Pharmacokinetics of maropitant citrate in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Plasma concentrations of rabbits 24 hours after SC and IV administration of maropitant citrate (1 mg/kg) were similar to those of dogs at 24 hours. Reactions at the SC injection site were the most common adverse effect detected. Increased fecal output may suggest an effect on gastrointestinal motility. Additional pharmacodynamic and multidose studies are needed. PMID: 31556710 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ozawa SM, Hawkins MG, Drazenovich TL, Kass PH, Knych HK Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Ultrasonographic and hormonal characterization of reproductive health and disease in wild, semiwild, and aquarium-housed southern stingrays (Hypanus americanus).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that ultrasonography and plasma hormone concentrations may be useful in the identification of reproductive disease and determination of disease severity in southern stingrays. PMID: 31556711 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mylniczenko ND, Sumigama S, Wyffels JT, Wheaton CJ, Guttridge TL, DiRocco S, Penfold LM Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of the geometric accuracy of computed tomography and microcomputed tomography of the articular surface of the distal portion of the radius of cats.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Articular surface models derived from CT images had dimensional errors that approximately matched the voxel size. Thus, CT cannot be used to plan conforming arthroplasties in small joints and could lack precision when used to plan the correction of a limb deformity or repair of a fracture. PMID: 31556712 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Webster CE, Marcellin-Little DJ, Koballa EM, Stallrich JW, Harrysson OLA Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Novel technique for prevention of rotation of the distal phalanx relative to the hoof wall in horses with acute laminitis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Placement of a 5.5-mm-diameter cortical bone screw through the dorsal hoof wall into P3 had sufficient holding power to counteract the pull of the deep digital flexor tendon in approximately 500-kg horses, and placement of such a screw was well tolerated by clinically normal horses but did not alleviate signs of pain in horses with oligofructose-induced laminitis. Further research is necessary before this technique can be recommended for horses with naturally occurring acute laminitis. PMID: 31556713 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Carmalt KP, Carmalt JL, Henderson K, Allen AL, Wilson DG Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Cardiovascular and sedation reversal effects of intramuscular administration of atipamezole in dogs treated with medetomidine hydrochloride with or without the peripheral α2-adrenoceptor antagonist vatinoxan hydrochloride.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Atipamezole failed to restore heart rate and cardiac index in medetomidine-sedated dogs, and relapses into sedation were observed. Coadministration of vatinoxan with MED helped to maintain hemodynamic function and hastened the recovery from sedation after AA in dogs. PMID: 31556714 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Turunen H, Raekallio MR, Honkavaara JM, Restitutti F, Kallio-Kujala IJ, Adam M, Nevanperä K, Scheinin M, Männikkö SK, Hautajärvi HJ, Larenza Menzies P, Vainio OM Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Elastic properties of collateral and sesamoid ligaments in the forelimbs of equine cadavers.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Cross-sectional area and elastic modulus of collateral ligaments in the forelimbs of equine cadavers differed between breeds and among joints, which may have been reflective of their relative physiologic function under loading during exercise. PMID: 31556715 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Legg KA, Colborne GR, Gee EK, Rogers CW Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin following oral administration of a generic levofloxacin tablet and intravenous administration to dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In these dogs, levofloxacin was well absorbed when administered orally, and a dose of approximately 25 mg/kg was sufficient to reach pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic targets for treating infections with susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (ie, ≤ 0.5 μg/mL) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ie, ≤ 1 μg/mL) according to clinical breakpoints established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. PMID: 31556716 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Madsen M, Messenger K, Papich MG Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of oral transmucosal and intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine in dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: OTM administration of the injectable formulation of dexmedetomidine resulted in a similar degree of sedation and prolonged duration of action, compared with results for IV administration, despite relatively low bioavailability. PMID: 31556717 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Dent BT, Aarnes TK, Wavreille VA, Lakritz J, Lerche P, KuKanich B, Riccó Pereira CH, Bednarski RM Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Effect on urine specific gravity of the addition of glucose to urine samples of dogs and cats.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Substantial glucosuria resulted in minimal alterations in specific gravity of canine and feline urine samples. Thus, USG can be used to assess renal concentrating ability even in samples with glucosuria. PMID: 31556718 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Behrend EN, Botsford AN, Mueller SA, Hofmeister EH, Lee HP Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of a commercially available product and a compounded formulation of extended-release levetiracetam after oral administration of a single dose in cats.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The commercially available product and compounded formulation of ER levetiracetam both maintained concentrations in healthy cats 12 hours after oral administration that have been found to be therapeutic in humans (ie, 5 μg/mL). Results of this study supported dosing intervals of 12 hours, and potentially 24 hours, for oral administration of ER levetiracetam to cats. Monitoring of serum concentrations of levetiracetam can be used as an accurate representation of levetiracetam concentrations in CSF of cats. PMID: 31556719 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Johnson ER, Taylor AR, Boothe DM, Gray-Edwards HL, Winter RL, Martin DR Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

JAVMA New digest.
Authors: PMID: 31556720 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate gland of healthy adult dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results provided baseline information about diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the prostate gland in healthy sexually intact adult dogs. Additional studies with dogs of various ages and breeds, with and without abnormalities of the prostate gland, will be necessary to validate these findings and investigate clinical applications. PMID: 31449441 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Willmitzer F, Del Chicca F, Kircher PR, Wang-Leandro A, Kronen PW, Verdino D, Rüfenacht D, Porcellini B, Richter H Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

JAVMA New digest.
Authors: PMID: 31449442 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Effects of injectable dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam and isoflurane inhalation anesthetic protocols on ocular variables in captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that ophthalmic examination findings for anesthetized BTPDs can be influenced by the anesthetic protocol used. The DKM protocol may result in more consistent pupil size and globe position, compared with that achieved by use of the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure measurements should be conducted promptly after induction of anesthesia to avoid the effect of anesthetic episode duration on these variables. PMID: 31449443 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Roberts JK, Meekins JM, Browning GR, Beaufrère H, Eshar D Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Coagulation factor activity in units of leukoreduced and nonleukoreduced canine fresh-frozen plasma.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although there was variation among residual activities of coagulation factors in LR and non-LR cFFP, the variations and differences were considered unlikely to impact the efficacy of LR cFFP transfused for coagulation factor replacement in dogs. However, owing to the small sample size and high variability of results in the present study, additional research with a larger sample size is required for definitive conclusions on the effects of leukoreduction on coagulation factors in cFFP and to develop treatment guidelines for LR cFFP use in dogs with congenital and acquired coagulopathies. ...
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Foote ML, Brooks MB, Archer TM, Wills RW, Mackin AJ, Thomason JM Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effects of commonly used α2-adrenergic receptor agonists alone and in combination with butorphanol tartrate on objective measurements of lameness in horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In the study horses, xylazine alone had the least impact on objective lameness measurements. The administration of α2-ARAs, particularly detomidine or romifidine, alone or in combination with butorphanol, resulted in small but significant effects on objective lameness measurements. PMID: 31449445 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Moorman VJ, Bass L, King MR Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Effect of catheter diameter and injection rate of flush solution on renal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with perfluorobutane in dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Use of a 24-gauge catheter did not alter CEUS with perfluorobutane; therefore, such catheters could be used for CEUS of the kidneys of small dogs. Moreover, a rate of 5 mL/s is recommended for injection of flush solution to obtain greater accuracy for renal CEUS in Beagles. PMID: 31449446 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Hwang J, Kang K, Kang J, Nam J, Park S, Yoon J, Choi M Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Comparison of intravenous anesthetic induction doses and physiologic effects of ketamine or alfaxalone in goats undergoing surgery with isoflurane anesthesia.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both drugs were suitable for induction of anesthesia after sedation with midazolam, but most goats required higher doses of ketamine to allow intubation. For situations in which alfaxalone administration is appropriate, the potential for decreased arterial blood pressures and respiratory rate should be considered. PMID: 31449447 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Oakleaf MH, Mama KR, Mangin LM, Lebsock KJ, Bisazza KT, Hess AM, Easley JT Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of the number of colony forming units on the skin of dogs after clipping the hair with two sizes of clipper blades.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clipping hair with a No. 40 blade resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of erythema and higher number of Micrococcaceae bacteria, compared with results for clipping with a No. 10 blade. These results supported use of a No. 10 clipper blade to prevent erythema and reduce variation in the skin microbiome. PMID: 31449448 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Messiaen Y, MacLellan JD, Pelsue DH Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Measurements of the radiographic cardiac silhouette of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ospreys are sentinels used in monitoring environmental health. Environmental factors may have an impact on the cardiac health of ospreys, but reference values for healthy ospreys have not been established for use in assessing cardiomegaly in this species. The radiographic ratios and predictive model obtained in this study may be useful for objective evaluation of cardiomegaly in ospreys. PMID: 31449449 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Woo KMT, Barron GH, Daugherty AL, Woo JMP, Kehoe SP, Aguilar LAB, Cavanaugh SM Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Assessment of erythrocyte damage and in-line pressure changes associated with simulated transfusion of canine blood through microaggregate filters.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that regardless of the administration rate, the microaggregate filter did not alter fragility of canine RBCs, but may have altered the morphology. It appeared that the microaggregate filter would not contribute to substantial RBC damage for transfusions performed with a syringe pump. PMID: 31449450 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Cooley-Lock KM, Williams JP, Williams ML, Elder SH, Wills RW, Olivier AK, Archer TM, Mackin AJ, Thomason JM Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Abdominal lymphatic drainage after thoracic duct ligation and cisterna chyli ablation in clinically normal cats.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Abdominal lymphaticovenous anastomoses formed after TDL and CCA in cats. This would support use of these procedures for treatment of cats with idiopathic chylothorax, although additional studies with clinically affected cats are warranted. PMID: 31449451 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Dickerson VM, Grimes JA, Secrest SA, Wallace ML, Schmiedt CW Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Investigation of a novel prosthesis technique for extracapsular stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle joints in adult cattle.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Use of 800-lb-test monofilament nylon leader line as a prosthesis might be a viable alternative for extracapsular stabilization of CCL-deficient stifle joints in adult cattle. Further in vivo studies are necessary. PMID: 31339759 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lozier JW, Niehaus AJ, Hinds CA, Durgam SS, Jones SC, Lakritz J Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Investigation of white line separation under load in bovine claws with and without toe-tip necrosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that mechanical loading exacerbated TTN, but compressive loading alone, even at excessive levels, did not initiate the condition. Interventions (eg, hoof blocks) that decrease loading of affected claws may be beneficial for the treatment of TTN at its earliest stages. PMID: 31339760 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Johnston JD, Eichhorn DJR, Kontulainen SA, Noble SD, Jelinski MD Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Effect of twice-daily oral administration of a chondroitin sulfate-containing supplement on urine chondroitin sulfate concentrations in dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that oral administration of supplemental chondroitin sulfate to dogs modestly increased uCS within 24 hours; however, subsequent supplement administration did not have an additive effect. A potential therapeutic benefit of persistently increased uCS in preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in dogs warrants investigation. PMID: 31339761 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Wood MW, Barrett-Wilt GA Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Effects of airway pressure on contrast enhancement and diameter of the pulmonary artery in healthy dogs as determined by use of computed tomography angiography.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Airway pressure affected time to peak enhancement, KCdVC, contrast enhancement, and pulmonary artery diameter. Results suggested that 10 cm H2O could be an optimal pressure for evaluation of the pulmonary artery of dogs by use of CT angiography. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80;756-763). PMID: 31339762 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Choen S, Kim K, Kang K, Kang J, Nam J, Yoon J, Choi M Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of allometric scaling as a tool for extrapolation of the enrofloxacin dose in American black vultures (Coragyps atratus).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that the use of allometric scaling for the prediction of volume of distribution at steady state could provide a suitable method for extrapolation of enrofloxacin doses among avian species; however, allometric scaling could not be used to adequately predict the clearance of enrofloxacin. PMID: 31339763 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Waxman S, Prados AP, De Lucas JJ, Wiemeyer G, Torres-Bianchini L, Andres MIS, Rodríguez C Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Effects of hydrocortisone administration on leptin and adiponectin synthesis in dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Hydrocortisone administration affected abdominal fat distribution and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations through dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin expression. PMID: 31339764 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Choo HR, Kim H, Kang JH, Sung CJ, Ahn C, Kang BT, Chang D, Jeung EB, Yang MP Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Effect of body condition on intestinal permeability in horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Obese horses may have had greater paracellular mucosal permeability of jejunal mucosa to LPS, compared with that for lean horses. This finding was consistent with data for the gastrointestinal mucosa of humans and mice and supported the hypothesis that obese horses may be at higher risk from chronic exposure to increased amounts of LPS, compared with the risk for lean horses. PMID: 31339765 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kopper JJ, Travers JL, Schott HC, Cook VL Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of ultrasonographically determined ratios of kidney length to aorta diameter for assessment of kidney size in healthy young dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results revealed that 1-month-old dogs have larger kidneys relative to body weight and aorta diameter than do older dogs. Interobserver variability for the youngest group of dogs indicated limited usefulness of these measurements and related ratios for neonatal dogs in clinical practice. The KL:Ao values for dogs ≥ 6 months of age in this study were similar to values previously described for dogs> 12 months of age. PMID: 31339766 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kawalilak LT, Pease AP, Nelson NC Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Navigating the pitfalls of pet air travel.
Authors: PMID: 31339767 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Effects of stylet-in versus stylet-out collection of cerebrospinal fluid from the cisterna magna on contamination of samples, sample quality, and collection time.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both techniques could be safely performed in healthy anesthetized dogs. The stylet-out technique was performed more rapidly and yielded a sample with less cellular debris. Both techniques can be used in clinical practice to yield CSF samples with good diagnostic quality. PMID: 31339768 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Shamir SK, Hagen CRM, Foley PM, Gilroy CV, Yu J, Amsellem PM Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Clinicopathologic, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic effects of short-term oral administration of anti-inflammatory doses of prednisolone to systemically normal cats.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated short-term oral administration of anti-inflammatory dosages of prednisolone did not cause relevant hemodynamic, echocardiographic, or diabetogenic effects in systemically normal cats with allergic dermatitis. PMID: 31339769 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - July 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Khelik IA, Berger DJ, Mochel JP, Seo YJ, Palerme JS, Ware WA, Ward JL Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Effect of a two-base insertion mutation of the TP53 gene on expression of p53 protein in canine histiocytic sarcoma cells.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Expression of p53 protein and its function as a transcription factor were lost after addition of a 2-base insertion in the TP53 gene in canine histiocytic tumor cells. Additional studies are needed to investigate the clinical relevance of this mutation in histiocytic sarcomas of dogs. PMID: 31246118 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Asada H, Tomiyasu H, Goto-Koshino Y, Ohno K, Tsujimoto H Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of a low-technology system to obtain morphological and mobility trial measurements in dogs and investigation of potential predictors of canine mobility.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Morphological and mobility trial measurements can be obtained by dog owners with minimal training. Low-technology measurements of mobility trial speed offer potential as components in a future scoring scale for canine frailty. PMID: 31246119 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Morgan EM, Heseltine JC, Levine GJ, Promislow DEL, Creevy KE Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Comparison of various types of inert gas components on efficacy of an alveolar recruitment maneuver in dorsally recumbent anesthetized horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: An ARM in anesthetized horses might be more efficacious in improving Pao2 and Cdyn when animals breathe helium instead of nitrogen as the inert gas. PMID: 31246120 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Varner KM, Hopster K, Driessen B Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of olopatadine following administration via nasogastric tube to healthy horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested olopatadine may have a strong, long-term inhibitory effect against histamine-induced wheals in the skin of horses. Clinical research with a larger number of horses is warranted. PMID: 31246121 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kuroda T, Nagata SI, Tamura N, Mita H, Kusano K, Mizobe F, Takizawa Y, Fukuda K, Kasashima Y Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

In vitro effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors on the production of tumor necrosis factor- α by interferon- γ - and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that PJ34 PARP1 inhibition may reduce TNF-α production in horses, a potential benefit in reducing inflammation and endotoxin-induced damage in horses. PMID: 31246122 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Cacciolatti C, Meyer-Ficca ML, Southwood LL, Meyer RG, Bertolotti L, Zarucco L Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intranasal and intravenous naloxone hydrochloride administration in healthy dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Use of a naloxone atomizer for IN naloxone administration in dogs may represent an effective alternative to IV administration in emergency situations involving opioid exposure. Future studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of IN naloxone administration in dogs with opioid intoxication, including a determination of effective doses. PMID: 31246123 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Wahler BM, Lerche P, Ricco Pereira CH, Bednarski RM, KuKanich B, Lakritz J, Aarnes TK Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Effects of blood-derived products and sodium hyaluronate on equine synovial fluid cells and on synovial fluid from osteochondrotic joints of horses after arthroscopy and administration of treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: PRP should be used with caution in the period immediately after arthroscopy and treatment of osteochondrotic joints of horses. All treatments had antioxidant effects. Sodium hyaluronate, APP, and IRAP might help ameliorate joint inflammation. PMID: 31246124 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Machado TSL, Massoco CO, Silva LCLC, Fülber J, Moreira JJ, Baccarin RYA Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of gastrointestinal activity in healthy rabbits by means of duplex Doppler ultrasonography.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that both B-mode and PWD ultrasonography of the duodenum and jejunum may be suitable for noninvasive evaluation of small intestinal motility in rabbits and that the sedation protocol used in this study had no impact on measured peristaltic values. PMID: 31246125 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Oura TJ, Graham JE, Knafo SE, Aarsvold S, Gladden JN, Barton BA Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

In vitro evaluation of negative pressure generated during application of negative suction volumes by use of various syringes with and without thoracostomy tubes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Limited data are available on the negative pressure generated during intermittent evacuation of the thoracic cavity. For the present study, use of a syringe of ≥ 20 mL and application of 1 mL of negative suction volume resulted in in vitro pressures much more negative than the currently recommended pressure of -14.71 mm Hg for continuous suction. Additional in vitro or cadaveric studies are needed. PMID: 31246126 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mezzles MJ, Murray RL, Heiser BP Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline and its 5-hydroxyhexyl metabolite after intravenous administration of increasing doses to sheep.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that pharmacokinetic parameters for PTX and M-I varied in a dose-dependent linear manner in healthy sheep. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic threshold and optimal dosage for PTX in sheep. PMID: 31246127 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Corum O, Corum DD, Atik O, Er A, Uney K Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Kinematic analysis of mandibular motion before and after mandibulectomy and mandibular reconstruction in dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Mandibular kinematics in head specimens from canine cadavers were significantly altered after unilateral segmental and bilateral rostral mandibulectomy. These alterations were corrected after mandibular reconstruction with locking reconstruction plates. Findings reinforced the clinical observations of the beneficial effect of reconstruction on mandibular function and the need for reconstructive surgery after mandibulectomy in dogs. PMID: 31246128 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Arzi B, Verstraete FJM, Garcia TC, Lee M, Kim SE, Stover SM Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

JAVMA News Digest.
Authors: PMID: 31246129 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

In vitro evaluation of the knot-holding capacity and security, weight, and volume of forwarder knots tied with size-3 polyglactin 910 suture exposed to air, balanced electrolyte solution, or equine abdominal fat.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that forwarder knots were superior to surgeon's knots when configured as start knots intended for continuous lines of suture. Exposure to media did not negatively affect mechanical or physical properties of forwarder knots and may improve specific biomechanical functions, including KHC and RKS. PMID: 31246130 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: McGlinchey L, Boone LH, Munsterman AS, Coleridge MOD, Rosanowski SM, Farag R, Hanson RR Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Radiographic evaluation of patellar ligament length after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The PLL was shorter after TPLO in dogs, which was similar to changes observed for humans after high tibial osteotomy procedures. Further evaluation of clinical assessments, joint mobility, ultrasonographic assessments, and kinematic results are needed to determine the relevance of the PLL and whether a decrease in ligament length results in decreased mobility and persistent lameness in dogs, as has been reported for humans. PMID: 31140840 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - May 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jay MR, Mattoon JS, Gilbert PJ, Tanaka TT, Beaty BL Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

JAVMA News Digest.
Authors: PMID: 31140841 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - May 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Intravenous and intraosseous regional limb perfusion of ceftiofur sodium in an avian model.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that IVRLP may be a safe and effective technique for antimicrobial administration to birds with joint infections, contaminated wounds, pododermatitis, and other musculoskeletal infections of the distal aspect of a limb. PMID: 31140842 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - May 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Knafo SE, Graham JE, Barton BA Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Luteinizing hormone receptor expression by nonneoplastic and neoplastic canine lymphocytes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In this study, LH receptor expression by canine neoplastic and nonneoplastic lymphocytes was detected. Research into the effects of downregulation of LH receptor activation in dogs with lymphoma is warranted. PMID: 31140843 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - May 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ettinger AM, Gust SK, Kutzler MA Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research