Extraintestinal Clostridioides difficile infection: Septic arthritis 12 months after colitis.
Abstract A 79-year-old male was diagnosed with a total knee prosthetic infection. He had a history of an episode of Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhoea a year ago. Clostridioides difficile was isolated from the joint fluid and intraoperative tissue samples, and ribotyping demonstrated that the strain was the same that had caused the diarrheic episode, an infrequent ribotype (RT534). The genetic relatedness suggests that the initial infection occurred during that hospitalization, resulting in a chronic prosthetic infection. We have carried out an extensive literature review of all the cases reported in sc...
Source: Anaerobe - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Amaya SL, Rosa ES, Sergio GF, Noelia A, Lourdes RR, Eduardo G, Patricia RG, Javier C Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Dogs are carriers of Clostridioides difficile lineages associated with human community-acquired infections.
In conclusion, a small proportion of faecal deposits contained toxigenic C. difficile such as ST2 (RT014/020), which is a major cause of community-acquired infections. Our finding suggests that pathogenic strains can be exchanged between dogs and humans. PMID: 33418077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - January 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bjöersdorff OG, Lindberg S, Kiil K, Persson S, Guardabassi L, Damborg P Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Rumen bacterial diversity in relation to nitrogen retention in beef cattle.
This study aimed to characterize the rumen bacterial diversity of beef steers differing in the efficiency of nitrogen retention (ENR). Eight castrated steers and fitted with ruminal silicone - and duodenal T-type cannulas were used in a cross-over design with three consecutive periods and three diets. During each experimental period, nitrogen balance was measured, and based on the efficiency of N utilization data, steers were split into three ENR groups: high (HNR, 56.6% ± 3.3%, n = 10), medium (MNR, 45.8% ± 2.2%, n = 6), and low (LNR, 37.7% ±1.9%, n = 8) using the NbClust package version 2.0.4 in R. P...
Source: Anaerobe - December 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gomes Carvalho Alves KL, Granja-Salcedo YT, Messana JD, Carneiro de Souza V, Generoso Ganga MJ, Detogni Colovate PH, Kishi LT, Berchielli TT Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

In vitro sensitivity of 30 anaerobic bacterial strains of the human intestinal core microbiota to antibiotics: culture and LC-MS/MS approaches.
pin A Abstract We have a vast knowledge on human intestinal microbiota but it can still be regarded incomplete. One of the objectives of scientists using so-called "omics" techniques is to be interested in the consequences that drugs can have on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and inversely. To date, few publications have reported the effects of drugs on the growth of bacteria composing this microbiota using a "culturomics" approach. We focused on antibiotics commonly prescribed for which the only published are the susceptibility of the pathogenic strains and not that of the commen...
Source: Anaerobe - December 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ecale F, El Houari A, Crapart S, Laparre J, Ramnath M, Berjeaud JM, Rodier MH, Crépin A Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

An Uncommon Case of Native Joint Septic Arthritis by Parvimonas micra.
We report a case of a 77-year-old male with right knee pain after a recent dental procedure and fall. Arthrocentesis was notable for Parvimonas micra which was successfully treated with metronidazole. PMID: 33348083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - December 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ali H, Amir W, Bolick NL Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Impact of introduction of nucleic acid amplification testing on Clostridioides difficile detection and ribotype distribution in Wales.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of the 2018 introduction of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for C. difficile detection on the laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI), and the distribution of C. difficile ribotypes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of five years (2015-2019) of C. difficile diagnostic laboratory and PCR ribotyping test results. RESULTS: A total of 255,104 diagnostic results, from 136,353 patients were analysed: 199,794 samples where glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was used as the primary screen; and 55,310 where NAATs were employed. An overall decrease in ...
Source: Anaerobe - December 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Perry MD, White PL, Morris TE Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Development and application of aerobic, chemically defined media for Dysgonomonas.
Abstract Members of Dysgonomonas are Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic coccobacilli originally described in relation to their isolation from stool and wounds of human patients (CDC group DF-3). More recently, Dysgonomonas have been found to be widely distributed in terrestrial environments and are particularly enriched in insect systems. Their prevalence in xylophagous insects such as termites and wood-feeding cockroaches, as well as in soil-fed microbial fuel cells, elicit interest in lignocellulose degradation and biofuel production, respectively. Their occurrence in mosquito and fruit fly...
Source: Anaerobe - November 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bridges CM, Gage DJ Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A Novel Case of Bilateral Tubo-Ovarian Abscesses Attributed to Ruminococcus gnavus Without Gastrointestinal Involvement.
We describe here a case of bilateral tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOAs) which cultured a pure growth of R. gnavus in a young female with concurrent deep infiltrating endometriosis and evidence of pelvic inflammatory disease. This case provides an insight into the behaviour of R. gnavus as a coloniser of the human host and provides further incentive to investigate its potentially pathogenic role in inflammatory conditions such as pelvic inflammatory disease. PMID: 33271361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - November 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Veale R, Hughes C, Woolley I Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effect of LL-37 and Human Lactoferricin on Growth and Biofilm Formation of Anaerobes Associated with Oral Diseases.
This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the antimicrobial peptides (AMP) LL-37 and human Lactoferricin (LfcinH) on the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of oral pathogenic anaerobes related to caries and periodontitis. Multi-species bacterial suspensions of either facultative anaerobic bacteria (FAB: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Actinomyces naeslundii) or obligate anaerobic bacteria (OAB: Veillonella parvula, Parvimonas micra, Fusobacterium nucleatum) were incubated with different concentrations of AMP solutions for 8 h. Planktonic growth was registered with an ATP-based ...
Source: Anaerobe - November 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wuersching SN, Huth KC, Hickel R, Kollmuss M Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Carriage of Clostridioides difficile in healthy infants in the community of Handan, China: A 1-year Follow-up Study.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that C. difficile colonization increase with age during the 12-month period, and the dominant toxigenic types of C. difficile isolates in infants were those involved in long-term colonization. Feeding patterns may affect the dynamic progress of C. difficile colonization. PMID: 33246096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - November 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cui QQ, Yang J, Sun SJ, Li ZR, Qiang CX, Niu YN, Li RX, Shi DY, Wei HL, Tian TT, Xu KY, Wang WG, Zhao JH Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Anaerobic bacterial communities associated with oral carcinoma: Intratumoral, surface-biofilm and salivary microbiota.
Abstract It was estimated that more than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity of healthy humans. Anaerobes comprise a significant fraction of the oral bacteriome and play an important role in the formation of multi-species biofilms attached to various anatomical sites. Bacterial biofilms are also associated with pathologic laesions of the oral cavity, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and distinct oral taxa could also be detected within the tumors, i.e. in deep biopsy samples. These observations suggested that certain oral bacteria or oral bacterial communities may play a causative role in or...
Source: Anaerobe - November 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Minarovits J Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Anti-toxin antibody is not associated with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.
Abstract Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurs in ∼20% of patients. Prior studies indicated that antibody responses directed against the C. difficile toxins A and B were potentially associated with lower risk of recurrent CDI. Here we tested the hypothesis that circulating anti-toxin IgG antibody levels associate with reduced risk of recurrent CDI. A cohort study with prospective enrollment and retrospective data abstraction examined antibody levels in 275 adult patients at the University of Michigan with CDI. We developed an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect IgG antibodies against toxin A and...
Source: Anaerobe - November 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gilbert J, Leslie J, Putler R, Weiner S, Standke A, Penkevich A, Keidan M, Young VB, Rao K Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Toxinotyping and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Clostridium perfringens isolated from different sources of livestock and poultry.
Abstract The present study was designed to understand the presence of antimicrobial resistance among the prevalent toxinotypes of Clostridium perfringens recovered from different animals of Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 75 (10.76%) C. perfringens were isolated from 697 multi-species fecal and intestinal content samples. C. perfringens type A (90.67%), type C (2.67%), type D (4%) and type F (2.67%) were recovered. Maximum number of isolates were recovered from dog (n= 20, 24.10%) followed by chicken (n=19, 5.88%). Recovered isolates were resistant to gentamicin (44.00%), erythromycin (40.00%), bacitracin (40.00%), ...
Source: Anaerobe - November 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Anju K, Karthik K, Divya V, Mala Priyadharshini ML, Sharma RK, Manoharan S Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Flexible feeding in anaerobic digestion - Impact on process stability, performance and microbial community structures.
Abstract Biogas has the potential to contribute to some of the most urgent issues of the energy transition, including mobility, energy storage, and grid stability. Flexibilization has been discussed as a means to improve the economics of biogas production, ideally restricting the production of electricity to times of strong need. Here the possibility of demand-driven, flexible biogas production is investigated, which saves substrates and storage capacity, while still enabling control over the production of electricity. Effects of different flexible feeding regimes were tested in a continuously operated 200 L rea...
Source: Anaerobe - November 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Weithmann N, Mlinar S, Sonnleitner E, Weig AR, Freitag R Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A metagenomic assessment of microbial communities in anaerobic bioreactors and sediments: taxonomic and functional relationships.
P, Betancourt-Lozano M Abstract The present study used metagenomic sequencing, metagenome assembly and physical-chemical analysis to describe taxonomically and functionally 3 anaerobic bioreactors treating manure (LI), brewery (BR) and cornmeal (CO) wastes, and an anaerobic estuarine sediment (ES). Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant Phyla in all metagenomes. A bacteria/archaea ratio of 3.4 was found in the industrial full-scale anaerobic bioreactors BR and CO, while ratios greater than 10 were found for LI and ES. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that enviro...
Source: Anaerobe - November 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Beraud-Martínez LK, Gómez-Gil B, Franco-Nava MÁ, Almazán-Rueda P, Betancourt-Lozano M Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Septic arthritis post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction due to Clostridioides difficile.
This report details the case of a 31-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with clinical features of septic arthritis, three weeks post right knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a native hamstring tendon graft. C. difficile was isolated from two different samples of the synovial tissue from a subsequent arthroscopic washout and synovectomy. The ACL graft was retained. The isolate underwent whole genome sequencing and was found to be tcdA and tcdB gene deficient. Susceptibility testing showed susceptibility to benzylpenicillin and metronidazole. The patient received a two-week course of intravenous...
Source: Anaerobe - November 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eustace MB, Jennison AV, McCarthy KL Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) and tcdC genetic diversity among tcdA+B+Clostridioides difficile clinical isolates in Tehran, Iran.
Abstract Clostridioides difficile is the main cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea worldwide. It is proposed that certain C. difficile toxinotypes with distinct pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) variants are associated with disease severity and outcomes. Additionally, few studies have described the common C. difficile toxinotypes, and also little is known about the tcdC variants in Iranian isolates. We characterized the toxinotypes and the tcdC genotypes from a collection of Iranian clinical C. difficile tcdA+B+ isolates with known ribotypes (RTs). Fifty C. difficile isolates with known RTs and carrying the tcdA and ...
Source: Anaerobe - November 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kodori M, Ghalavand Z, Yadegar A, Eslami G, Azimirad M, Krutova M, Abadi A, Zali MR Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A rare case of Clostridium paraputrificum bacteremia in a 78-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with an intestinal neoplasm.
Abstract Clostridium like species, particularly Clostridium perfrigens, are the second most common causes of human anaerobic infections, including myonecrosis and bacteremia. Clostridium paraputrificum is an infrequent isolate, which has been indentified in only 1 % of reported cases of clostridial infections. We herein report a rare case of C. paraputrificum bacteremia in a 78-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with an intestinal carcinoma and liver neoplastic lesions. The isolate was susceptible to chloramphenicol, meropenem, metronidazole, vancomycin, and resistant to clindamycin and penicillin, and the patient w...
Source: Anaerobe - November 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Intra J, Milano A, Sarto C, Brambilla P Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

In Vitro Fermentation and Isolation of Heparin-degrading Bacteria from Human Gut Microbiota.
Abstract Heparin and its derivative are commonly used as injectable anticoagulants in clinical, but with poor oral bioavailability. To explore the role of the gut microbiota in the poor oral effect of heparin, the degradation profiles of heparin by six human gut microbiota were investigated. The heparin-degradation ability varied significantly among individuals. Furthermore, two strains of heparin-degrading bacteria, Bacteroides ovatus A2 and Bacteroides cellulosilyticus B19 were isolated from different individual's gut microbiota and the degradation products of the isolates were profiled. The ΔUA2S-GlcNS6S ...
Source: Anaerobe - October 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pan L, Sun W, Shang Q, Niu Q, Liu C, Li G, Yu G Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Genomic basis of antimicrobial resistance in non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile in Southeast Asia.
This study explored the role of NTCD as a reservoir of accessory antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in NTCD from Southeast Asia. This region has high rates of antimicrobial use, a high prevalence of NTCD and phenotypic AMR in such strains. More than half of the 28 NTCD strains investigated had at least one accessory AMR gene on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) which were similar to the elements found in other bacteria, including Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Streptococcus suis, both of which are found in the pig gut. Thus, C. difficile may facilitate the movement of AMR genes between different hosts within a wide range ...
Source: Anaerobe - October 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Imwattana K, Kiratisin P, Riley TV, Knight DR Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Unravelling of nitric oxide signalling: A potential biomarker with multifaceted complex mechanism associated with canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an important chronic condition associated with the infection affecting the gastrointestinal tract (G.I.) in dogs. Several factors' viz. gastrointestinal tract lymphoid tissue (GALT), permeability defects, genetic, ischemic, biochemical, psychosomatic disorders, infectious and parasitic agents, dietary allergies, and adverse drug reactions are associated with inflammatory bowel disease. The most noticeable clinical signs are vomiting, diarrhea, changes in appetite, weight loss, anorexia, ascites and peripheral edema. Nitric oxide (NO), a pleiotropic free radical messenge...
Source: Anaerobe - October 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rana T Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Prevalence of Clostridioides difficile associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients in five Brazilian centers: A multicenter, prospective study.
V, Maciel G, Romão J, Guimarães T, Anne de Castro Brito G, Costa SF Abstract Epidemiological data on CD infection (CDI) in Latin American are scarce. CDI prevalence and strains characterization were prospectively evaluated in 5 Brazilian hospitals from different regions. Prevalence rates of CDI were 15%, ranging from 0 to 37%. ST42 was the most common Sequence Type and hypervirulent strains were not identified. PMID: 33080372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - October 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Girão ES, de Melo Tavares B, Alves Dos Santos S, Gamarra GL, Rizek C, Martins RC, Perdigão Neto LV, Diogo C, Annibale Orsi T, Sanchez Espinoza EP, Paz Morales HM, da Silva Nogueira K, Maestri AC, Boszczowski I, Piastrelli F, Costa CL, Costa DV, Maciel G Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Low prevalence of Cutibacterium acnes in prostatic tissue biopsies in a French hospital.
vec S Abstract We evaluated the Cutibacterium acnes prevalence in prostatic biopsies and characterized the strains at a molecular level. 18 out of 36 biopsies (50%) were sterile after seven days in culture. C. acnes was observed in only two biopsies. Its prevalence was low (5.6%). Finally, the molecular characterization revealed diverse clusters including phylotypes IA1, IB and II. PMID: 33080373 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - October 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bidaud AL, Karam G, Kandel-Aznar C, Ruffier d'Epenoux L, Guillouzouic A, Bémer P, Leroy AG, Corvec S Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

BACTEREMIA caused by VEILLONELLA DISPAR in an oncological patient.
We report the second case of bacteremia due to this microorganism in an elderly patient. A 72-year-old man with a history of bladder cancer presented with diarrhea, vomiting, and fever for 48 hours. After the diagnosis of septic shock, four sets of blood cultures were taken, and three of them yielded V. dispar. Resistance to metronidazole, penicillin, and piperacillin-tazobactam was documented. Treatment with clindamycin was started, and the patient was discharged after improvement in his general condition. PMID: 33075505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - October 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cobo F, Pérez-Carrasco V, García-Salcedo JA, Navarro-Marí JM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A rare case of polymicrobial chronic maxillary sinusitis due to concurrent isolation of Parvimonas micra and Fusobacterium nucleatum.
We report a case of chronic maxillary sinusitis caused by these two pathogens, presumably resulting from a co-existing dental infection. PMID: 33068731 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - October 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karampatakis T, Papavasiliou A, Dimitrios Tatsis, Paraskevopoulos K, Katsifa H Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Analysis of a plasmid encoding botulinum neurotoxin type G gene in Clostridium argentinense.
uma K Abstract Clostridium argentinense produces botulinum neurotoxin type G (BoNT/G). We sequenced and analyzed the plasmid harboring the bont/G gene, designated pCAG, in C. argentinense strain 2740. The pCAG consisted of 140,070 bp containing the bont/G gene cluster. Although this gene cluster showed high similarities in its DNA sequence and ORF arrangement to those of other bont gene clusters, the other regions of the plasmid did not. A phylogenetic study suggested that pCAG had a unique evolutionary history compared with other clostridial bont-harboring plasmids. This suggests that pCAG is possibly a novel typ...
Source: Anaerobe - October 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sakaguchi Y, Uchiyama J, Také A, Gotoh K, Sakaguchi M, Suzuki T, Yamamoto Y, Hosomi K, Kohda T, Mukamoto M, Kozaki S, Hayashi S, Oguma K Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

First description of abdominal infection due to Alistipes onderdonkii.
We report the first case of abdominal infection due to Alistipes onderdonkii in a 58-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. He presented with abdominal pain and general malaise after retrogastric drainage for a pancreatitis episode a few days earlier. After the diagnosis of diffuse peritonitis with perforation and necrotizing pancreatic collection, abundant pancreatic fluid was drained and yielded the isolation of A. onderdonkii in pure culture. Resistance to penicillin and moxifloxacin was documented for this strain. Treatment with metronidazole was prescribed, and the patient was discharged...
Source: Anaerobe - October 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cobo F, Foronda C, Pérez-Carrasco V, Martin-Hita L, García-Salcedo JA, Navarro-Marí JM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

C. difficile carriage in animals and the associated changes in the host fecal microbiota.
Abstract The relationship between the gut microbiota and Clostridioides difficile, and its role in the severity of C. difficile infection in humans is an area of active research. Intestinal carriage of toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile strains, with and without clinical signs, is reported in animals, however few studies have looked at the risk factors associated with C. difficile carriage and the role of the host gut microbiota. Here, we isolated and characterized C. difficile strains from different animal species (predominantly canines (dogs), felines (cats), and equines (horses)) that were brought in for ...
Source: Anaerobe - October 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thanissery R, McLaren MR, Rivera A, Reed AD, Betrapally NS, Burdette T, Winston JA, Jacob M, Callahan BJ, Theriot CM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Characterization of medical relevant anaerobic microorganisms by isothermal microcalorimetry.
Abstract Detection of anaerobe bacteria by culture methods requires appropriate media, special growth conditions, additional detection techniques and it typically takes several days. Therefore, anaerobes are often missed in patient specimens under routine culture conditions. Microcalorimetry may provide a simple and accurate real-time method for faster and better detection of anaerobes. An isothermal calorimeter was used for calorimetric experiments, which detect minimal changes of temperature over time. In order to find optimal growth conditions, seven reference or clinical strains of medical relevant anaerobe ba...
Source: Anaerobe - October 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Corvec S, Seiler E, Wang L, Moreno MG, Trampuz A Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Porphyromonas spp. have an extensive host range in ill and healthy individuals and an unexpected environmental distribution: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
In conclusion, this systematic and meta-analysis provides an overview of current knowledge regarding Porphyromonas ecological distribution and encourages additional research to fill the knowledge gaps to better understand their environmental distribution and inter- and intra-species transmission. PMID: 33011277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - September 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Acuña-Amador L, Barloy-Hubler F Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

First case report of Solobacterium moorei bacteremia due to acute cholangitis in South Korea.
Abstract Solobacterium moorei is an anaerobic gram-positive bacillus that rarely causes bacteremia. Herein, we report a case of S. moorei bacteremia associated with acute cholangitis in a patient without malignancy. The patient had a history of chronic pancreatitis with pancreaticogastrostomy and presented with fever and abdominal pain. Computed tomography scans showed acute cholangitis and S. moorei identified in blood cultures were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic retrograde bili...
Source: Anaerobe - September 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lee J, Lee S, Park DH, Kim MN, Jung J Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Sneathia amnii, an unusual pathogen in spondylitis: A case report.
We report the case of a spondylitis due to S. amnii in a 72-year old woman, successfully treated after seven weeks of antimicrobial therapy. Growth of this pathogen guided our diagnosis towards a gynecological pathology; we discovered an endometrium adenocarcinoma. This case emphasizes the need for adequate incubation of discal biopsies, using aerobic and anaerobic enrichment broth with prolonged incubation. PMID: 32987144 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - September 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Duployez C, Le Guern R, Faure E, Wallet F, Loïez C Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 reduce severe outcomes from Clostridiodes difficile infection.
This study tests the roles of two type 2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5, in mediating protection in a murine model of disease. Administration of IL-5 protected from mortality due to CDI, and both IL-4 and IL-5 were protective against severe disease symptoms. Together, the results from this study increase our understanding of how type 2 immune signaling processes are protective from severe C. difficile infection. PMID: 32971206 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - September 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Donlan AN, Simpson ME, Petri WA Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Preferential use of plant glycans for growth by Bacteroides ovatus.
Abstract B. ovatus is a member of the human gut microbiota with a broad capability to degrade complex glycans. Here we show that B. ovatus degrades plant polysaccharides in a preferential order, and that glycan structural complexity plays a role in determining the prioritisation of polysaccharide usage. PMID: 32927049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - September 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Centanni M, Bell TJ, Sims IM, Tannock GW Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Highbush blueberry proanthocyanidins alleviate Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced deleterious effects on oral mucosal cells.
Abstract Strong evidence points to Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, as a keystone species in the development of the chronic form of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of highbush blueberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) to alleviate the P. gingivalis-induced deleterious effects on oral mucosal cells. We first showed that highbush blueberry PACs protect the integrity of the gingival keratinocyte barrier against P. gingivalis-mediated damage, as determined by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance and paracellular flux of FITC-conjugated de...
Source: Anaerobe - August 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ben Lagha A, Howell A, Grenier D Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Physicochemical stressors and mixed alkaloid supplementation modulate ruminal microbiota and fermentation in vitro.
In conclusion, physicochemical stressors shape the microbial community and function. Mixed alkaloid supplementation facilitates the activity of rumen microbial community under acidotic stress. PMID: 32861779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - August 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khiaosa-Ard R, Mahmood M, Lerch F, Traintinger FP, Petri RM, Münnich M, Zebeli Q Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Clostridium perfringens α-toxin inhibits myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts.
Clostridium perfringens α-toxin inhibits myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Anaerobe. 2020 Aug 26;:102265 Authors: Takehara M, Kobayashi K, Nagahama M Abstract Clostridium perfringens type A is the causative agent of clostridial myonecrosis, and α-toxin has been reported to be responsible for the pathogenesis. Recently, it was reported that regeneration of skeletal muscle after C. perfringens-induced muscle disorders is delayed, but the detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we tested whether α-toxin impairs the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, a useful cell...
Source: Anaerobe - August 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Takehara M, Kobayashi K, Nagahama M Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Uncommon isolation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris from a depressed fracture wound on the forehead.
Abstract Desulfovibrio spp. are gram negative, obligate anaerobes capable of reducing sulfate. They have caused infections in humans, but very rarely. They are slow growers and difficult to identify. Hence, they are often overlooked and their actual presence goes unnoticed. Here, we describe a case of a 15- year old boy who was involved in a road traffic accident and he presented with seropurulent discharge from a depressed fracture wound on the forehead. Desulfovibrio vulgaris (D.vulgaris), was isolated from the pus discharge, the first to be reported. The characteristic desulfoviridin pigment production in the o...
Source: Anaerobe - August 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: R A, Biswas R, Sasidharan GM, Das S Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

An immunocompetent patient with culture-negative multiple brain abscesses caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum.
Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of brain abscesses have advanced due to the utilization of modern microbiological and neurosurgical methods. Here we present a 49-year-old female patient presented with headache and neurological symptoms. Initial evaluation revealed multiple ring-enhanced brain lesions and a lung cavitary lesion initially suspected to represent a malignant process. Stereotactic aspiration provided the diagnosis of brain abscesses but yielded negative cultures. 16S ribosomal RNA analysis enabled the identification of Fusobacterium nucleatum. For ten weeks, the patient was treated with ceftriaxon...
Source: Anaerobe - August 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kenig A, Kessler A, Alaa S, Hazu W, Michael-Gaygo A, Amit S, Orenbuch-Harroch E Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Clostridium perfringens α-toxin specifically induces endothelial cell death by promoting ceramide-mediated apoptosis.
Clostridium perfringens α-toxin specifically induces endothelial cell death by promoting ceramide-mediated apoptosis. Anaerobe. 2020 Aug 20;:102262 Authors: Takehara M, Bandou H, Kobayashi K, Nagahama M Abstract Clostridium perfringens type A-induced gas gangrene is characterized by severe myonecrosis, and α-toxin has been revealed to be a major virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that CD31+ endothelial cell counts decrease in muscles infected with C. perfringens in an α-toxin-dependent manner. In vitro experiments ...
Source: Anaerobe - August 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Takehara M, Bandou H, Kobayashi K, Nagahama M Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Association between the gut and oral microbiome with obesity.
und G Abstract In recent decades, obesity has become one of the most common lifestyle-associated disorders. Obesity is a major contributing factor for several other lifestyles associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Although genetics and lifestyle have been directly implicated in the onset and progression of obesity, recent studies have established that gut microbiome plays a crucial role in obesity progression. A higher proportion of Firmicutes and a skewed Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio may contribute to gut dysbiosis and subsequent disturbances in the ove...
Source: Anaerobe - August 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Benahmed AG, Gasmi A, Doşa A, Chirumbolo S, Mujawdiya PK, Aaseth J, Dadar M, Bjørklund G Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Phylum Synergistetes in the oral cavity: A possible contributor to periodontal disease.
Abstract Microbial contributions to periodontal disease have been under renewed scrutiny with the advent of newer technologies to identify their presence and gene expression at the molecular level. Members of the phylum Synergistetes are some of the more recent bacteria to be associated with periodontal disease. Bacteria classified in this phylum can be found in a wide variety of habitats including both inside and outside of a mammalian host. Members of this phylum have been identified as part of the human microbiome. Indeed, many of the identified phylotypes have yet to be cultivated. Here we consider contributio...
Source: Anaerobe - August 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: McCracken BA, Garcia NM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

An outbreak of Clostridioides difficile infections due to a 027-like PCR ribotype 181 in a rehabilitation centre: Epidemiological and microbiological characteristics.
We report a rapidly spreading outbreak of C. difficile infections (CDI) due to a newly identified PCR ribotype (RT) 181 in a Rehabilitation Centre (RC). Genomic analysis revealed the outbreak strain, not previously identified in Greece, belonged to clade 2, sequence type (ST) 1 and had a 18bp deletion in tcdC at position 311 together with a single nucleotide deletion at position 117, similarly to RT 027. The presence of a clonal outbreak was confirmed by whole genome sequencing, yet the source of this ribotype remained unclear. The emergence and rapid spread of new C. difficile ribotypes highlights the need for ongoing C. ...
Source: Anaerobe - August 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kachrimanidou M, Baktash A, Metallidis S, Tsachouridou Ο, Netsika F, Dimoglou D, Kassomenaki A, Mouza E, Haritonidou M, Kuijper E Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles of fecal lactobacilli from domesticated pigeons in Poland.
Abstract Lactobacillus species play an important role in the host and although they are non-pathogenic, they could act as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes, with the potential risk of transfer to other bacteria inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to identify Lactobacillus species derived from feces of domesticated pigeons and to characterize their phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles. A total of 57 Lactobacillus isolates were classified into six species using the MALDI-TOF technique and 16S rDNA restriction analysis. Strains of L. ingluviei (31%), L...
Source: Anaerobe - August 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dec M, Stępień-Pyśniak D, Nowaczek A, Puchalski A, Urban-Chmiel R Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Six cases of Solobacterium moorei isolated alone or in mixed culture in Hungary and comparison with previously published cases.
We describe six cases of severe infections identified in 2016 in which S. moorei was isolated alone or in mixed culture involving other anaerobes or both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Three cases were associated with the oral cavity, including a middle ear infection, a wound infection after total laryngectomy, and a mandibular abscess as a result of bisphosphonate therapy. In the other three patients, the sites of infection had no connections with the oral cavity and included chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia, a superinfection of cutaneous tuberculosis associated with hidradenitis suppurativa, and the isolation of S. mo...
Source: Anaerobe - August 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sárvári KP, Sántha D, Kovács R, Körmöndi S, Pető Z, Vereb T, Sztanó B Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

FN3 protein fragment containing two type III fibronectin domains from B. longum GT15 binds to human tumor necrosis factor alpha in vitro.
Abstract Most species of the genus Bifidobacterium contain the gene cluster PFNA, which is presumably involved in the species-specific communication between bacteria and their hosts. The gene cluster PFNA consists of five genes including fn3, which codes for a protein containing two fibronectin type III domains. Each fibronectin domain contains sites similar to cytokine-binding sites of human receptors. Based on this finding we assumed that this protein would bind specifically to human cytokines in vitro. We cloned a fragment of the fn3 gene (1503 bp; 501 aa) containing two fibronectin domains, from the strain B. ...
Source: Anaerobe - August 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dyakov IN, Mavletova DA, Chernyshova IN, Snegireva NA, Gavrilova MV, Bushkova KK, Dyachkova MS, Alekseeva MG, Danilenko VN Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Detection of beta-lactamase production in clinical Prevotella species by MALDI-TOF MS method.
SGAI) Abstract Penicillins, can be used in treatment of infections due to Prevotella species if they are susceptible to penicillin. Early and accurate preliminary detection of β-lactamase-producing isolates is crucial for treatment of infection. The aim of this study was to determine β-lactamase-producing Prevotella species by MALDI-TOF MS and screen them for the presence of cfxA gene, responsible for β-lactamase production. A total of 500 clinically relevant Prevotella isolates, collected from 13 countries for the previous European antibiotic resistance surveillance study, were tested. Susceptibili...
Source: Anaerobe - August 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Toprak NU, Akgul O, Sóki J, Soyletir G, Nagy E, ESCMID Study Group for Anaerobic Infections (ESGAI) Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Intracranial abscess due to Prevotella bivia: First case report from India.
Abstract The association of Prevotella bivia (P. bivia), a Gram negative obligate anaerobic bacillus with brain abscess has been rarely reported. We hereby, report a case of brain abscess in a 50-year-old man, who suffered a head trauma followed by decompression surgery 10 months ago. Aspirated pus sample grew Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and P. bivia sensitive to metronidazole. The patient recovered well after a brain abscess evacuation surgery and post-operative metronidazole therapy, confirming the pathogenic role of P. bivia in this case. PMID: 32768495 [PubMed - as supplied by publi...
Source: Anaerobe - August 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Samantaray S, Biswas R, Sasidharan GM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Paraclostridium dentum, a novel species with pathogenic features isolated from human dental plaque sample.
Abstract A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain designated as SKVG24 was isolated from subgingival dental plaque samples of patients suffering from periodontitis. Cells were stained Gram-positive, rod shaped with endospore. The strain showed negative reaction to catalase and oxidase enzymes, but positive for gelatinase activity. Optimal growth was observed at 37 °C temperature and 7.0 pH. The 16S rRNA gene sequence BLAST analysis assigned strain SKVG24 to the genus Paraclostridium as it displayed 99.93% identity with P. benzoelyticum JC272T followed by P. bifermentans ATCC 638T (99.79%). However, average nucl...
Source: Anaerobe - August 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Urvashi, Choksket S, Jain A, Sharma D, Grover V, Korpole S Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Human gut-derived commensal suppresses generation of T-cell response to gliadin in humanized mice by modulating gut microbiota.
This study provides experimental evidence that gut microbes like P. histicola from treated patients can suppress the immune response against gliadin epitopes. PMID: 32721554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - July 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bodkhe R, Marietta EV, Balakrishnan B, Luckey DH, Horwath IE, Shouche YS, Taneja V, Murray JA Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research