Uterine physiology
Abstract: The role of the uterus is to nurture the fetus until parturition. Functionally it consists of a lower cervix (which acts at different times as a passageway, a barrier and a reservoir) and an upper body in which the fetus develops. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Kamran Abbas, Suna D. Monaghan, Iain Campbell Tags: Physiology Source Type: research

Resuscitation of the newborn
This article provides a brief overview of resuscitation of the newborn. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: John Madar Tags: Neonatal anaesthesia Source Type: research

Anaesthesia for specialist surgery in infancy
Abstract: Common indications for neonatal surgery include inguinal hernias and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Less common conditions that have major implications for anaesthesia include tracheoesophageal fistula, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, exomphalos, gastroschisis and congenital lobar emphysema. The anaesthetic management of these conditions is outlined in this article. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gillian Lauder, Helen Hume-Smith Tags: Neonatal anaesthesia Source Type: research

Acute pain management in the neonate
Abstract: Management of acute pain in the neonate is challenging and involves a multimodal approach using non-pharmacological and pharmacological techniques after pain assessment using appropriate tools. Simplicity equates to safety in these vulnerable patients. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Sarah Parry Tags: Neonatal anaesthesia Source Type: research

Special considerations in the premature and ex-premature infant
This article describes the clinical conditions unique to the premature and ex-premature infant, and some common surgical procedures and special considerations for the conduct of anaesthesia in this vulnerable population. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Guy Bayley Tags: Neonatal anaesthesia Source Type: research

Principles of anaesthesia for term neonates: an updated practical guide
Abstract: Term neonates present for various surgical procedures, many of which are urgent and are probably best cared for in specialised paediatric centres where expertise is concentrated. Pathophysiological derangements caused by the underlying condition, associated congenital anomalies and immaturity of key physiological and metabolic processes all contribute to make anaesthesia especially challenging in the neonate. For these reasons, anaesthesia-associated morbidity and mortality is greater in this group than in older infants and children. Meticulous attention to all aspects of perioperative care is vital to ensure the...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Iskra Ivanova, Andrew Pittaway Tags: Neonatal anaesthesia Source Type: research

Neonatal pharmacology
Abstract: The neonatal period represents a time of rapid growth and development. As a consequence, significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes occur. In addition, size, age, physiological changes, pathological processes and genomics all contribute to between patient variability that should be considered when trying to predict the action and disposition of drugs in the neonate. The problem is compounded by a relative paucity of research and data on many aspects of neonatal pharmacology. These issues pose significant challenges to the clinician to deliver safe and effective drug therapy to these vulnerable patien...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Adam V. Skinner Tags: Neonatal anaesthesia Source Type: research

Adaptation for life: a review of neonatal physiology
This article describes neonatal physiological changes in a system-based approach, including the changes that may extend beyond the neonatal period. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Alok Sharma, Simon Ford, Jennifer Calvert Tags: Neonatal anaesthesia Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - March 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

MCQs
Which of the following are associated with hyperkalaemia? Cushing's syndrome (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Henry G.W. Paw, Vijayanand Nadella Tags: Test yourself Source Type: research

Local anaesthetic agents
Abstract: Local anaesthetics are weak bases and consist of a lipophilic aromatic ring, a link and a hydrophilic amine. The chemistry of the link classifies them as amides or esters. They act by blocking the sodium ionophore, especially in the activated state of the channel, and frequency dependence can be shown. The speed of onset is related to dose and proportion of drug in the unionized lipid-soluble form, which in turn is determined by the pKa and the ambient pH. Local anaesthetic agents, being weak bases, are bound in the plasma to α1-acid glycoproteins, influencing duration of action. Esters undergo hydrolysis b...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Malachy O. Columb, Robert Hartley Tags: Pharmacology Source Type: research

Electrolyte disorders in the critically ill
This article provides a review of and guide to aetiology, analysis, and management of the major electrolytes in the critically ill. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Raja Palepu, Ross Freebairn Tags: Intensive care Source Type: research

Management of pulmonary embolism
Abstract: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common condition with significant mortality and morbidity. Its occurrence frequently triggers referral to critical care services. Patients within critical care environments are also at elevated risk of developing venous thrombo-embolism and PE. This highlights the need for critical care clinicians to be confident in their approach to the patient with PE. Furthermore, the co-morbid conditions in this patient group may present additional challenges both in diagnosis (e.g. safe access to radiology) and management (e.g. relative contraindication to anticoagulation/thrombolysis in trauma o...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: John A. Strange, David Pilcher Tags: Intensive care Source Type: research

Ischaemic cardiogenic shock
Abstract: Ischaemia is the most common underlying cause of cardiogenic shock. Cardiogenic shock occurs in up to 10% of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction and is the leading cause of death. Myocardial ischaemia results in both systolic and diastolic dysfunction and triggers a maladaptive feedback loop that can ultimately result in tissue hypoxia, multi-organ dysfunction and death. Myocardial dysfunction can be complicated by a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a result of systemic hypoxia. Echocardiography is key to diagnosis and to exclude conditions requiring urgent surgical intervention....
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Ida-Fong Ukor, Lisen E. Hockings Tags: Intensive care Source Type: research

Shock: causes, initial assessment and investigations
Abstract: Shock may result from a number of distinct disease processes and it is commonly associated with trauma, infection and cardiovascular dysfunction. Shock results in significant morbidity and mortality and is a leading causes of death in hospital patients. In order to improve patient outcomes it is important to recognize shock early, then assess and treat the shocked patient in a systematic way.The clinical classification of shock into cardiogenic, obstructive, hypovolaemic or distributive shock can help the clinician to understand the underlying cause of the shock. However, it is important to note that considerable...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Alistair Nichol, Bilal Ahmed Tags: Intensive care Source Type: research

Health informatics and the importance of coding
Abstract: Health informatics can be defined as ‘The knowledge, skills and tools which enable information to be collected, managed, used and shared, to support the delivery of healthcare and to promote health.’ The use of computers in informatics requires standardized codes to identify synonymous medical terms. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, (ICD-10) is used internationally to code morbidity and mortality; the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys Classification of Surgical Operations and Procedures, 4th revision, (OPCS-4) is used in the U...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Anthony Madden Tags: Informatics Source Type: research

Databases
Abstract: A database is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer so that it can be consulted by a program to answer queries. Records retrieved through queries become information that can be used to make decisions. A database consists of one or more tables containing records of values for fields that pertain to the attributes of the object being represented by the table. Relational databases contain multiple tables that are linked by means of key fields. A database management system is the computer program that manages the database and queries the data to produce reports of information. Exampl...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: James Berrington Tags: Informatics Source Type: research

Anaesthetic records
This article explores their multiple purposes and the guidelines for their content. It also discusses the practical means of documenting the events that take place during an anaesthetic episode and the benefits and drawbacks of automated electronic records. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Phillip Dickinson, James Berrington Tags: Informatics Source Type: research

Maintenance of anaesthesia
Abstract: The anaesthetist must have a sound pharmacological knowledge with respect to maintenance of general anaesthesia but this is by no means their sole responsibility during this, the longest phase of anaesthesia. The anaesthetist must be constantly vigilant to detect those factors that might jeopardize patient wellbeing or safety as well as giving consideration to those paraclinical matters in the wider context of healthcare service provision. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tobias Everett, Michael Tattersall Tags: Clinical anaesthesia Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 27, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

MCQs
Which of the following are the causes of optic nerve ischaemia? Decreased angiotensin (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Henry G.W. Paw, Vijayanand Nadella Tags: Test yourself Source Type: research

Confidentiality and security of information
Abstract: Information about patients should be accurate, available to those who need to see it, and yet remain confidential. These three principles, especially the last two, may be difficult to achieve together. Electronic record systems can use sophisticated processes, such as role-based access, legitimate relationships, and sealed envelopes, to enable appropriate security. Use of patient information is covered by legislation, such as the Data Protection Act, by guidance, such as the Care Record Guarantee, and by local information governance processes, such as the Caldicott guardian and Trust Data Protection Policies. Hea...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Chris Barham Tags: Informatics Source Type: research

Data, information, knowledge and wisdom
Abstract: The relationship between data, information, knowledge and wisdom is explained. The growth of the Internet is changing the traditional hierarchies of ‘experts’ and changing ways of disseminating information.In the growing area of knowledge management, the Internet is enabling new ways of collecting, organizing and disseminating knowledge. Data mining is the application of improved techniques of data organization and storage and analysis to large datasets and has led to the discovery of previously unknown knowledge and relationships. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Paul Cooper Tags: Informatics Source Type: research

Care of the eye during anaesthesia and intensive care
This article aims to improve anaesthetists' knowledge of orbital anatomy, ocular physiology and the mechanisms of perioperative eye injuries to help reduce their occurrence. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Priya N. Nair, Emert White Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Eye signs in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine
Abstract: Eye signs are of limited value in assessing the level of sedation or general anaesthesia. Horner's syndrome is an important complication of excessively high neuraxial block. Eye opening is part of the Glasgow Coma Scale, and pupil size and reaction have important implications in the intensive care setting. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Rahul Bajekal, Francoise Bari Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Local anaesthesia for ocular surgery
Abstract: Local anaesthesia is the technique of choice for a large number of ophthalmic procedures, including cataract surgery. For some procedures topical anaesthesia is sufficient; for more complex procedures a local anaesthetic block will be needed. Sharp needle techniques previously favoured, whilst still useful, have become less common than the cannula-based sub-Tenon's block. This provides favourable operating conditions with a lower risk of complications. Patients should be appropriately counselled regarding local anaesthesia early in their perioperative journey; combined with suitable preoperative assessment this p...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Heather Rodgers, Rachael Craven Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Anaesthesia for paediatric eye surgery
Abstract: Local anaesthesia is often the technique of choice for ophthalmic procedures performed on adults, however general anaesthesia is usually required for procedures on children. The majority of paediatric patients are fit and healthy but there is a minority in whom the presenting eye complaint is related to a congenital disorder, which may have significant bearing on the conduct of anaesthesia.Management of the airway and presentation of a quiescent eye for surgery are key considerations, while control of the oculocardiac reflex and intraocular pressure are important both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Intraoc...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Thomas Knight, Steven M. Sale Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

General anaesthesia for ophthalmic surgery
Abstract: Local anaesthesia for eye surgery is increasingly popular, but there will always be a need for general anaesthesia. Patients may refuse local anaesthesia, may be unable to keep still or lie flat for the duration of surgery or lack the mental facility to cooperate whilst awake. Young children and those with allergy to local anaesthetic also need general anaesthesia. Careful patient preparation is important before surgery. Glycaemic control in patients with diabetes, adjustments to warfarin or aspirin dosing, thromboembolic prophylaxis and preoperative fasting need to be considered. Eye surgery alone is rarely a tr...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Nicholas C.B. Pritchard Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Ocular anatomy and physiology relevant to anaesthesia
This article discusses anatomy of the orbit and eye, and includes rudimentary ocular physiology. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Andrew Presland, Jonathan Price Tags: Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Anaphylaxis
Abstract: Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction. The pathophysiology of anaphylaxis can be described as immunologic and non-immunologic. Classification can be based on the time course of the anaphylactic reaction which may be uniphasic, biphasic or protracted. There are many triggers for anaphylaxis; the most commonly identified are food, drugs and venom. The presence of other comorbidities and concurrent medications impacts on the severity of symptoms and the response to treatment in patients with anaphylaxis. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is mostly clinical; however, ...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Vandana Girotra, Abdul Ghaaliq Lalkhen Tags: Clinical Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of respiratory disease and its significance to anaesthesia
Abstract: Significant changes occur in the respiratory physiology of healthy patients during anaesthesia. In patients with underlying respiratory pathology (e.g. chronic obstructive airways disease) these changes in respiratory physiology may lead to clinical problems during the conduct of anaesthesia and the perioperative period. An understanding of the disease processes that can affect the lungs and pleura allows the anaesthetist to account for the potential complications of these conditions and manage the anaesthetic accordingly. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: S. Kimber Craig, Zoe Parry Tags: Clinical Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Tracheal intubation
Abstract: Tracheal intubation is the placement of a tube into the trachea. It provides the gold standard for airway protection ensuring the trachea and lungs are protected from the aspiration of stomach contents. The tube can be used for ventilation permitting oxygen delivery and the removal of carbon dioxide; it also has a role in delivering drugs. If the tracheal tube is misplaced and not recognized, then hypoxia will occur which may be fatal.Tracheal intubation was first recorded in 1543, but few advances were made until the First World War when its importance was recognized. Sir Ivan Whiteside Magill was predominantly ...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Elizabeth B.M. Thomas, Susan Moss Tags: Clinical Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Critical incidents: the respiratory system
This article deals with events related to the respiratory system including airway injury, airway obstruction, inadequate ventilation, aspiration, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, pulmonary oedema, and pneumothorax. Difficult intubation is dealt with elsewhere in this journal. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: James Palmer Tags: Clinical Anaesthesia Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - January 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

MCQs
Which of the following are true about the principles of radiofrequency (RF) ablation? Direct current is used in the RF ablation (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Henry G.W. Paw, Vijayanand Nadella Tags: Test yourself Source Type: research

Drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system
Abstract: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a complex system of the nervous and humoral mechanisms that modulates the function of the autonomous or visceral organs. Autonomic control of several organs aims to maintain homoeostasis in health. Many drugs used in clinical practice may have either primary or secondary effects on the function of the ANS. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Raghavendran Krishnaiyan, Jonathan P. Thompson Tags: Pharmacology Source Type: research

Psychology and chronic pain
Abstract: Adapting to chronic pain is often problematic due to the intensity of emotions that pain provokes. Negative emotions that are associated with pain tend to amplify the severity of the pain experienced. Current treatment strategies that address emotion dysregulation can enhance tolerance and acceptance of pain states. These effects are viewed in the light of current research into the neuroscience of pain and emotion. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Jennifer K. Dietrich Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Radiofrequency techniques in pain management
Abstract: Radiofrequency techniques are commonly used in management of persistent pain. It involves application of high-frequency alternating current to the neuronal pathways. It is employed for both neuromodulation and neuroablative type procedures in interventional pain management. Technological advances have widened the scope of their use within clinical practice. The evidence base for both conventional and new technologies is accumulating. A clear understanding of the principles and technologies will enable the clinician to use it safely and effectively. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Saravanakumar Kanakarajan Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Neurosurgical techniques in the management of chronic pain
Abstract: Neurosurgical treatment for pain can be classified into three categories: treatment of the cause, neuro-ablative techniques and neuromodulation. Treatment of the cause is exemplified by microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia.All of these treatments are now delivered in a multidisciplinary context, with other adjunctive treatments including cognitive techniques and pain management programmes. There is increasing emphasis on outcome measurement in all categories, using both condition-specific and generic assessment tools such as the EuroQuol-5D. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Paul Eldridge Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Management of pain in the terminally ill
Abstract: Pain is common in terminal illness. It is a multidimensional experience and requires an integrated approach for its management to be successful.Pharmacological treatment follows the World Health Organization pain ladder, with early use of strong opioid analgesia in moderate-to-severe cancer pain. A variety of opioids are now available and choice will be tailored to the individual needs of the patient. Complex pain states, such as neuropathic and cancer-induced bone pain, often require multi-modal treatment with adjuvant analgesia and interventional techniques. In the final days of life, drugs will be administered...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Leza Quate, Elinor Brabin, Alison Mitchell Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Opioids in the management of persistent non-cancer pain
Abstract: The medical use of opioids to treat pain and illness predates historic record. Opioids have a well-defined role in the treatment of acute and cancer pain, and most clinicians are comfortable prescribing opioids in these contexts. However, in persistent non-cancer pain (PNCP) there remains considerable controversy. While there is evidence of short-to-medium-term benefit, concerns exist over long-term efficacy, side effects, safety, and the potential for opioid misuse. Guidelines published to date emphasize the importance of patient selection, opioid preparation, monitoring of therapy, and a multimodal treatment pa...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gordon Stewart, Margaret Owen Tags: Pain Source Type: research

The place of pharmacological treatment in chronic pain
We present an overview of clinical use and associated problems of commonly used pharmacological agents in current practice. (Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Usman Bashir, Lesley A. Colvin Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Role of the sympathetic nervous system in pain
Abstract: The involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in chronic pain conditions has been well described and recognized for over a century. However, the exact mechanism of the relationship has not been fully explained. In certain chronic pain conditions (e.g. complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)), the presence of sympathetic signs forms part of the diagnostic criteria.Typical management will involve a multidisciplinary approach, including physical, pharmacological, and psychological therapies. Interventional techniques such as sympathetic blocks can also be used; however evidence of efficacy for many treatments rema...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gordon Stewart, Ajit Panickar Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Implantable technology for pain management
Abstract: Chronic pain has now been recognized as a disease entity in its own right. Significant numbers of patients suffer from intractable chronic pain. Neuromodulation has been defined by the International Neuromodulation Society as ‘the therapeutic alteration of activity in the central or peripheral nervous system either electrically or pharmacologically’. It can be achieved either by electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, spinal cord or brain, or by delivering pharmacological agents directly into the intrathecal, epidural or intracerebroventricular sites. Neuromodulation is expensive, invasive and no...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Rafi Khan, Gail Gillespie Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Chronic pain in children
Abstract: Chronic pain (CP) in children is a significant medical condition. The exact incidence is difficult to define but we know that historically it has been underdiagnosed and undertreated. Children can present with a variety of pain conditions (e.g. chronic headache, abdominal pain and musculoskeletal/limb pain).The medical pathway of children with chronic pain is a long and stressful one, often involving extensive investigations. A child with chronic pain will show a variety of concomitant symptoms – sleep disturbance, school absence, psychological symptoms such as anxiety, low mood and in extreme cases depress...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Pamela A. Cupples Tags: Pain Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine)
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - December 1, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research