Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of anaerobic bacteria, isolated from human clinical specimens, within different European and surrounding countries. A joint ESGAI study.
CONCLUSIONS: Due to the extensive differences in antimicrobial susceptibility profile of anaerobic bacteria isolated within different countries, we strongly recommend to perform this kind of study on a regular basis. PMID: 31634565 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - October 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Veloo ACM, Tokman HB, Jean-Pierre H, Dumont Y, Jeverica S, Lienhard R, Novak A, Rodloff A, Rotimi V, Wybo I, Nagy E, ESGAI study group Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Gut bacteria characteristic of the infant microbiota down-regulate inflammatory transcriptional responses in HT-29 cells.
Abstract Immuno-modulatory effects of infant gut bacteria were tested on poly(I:C) stimulated HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells. Blautia producta, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron decreased transcription of poly(I:C)-induced inflammatory genes. Modulation of basal level and poly(I:C)-induced IL-8 secretion varied between bacterial species, and between heat treated and non-heat treated bacterial cells. PMID: 31629806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - October 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pathmanathan SG, Lawley B, McConnell M, Baird MA, Tannock GW Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Quantitative assessment of Scardovia wiggsiae from dental plaque samples of children suffering from severe early childhood caries and caries free children.
Abstract Scardovia wiggsiae has recently been identified as a potential pathogen associated with dental caries. The aim of the present study was to detect and quantify S. wiggsiae from dental plaque samples of children suffering from severe early childhood caries and children who were caries free by employing a real time DNA polymerase chain reaction method. Dental plaque samples were collected from children suffering from severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) (n=30) and caries free children (CF) (n=30) reporting to the out-patient clinics of the department of paediatric and preventive dentistry. Plaque samples fr...
Source: Anaerobe - October 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Matondkar SP, Yavagal C, Kugaji M, Bhat KG Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Recent developments in the management of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.
so CD Abstract Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile is responsible for a substantial burden of nosocomial infection. Recurrent C. difficile infection (rCDI) remains a concern due to its high morbidity, mortality, and cost. Despite the updated 2017 IDSA C. difficile treatment guidelines, there remains a lack of well-studied preventive control measures and treatment modalities for rCDI. There are ongoing efforts to develop novel therapies, such as new antibiotics with a lesser impact on gut microbiota and more targeted therapies, such as bacteriotherapy. This mini review highlights key rCDI management upd...
Source: Anaerobe - October 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mendo-Lopez R, Villafuerte-Gálvez J, White N, Mahoney MV, Kelly CP, Alonso CD Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Clostridium paraputrificum Septic Arthritis and Osteomyelitis of Shoulder: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
We report the first case of Clostridium paraputrificum native shoulder septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. An 86-year-old woman with osteoarthritis presented with acute-onset right shoulder pain. Injection of the glenohumeral joint with methylprednisolone resulted in worsening of pain. Synovial fluid analysis was consistent with septic arthritis and culture of the synovial fluid grew C. paraputrificum. Arthroscopic irrigation and debridement of shoulder joint with 6 weeks of ertapenem was unsuccessful, with persistence of C. paraputrificum from synovial fluid and tissue culture. She underwent right shoulder resection follo...
Source: Anaerobe - October 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vijayvargiya P, Garrigos ZE, Rodino KG, Razonable RR, Abu Saleh OM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Molecular ecology of the yet uncultured bacterial Ct85-cluster in the mammalian gut.
a A Abstract In our previous studies on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) -associated microbiota by molecular methods, we demonstrated that a particular 16S rRNA gene amplicon was more abundant in the feces of healthy subjects or mixed type IBS (IBS-M) -sufferers than in the feces of individuals with diarrhea-type IBS (IBS-D). In the current study, we demonstrated that this, so called Ct85-amplicon, consists of a cluster of very heterogeneous 16S rRNA gene sequences, and defined six 16S rRNA gene types, a to f, within this cluster, each representing a novel species-, genus- or family level taxon. We then designed spe...
Source: Anaerobe - September 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hynönen U, Zoetendal EG, Virtala AK, Shetty S, Hasan S, Jakava-Viljanen M, de Vos WM, Palva A Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Occurrence and multilocus sequence typing of Clostridium perfringens isolated from retail duck products in Tai'an region, China.
In conclusion, C. perfringens contamination in some duck products in Tai'an retail market was relatively high, and most of the isolates exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance. Although all the isolates belong to type A, considerable genetic diversity was observed, and a portion of the strains from human and duck was found to be phylogenetically close. The results indicated that antimicrobial-resistance strains of duck origin pose a potential threat to humans by spreading through the food chain. PMID: 31536821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - September 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yu L, Li X, Miao Z, Wang H Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

The effect of lactobacillus cell size on its probiotic characteristics.
In this study, 10 Lactobacillus strains including L. sakei, L. reuteri, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. salivarius, and L. gasseri were characterized by cell morphology and growth properties. The strains were then examined in terms of some probiotic characteristics including resistance to acid and bile conditions, ability to adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, antioxidant activity, aggregation characteristics, antibacterial activity, hemolytic activity, and resistance to different antibiotics. Correlations between different q...
Source: Anaerobe - September 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rajab S, Tabandeh F, Shahraki MK, Alahyaribeik S Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Differential Cytokine and Metabolite Production by Cervicovaginal Epithelial Cells Infected with Lactobacillus crispatus and Ureaplasma urealyticum.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: We sought to quantify targeted metabolites (D-lactate, pyruvate, urea, ammonia) and the cytokine IL-8 produced by human cervicovaginal epithelial cells co-cultured with Ureaplasma urealyticum (a preterm birth-associated bacterium) or Lactobacillus crispatus (a healthy vaginal commensal associated with term birth). METHODS: Concentrations of D-lactate, pyruvate, urea and ammonia measured by enzyme-based spectrophotometry and IL-8 by ELISA were determined and compared between monolayer-cultured HeLa cells (ATCC 35241) infected with strains of U. urealyticum (ATCC 27618, 0.5 mL = 3640 CFU/...
Source: Anaerobe - September 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cavanagh M, Amabebe E, Anumba DOC Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Synergistic biofilm formation by Parvimonas micra and Fusobacterium nucleatum.
In this study, we investigated polymicrobial biofilm formation by P. micra and species associated with apical periodontitis. The coaggregation activity of P. micra with partner strains was investigated by visual assays. Synergistic biofilm formation was evaluated by cocultures of P. micra and partner strains. Growth of planktonic cells was measured by evaluating the absorbance at OD660, and biofilm formation was examined by staining with crystal violet. The effects of soluble components on synergistic biofilm formation and planktonic cell growth were examined after coculture of P. micra and other strains separated with a 0...
Source: Anaerobe - September 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Horiuchi A, Kokubu E, Warita T, Ishihara K Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Fusobacterium nucleatum bacteremia with pneumopathy in a patient receiving eculizumab: a case report.
We report a case of a diffuse bilateral pneumopathy with F. nucleatum-positive blood culture successfully treated by common antibiotics in a patient receiving eculizumab for a drug-induced thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). It is the first described case of a severe F. nucleatum-associated infection in a patient undergoing terminal complement inhibitor therapy. We suggest providing preventive dental care before eculizumab initiation. PMID: 31513845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - September 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Seibel J, Rebibou JM, Bonnot PH, Bernard A, Zanetta G, Tetu J, Legendre M Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance of clinical isolates of Clostridioides difficile in China and its association with geographical regions and patient age.
This study provided a relatively comprehensive description of antibiotic resistance of C. difficile in China, and further elucidates the epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of clinical isolates of C. difficile in China at a national level. PMID: 31499177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - September 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li H, Li WG, Zhang WZ, Yu SB, Liu ZJ, Zhang X, Wu Y, Lu JX Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Quality assurance for genotyping and resistance testing of Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile isolates - experiences from the first inter-laboratory ring trial in four German speaking countries.
y group Abstract Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile is a major cause of nosocomial diarrhoea. A first inter-laboratory ring trial was performed in four European countries to evaluate the genotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) accuracy. Six C. difficile isolates representing the epidemiologic important ribotypes (RT), RT001, RT002, RT010, RT014, RT027, and RT078 were blinded and send to 21 participating laboratories. Participants tested the samples with their genotyping and AST methods in use for concordance with reference. A total of 21 genotyping- and 14 antimicrobial susceptibility data sets ...
Source: Anaerobe - September 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Berger FK, Mellmann A, von Müller L, Bischoff M, Gärtner BC, German speaking C. difficile laboratory study group Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A case of bacteriemic mediastinitis due to Prevotella buccae after cardiac surgery.
We report the case of a mediastinitis due to Prevotella buccae after surgical replacement of the aortic valve and triple coronary artery bypass in an immunocompetent 76 year-old man. The bacteria were found in pure culture on blood samples and surgical samples. This case emphasizes the need to perform anaerobic cultures in case of sternal wound infection after open-heart surgery. PMID: 31494261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - September 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Duployez C, Loiez C, Hund R, Jegou B, Decoene C, Wallet F Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Cannabis use and risk of Clostridioides difficile infection: Analysis of 59,824 hospitalizations.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Clostridioides difficile Infection (CDI), the most notorious hospital acquired disease, and of excessive cannabis use (cannabis use disorder (CUD)) have both been steadily rising. Although cannabidiol, an active ingredient of cannabis, maintains gut integrity and suppresses entero-toxins from Clostridioides difficile, the relationship between CUD and CDI has not been studied. METHODS: We selected adult records (age ≥ 18 years) from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2014, and identified CUD and other clinical conditions using ICD-9-CM codes. We used propensity scores...
Source: Anaerobe - September 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Adejumo AC, Bukong TN Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Characterization of a novel Clostridium sp. SP17-B1 and its application for succinic acid production from hevea wood waste hydrolysate.
Abstract An anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium strain SP17-B1, isolated from dog saliva, was taxonomically characterized on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic characteristics. It was cultured in 4% (w/v) NaCl at a pH range of 5.0-8.0 (optimally at pH 7) and at 30°C-40 °C (optimally at 37 °C). Its major cellular fatty acids are C16:0 (36.3%), C17:0 cyclo (9.7%), C16:1ω9c (13.9%), and C18:1ω9c (10.7%), and its DNA guanine-cytosine content is 40.8 mol%. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it was determined that the strain belonged to the g...
Source: Anaerobe - September 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Phuengjayaem S, Tanasupawat S, Teeradakorn S Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Prevention of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Abstract Recurrent Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (rCDI) is common, and patients who have had one recurrence are more likely to have multiple recurrences. Frequent recurrences have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, high healthcare costs, and lower quality of life. In this review, we compare the efficacy of interventions designed to prevent rCDI. We performed a systematic review of the English literature, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated rCDI as an outcome. Studies were included irrespective of patient demographics, disease severity, type ...
Source: Anaerobe - September 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Madoff SE, Urquiaga M, Alonso CD, Kelly CP Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) for C. difficile Infection, just say 'No'.
Abstract Despite lack of regulatory approval, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is widely performed to manage C. difficile infection (CDI), particularly recurrent CDI. Herein, we critically review the available randomized controlled trials of FMT and address the following questions: Is FMT better than drug management of recurrent CDI?; Is FMT treatment per se or adjunctive treatment to antibiotics for CDI?; and, Is FMT safe? Finally, we elaborate non-FMT options for the management of recurrent CDI. Although promising, FMT should be reserved for patients who have failed appropriate antibiotic management of rec...
Source: Anaerobe - August 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tan X, Johnson S Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

The engulfasome in C. difficile: Variations on protein machineries.
Abstract Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) continues to be a substantial healthcare burden, and the changing disease profile raises new challenges in CDI management, both in clinical settings and in the community. CDI is transmitted by spores, which are formed by a subset of the cell population where an asymmetric septum is formed. A full copy of the chromosome is transported into the smaller compartment which is then engulfed by the mother cell. After engulfment, multiple metabolic and morphological changes occur, eventually resulting in the release of the mature spore. Whilst studies in the model organism...
Source: Anaerobe - August 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kelly A, Salgado PS Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Characterization of Gardnerella vaginalis membrane vesicles reveals a role in inducing cytotoxicity in vaginal epithelial cells.
In this report, we demonstrate for the first time, the isolation of membrane vesicles (MVs) from G. vaginalis ATCC 14019. These MVs are approximately 120-260 nm in diameter. Proteomic characterization of the MVs by LC-MS/MS led to the identification of 417 proteins, including proteins involved in cellular metabolism as well as molecular chaperones and certain virulence factors. Immunoblot analysis of the MVs confirmed the presence of vaginolysin, the most well-characterized virulence factor of G. vaginalis. The exposure of the vaginal epithelial cells, VK2/E6E7 to the G. vaginalis MVs resulted in the internalization of t...
Source: Anaerobe - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shishpal P, Kasarpalkar N, Singh D, Bhor VM Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) extracts: Potential therapeutic benefits for periodontal infections.
This study is the first to provide evidence that cardamom fruit and seed extracts through their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties may be therapeutic agents of interest against periodontal infections. PMID: 31430531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Souissi M, Azelmat J, Chaieb K, Grenier D Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Functional prediction, characterization, and categorization of operome from Acetoanaerobium sticklandii DSM 519.
In this study, we have predicted, characterized and categorized its operome whose functions are still not determined accurately using a combined bioinformatics approach. The functions of 64 of the 359 predicted HPs are involved in diverse metabolic subsystems. A. sticklandii operome has consisted of 16% Rossmann fold and 46% miscellaneous folds. Subsystems-based technology has classified 51 HPs contributing to the small-molecular reactions, 26 in macromolecular reactions and 12 in the biosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups and electron carriers. A generality of functions predicted from its operome contributed to the ...
Source: Anaerobe - August 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sangavai C, Prathiviraj R, Chellapandi P Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Local outbreak of Clostridioides difficile PCR-Ribotype 018 investigated by multi locus variable number tandem repeat analysis, whole genome multi locus sequence typing and core genome single nucleotide polymorphism typing.
We report here the first RT 018-related outbreak in France that took place in 4 geriatric units (GU) in Strasbourg, France. From January to December 2017, 38 patients were diagnosed with C. difficile infection (CDI). Strains were first characterized by PCR ribotyping: 19 out of 38 (50%) strains belonged to RT 018. These strains as well as 12 RT 018 isolated in other French healthcare facilities and 2 strains of RT 018 isolated in the GU in 2015 were characterized by multi locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), whole genome multi locus sequence typing (wgMLST) and core genome single nucleotide polymorph...
Source: Anaerobe - August 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gateau C, Deboscker S, Couturier J, Vogel T, Schmitt E, Muller J, Ménard C, Turcan B, Zaidi RS, Youssouf A, Lavigne T, Barbut F Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Ribotype variability of Clostridioides difficile strains in patients with hospital-acquired C. difficile infections, community-acquired C. difficile infections, and colonization with toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of C. difficile.
In conclusion, although RT017 and RT018 were the most common in HA-CDI and toxigenic colonization, C. difficile strains from toxigenic colonization were more diverse than those from HA-CDI. PMID: 31404682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - August 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kim B, Seo MR, Kim J, Pai H Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Phosphorothioation of foreign DNA influences the transformation efficiency in Clostridium perfringens NCTC8239.
Abstract Major advances in Clostridium perfringens genetics have been achieved through the development of electroporation-induced transformation; however, highly transformable strains are still limited. SM101 is the only useful strain for genetic manipulation via transformation in C. perfringens causing foodborne illness (FBI). We focused on the FBI strain NCTC8239, which is transformed at a low frequency, because it has a gene cassette that is predicted to encode enzymes involved in DNA phosphorothioation (PT). The oxidant-dependent degradation of NCTC8239 genomic DNA suggested that the genome is PT-modified. Whe...
Source: Anaerobe - August 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yasugi M, Motooka D, Nakamura S, Miyake M Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Fusobacterial brain abscess caused by paradoxical embolization associated with Ebstein's anomaly in an adult patient: A case report.
This report illustrates the importance of considering anaerobes as the cause of brain abscess, underscores the usefulness of MALDI, which facilitated the selection of appropriate and prompt adjuvant antibiotic therapy and a favourable outcome. PMID: 31398389 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - August 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gupta S, Kanaujia R, Angrup A, Agrahari A, Chhabra R, Manoj RK Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Single cell analysis of nutrient regulation of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile motility.
We present the first report that vegetative C. difficile are capable of regulated motility in the presence of different nutrients. We demonstrate that the epidemic C. difficile strain R20291 exhibits regulated motility in the presence of multiple nutrient sources by modulating its swimming velocity. This is a powerful illustration of the ability of single-cell studies to explain population-wide phenomena such as dispersal through the environment. PMID: 31386902 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - August 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Courson DS, Pokhrel A, Scott C, Madrill M, Rinehold AJ, Tamayo R, Cheney RE, Purcell EB Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

In silico, in vitro and in vivo analysis of putative virulence factors identified in large clostridial toxin-negative, binary toxin producing C. difficile strains.
This study provides the first in-depth analysis of A-B-CDT+C. difficile strains and contributes to the current limited knowledge of these strains as a cause of C. difficile infection. PMID: 31377188 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - August 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Androga GO, Knight DR, Hutton ML, Mileto SJ, James ML, Evans C, Lyras D, Chang BJ, Foster NF, Riley TV Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Characterizing the microbial community involved in anaerobic digestion of lipid-rich wastewater to produce methane gas.
This study attempted to characterize the microbial community and its role in anaerobic digestion of lipid. Reactors were fed semi-continuously with three related substrates, oil and its degradation intermediates (glycerol and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs)), with a stepwise increase in organic loading rate for 90 days. Microbial community analysis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) with the MiSeq Illumina platform revealed that Anaerolineaceae was the most dominant group of bacteria in all experiments, whereas Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Rikenellaceae, and Treponema were observed characteristically in glycerol degradat...
Source: Anaerobe - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nakasaki K, Nguyen KK, Ballesteros FC, Maekawa T, Koyama M Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of toxigenic Clostridioides difficile isolates from hospitalized patients and the hospital environment in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
This study assessed the epidemiology of CDI in hospitalized patients and hospital environmental contamination of toxigenic C. difficile at two large urban Bangladesh hospitals. This 12-month prospective observational cohort study collected stool samples from adults with diarrhea and recent antimicrobial exposure during 2017. Environmental samples were collected by swabbing surfaces of hospital common areas. Samples underwent toxigenic culture. C. difficile isolates were tested for toxins A and B and PCR-ribotyped. Of 208 stool samples, 18 (8.7%) were positive for toxigenic C. difficile. Of 400 environmental samples, 45 (11...
Source: Anaerobe - July 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sofjan AK, Islam MA, Halder K, Kabir ND, Saleh AA, Miranda J, Lancaster C, Begum K, Alam MJ, Garey KW Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Prediction of poor outcome in Clostridioides difficile infection: A multicentre external validation of the toxin B amplification cycle.
Cycle Study Group Abstract Classification of patients according to their risk of poor outcomes in Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) would enable implementation of costly new treatment options in a subset of patients at higher risk of poor outcome. In a previous study, we found that low toxin B amplification cycle thresholds (Ct) were independently associated with poor outcome CDI. Our objective was to perform a multicentre external validation of a PCR-toxin B Ct as a marker of poor outcome CDI. We carried out a multicentre study (14 hospitals) in which the characteristics and outcome of patients with CDI we...
Source: Anaerobe - July 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Reigadas E, Alcalá L, Marín M, Martin A, Muñoz P, Bouza E, Spanish C. difficile Toxin Cycle Study Group Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Surface Morphology Differences in Clostridium difficile Spores, Based on Different Strains and Methods of Purification.
In this study of clinical isolates and spore coat protein mutants of C. difficile we identified three distinct spore surfaces morphotypes; smooth, bag-like and "pineapple-like" using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The frequency of each morphotype in a spore population derived from a single isolate varied depending on the host strain and the method used to produce and purify the spores. Our results suggest that the inclusion of a sonication step in the purification process had a marked effect on spore structure. In an attempt to link differences in spore appearance with key structural spore proteins we compar...
Source: Anaerobe - July 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Malyshev D, Baillie L Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Increasing antibiotic resistance in Clostridioides difficile: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Decreases in clinical response of Clostridioides difficile to antibiotics used for its treatment have raised concerns regarding antibiotic resistance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to study the resistance rates of C. difficile to various antibiotics over time. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science from inception through 03/31/2017 for observational studies assessing antibiotic resistance rates in C. difficile. Weighted summary estimates were calculated using inverse variance heterogeneity models [MetaXL software (v. 5.3)]. A priori su...
Source: Anaerobe - July 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saha S, Kapoor S, Tariq R, Schuetz AN, Tosh PK, Pardi DS, Khanna S Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Development of a rapid-viability PCR method for detection of Clostridioides difficile spores from environmental samples.
In this study, we were able to adapt a rapid-viability PCR (RV-PCR) method, first developed for detection of viable Bacillus anthracis spores, for the detection of viable C. difficile spores. RV-PCR uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to confirm the presence of live organisms. Using this modified method we were able to detect viable C. difficile after 22 h of anaerobic incubation in Cycloserine Cefoxitin Fructose Broth (CCFB). This method also used bead beating combined with the Maxwell 16 Casework kit for DNA extraction and purification and a real-time duplex PCR assay for toxin B and cdd3 genes to confi...
Source: Anaerobe - July 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shams AM, Rose LJ, Noble-Wang J Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A xylan-degrading thermophilic and obligate anaerobe Xylanivirga thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an anammox dominant wastewater treatment plant, and proposal of Xylanivirgaceae fam. nov.
Abstract In our search for novel anaerobes with potential carbohydrate polymers degrading activity, we have isolated a xylan-degrading bacterial strain SYSU GA17129T from an anammox bacteria dominant wastewater treatment plant. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated the strain SYSU GA17129T belong to the order Clostridiales and shared highest sequence identity with Caldicoprobacter faecalis DSM 20678T (89.9%). The strain was thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, non-motile and rod shaped. Optimum growth of the strain was observed at 45 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 0.5% NaCl (w/v). T...
Source: Anaerobe - July 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu L, Lv AP, Ming YZ, Jiao JY, Xiao M, Lin JG, Gu JD, Salam N, Li WJ Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Impact of kestose supplementation on the healthy adult microbiota in in vitro fecal batch cultures.
Abstract Prebiotics are widely used to shape a balanced microbiota in humans and animals. 1-Kestose (kestose) is one of the major components in commercialized short-chain fructooligosaccharide and is a promising prebiotic for infants. We herein studied the impact of kestose on the healthy adult microbiota in an in vitro fecal batch culture model. Stool samples obtained from seven healthy adults were diluted, inoculated into broth supplemented with or without 0.5% (w/v) kestose (kestose group and control group, respectively), and cultured under anaerobic conditions. Microbiota in the groups and stool samples were a...
Source: Anaerobe - July 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Endo A, Hirano K, Ose R, Maeno S, Tochio T Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Expanding the repertoire of conservative site-specific recombination in Clostridioides difficile.
We report the finding of one novel inversion site for which we demonstrate the inversion potential and quantify inversion frequencies during exponential and stationary growth in both historic and modern isolates of the same ribotype. We then employ a computational approach to assess the prevalence of all sites identified so far in a large collection of sequenced C. difficile isolates. We show that phase-variable loci are widespread with some sites being present in virtually all analyzed strains. Furthermore, in our small subset of RT017 and RT078 strains, we detect no evidence of gain or loss of invertible sites in histori...
Source: Anaerobe - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sekulovic O, Bourgeois J, Shen A, Camilli A Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Phosphorylation and functionality of CdtR in Clostridium difficile.
In this study, we generated R20291ΔPalocΔcdtR model strains expressing CdtR phospho-variants in which our predicted phospho-accepting Asp, Asp61 was mutated for Ala or Glu. The constructs were assessed for their ability to restore CDT production. Dephospho-CdtR-Asp61Ala was completely non-functional and mirrored the cdtR-deletion mutant, whilst phospho-CdtR-Asp61Glu was functional, possessing 38-52% of wild-type activity. Taken together, these data suggest that CdtR is activated by phosphorylation of Asp61. The same principles were applied to assess the function of ribotype 078-derived CdtR, which was shown to ...
Source: Anaerobe - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bilverstone TW, Minton NP, Kuehne SA Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Surgical site infection after hip replacement due to a novel Peptoniphilus species, provisionally named 'Peptoniphilus nemausus' sp. nov.
We report a case of surgical site infection after total hip prosthesis replacement due to an ofloxacin-resistant Peptoniphilus isolate belonging to an unknown species for which the name 'Peptoniphilus nemausus' sp. nov. is proposed. Follow-up was favourable under clindamycin and rifampin for 3 months in this patient whom had a Proteus mirabilis infection treated by fluoroquinolone. PMID: 31306754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - July 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Enault C, Aujoulat F, Pantel A, Cellier N, Lechiche C, Mégy B, Lavigne JP, Marchandin H Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Effects of starter feeding on caecal mucosal bacterial composition and expression of genes involved in immune and tight junctions in pre-weaned twin lambs.
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of starter feeding on caecal mucosal bacterial composition and the expression of genes involved in immune and tight junctions in pre-weaned lambs. Six pairs of new-born twin lambs were selected. From 10 days of age, one lamb of each pair received ewe's milk only (M group, n = 6), while the other one was fed ewe's milk plus starter feed (M + S group, n = 6). At 56 days of age, the lambs were sacrificed, and then cecum digesta was collected to measure pH values and concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), and caecal mucosa were collected...
Source: Anaerobe - July 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sun D, Mao S, Zhu W, Liu J Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Inactivated recombinant Escherichia coli as a candidate vaccine against Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin in sheep.
eição FR Abstract Clostridium perfringens type A is the causative agent of gas gangrene and gastroenteric ("yellow lamb disease") disease in ruminants, with C. perfringens alpha toxin (CPA) being the main virulence factor in the pathogenesis of these illnesses. In the present study, we have developed recombinant Escherichia coli bacterins expressing rCPA and used it to vaccinate rabbits and sheep. Doses of up to 200 μg of rCPA used for inoculation, induced 13,82 IU.mL-1 of neutralizing antitoxin in rabbits, which is three times higher than that recommended by the USDA (4 IU.mL-1). In she...
Source: Anaerobe - July 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ferreira MRA, Motta JF, Azevedo ML, Dos Santos LM, Júnior CM, Rodrigues RR, Donassolo RA, Reis ADSB, Barbosa JD, Salvarani FM, Moreira ÂN, Conceição FR Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus - commensal, pathogen or synergist? Two case reports on invasive Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus infection.
r W Abstract Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus are gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GAPC) usually found as commensals of the skin or in the setting of polymicrobial colonisation of chronic wounds and ulcers. However, its pathogenic potential in more severe, invasive infections such as bone, joint or blood stream infections remains unclear, with studies on underlying virulence factors still pending. In this case report we present two cases of P. asaccharolyticus-associated infection of the bone and joint as well as a review of the literature. The cases cast a new light on possible synergistic interactions between P. asa...
Source: Anaerobe - July 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Müller-Schulte E, Heimann KC, Treder W Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

A Novel Conjugal Donor Strain for Improved DNA transfer into Clostridium spp.
NP Abstract Clostridium encompasses species which are relevant to human and animal disease as well as species which have industrial potential, for instance, as producers of chemicals and fuels or as tumour delivery vehicles. Genetic manipulation of these target organisms is critical for advances in these fields. DNA transfer efficiencies, however, vary between species. Low efficiencies can impede the progress of research efforts. A novel conjugal donor strain of Escherichia coli has been created which exhibits a greater than 10-fold increases in conjugation efficiency compared to the traditionally used CA434 stra...
Source: Anaerobe - June 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Woods C, Humphreys CM, Rodrigues RM, Ingle P, Rowe P, Henstra AM, Köpke M, Simpson SD, Winzer K, Minton NP Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

High prevalence of Clostridium difficile in soil, mulch and lawn samples from the grounds of Western Australian hospitals.
In this study, we investigated the prevalence of C. difficile in the immediate outdoor environment of several hospitals in Perth, Western Australia, to provide further insight into potential sources of community-acquired C. difficile infection. Over 6 months, a total of 159 samples consisting of soil, mulch, lawn and sand were collected from outdoor surroundings of four different old (age>50 years) and new (age
Source: Anaerobe - June 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sicilia P, Papanin P, Thomas V R Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Phenotypic characterisation of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 251, an emerging multi-locus sequence type clade 2 strain in Australia.
In this study, C. difficile RT251 strains were sourced from various geographical locations and potential virulence factors were evaluated and compared to that of control strains, CD630, VPI10463 and R20291 in vitro. C. difficile RT251 strains were motile, germinated and sporulated efficiently, despite producing significantly less TcdA and TcdB compared to all control strains. Genomic analyses revealed three multi-locus sequence types (MLSTs 188, 231 and 365) with four to five loci variants compared to RT027 (ST1) all MLST clade 2. C. difficile RT251 strains were susceptible to metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin, a ...
Source: Anaerobe - June 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hong S, Knight DR, Chang B, Carman RJ, Riley TV Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue for The Anaerobe Society of the America's 14th Biennial Congress in Las Vegas.
Abstract In June 2018, the Anaerobe Society of the America's (ASA) held their 14th Biennial Congress in Las Vegas, Nevada. The Congress was attended by over 200 individuals from many different countries. The focus of the meeting was the fast-growing area of anaerobes in human and animal infectious disease, computational tools to understand basic biology and therapeutic development, the role of anaerobes in the microbiome, and clinical trials of novel bacterial-based therapies. To strengthen the community of researchers working on anaerobes, the congress held two training workshops on clinical bacteriology and anae...
Source: Anaerobe - June 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cox LM, Seekatz AM, Fichorova RN Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Evaluation of a nucleic acid amplification assay for the diagnosis of Clostridioides difficile infection.
In this study, diagnostic performance of BD MAX Cdiff assay (Becton Dickinson, USA) was evaluated for the detection of C. difficile in 2502 fresh stool samples from hospitalized children and adult patients and the results were compared to toxigenic culture. The frequency of CDI in adults and pediatric patients were found as 3.3% and 6.2%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of BD MAX Cdiff assay were found as; 100%, 99.7%, 93%, and 100% for all patients; 100%, 99.7%, 96.2%, and 100% for pediatric patients; and 100%, 99.6%, 90.2%, and 100% for adul...
Source: Anaerobe - June 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Koyuncu-Ozyurt O, Ozhak B, Ogunc D, Ongut G, Gunseren F, Donmez L, Colak D Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Composition and ecology of bacterial and archaeal communities in anaerobic reactor fed with residual glycerol.
This study aimed to assess microbial structure, diversity, productivity, and stability and the influence of these parameters on the performance of an anaerobic reactor. The experimental setup consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor fed residual glycerol and nutrients. The organic loading rate (OLR) was gradually increased through five stages, and sludge samples were collected at each, followed by DNA extraction and PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The resulting bands were excised, amplified, and purified. The results showed increased bacterial diversity and richness from the in...
Source: Anaerobe - June 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vasconcelos EAF, Santaella ST, Viana MB, Dos Santos AB, Pinheiro GC, Leitão RC Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Correlation between tcdB gene PCR cycle threshold and severe Clostridium difficile disease.
Abstract A retrospective study, including all samples tested for Clostridium difficile from 2015 to 2018, was conducted. 222 and 199 patients were respectively classified as having a mild/moderate or severe disease. A CT ≤ 26 was significantly associated with severe disease. Furthermore, low CT values were significantly associated to older patients and leukocytosis. PMID: 31254653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - June 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: De Francesco MA, Lorenzin G, Piccinelli G, Corbellini S, Bonfanti C, Caruso A Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Intra-peritoneal abscess after an abdominal hysterectomy involving Cutibacterium avidum (former Propionibacterium avidum) highly resistant to clindamycin.
We describe the second case of intraperitoneal abscess by C. avidum after an abdominal surgery in an obese female patient and the first case after a non-prosthetic abdominal surgery due to a highly clindamycin resistant strain in a patient with underling conditions. The patient was successfully treated with surgical drainage and beta-lactam antibiotics. Although rare and apparently non-pathogenic, C. avidum may be involved in infections, especially in some high-risk patients with obesity who have undergone surgical incision involving deep folder of the skin. The microorganism was identified by phenotypic methods, MALDI-TOF...
Source: Anaerobe - June 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mc L, C B, J C, Gm T, A F, D S, Ca V Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research