How to resume elective surgery in light of COVID-19 post-pandemic propofol shortage: The common concern of anaesthesists and surgeons
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Hélène Charbonneau, Ségolène Mrozek, Benjamin Pradere, Jean-Nicolas Cornu, Vincent Misrai (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - August 2, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Perioperative mortality as a meaningful indicator: Challenges and solutions for measurement, interpretation, and health system improvement
Publication date: Available online 31 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Joshua S. Ng-kamstra, Dmitri Nepogodiev, Ismaïl Lawani, Aneel Bhangu (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - August 2, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Pandemic chain of survival: Gathering strength to revive our societies
Publication date: Available online 31 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Clément Buléon, Rebecca D Minehart, Emmanuel Bergot, Albert Chan, Marc-Olivier Fischer (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - August 2, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

EQSAR: A national survey of sleep duration among French Anaesthesiologists and Intensivists
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Florian Robin, Hugues De Courson, Maxim Roy, Joffrey Lemeux, Pierre Philip, Stéphanie Bioulac, Karine Nouette-Gaulain (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - August 1, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Outcome of non-invasive ventilation in COVID-19 critically ill patients: A Retrospective observational Study
Publication date: Available online 28 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Ahmed Mukhtar, Ahmed Lotfy, Ahmed Hasanin, Islam El-Hefnawy, Akram El Adawy (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 30, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Management and prevention of anemia (acute bleeding excluded) in adult critical care patients
Publication date: Available online 23 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Sigismond Lasocki, Frédéric Pène, Hafid Ait-Oufella, Cécile Aubron, Sylvain Ausset, Pierre Buffet, Olivier Huet, Yoann Launey, Matthieu Legrand, Thomas Lescot, Armand Mekontso Dessap, Michael Piagnerelli, Hervé Quintard, Lionel Velly, Antoine Kimmoun, Gérald Chanques (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 24, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 pandemic: A new path to intensive care medicine distinction?
Publication date: Available online 23 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Raphaël Giraud, Karim Bendjelid (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 24, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

COVID-19: How the Paris area faced the massive influx of critical patients
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Arnaud Foucrier, Romain Hellmann, Aurélien Rousseau (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 12, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Continuous lactate monitoring in critically ill patients using microdialysis
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Aurélien Daurat, Maxime Dick, Benjamin Louart, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Laurent Muller, Claire Roger (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Crosstalk between brain, lung and heart in critical care
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Ségolène Mrozek, Julie Gobin, Jean-Michel Constantin, Olivier Fourcade, Thomas Geeraerts (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

No added value of the modified NEWS score to predict clinical deterioration in COVID-19 patients
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Maxime Volff, David Tonon, Jeremy Bourenne, Pierre Simeone, Lionel Velly (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Editorial board
Publication date: June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine, Volume 39, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Contents
Publication date: June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine, Volume 39, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Preliminary pragmatic lessons from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in France
Publication date: June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine, Volume 39, Issue 3Author(s): Tobias Gauss, Pierre Pasquier, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Jean-Michel Constantin, Olivier Langeron, Pierre Bouzat, Julien Pottecher (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Low level of evidence in Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines: Should we throw the baby out with the bathwater?
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Claire Roger, Jérôme Morel, Marc Leone (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Low body mass index may impact the accuracy of Surgical Pleth Index to predict postoperative major pain
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): I-Wen Chen, Kuo-Chuan Hung (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury and severe trauma: A complex interplay
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Antoine Guillaume Schneider, Jacques Duranteau, Pierre Bouzat (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 pandemic and limited palliative care response: “Lack of comfort care”
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Prashant Sirohiya, Brajesh Ratre (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

How to resume elective surgery in light of COVID-19 post-pandemic propofol shortage: An anaesthetist and surgeon indivisible concern
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Hélène Charbonneau, Ségolène Mrozek, Benjamin Pradere, Jean-Nicolas Cornu, Vincent Misrai (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Looking outside the box: Better understanding of the extra-cerebral consequences of brain aggression
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Pierre Bouzat, Anne-Claire Lukaszewicz (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Treating hypoxemic COVID-19 “ARDS” patients with almitrine: The earlier the better?
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Karim Bendjelid, Raphael Giraud, Stephan Von Düring (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 11, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Women in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine in France: are we making any progress?
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Anne Godier, Karine Nouette-Gaulain, Marie-Laure Cittanova, Hélène Beloeil, Catherine Paugam-Burtz, Anne-Claire Lukaszewicz (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 9, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Quality of Evidence Supporting Surviving Sepsis Campaign Recommendations
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Jordi Rello, Sofia Tejada, Xu Elena, Candela Solé-Lleonart, Laura Campogiani, Despoina Koulenti, João Ferreira-Coimbra, Jeff Lipman (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 9, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

ICU outcomes of COVID-19 critically ill patients: an international comparative study
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Ashraf Nadeem, Fadi Hamed, Khaled Saleh, Baraa Abduljawad, Jihad Mallat (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 4, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound findings in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in early and late stages: Two case-reports
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Laurent Zieleskiewicz, Gary Duclos, Ophélie Dransart-Rayé, Nicolas Nowobilski, Belaid Bouhemad (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 4, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Contributions of publications in anaesthesiology from North Asia: a 20-year survey of the literature
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Qian-Bo Chen, Huai-Yu Yang, Shaochun Xu, Zhi-Jie Lu, Liang-Hao Hu (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Characteristics of critically ill patients infected with COVID-19 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Khaled Abdallah, Fadi Hamed, Nadeem Rahman, Shameen Salam, Jihad Mallat (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Intubation box in the current pandemic – helps or hinders?
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Karthik T. Ponnappan, Amal Francis Sam, Deepak K Tempe, Makesh K. Arora (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 1, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Shortage of sedatives and neuromuscular blockers during COVID-19 pandemic: The result of an overstocking procedure in French hospitals?
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Déborah Montmeat, Claudine Gard, Mathieu Raux, Jean-Michel Constantin, Patrick Tilleul (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 1, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 studies registration worldwide for prospective studies with a specific focus on the fast-tracking of French ethic procedures
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Téa Gremi, Éric Ginesy, Didier Payen, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Benoît Marin (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 1, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Supraglottic airways in the management of COVID-19 patients
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Wan Yen Lim, Patrick Wong (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - July 1, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Coagulation changes and thromboembolic risk in Covid-19 obstetric patients
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Dan Benhamou, Hawa Keita, Anne Sophie Ducloy-Bouthors, CARO working group (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 27, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Implementation of a non-invasive oxygenation support strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic in an ephemeral Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit
Publication date: Available online 24 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Tsipora Guenancia, Anne Rosa, Charles Damoisel, Frédéric J. Mercier, Bénédicte Jeannin (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 26, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

In-hospital transfer of COVID-19 patients: Perspectives from an Indian tertiary care hospital
Publication date: Available online 24 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Ila Sharma, Vighnesh Ashok, Goverdhan Dutt Puri (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 26, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

The organisation of a French emergency department in a coronavirus hotspot
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Mathieu Oberlin, Pierrick Le Borgne, Martin Behr, Sabrina Kepka, Pascal Bilbault (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 20, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Activation of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is associated with Acute Kidney injury in COVID-19
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Emmanuel Dudoignon, Nabila Moreno, Benjamin Deniau, Maxime Coutrot, Romain Longer, Quentin Amiot, Alexandre Mebazaa, Romain Pirracchio, François Depret, Matthieu Legrand (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 20, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Emergency front-of-neck airway in the COVID-19 patient: cannula or surgical cricothyroidotomy?
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Henry Chua, Theodore Wong, Wan Yen Lim, Patrick Wong (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 20, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Minimising COVID-19 exposure during tracheal intubation by using a transparent plastic box: a randomised prospective simulation study
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Simon Clariot, Guillaume Dumain, Elisabeth Gauci, Olivier Langeron, Éric Levesque (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 19, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Diabetes care during the acute phase of infection in ICU patients with specific attention to COVID-19 outbreak
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Bogdan Catargi, Gaëlle Cheisson, Igor Tauveron, Sophie Jacqueminet, Dan Benhamou (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 19, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Left ventricular dysfunction in COVID-19: a diagnostic issue
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Matthias Jacquet-Lagrèze, Zakaria Riad, Elisabeth Hugon-Vallet, Arnaud Ferraris, Jean-Luc Fellahi (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 19, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Novel technique for safe fibreoptic tracheal intubation in COVID-19 patients
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Abdelghafour Elkoundi, Ayoub Azzouzi, Abderrahim El Wali, Abdelouahed Baite, Mustapha Bensghir (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 17, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

In-ICU COVID-19 patients’ characteristics for an estimation in post-ICU rehabilitation care requirement
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Charlotte Poussardin, Walid Oulehri, Marie Eve Isner, Paul Michel Mertes, Olivier Collange (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 14, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

A French emergency department organisation in a coronavirus hotspot
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Matthieu Oberlin, Pierrick Le Borgne, Martin Behr, Sabrina Kepka, Pascal Bilbault (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 14, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

The Frankfurt COVid aErosol pRotEction Dome–COVERED–a consideration for personal protective equipment improvement and technical note
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Christoph Martin, Jan Kloka, Gösta Lotz, Kai Zacharowski, Florian J. Raimann (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 6, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Guidelines: Anaesthesia in the context of COVID-19 pandemic
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Lionel Velly, Etienne Gayat, Audrey De Jong, Hervé Quintard, Emmanuel Weiss, Philippe Cuvillon, Gerard Audibert, Julien Amour, Marc Beaussier, Matthieu Biais, Sébastien Bloc, Marie Pierre Bonnet, Pierre Bouzat, Gilles Brezac, Claire Dahyot-Fizelier, Souhayl Dahmani, Mathilde de Queiroz, Sophie Di Maria, Claude Ecoffey, Emmanuel Futier (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 6, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Effect Of Almitrine Bismesylate And Inhaled Nitric Oxide On Oxygenation In Covid-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Michael Cardinale, Pierre Esnault, Jean Cotte, Pierre J Cungi, Philippe Goutorbe (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 6, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Almitrine as a non-ventilatory strategy to improve intrapulmonary shunt in COVID-19 patients
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Losser Marie-Reine, Lapoix Coline, Delannoy Matthieu, Champigneulle Benoit, Payen Didier (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - June 6, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Continuous non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring in patients having surgery: valuable tool or superfluous toy?
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Alexandre Joosten, Jean-Louis Vincent, Bernd Saugel (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - May 23, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Blood glucose control management in critically ill adult patients: results of a French nationwide practice survey
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Sebastien Pili-Floury, Christelle Schneider, Lucie Salomon du Mont, Emmanuel Samain, Guillaume Besch (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - May 22, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Immunotherapies for COVID-19: restoring the immunity could be the priority
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Bernard Allaouchiche (Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - May 22, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research