an unpleasant state of psychological distress that occurs in up to 87% of patients awaiting neurosurgical procedures. Sedative medication is undesirable in this population due to the need for early postoperative neurological assessment. Acupuncture has previously been shown to reduce pre‐operative anxiety, but studies involving neurosurgical patients are lacking. This single‐centre, prospective, randomised controlled trial was designed to determine the effect of acupuncture at the EX‐HN3 (Yintang point) on pre‐operative anxiety levels in neurosurgical patients. The study was prosp...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 31, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: M. D. Wiles, J. Mamdani, M. Pullman, J. C. Andrzejowski Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A national survey of neurological monitoring practice after obstetric regional anaesthesia in the UK
Summary Neuraxial anaesthesia is widely used in obstetrics and neurological complications are rare. However, when they occur, subsequent investigation and management are time‐critical and correlate with the extent of neurological recovery. The Third National Audit Project recommended the implementation of guidelines in obstetric epidural management, including advice on monitoring for early signs of problems and acting upon concerns. However, no national guideline exists for postoperative management in the obstetric population. We conducted a national survey of monitoring after obstetric neuraxial blockade and the managem...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 31, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: E. Roderick, J. Hoyle, S. M. Yentis Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Impact of a peri ‐operative quality improvement programme on postoperative pulmonary complications
Summary Postoperative pulmonary complications are common, with a reported incidence of 2–40%, and are associated with adverse outcomes that include death, longer hospital stay and reduced long‐term survival. Enhanced recovery is now a standard of care for patients undergoing elective major surgery. Despite the high prevalence of pulmonary complications in this population, few elements of enhanced recovery specifically address reducing these complications. In 2013, a prevalence audit confirmed a postoperative pulmonary complication rate of 16/83 (19.3%) in patients undergoing elective major surgery who were admitted...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 31, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: J. A. Moore, D. H. Conway, N. Thomas, D. Cummings, D. Atkinson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Thromboelastography (TEG) or rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) to monitor haemostatic treatment in bleeding patients: a systematic review with meta ‐analysis and trial sequential analysis
Summary Coagulopathy and severe bleeding are associated with high mortality. We evaluated haemostatic treatment guided by the functional viscoelastic haemostatic assays, thromboelastography or rotational thromboelastometry in bleeding patients. We searched for randomised, controlled trials irrespective of publication status, publication date, blinding status, outcomes published or language from date of inception to 5 January 2016 in six bibliographic databases. We included 17 trials (1493 participants), most involving cardiac surgery. Thromboelastography or rotational thromboelastometry seemed to reduce overall mortality c...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 31, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: A. Wikkels ø, J. Wetterslev, A. M. Møller, A. Afshari Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

AAGBI: Safer pre ‐hospital anaesthesia 2017
Summary Pre‐hospital emergency anaesthesia with oral tracheal intubation is the technique of choice for trauma patients who cannot maintain their airway or achieve adequate ventilation. It should be carried out as soon as safely possible, and performed to the same standards as in‐hospital emergency anaesthesia. It should only be conducted within organisations with comprehensive clinical governance arrangements. Techniques should be straightforward, reproducible, as simple as possible and supported by the use of checklists. Monitoring and equipment should meet in‐hospital anaesthesia standards. Practitioners need to b...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 31, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: D. J. Lockey, K. Crewdson, G. Davies, B. Jenkins, J. Klein, C. Laird, P. F. Mahoney, J. Nolan, A. Pountney, S. Shinde, S. Tighe, M. Q. Russell, J. Price, C. Wright Tags: Guidelines Source Type: research

A randomised controlled trial comparing transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) pre ‐oxygenation with facemask pre‐oxygenation in patients undergoing rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia
Summary Pre‐oxygenation is an essential part of rapid sequence induction of general anaesthesia for emergency surgery, in order to increase the oxygen reservoir in the lungs. We performed a randomised controlled trial of transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) pre‐oxygenation or facemask pre‐oxygenation in patients undergoing emergency surgery. Twenty patients were allocated to each group. No patient developed arterial oxygen saturation
Source: Anaesthesia - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: F. Mir, A. Patel, R. Iqbal, M. Cecconi, S. A. R. Nouraei Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Credible control groups and blinding
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: S. W. Choi, D. M. H. Lam Tags: Statistically Speaking: methodological madness Source Type: research

Deprescribing: implications for the anaesthetist
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 29, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: J. Hermanowski, N. Levy, P. Mills, N. Penfold Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Evaluation of the accuracy of common weight estimation formulae in a Zambian paediatric surgical population
This study evaluated how well current age‐ or height‐based formulae estimate the weight of children undergoing surgery in Zambia. All children under 14 years of age presenting for elective surgery at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, had both height and weight measured. Their actual weight was compared against estimated weight from various formulae. The Broselow tape outperformed all the age‐based formulae, demonstrating the lowest median percentage error of −5.8%, with 46.0% of estimates falling within 10% of the actual measured weight (p
Source: Anaesthesia - December 27, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: L. Bowen, M. Zyambo, D. Snell, J. Kinnear, M. D. Bould Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

International consensus statement on the peri ‐operative management of anaemia and iron deficiency
Summary Despite current recommendations on the management of pre‐operative anaemia, there is no pragmatic guidance for the diagnosis and management of anaemia and iron deficiency in surgical patients. A number of experienced researchers and clinicians took part in an expert workshop and developed the following consensus statement. After presentation of our own research data and local policies and procedures, appropriate relevant literature was reviewed and discussed. We developed a series of best‐practice and evidence‐based statements to advise on patient care with respect to anaemia and iron deficiency in the peri...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 21, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: M. Mu ñoz, A. G. Acheson, M. Auerbach, M. Besser, O. Habler, H. Kehlet, G. M. Liumbruno, S. Lasocki, P. Meybohm, R. Rao Baikady, T. Richards, A. Shander, C. So‐Osman, D. R. Spahn, A. A. Klein Tags: Consensus Statement Source Type: research

Difficult tracheal tube passage and subglottic airway injury during intubation with the GlideScope ® videolaryngoscope: a randomised, controlled comparison of three tracheal tubes
Summary Difficulty during placement of the tracheal tube is a known problem when intubating with the GlideScope®, which may lead to subglottic airway injury. This randomised, controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the resistance to passage of PVC (polyvinyl chloride), reinforced or BlockBuster tracheal tubes during intubation with the GlideScope. Secondary outcomes included the time taken to intubate and assessment of subglottic airway injury. One‐hundred and seventy‐seven patients were included in the data analysis. There was difficult tracheal tube passage (moderate or severe resistance) in 15 (21.4%) ...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 20, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: K. Su, X. Gao, F. ‐S. Xue, G.‐N. Ding, Y. Zhang, M. Tian Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Correction
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Visualising odds ratios
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: T. L. Samuels Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

‘Go‐between’ study: walk times and talk times – a reply
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: T. Cook, S. R. MacDougall ‐Davis, L. Kettley Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

‘Go‐between’ study: walk times and talk times
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: J. T. A. Wedgwood Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Engineering jargon
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: A. Maddock Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Does mannitol contribute to hypotension after parenteral paracetamol administration in critical care?
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: A. Nair Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Vascular access, cerebral air embolism and hyperbaric oxygen therapy
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: P. Bothma, A. Obideyi Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Vascular access after axillary lymph node surgery – a reply
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: A. Bodenham Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Vascular access after axillary lymph node surgery
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: S. Wydall, E. Aziz Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Duration of low ‐dose spinal anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: S. White Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Ultra ‐low dose spinal anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: K. Godai Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Abandoning first generation supraglottic airway devices in paediatric anaesthesia
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: J. P. Montague, C. J. Halloran Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Retention of laryngoscopy skills in medical students – a reply
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: R. McCahon Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Retention of laryngoscopy skills in novices
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: D. Jain Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

AAGBI: Consent for anaesthesia 2017
Summary Previous guidelines on consent for anaesthesia were issued by the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland in 1999 and revised in 2006. The following guidelines have been produced in response to the changing ethical and legal background against which anaesthetists, and also intensivists and pain specialists, currently work, while retaining the key principles of respect for patients’ autonomy and the need to provide adequate information. The main points of difference between the relevant legal frameworks in England and Wales and Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are a...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: S. M. Yentis, A. J. Hartle, I. R. Barker, P. Barker, D. G. Bogod, T. H. Clutton ‐Brock, A. Ruck Keene, S. Leifer, A. Naughton, E. Plunkett Tags: Guidelines Source Type: research

GE Healthcare response: performance of adjustable pressure limiting (APL) valves in two different modern anaesthesia machines
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: T. McCormick Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Performance of adjustable pressure ‐limiting (APL) valves in two different modern anaesthesia machines
Summary The ability to gently ventilate a patient's lungs using a self‐inflating bag requires a properly working adjustable pressure‐limiting (APL) valve. We compared the performance of the APL valves of the GE Aisys CS2 and the Draeger Fabius anaesthetic machines during closure and opening from 1‐20 and from 20‐1 cmH2O, using standardised experimental baby and adolescent patient lung models. Airway pressures and inspiratory tidal volumes were measured using an ASL‐5000 test lung and a GE Aisys CS2 near‐patient spirometry sensors. In both lung models, the GE Aisys CS2 APL valves demonstrated non‐linear behavi...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: J. Thomas, M. Weiss, A. R. Schmidt, P. K. Buehler Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evidence for non ‐random sampling in randomised, controlled trials by Yuhji Saitoh
Summary A large number of randomised trials authored by Yoshitaka Fujii have been retracted, in part as a consequence of a previous analysis finding a very low probability of random sampling. Dr Yuhji Saitoh co‐authored 34 of those trials and he was corresponding author for eight of them. We found a number of additional randomised, controlled trials that included baseline data, with Saitoh as corresponding author, that Fujii did not co‐author. We used Monte Carlo simulations to analyse the baseline data from 32 relevant trials in total as well as an outcome (muscle twitch recovery ratios) reported in several. We also c...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: J. B. Carlisle, J. A. Loadsman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Design counsel: the role of clinicians in the prototyping and standard setting of anaesthetic equipment
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: T. Meek Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

What Anaesthesia is doing to combat scientific misconduct and investigate data fabrication and falsification
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: A. A. Klein Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Issue Information – Editorial Board
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 17, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Neuronal damage biomarkers in the identification of patients at risk of long ‐term postoperative cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery
Summary Biomarkers of neurological injury can potentially predict postoperative cognitive dysfunction. We aimed to identify whether classical neuronal damage‐specific biomarkers, including brain fatty acid‐binding protein, neuron‐specific enolase and S100 calcium‐binding protein β, as well as plasma‐free haemoglobin concentration as a measure of haemolysis, could be used to predict the risk of long‐term cognitive decline after coronary artery bypass grafting with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed cognitive function using the CogState brief computerised cognitive test battery at 3 months and at...
Source: Anaesthesia - December 16, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: W. F. Kok, J. Koerts, O. Tucha, T. W. L. Scheeren, A. R. Absalom Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A feasibility study of awake videolaryngoscope ‐assisted intubation in patients with periglottic tumour using the channelled King Vision® videolaryngoscope
This study highlights a number of potential advantages of awake videolaryngoscope‐assisted intubation over other awake methods of securing the airway in patients with upper airway obstruction due to periglottic mass. (Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - December 6, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: L. Markova, T. Stopar ‐Pintaric, T. Luzar, J. Benedik, I. Hodzovic Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The effects of tracheal tube cuffs filled with air, saline or alkalinised lidocaine on haemodynamic changes and laryngotracheal morbidity in children: a randomised, controlled trial
Summary We studied the effects of tracheal tube cuffs filled with air, saline or alkalinised lidocaine on haemodynamic changes during tracheal extubation and postoperative laryngotracheal morbidity in children. We randomly allocated 164 children aged 3–13 years undergoing general anaesthesia to one of four groups; tracheal tube cuffs filled with air (n = 41); saline (n = 41); alkalinised lidocaine 0.5% (n = 41); or alkalinised lidocaine 1% (n = 41). Intracuff pressure was monitored and maintained below 20 cmH2O. The mean (SD) increases in systolic blood pressure after tracheal extubation compared with before extubati...
Source: Anaesthesia - November 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: S. M. F. Soares, V. M. Arantes, M. P. M ódolo, V. J. B. dos Santos, L. A. Vane, L. H. Navarro e Lima, L. G. Braz, P. do Nascimento, N. S. P. Módolo Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A multicentre snapshot study of the incidence of serious procedural complications secondary to central venous catheterisation
Summary Despite the high number of central venous access devices inserted annually, there are limited data on the incidence of the associated procedural complications, many of which carry substantial clinical risk. This point was highlighted in the recently published Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland ‘Safe vascular access 2016’ guidelines. This trainee‐led snapshot study aimed to identify the number of central venous catheter insertions and the incidence of serious complications across multiple hospital sites within a fixed two‐week period. Secondary aims were to identify the availab...
Source: Anaesthesia - November 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: R. K. Lathey, R. E. Jackson, A. Bodenham, D. Harper, V. Patle, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Universal Anaesthesia Machine (UAM): assessment of a new anaesthesia workstation built with global health in mind
Summary The Universal Anaesthesia Machine has been developed as a complete anaesthesia workstation for use in low‐ and middle‐income countries, where the provision of safe general anaesthesia is often compromised by unreliable supply of electricity and anaesthetic gases. We performed a functional and clinical assessment of this anaesthetic machine, with particular reference to novel features and functioning in the intended environment. The Universal Anaesthesia Machine was found to be reliable, safe and consistent across a range of tests during targeted functional testing. (Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - November 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: D. A. H. Beer, F. D. Nesbitt, G. T. Bell, A. Rapuleng Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The obstetric difficult airway: if we can't predict it, can we prevent it?
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - November 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: T. Girard, A. Palanisamy Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Choice of anaesthesia for category ‐1 caesarean section in women with anticipated difficult tracheal intubation: the use of decision analysis
Summary A predicted difficult airway is sometimes considered a contra‐indication to rapid sequence induction of general anaesthesia, even in an urgent case such as a category‐1 caesarean section for fetal distress. However, formally assessing the risk is difficult because of the rarity and urgency of such cases. We have used decision analysis to quantify the time taken to establish anaesthesia, and probability of failure, of three possible anaesthetic methods, based on a systematic review of the literature. We considered rapid sequence induction of general anaesthesia with videolaryngoscopy, awake fibreoptic intubation...
Source: Anaesthesia - November 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: A. J. Krom, Y. Cohen, J. P. Miller, T. Ezri, S. H. Halpern, Y. Ginosar Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The feasibility of micro ‐ultrasound as a tool to image peripheral nerves
Summary Despite widespread use of ultrasound imaging to guide needle placement, the incidence of transient and permanent nerve damage as a complication of regional anaesthesia has not changed over the last decade. In view of the controversy surrounding intraneural injection there is a need to understand the structural changes caused by subepineural and subperineural needle penetration. Clinical ultrasound machines do not provide adequate anatomical resolution, and anaesthetists have difficulty judging the precise location of the needle tip relative to the epineurium. We studied the suitability of micro‐ultrasound imaging...
Source: Anaesthesia - November 29, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: A. Chandra, R. Eisma, P. Felts, S. Munirama, G. A. Corner, C. E. M. Demore, G. McLeod Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

An observational study of the macro ‐ and micro‐haemodynamic implications of epidural anaesthesia in children
We report macro‐ and micro‐haemodynamic data from an observational study of 25 children ranging from neonates to six‐years old, who underwent surgery conducted with a specific combination of monitoring systems. We analysed 90 min of study‐related monitoring after epidural catheterisation, with skin incision taking place after around 30 min. We recorded macrohaemodynamic parameters (monitored using LiDCOrapid) including heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance and stroke volume variation. Microhaemodynamic parameters (monitored using Invos™) included cereb...
Source: Anaesthesia - November 28, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: L. Triffterer, P. Marhofer, G. Lechner, T. C. Marksz, O. Kimberger, W. Schmid, D. Marhofer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Unexpected motor weakness following quadratus lumborum block for gynaecological laparoscopy
We present a patient with unilateral hip flexion and knee extension weakness leading to unplanned overnight admission following lateral quadratus lumborum block with 20 ml levobupivacaine 0.25%. The L2 dermatomal sensory loss and hip flexion weakness suggested spread to either the L2 paravertebral space or to the lumbar plexus, causing weakness of the psoas and iliacus muscles and possibly the quadriceps. The duration of motor block was approximately 18 h. This complication should be considered when performing the block, especially in the setting of day‐case surgery. (Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - November 27, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: M. Wikner Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Putting the ‘point’ back into the ritual: a binary approach to difficult airway prediction
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - November 26, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: J. J. Pandit, T. Heidegger Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Prediction of difficult mask ventilation using a systematic assessment of risk factors vs. existing practice – a cluster randomised clinical trial in 94,006 patients
Summary We compared implementation of systematic airway assessment with existing practice of airway assessment on prediction of difficult mask ventilation. Twenty‐six departments were cluster‐randomised to assess eleven risk factors for difficult airway management (intervention) or to continue with their existing airway assessment (control). In both groups, patients predicted as a difficult mask ventilation and/or difficult intubation were registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database, with a notational summary of airway management. The trial's primary outcome was the respective incidence of unpredicted difficult and e...
Source: Anaesthesia - November 24, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: A. K. N ørskov, J. Wetterslev, C. V. Rosenstock, A. Afshari, G. Astrup, J. C. Jakobsen, J. L. Thomsen, L. H. Lundstrøm, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of three unchannelled videolaryngoscopes and the Macintosh laryngoscope in patients with a simulated difficult airway: a randomised, controlled trial
Summary This prospective randomised, controlled trial compares the performance of three unchannelled videolaryngoscopes (KingVision™, Airtraq™, A.P. Advance™ MAC) and the standard Macintosh laryngoscope. With ethics committee approval and written informed consent, 480 patients were included. A difficult airway was created with a cervical collar, limiting mouth opening and neck movement. Primary outcome was first‐attempt orotracheal intubation success. Overall success, laryngeal view, intubation difficulty scale, handling, intubation times and side‐effects were secondary outcomes. First‐attempt succe...
Source: Anaesthesia - November 23, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: M. Kleine ‐Brueggeney, M. Buttenberg, R. Greif, S. Nabecker, L. Theiler Tags: Original Article Source Type: research