Human gut-derived commensal suppresses generation of T-cell response to gliadin in humanized mice by modulating gut microbiota.
This study provides experimental evidence that gut microbes like P. histicola from treated patients can suppress the immune response against gliadin epitopes. PMID: 32721554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - July 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bodkhe R, Marietta EV, Balakrishnan B, Luckey DH, Horwath IE, Shouche YS, Taneja V, Murray JA Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Multicenter study of the epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile infection and recurrence in southern Brazil.
In conclusion, we reported in this study data of prevalence and recurrence rates of CDI in patients with AAD and evaluated the number of severe cases and infection-related mortality, which were up to now unknown in Southern Brazilian hospitals. PMID: 32717474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - July 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maestri AC, Raboni SM, Morales HMP, Ferrari LF, Tuon FFB, Losso A, Marconi C, Nogueira KDS Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Clinical utility of anaerobic culture of cerebrospinal fluid.
In this study we retrieved data from aerobic and anaerobic cultures of cerebrospinal (CSF) or ventricular fluid ordered over a 5 year period at our institution. A total of 8868 aerobic and 594 anaerobic cultures were performed from 2013 to 2017.24/594 (4%) anaerobic cultures from 14 patients were positive for anaerobes. Only 3 of those patients were diagnosed clinically with anaerobic meningitis, each with predisposing factors, while anaerobes (Cutibacterium acnes and Clostridium perfringens) recovered from the remaining 21 patients were regarded as contaminants. 129/8868 (1.45%) aerobic CSF cultures were positive for anae...
Source: Anaerobe - July 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chatzopoulos K, Shannon S, Schuetz AN Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

First description of bacteremia caused by Oscillibacter valericigenes in a patient hospitalized for leg amputation.
Abstract Initially isolated from the alimentary canal of a Japanese corbicula clam, Oscillibacter valericigenes is a Gram-negative rod, of which culture remains very difficult. Herein we present the first case of bacteremia due to Oscillibacter valericigenes, in humans. A 55-year-old man was hospitalized for clinical management of multiple neglected leg wounds (colonized with maggots) that had occurred during a motorcycle accident. Following radiological confirmation of the bone infection, a transfemoral amputation was performed to limit the risk of extended infection. During hospitalization, before the amputation...
Source: Anaerobe - July 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Broutin L, Deroche L, Michaud A, Le Moal G, Burucoa C, Gayet LE, Plouzeau C, Pichon M Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Lactobacillus paraplantarum THG-G10 as a potential anti-acne agent with anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities.
Abstract Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) is the main bacterium targeted for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of microorganisms classified by their ability to produce lactic acid through fermentation. Although the activities of LAB have been studied, their potential anti-acne effects are not well known. Here, Lactobacillus paraplantarum THG-G10, which has anti-bacterial activity against C. acnes, was isolated from traditional Kimchi in Republic of Korea. The anti-acne effects of dried cell-free supernatant of L. paraplantarum THG-G1...
Source: Anaerobe - July 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cha H, Kim SK, Kook M, Yi TH Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinically significant Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria in a Greek tertiary-care hospital, 2017-2019.
In this study we analyzed the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 358 Gram-positive clinically significant anaerobes, isolated from 2017 to 2019, in a Greek tertiary-care hospital. The species identification was performed by Vitek 2 and conventional biochemical methods, and the antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the E-test method. The antimicrobial agents tested were penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, tigecycline and vancomycin. Clostridioides difficile isolates we...
Source: Anaerobe - July 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maraki S, Mavromanolaki VE, Stafylaki D, Kasimati A Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Prevalence, molecular typing and antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens in free range ducks in Northeast India.
This study reports faecal prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in free range ducks in North East India for the first time. We also report C. perfringens type A carrying cpb2 and cpe and type C carrying cpb2 and cpe strains in these ducks. Notably, a high prevalence (17.5%) of enterotoxin carrying C. perfringens strains and low antimicrobial resistance were observed. PMID: 32682908 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - July 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Milton AAP, Sanjukta R, Gogoi AP, Momin KM, Priya GB, Das S, Ghatak S, Sen A, Kandpal BK Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Lactoferrin and lactoferricin B reduce adhesion and biofilm formation in the intestinal symbionts Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.
bo LA Abstract Several factors affect the composition of species that inhabit our intestinal tract, including mode of delivery, genetics and nutrition. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins secreted in the gastrointestinal tract are powerful tools against bacteria. Lactoferrin (LF) inhibits the growth of several bacterial species, such as Enterobacteriaceae, but may stimulate probiotic bacteria. Activity of LF against gut symbiotic species of the Bacteroides genus could give us insights on how these species colonize the gut. We investigated the effects of the antimicrobial protein lactoferrin and its derived peptide...
Source: Anaerobe - July 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: de Sá Almeida JS, de Oliveira Marre AT, Teixeira FL, Boente RF, Domingues RMCP, de Paula GR, Lobo LA Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

First report of bacteremia caused by Eggerthia catenaformis in a patient with gastric malignancy in China.
Abstract Bacteremia caused by Eggerthia catenaformis is a rarely reported pathogen in cancer patients. Herein, we report a case of bacteremia caused by E.catenaformis in a patient with gastric cancer in China. The patient was a 55-year-old man, diagnosed with gastric cancer more than one month ago, with intermittent fever at a maximum of 39.5 °C for more, than half a month. He received symptomatic and supportive treatment after admission to our hospital; a rare anaerobic microorganism, E. catenaformis was isolated from an anaerobic blood culture sample taken from the patient. The antimicrobial susceptibility...
Source: Anaerobe - July 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang M, Zhang M, Xu H Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Effects of Queso Blanco cheese containing Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 on fecal microbiota, metabolite and serum cytokine in healthy beagle dogs.
Abstract The study describes the effects of administration of Queso Blanco cheese containing Bifidobacterium longum on the fecal microbiota, metabolite and serum cytokine in healthy beagle dogs. Twelve healthy beagle dogs were randomly divided in three groups of four dogs each:a control group, not fed with any cheese, and groups fed with Queso Blanco cheese with B. longum KACC 91563 (QCB) or without B. longum (QC) for 8 weeks. Fecal microbiota was analyzed using a culture-based method and 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Serum cytokine levels, activation of natural killer cells, and proliferation of peripheral blood mono...
Source: Anaerobe - July 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Park HE, Kim YJ, Kim M, Kim H, Do KH, Kim JK, Ham JS, Lee WK Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Prevalence and characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolated from feces of captive cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).
Abstract Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in the environment and the gastrointestinal tract of warm-blooded animals. While part of the gut microbiome, abnormal growth of C. perfringens causes histotoxic, neurologic, and enteric diseases in a variety of animal species, including humans, due to the production of toxins. There is extremely limited information on C. perfringens infection in non-human primates. Presently, 10 strains were successfully isolated from 126 monkeys and confirmed by molecular and biochemical analyses. All isolates were genotype A based on molecular analysis. Alpha toxin was identified in...
Source: Anaerobe - July 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Koo BS, Hwang EH, Kim G, Park JY, Oh H, Lim KS, Kang P, Lee HY, Jeong KJ, Mo I, Villinger F, Hong JJ Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Prevalence, toxin-typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from retail meats in Seoul, Korea.
Abstract Clostridium perfringens is a ubiquitous, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium. It can contaminate many types of retail meat products and cause food poisoning by producing enterotoxins in the small intestines of humans and domestic animals. We investigated the prevalence, toxin-encoding gene profile, and antimicrobial resistance of C. perfringens in beef, chicken, and pork meat purchased from retail meat markets in Seoul, Korea. C. perfringens was detected according to the International Organization for Standardization 7937, with some modifications, and confirmed using the Vitek 2 system. In total, 38 C....
Source: Anaerobe - June 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jang YS, Kim DH, Bae D, Kim SH, Kim H, Moon JS, Song KY, Chon JW, Seo KH Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Improvement of a disk diffusion method for antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. French recommendations revisited for 2020.
CONCLUSION: in combination with introduction of ATU zones disk diffusion method allows to detect resistant strains with little MIC determinations and very major errors. PMID: 32615269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - June 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dubreuil L, Members of the CA-SFM 2019 Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Porphyromonas: A neglected potential key genus in human microbiomes.
aud G Abstract Anaerobes form a large part of microbial communities, and have begun to be specifically studied in both healthy and pathologic contexts. Porphyromonas is one of the top ten anaerobic taxa in the microbiome (anaerobiome) in healthy subjects. However, to date, most studies focused on the deleterious role of P. gingivalis, the most widely described species. Interestingly, targeted metagenomics reveals Porphyromonas other than gingivalis (POTG), highlighting other species such as P. catoniae or P. pasteri as potential biomarkers in disease progression or pathogen colonization susceptibility. From the sp...
Source: Anaerobe - June 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Guilloux CA, Lamoureux C, Beauruelle C, Héry-Arnaud G Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Multiple enzymes can make hydrogen sulfide from cysteine in Treponema denticola.
Abstract Treponema denticola is a spirochete that is involved in causing periodontal diseases. This bacterium can produce H2S from thiol compounds found in the gingival crevicular fluid. Determining how H2S is made by oral bacteria is important since this molecule is present at high levels in periodontally-diseased pockets and the biological effects of H2S can explain some of the pathologies seen in periodontitis. Thus, it is of interest to identify the enzyme, or enzymes, involved in the synthesis of H2S by T. denticola. We, and others, have previously identified and characterized a T. denticola cystalysin, calle...
Source: Anaerobe - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Phillips L, Chu L, Kolodrubetz D Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI): Possible implications for elderly patients.
Abstract COVID-19 dramatically affects the elderly. Due to the large usage of antibiotics during the current pandemic and the gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19, the elderly population, hospitalized patients, residents in LTCFs and persons that survived the COVID-19 might be more prone to Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI). A renewed attention to CDI is necessary during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. PMID: 32593567 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - June 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Spigaglia P Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of resistance genes in Bacteroides fragilis isolated from blood culture bottles in two tertiary care hospitals in Japan.
In this study, 50 isolates of B. fragilis were obtained from positive blood bottles from 2014 to 2019 in Saitama, Japan. Their susceptibility to ampicillin/sulbactam was reduced to 70.0% compared with a previous report, whereas they were still sufficiently susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam (94.0%). Five cfiA-positive isolates (5/50, 10.0%) were identified that were resistant to doripenem and meropenem, and two of them carried an insertion sequence located upstream of the cfiA-coding region. In particular, imipenem should be considered as a first-line carbapenem for the empirical treatment of B. fragilis infection beca...
Source: Anaerobe - June 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ogane K, Tarumoto N, Kodana M, Onodera A, Imai K, Sakai J, Kawamura T, Takeuchi S, Murakami T, Mitsutake K, Ikebuchi K, Maesaki S, Takuya M Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Anaerobic bacteraemia: A score predicting mortality.
The objectives of this study were to report those variables which are readily identifiable at the bedside and that are able to predict mortality in patients with bacteraemia caused by anaerobes. Patients with clinically significant anaerobic bacteraemias detected between January 2016 and December 2019 in a tertiary hospital in Granada (Spain) were retrospectively included. Species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF MS and/or molecular methods. Finally, 136 cases of anaerobic bacteraemia were included, being the most frequent anaerobes Bacteroides (45.5%; n = 62), Clostridium (24.2%, n = 33), and Gram-positiv...
Source: Anaerobe - June 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cobo F, Aliaga L, Expósito-Ruiz M, Navarro-Marí JM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Molecular basis of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance in Finegoldia magna clinical isolates.
oir V Abstract Of 69 clinical isolates of Finegoldia magna tested, 36% presented high-level MICs of erythromycin (>256 μg/ml), harboring erm(A) (n = 20) or erm(B) (n=5). Of nine isolates exhibiting an inducible resistance phenotype to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramins B, four (44%) were susceptible with a potential risk of treatment failure due to emergence of resistant mutants. PMID: 32531434 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - June 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Guérin F, Lachaal S, Auzou M, Le Brun C, Barraud O, Decousser JW, Lienhard R, Baraduc R, Dubreuil L, Cattoir V Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Comparative genomic analysis reveals starvation survival systems in Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ΔH.
In this study, we have evaluated its evolutionary resemblance and metabolic discrepancy, particularly in starvation survival systems by comparing the genomic contexts with Methanothermobacter marburgensis str. Marburg (MMG) and Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 1535 (MFO). The phylogenomic analysis of this study indicated that there was a strong phylogenomic signal among MTH, MMG, and MFO in the whole-genome tree. DNA replication machinery was conserved in the MTH genome and might have evolved at different evolution rates. Genome synteny analysis observed collinearity of either gene orders or gene families has to be maintain...
Source: Anaerobe - June 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Prathiviraj R, Chellapandi P Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria by broth microdilution method using the MICRONAUT-S Anaerobes MIC plates.
In this study, we evaluated the MICRONAUT-S Anaerobes MIC test plate, a commercially available broth microdilution method, and suitable for clinical microbiology routine testing. We analyzed a collection of 300 consecutive clinically significant isolates, including 149 Gram-positive and 151 Gram-negative strains. The performance of the MICRONAUT-S Anaerobes MIC plate was compared to that of a gradient diffusion method (current laboratory standard), calculating the essential and the categorial agreement. 99.7% (299/300) of the strains included in this study successfully grew in the MICRONAUT-S Anaerobes MIC plate (73% of th...
Source: Anaerobe - May 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cordovana M, Ambretti S Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

The effect of intervention by an antimicrobial stewardship team on anaerobic bacteremia.
This study aimed to assess the effect of interventions by the AS team (AST) on clinical and microbiological outcomes and antimicrobial use. An AS program was introduced at Osaka City University Hospital in January 2014; an interdisciplinary AST was established. We enrolled patients with anaerobic bacteremia between January 2009 and December 2018. Patients were classified into the pre-intervention group (from January 2009 to December 2013) and the post-intervention group (from January 2014 to December 2018). A significant decrease in definitive carbapenem use (P = 0.0242) and an increase in empiric tazobactam/piperacill...
Source: Anaerobe - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kuwabara G, Yukawa S, Yamada K, Imoto W, Yamairi K, Shibata W, Yoshii N, Watanabe T, Asai K, Niki M, Nakaie K, Okada Y, Fujita A, Kaneko Y, Kawaguchi T, Kakeya H Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Clostridioides difficile proline fermentation in response to commensal clostridia.
In this study we developed a panel of commensal Clostridia to test the hypothesis that the microbiota influences C. difficile growth through proline fermentation. The experimental panel of Clostridia was composed of murine and human isolates that ranged in their capacity to ferment proline in different media. Competition between wild type C. difficile and a mutant strain unable to ferment proline (prdB:CT) in the presence of these Clostridia revealed that bacteria closely related to Paraclostridium benzoelyticum and Paeniclostridium spp. decreased the benefit to C. difficile provided by proline fermentation. Conversely, Cl...
Source: Anaerobe - May 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lopez CA, McNeely T, Nurmakova K, Beavers WN, Skaar EP Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A Hungatella effluvii isolate in blood culture of a patient with hematochezia.
We report a case of bacteremia due to H. effluvii that occurred after hematochezia in a patient with prostate cancer. It was misidentified by the VITEK 2 system (bioMérieux, France) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and was correctly identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID: 32417531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Park JH, Kim TS, Park H Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Multilocus sequence typing of Clostridium perfringens strains from neonatal calves, dairy workers and associated environment in India.
We report isolation and genotyping of C. perfringens from neonatal calves, dairy workers and their associated environment in India. A total of 103 fecal samples from neonatal calves, 25 stool swabs from the dairy workers and 50 samples from their associated environment were collected from two dairy farms. C. perfringens was detected in 26 out of 103 (25.2%) neonatal calf samples, 7 out of 25 (28%) human stool samples and 17 out of 50 (34%) environmental samples. C. perfringens type A strains were predominant in neonatal calves (24/26; 92.3%) and associated environment (15/17; 88.2%). In contrast, strains from dairy workers...
Source: Anaerobe - May 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Verma AK, Abdel-Glil MY, Madesh A, Gupta S, Karunakaran AC, Inbaraj S, Abhishek, Nagaleekar VK, Chaudhuri P, Agarwal RK, Thomas P Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Putative serum protein biomarkers for epsilon toxin exposure in mouse model using LC-MS/MS analysis.
Abstract Epsilon toxin (ETX), produced by Clostridium perfringens Type B or type D strains, is a potential biological and toxin warfare (BTW) agent, largely for its very high toxicity. The toxin is implicated in several animal diseases. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, we report here elucidation of putative serum maker proteins for ETX exposure with an objective of the early diagnosis of intoxication. Of 166 consensus proteins (488 peptides), showing ETX-induced alterations, 119 proteins exhibited increase and 47 proteins showed decreased abundance in serum, as revealed by SWATH (DIA) acquisition on LC-MS/MS and label fre...
Source: Anaerobe - May 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Babele P, Kumar RB, Rajoria S, Rashid F, Malakar D, Bhagyawant SS, Kamboj DV, Alam SI Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Epidemiologic trends in Clostridioides difficile isolate ribotypes in United States from 2011 to 2016.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Geographic and temporal trends in the distribution of PCR ribotypes for Clostridioides difficile associated diarrheal isolates obtained in the United States (US) are changing. As part of a US national surveillance program of C. difficile susceptibility to fidaxomicin, we quantified the distribution of PCR ribotypes of stool isolates collected from 2011 to 2016. METHODS: C. difficile isolates or C. difficile toxin + stools from patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) were submitted for testing to Tufts Medical Center from 6 geographically distinct medical centers. Following is...
Source: Anaerobe - May 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Snydman DR, McDermott LA, Jenkins SG, Goldstein EJC, Patel R, Forbes BA, Johnson S, Gerding DN, Thorpe CM, Walk ST Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Characterization of sporulation dynamics of Pseudoclostridium thermosuccinogenes using flow cytometry.
In this study we applied single cell analysis techniques such as flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence-assisted cell sorting (FACS) on the spore-forming succinate producer Pseudoclostridium thermosuccinogenes. By combining FCM and FACS with fluorescent staining, we differentiated and enriched all sporulation-related morphologies of P. thermosuccinogenes. To evaluate the presence of metabolically active vegetative cells, a blend of the dyes propidium iodide (PI) and carboxy fluorescein diacetate (cFDA) tested best. Side scatter (SSC-H) in combination with metabolic indicator cFDA dye provided the best separation of sporulat...
Source: Anaerobe - May 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ganguly J, Tempelaars M, Abee T, van Kranenburg R Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Epidemiology and microbiological features of anaerobic bacteremia in two French University hospitals.
Abstract Bacteremia implicating anaerobic bacteria (BIAB) represents 2-6% of all episodes of bacteremia and is associated with high mortality. In this retrospective study from June 2015 to December 2016, we compared BIAB frequency in two hospital centers in Montpellier (France): Montpellier university hospital (MUH) and a center specialized in cancer (ICM). Among the 2465 microbiologically relevant episodes of bacteremia, we identified 144 (5.8%) in which anaerobic bacteria were implicated. BIAB frequency was higher at ICM than MUH (10.4%, vs. 4.9%, p 
Source: Anaerobe - April 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dumont Y, Bonzon L, Michon AL, Carriere C, Didelot MN, Laurens C, Renard B, Veloo ACM, Godreuil S, Jean-Pierre H Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A comparative study on the use of selective media for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens in poultry faeces.
In this study four selective media were tested for the enumeration of, and selectivity towards C. perfringens in faecal samples from poultry. The routinely used Columbia agar with 5% sheep (CBA), Shahidi-Ferguson-perfringens agar (SFP), tryptose sulphite cycloserine agar (TSC), and a novel chromogenic medium, CHROMagar™ C. perfringens (CHCP), were tested. Overall, no difference in C. perfringens recovery could be observed between the selective media. The limit of quantification was 103 CFU/mL for all agars. CHCP showed the highest specificity, especially when low C. perfringens loads were present in the faeces, wit...
Source: Anaerobe - April 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hustá M, Ducatelle R, Haesebrouck F, Van Immerseel F, Goossens E Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A child with recurrent otitis media due to Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.
This report illustrates the importance of MALDI-TOF MS in the species level identification of anaerobes thereby facilitating the selection of appropriate and prompt adjuvant antibiotic therapy. This timely identification thus led to a favourable outcome in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance. PMID: 32344014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - April 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kanaujia R, Gupta S, Singla N, Jani P, Angrup A Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Bacteria producing antimicrobials against Clostridium difficile isolated from human stool.
In this study we isolated bacterial species, from Egyptian individuals' stool, with antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of C. difficile and tried to examine the nature of the produced antimicrobials. In vitro antibacterial activity against C. difficile was initially screened in 123 fecal samples cultures using an agar overlay method. The isolates with antimicrobial activity against C. difficile in addition to Clostridium isolates were identified using partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis. The isolates acting against C. difficile belonged to Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Clostridium genera. The concentra...
Source: Anaerobe - April 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khattab RA, Ahmed NA, Ragab YM, Rasmy SA Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Role of Clostridioides difficile in hospital environment and healthcare workers.
;n M, Muñoz P, Bouza E Abstract Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) was traditionally considered to be transmitted within healthcare environment, from other patients or healthcare workers (HCW). Recently, this idea has been challenged. Our objective was to determine the extent of C. difficile contamination in hospital environment with a simplified method for C. difficile recovery. Environmental samples were taken from rooms of patients positive for CDI (Case) and negative for toxigenic C. difficile (Control). Environmental sampling was performed at the time a fecal sample was taken for CDI diagnosis, 4...
Source: Anaerobe - April 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Reigadas E, Vázquez-Cuesta S, Villar-Gómara L, Onori R, Alcalá L, Marín M, Muñoz P, Bouza E Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Recombinant vaccine against botulism in buffaloes: Evaluation of the humoral immune response over 12 months.
This study aimed to assess the humoral immune response of buffaloes during the 12-month period after vaccination against BoNT serotypes C and D with a recombinant vaccine in three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 μg) of non-purified recombinant proteins (Vrec) and also with a bivalent commercial toxoid (Vcom). Vrec400 was the best vaccine among those tested because it induced higher levels of antibodies and maintained higher levels of antibodies for the longest time, while Vrec200 could be considered the most cost-effective vaccine for large-scale production. None of the vaccines were able to promote contin...
Source: Anaerobe - April 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Otaka DY, Barbosa JD, de Souza LA, Moreira C, Ferreira MRA, Donassolo RA, Conceição FR, Salvarani FM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Clinical relevance of Clostridium bacteremia: An 8-year retrospective study.
In conclusion, bacteremia due to C. perfringens or other Clostridium species is usually clinically relevant. This finding was also supported by an improved survival at 30 days when adequate empiric antimicrobial therapy was administered. PMID: 32247000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - April 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stabler S, Titécat M, Duployez C, Wallet F, Loïez C, Bortolotti P, Faure E, Faure K, Kipnis E, Dessein R, Le Guern R Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Anaerobic blood culture positivity at a University Hospital in Hungary: A 5-year comparative retrospective study.
acute;r A, Terhes G, Urbán E Abstract Anaerobic bacteremia (AB) is usually detected in about 0.5-13% of positive blood cultures. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of anaerobic bacteremia over a 5-year period (2013-2017), to identify current trends at our University Hospital and to compare the results to those in a similar study (2005-2009) in the same region. During the study period, an average of 23,274 ± 2,756 blood cultures were received per year. Out of the positive blood cultures, 3.3-3.6% (n = 423) yielded anaerobic bacteria, representing 3.5-3.8 anaerobic isolates/1000 ...
Source: Anaerobe - April 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gajdács M, Ábrók M, Lázár A, Terhes G, Urbán E Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Bacteremia due to a toxin A-negative, B-positive Clostridioides difficile ribotype 017 strain.
We report a rare and fatal case of bacteremia due to C. difficile from a Greek hospital. PMID: 32234350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - March 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kachrimanidou M, Protonotariou E, Kaiafa G, Ζtrieva E, Skoura L, Savopoulos C, Kuijper E Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Antibacterial activity of salvia officinalis l. against periodontopathogens: An in vitro study.
Martins CH Abstract Being aware of the remarkable antimicrobial potential of S. officinalis L., we aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the S. officinalis dichloromethane crude extract (SOD), dichloromethane-soluble fractions (SODH and SODD), SODD subfractions (SODD1 and SODD2), and pure substances (manool, salvigenin, and viridiflorol) against periodontopathogens. This bioassay-guided study comprises five antimicrobial tests-determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), determination of the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), determination of the antibiofilm activity, construction ...
Source: Anaerobe - March 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ferreira Mendes FS, Garcia LM, da Silva Moraes T, Casemiro LA, Barbosa de Alcântara C, Ambrósio SR, Sola Veneziani RC, Dantas Miranda ML, Gomes Martins CH Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Isolation of Clostridioides difficile from different outdoor sites in the domestic environment.
Abstract Clostridioides difficile was isolated from 12 of 25 samples collected from the gardens of five individual houses and 132 isolates belonged to 12 PCR ribotypes. Compost material had the highest positivity rate and the highest PCR ribotype diversity in comparison to soil from vegetable and flower gardens. Isolated PCR ribotypes overlap with common human and animal types but also with divergent C. difficile lineages common for the soil environment. PMID: 32182567 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - March 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Janezic S, Smrke J, Rupnik M Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A Europe-wide assessment of antibiotic resistance rates in Bacteroides and Parabacteroides isolates from intestinal microbiota of healthy subjects.
erobic Infections Abstract Here, we sought to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance among intestinal Bacteroides and Parabacteroides strains collected between 2014 and 2016 in Europe and also attempted to compare resistance levels between clinical and commensal isolates. Bacteroides and Parabacteroides isolates were recovered from faecal samples via the novel Bacteroides Chromogenic Agar (BCA) method. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by agar dilution for ten antibiotics. The values obtained were then statistically evaluated. Altogether 202 Bacteroides/Parabacteroides isolates (of which 24, 11.9%, w...
Source: Anaerobe - February 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sóki J, Wybo I, Hajdú E, Toprak NU, Jeverica S, Stingu CS, Tierney D, Perry JD, Matuz M, Urbán E, Nagy E, ESCMID Study Group on Anaerobic Infections Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Commercial probiotic cell-free supernatants for inhibition of Clostridium perfringens poultry meat infection in Egypt.
The objective of this study was to employ probiotic cell-free supernatants for inhibition of Clostridium perfringens in poultry meat to control its prevalence in the Egyptian market. Four probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus EMCC 1105, Lactobacillus fermentum EMCC 1346, Pediococcus acidilactici EMCC 1690 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis EMCC supernatants' anti-clostridial effect was assessed using agar disk diffusion assay, while antioxidant potentials and phenolic compounds were determined through colorimetric methods; DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Fifteen out of...
Source: Anaerobe - February 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hamad GM, Abdelmotilib NM, Darwish AMG, Zeitoun AM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Characterization of Clostridioides difficile strains isolated from manure and digestate in five agricultural biogas plants.
The objective of this study was to characterize these isolates using PCR ribotyping, wgMLST, a multiplex PCR targeting genes encoding for the main virulence factors, i.e. tcdA, tcdB, cdtA and cdtB, and antimicrobial susceptibility assays. The 54 strains characterized were all positive for tcdA and tcdB and 83% (45/54) were positive for the binary toxin genes. PCR ribotypes 126 (59%) and 078 (37%) were predominant, and wgMLST analysis of 18 isolates showed close proximity of strains within a single biogas plant. Samples from the biogas plant supplied with cattle and poultry manure displayed the largest variety in PCR riboty...
Source: Anaerobe - February 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Le Maréchal C, Gateau C, Poezevara T, Couturier J, Rouxel S, Zyed-Saidi R, Houard E, Pourcher AM, Denis M, Barbut F Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Factors affecting reported Clostridioides difficile infection rates; the more you look the more you find, but should you believe what you see?
MH Abstract Reported rates of C. difficile infection (CDI) have increased in many settings; however, these can be affected by factors including testing density (test-density) and diagnostic methods. We aimed to describe the impact of multiple factors on CDI rates. Hospitals (n = 182) across five countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK) provided data on; size and type of institution, CDI testing methodology, number of tests/month and patient-bed-days (pbds)/month over one year. Incidence rates were compared between countries, different sized institutions, types of institutions and testing method. Afte...
Source: Anaerobe - February 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Davies K, Davis G, Barbut F, Eckert C, Petrosillo N, Pisapia R, Gärtner B, Berger FK, Reigadas-Ramirez E, Bouza E, Demont C, Wilcox MH Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

β-Lactam resistance development affects binding of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of Clostridium perfringens to the fluorescent penicillin, BOCILLIN FL.
β-Lactam resistance development affects binding of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of Clostridium perfringens to the fluorescent penicillin, BOCILLIN FL. Anaerobe. 2020 Feb 20;:102179 Authors: Park M, Sutherland JB, Rafii F Abstract Alteration in the binding of bacterial penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) to β-lactams is important in the development of drug resistance. The PBPs of wild type Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 and three β-lactam-resistant mutants were compared for the ability to bind to a fluorescent penicillin, BOCILLIN FL. The binding of the high molecular weight pro...
Source: Anaerobe - February 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Park M, Sutherland JB, Rafii F Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in recent clinical isolates of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in a Greek University Hospital.
Abstract The aim of our study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 267 Gram-negative clinically significant anaerobes, isolated between October 2016 and October 2019, in a Greek university hospital. The species identification was performed by conventional methods and using the Vitek 2 automated system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to determine the MICs was performed by the E-test method. The antimicrobial agents tested were penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, chloramp...
Source: Anaerobe - February 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maraki S, Mavromanolaki VE, Stafylaki D, Kasimati A Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Glutathione catabolism by Treponema denticola impacts its pathogenic potential.
Abstract Treponema denticola is a spirochete that is etiologic for periodontal diseases. This bacterium is one of two periodontal pathogens that have been shown to have a complete three step enzymatic pathway (GTSP) that catabolizes glutathione to H2S. This pathway may contribute to the tissue pathology seen in periodontitis since diseased periodontal pockets have lower glutathione levels than healthy sites with a concomitant increase in H2S concentration. In order to be able to demonstrate that glutathione catabolism by the GTSP is critical for the pathogenic potential of T. denticola, allelic replacement mutagen...
Source: Anaerobe - February 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chu L, Wu Y, Xu X, Phillips L, Kolodrubetz D Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Postpartum Fusobacterium gonidiaformans bacteremia.
We report this organism as it is not well-described and rarely reported. It does bear some similarities to other Fusobacterium species that have been reported to cause septicemia in young otherwise healthy patients. PMID: 32045837 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - January 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vidaurrazaga MM, McKinley GF, Camins BC Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Fusobacterium bloodstream infections: A literature review and hospital-based case series.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Infections with Fusobacterium, an anaerobic bacterium, have various clinical presentations, including bacteremia and Lemierre syndrome. Here, we report a case series of Fusobacterium bacteremia (FBB) from the largest academic center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and provide a review of cases in the available literature. METHOD: Records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients with at least one blood culture positive for Fusobacterium spp. admitted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between May 2015 to April 2019. LITERATURE REVIEW: We conducted a MeSH Search o...
Source: Anaerobe - January 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Almohaya AM, Almutairy TS, Alqahtani A, Binkhamis K, Almajid FM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Sonicate fluid inoculated into blood culture bottles does not improve diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection caused by anaerobes. A retrospective analysis.
CONCLUSION: Depending on the pathogen, incubation of sonicate fluid using blood culture bottles can support diagnosis of PJI but compared with our culture medium it is less efficient if anaerobes are the suspected cause of infection. Microbiological expertise is therefore indispensable to ensure reliable detection of these microorganisms in PJI until a gold standard for laboratory handling of anaerobes has been established. PMID: 32001335 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - January 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rieber H, Frontzek A, Alefeld M, Heinrich S, Barden B, Jerosch J, Breil-Wirth A, Schmitt H, Ulatowski M, Götz S, Mullahi A, Fischer M, Weber R, Pfander D, Sakkal A, Kukuk P, Bell A Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Activity of delafloxacin versus that of levofloxacin against anaerobic and microaerophilic isolates.
Abstract The aim of the study was to comparatively assess delafloxacin and levofloxacin activities against 96 anaerobic and some microaerophilic isolates. Delafloxacin minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were strikingly lower than those of levofloxacin. Delafloxacin MIC90 against clostridia, other Gram-positive rods, anaerobic/microaerophilic cocci and Gram-negative rods were 0.75, 0.032, 0.38 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively. The highest (≥4 μg/mL) MICs of the newer fluoroquinolone were found in only 4.2% of isolates versus 46.9% by levofloxacin. The present results and the potency in acidic conditio...
Source: Anaerobe - January 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Boyanova L, Yordanov D, Ouzounova-Raykova V, Markovska R, Marteva-Proevska Y, Mitov I Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research