Health informatics and the importance of coding
Abstract: Health informatics can be defined as ‘The knowledge, skills and tools which enable information to be collected, managed, used and shared, to support the delivery of healthcare and to promote health.’ The use of computers in informatics requires standardized codes to identify synonymous medical terms. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, (ICD-10) is used internationally to code morbidity and mortality; the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys Classification of Surgical Operations and Procedures, 4th revision, (OPCS-4) is used in the U...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Anthony Madden Tags: Informatics Source Type: research

Databases
Abstract: A database is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer so that it can be consulted by a program to answer queries. Records retrieved through queries become information that can be used to make decisions. A database consists of one or more tables containing records of values for fields that pertain to the attributes of the object being represented by the table. Relational databases contain multiple tables that are linked by means of key fields. A database management system is the computer program that manages the database and queries the data to produce reports of information. Exampl...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: James Berrington Tags: Informatics Source Type: research

Anaesthetic records
This article explores their multiple purposes and the guidelines for their content. It also discusses the practical means of documenting the events that take place during an anaesthetic episode and the benefits and drawbacks of automated electronic records. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Phillip Dickinson, James Berrington Tags: Informatics Source Type: research

Maintenance of anaesthesia
Abstract: The anaesthetist must have a sound pharmacological knowledge with respect to maintenance of general anaesthesia but this is by no means their sole responsibility during this, the longest phase of anaesthesia. The anaesthetist must be constantly vigilant to detect those factors that might jeopardize patient wellbeing or safety as well as giving consideration to those paraclinical matters in the wider context of healthcare service provision. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tobias Everett, Michael Tattersall Tags: Clinical anaesthesia Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

MCQs
Which of the following are the causes of optic nerve ischaemia? Decreased angiotensin (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Henry G.W. Paw, Vijayanand Nadella Tags: Test yourself Source Type: research

Confidentiality and security of information
Abstract: Information about patients should be accurate, available to those who need to see it, and yet remain confidential. These three principles, especially the last two, may be difficult to achieve together. Electronic record systems can use sophisticated processes, such as role-based access, legitimate relationships, and sealed envelopes, to enable appropriate security. Use of patient information is covered by legislation, such as the Data Protection Act, by guidance, such as the Care Record Guarantee, and by local information governance processes, such as the Caldicott guardian and Trust Data Protection Policies. Hea...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Chris Barham Tags: Informatics Source Type: research

Data, information, knowledge and wisdom
Abstract: The relationship between data, information, knowledge and wisdom is explained. The growth of the Internet is changing the traditional hierarchies of ‘experts’ and changing ways of disseminating information.In the growing area of knowledge management, the Internet is enabling new ways of collecting, organizing and disseminating knowledge. Data mining is the application of improved techniques of data organization and storage and analysis to large datasets and has led to the discovery of previously unknown knowledge and relationships. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Paul Cooper Tags: Informatics Source Type: research

Care of the eye during anaesthesia and intensive care
This article aims to improve anaesthetists' knowledge of orbital anatomy, ocular physiology and the mechanisms of perioperative eye injuries to help reduce their occurrence. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Priya N. Nair, Emert White Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Eye signs in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine
Abstract: Eye signs are of limited value in assessing the level of sedation or general anaesthesia. Horner's syndrome is an important complication of excessively high neuraxial block. Eye opening is part of the Glasgow Coma Scale, and pupil size and reaction have important implications in the intensive care setting. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Rahul Bajekal, Francoise Bari Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Local anaesthesia for ocular surgery
Abstract: Local anaesthesia is the technique of choice for a large number of ophthalmic procedures, including cataract surgery. For some procedures topical anaesthesia is sufficient; for more complex procedures a local anaesthetic block will be needed. Sharp needle techniques previously favoured, whilst still useful, have become less common than the cannula-based sub-Tenon's block. This provides favourable operating conditions with a lower risk of complications. Patients should be appropriately counselled regarding local anaesthesia early in their perioperative journey; combined with suitable preoperative assessment this p...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Heather Rodgers, Rachael Craven Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Anaesthesia for paediatric eye surgery
Abstract: Local anaesthesia is often the technique of choice for ophthalmic procedures performed on adults, however general anaesthesia is usually required for procedures on children. The majority of paediatric patients are fit and healthy but there is a minority in whom the presenting eye complaint is related to a congenital disorder, which may have significant bearing on the conduct of anaesthesia.Management of the airway and presentation of a quiescent eye for surgery are key considerations, while control of the oculocardiac reflex and intraocular pressure are important both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Intraoc...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Thomas Knight, Steven M. Sale Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

General anaesthesia for ophthalmic surgery
Abstract: Local anaesthesia for eye surgery is increasingly popular, but there will always be a need for general anaesthesia. Patients may refuse local anaesthesia, may be unable to keep still or lie flat for the duration of surgery or lack the mental facility to cooperate whilst awake. Young children and those with allergy to local anaesthetic also need general anaesthesia. Careful patient preparation is important before surgery. Glycaemic control in patients with diabetes, adjustments to warfarin or aspirin dosing, thromboembolic prophylaxis and preoperative fasting need to be considered. Eye surgery alone is rarely a tr...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Nicholas C.B. Pritchard Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Ocular anatomy and physiology relevant to anaesthesia
This article discusses anatomy of the orbit and eye, and includes rudimentary ocular physiology. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Presland, Jonathan Price Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Anaphylaxis
Abstract: Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction. The pathophysiology of anaphylaxis can be described as immunologic and non-immunologic. Classification can be based on the time course of the anaphylactic reaction which may be uniphasic, biphasic or protracted. There are many triggers for anaphylaxis; the most commonly identified are food, drugs and venom. The presence of other comorbidities and concurrent medications impacts on the severity of symptoms and the response to treatment in patients with anaphylaxis. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is mostly clinical; however, ...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Vandana Girotra, Abdul Ghaaliq Lalkhen Tags: Clinical Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of respiratory disease and its significance to anaesthesia
Abstract: Significant changes occur in the respiratory physiology of healthy patients during anaesthesia. In patients with underlying respiratory pathology (e.g. chronic obstructive airways disease) these changes in respiratory physiology may lead to clinical problems during the conduct of anaesthesia and the perioperative period. An understanding of the disease processes that can affect the lungs and pleura allows the anaesthetist to account for the potential complications of these conditions and manage the anaesthetic accordingly. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: S. Kimber Craig, Zoe Parry Tags: Clinical Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Tracheal intubation
Abstract: Tracheal intubation is the placement of a tube into the trachea. It provides the gold standard for airway protection ensuring the trachea and lungs are protected from the aspiration of stomach contents. The tube can be used for ventilation permitting oxygen delivery and the removal of carbon dioxide; it also has a role in delivering drugs. If the tracheal tube is misplaced and not recognized, then hypoxia will occur which may be fatal.Tracheal intubation was first recorded in 1543, but few advances were made until the First World War when its importance was recognized. Sir Ivan Whiteside Magill was predominantly ...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Elizabeth B.M. Thomas, Susan Moss Tags: Clinical Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Critical incidents: the respiratory system
This article deals with events related to the respiratory system including airway injury, airway obstruction, inadequate ventilation, aspiration, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, pulmonary oedema, and pneumothorax. Difficult intubation is dealt with elsewhere in this journal. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: James Palmer Tags: Clinical Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

MCQs
Which of the following are true about the principles of radiofrequency (RF) ablation? Direct current is used in the RF ablation (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Henry G.W. Paw, Vijayanand Nadella Tags: Test yourself Source Type: research

Drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system
Abstract: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a complex system of the nervous and humoral mechanisms that modulates the function of the autonomous or visceral organs. Autonomic control of several organs aims to maintain homoeostasis in health. Many drugs used in clinical practice may have either primary or secondary effects on the function of the ANS. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Raghavendran Krishnaiyan, Jonathan P. Thompson Tags: Pharmacology Source Type: research

Psychology and chronic pain
Abstract: Adapting to chronic pain is often problematic due to the intensity of emotions that pain provokes. Negative emotions that are associated with pain tend to amplify the severity of the pain experienced. Current treatment strategies that address emotion dysregulation can enhance tolerance and acceptance of pain states. These effects are viewed in the light of current research into the neuroscience of pain and emotion. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jennifer K. Dietrich Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Radiofrequency techniques in pain management
Abstract: Radiofrequency techniques are commonly used in management of persistent pain. It involves application of high-frequency alternating current to the neuronal pathways. It is employed for both neuromodulation and neuroablative type procedures in interventional pain management. Technological advances have widened the scope of their use within clinical practice. The evidence base for both conventional and new technologies is accumulating. A clear understanding of the principles and technologies will enable the clinician to use it safely and effectively. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Saravanakumar Kanakarajan Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Neurosurgical techniques in the management of chronic pain
Abstract: Neurosurgical treatment for pain can be classified into three categories: treatment of the cause, neuro-ablative techniques and neuromodulation. Treatment of the cause is exemplified by microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia.All of these treatments are now delivered in a multidisciplinary context, with other adjunctive treatments including cognitive techniques and pain management programmes. There is increasing emphasis on outcome measurement in all categories, using both condition-specific and generic assessment tools such as the EuroQuol-5D. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Paul Eldridge Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Management of pain in the terminally ill
Abstract: Pain is common in terminal illness. It is a multidimensional experience and requires an integrated approach for its management to be successful.Pharmacological treatment follows the World Health Organization pain ladder, with early use of strong opioid analgesia in moderate-to-severe cancer pain. A variety of opioids are now available and choice will be tailored to the individual needs of the patient. Complex pain states, such as neuropathic and cancer-induced bone pain, often require multi-modal treatment with adjuvant analgesia and interventional techniques. In the final days of life, drugs will be administered...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Leza Quate, Elinor Brabin, Alison Mitchell Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Opioids in the management of persistent non-cancer pain
Abstract: The medical use of opioids to treat pain and illness predates historic record. Opioids have a well-defined role in the treatment of acute and cancer pain, and most clinicians are comfortable prescribing opioids in these contexts. However, in persistent non-cancer pain (PNCP) there remains considerable controversy. While there is evidence of short-to-medium-term benefit, concerns exist over long-term efficacy, side effects, safety, and the potential for opioid misuse. Guidelines published to date emphasize the importance of patient selection, opioid preparation, monitoring of therapy, and a multimodal treatment pa...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gordon Stewart, Margaret Owen Tags: Pain Source Type: research

The place of pharmacological treatment in chronic pain
We present an overview of clinical use and associated problems of commonly used pharmacological agents in current practice. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Usman Bashir, Lesley A. Colvin Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Role of the sympathetic nervous system in pain
Abstract: The involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in chronic pain conditions has been well described and recognized for over a century. However, the exact mechanism of the relationship has not been fully explained. In certain chronic pain conditions (e.g. complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)), the presence of sympathetic signs forms part of the diagnostic criteria.Typical management will involve a multidisciplinary approach, including physical, pharmacological, and psychological therapies. Interventional techniques such as sympathetic blocks can also be used; however evidence of efficacy for many treatments rema...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gordon Stewart, Ajit Panickar Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Implantable technology for pain management
Abstract: Chronic pain has now been recognized as a disease entity in its own right. Significant numbers of patients suffer from intractable chronic pain. Neuromodulation has been defined by the International Neuromodulation Society as ‘the therapeutic alteration of activity in the central or peripheral nervous system either electrically or pharmacologically’. It can be achieved either by electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, spinal cord or brain, or by delivering pharmacological agents directly into the intrathecal, epidural or intracerebroventricular sites. Neuromodulation is expensive, invasive and no...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Rafi Khan, Gail Gillespie Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Chronic pain in children
Abstract: Chronic pain (CP) in children is a significant medical condition. The exact incidence is difficult to define but we know that historically it has been underdiagnosed and undertreated. Children can present with a variety of pain conditions (e.g. chronic headache, abdominal pain and musculoskeletal/limb pain).The medical pathway of children with chronic pain is a long and stressful one, often involving extensive investigations. A child with chronic pain will show a variety of concomitant symptoms – sleep disturbance, school absence, psychological symptoms such as anxiety, low mood and in extreme cases depress...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Pamela A. Cupples Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Analgesia in labour: induction and maintenance” [From Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine 2013; 14: 276–279]
The author of this article would like to draw attention to an error in the section on Local anaesthetic drugs, page 278, third paragraph in the sentence “Ropivacaine is the S-enantiomer…”. Ropivacaine is indeed a long acting amide S-enantiomer, but it is NOT an enantiomer of bupivacaine. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Graeme G. Flett Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

MCQs
Which of the following are true about various opioid preparations and their routes of administration? Oral morphine has a very high bioavailability (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Henry G.W. Paw, Vijayanand Nadella Tags: Test yourself Source Type: research

Non-opioid analgesics
This article will give an overview of the pain pathway, highlight therapeutic targets and revisit common non-opioid analgesic agents currently in use. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Christopher Hebbes, David G. Lambert Tags: Pharmacology Source Type: research

Opioid mechanisms and opioid drugs
Abstract: The opioid system comprises four receptor subtypes: μ (MOP), κ (KOP), δ (DOP), now called the ‘classical’ opioid receptors, and the ‘non classical’ nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (N/OFQ) receptor (NOP). Selective endogenous peptides, cleaved from larger precursor proteins, have been identified for all subtypes. Both classical and non-classical opioid receptors couple to inhibitory, pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. Opioid receptors activate the same major intracellular pathways, which include: closing of voltage-sensitive calcium channels; opening of potassium channels a...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: John McDonald, David G. Lambert Tags: Pharmacology Source Type: research

TENS and acupuncture therapy for soft tissue pain
Abstract: Acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) are two commonly used physical therapies in the management of soft tissue pain. Stimulation is used to provide analgesia in the treatment of both acute and chronic soft tissue pain. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jacqueline Peacock Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Soft tissue pain and physical therapy
This article outlines physical treatments for soft tissue pain in acute and chronic settings. Active treatments such as exercise and education are essential in the management of all soft tissue pains, but passive treatments, such as heat/cold treatment, ultrasound treatment, and massage are effective only in the management of acute pain. In chronic pain a multidisciplinary approach is often necessary. Self-management, goal-setting, and functional restoration are emphasized in treating chronic soft tissue pain. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tai-Tak Wan Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Peripheral regional techniques for acute pain treatment
Abstract: Regional anaesthesia has many advantages over systemic analgesia alone for postoperative pain, enhanced recovery and rehabilitation. Advances in continuous peripheral nerve block techniques enable the benefits of single injection blockade to be extended, providing prolonged, site-specific analgesia. A wide range of equipment, local anaesthetic solutions and adjuvants can be used to provide peripheral nerve blockade. In this article we review equipment, drugs, techniques, indications, benefits and potential complications of peripheral nerve blockade. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Rosie Snaith, John Dolan Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Techniques of opioid administration
Abstract: Opioids continue to be the main pharmacological treatment for severe acute pain. Traditional methods of opioid administration (oral, intramuscular, subcutaneous and intravenous) are more effective in managing pain if their treatment regimens are individualized and dosages are titrated to effect. Transdermal delivery of highly lipid-soluble opioids is an alternative route of treatment when managing severe pain in chronic conditions and palliative care scenarios. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Moutaz Burwaiss, Dee Comerford Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Assessment of acute and chronic pain
Abstract: Acute and chronic pain states are under-recognized and under-treated. The assessment of pain and evaluation of treatment requires repeated measurement of pain intensity using reliable and well-validated scales. Sensory components of pain must also be assessed and in particular, the diagnosis of neuropathic pain should not be missed as this diagnosis may direct treatment and potentially alter long-term outcomes. Several neuropathic screening tools are available to aid the detection and monitoring of neuropathic pain but importantly, a clinical examination is essential to corroborate this diagnosis. The further ass...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Lesley Green Tags: Pain Source Type: research

The neurobiology of chronic pain states
Abstract: Plasticity enables alterations in transmission in nociceptive systems. It is this plasticity in the nervous system that can alter the linear relation between noxious stimuli and the perception of pain. In this way, a number of central nervous system mechanisms can alter neuronal activity, leading to abnormal ongoing and stimulus-evoked pains due to peripheral and central changes. Peripheral nerves can become sensitized, spinal cord neurons can be rendered hyperexcitable and ascending projections to higher centres can further trigger changes in descending controls from the midbrain and brainstem. Together, these c...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Anthony Dickenson Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of pain
Abstract: Pain is a complex perceptual experience. The transmission of pain involves both peripheral and central processes that can be modulated at many levels. Peripheral sensitization causes increased afferent input to the spinal cord. Numerous receptors and ion channels are involved. Physiological and anatomical changes within the nervous system are implicated in the development of neuropathic and visceral pain states. The complexity of pain transmission means there are many pharmacological targets and multimodal therapy is required to optimize pain control. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Clare Bridgestock, Colin P. Rae Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Acute pain management – new challenges
Abstract: Although almost universal in UK hospitals today, inpatient acute pain services (APS) were uncommon prior to 1990 when a review by the commission on the provision of surgical services demonstrated significant shortfalls in patient care. Established to provide simple analgesic interventions in the postoperative setting, today's APS faces many new challenges, such as the management of acute neuropathic pain and peri-operative pain control in patients with chronic pain or who are opioid tolerant. The APS has a developing role to educate, to prevent post-surgical chronic pain and to facilitate enhanced recovery after ...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Mark Rockett, Timothy Wilson Tags: CORE: Pain Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - October 31, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

MCQs
Which of the following are true about the clinical features, diagnosis and management of pneumonia? The CURB 65 is highly less sensitive but less specific at predicting the need for invasive ventilation (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - September 25, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Henry G.W. Paw, Vijayanand Nadella Tags: Test yourself Source Type: research

Acute respiratory distress syndrome
This article describes the most recent diagnostic classification and outlines the pathophysiology and current management of patients suffering from this syndrome. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - September 25, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Finbar O'Sullivan, Mohammed Al-Haddad Tags: Intensive care Source Type: research