Characteristics of Veteran and Civilian Suicide Decedents: A Sex-Stratified Analysis
ConclusionsFirearm use as a suicide method was a key distinguishing feature of Veteran suicide. Means restriction and firearm safety are pertinent to preventing Veteran suicide. Given low utilization of mental health care and frequent presence of physical health problems in this population, safe storage messages may have a greater preventive impact if delivered in primary care or other nonpsychiatric settings. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Impacts of the Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Provision on Young Adults With Cancer
ConclusionsThese results provide clear evidence for a Dependent Coverage Provision–associated impact on insurance coverage in young adult cancer patients; however, clear impacts on diagnosis stage are less evident. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Administrative Military Discharge and Suicidal Ideation Among Post–9/11 Veterans
This study aimed to examine the association between discharge type (honorable versus administrative) and active suicide ideation among Veterans participating in the Survey of Experiences of Returning Veterans (N=850, data collection 2012–2015 and data analysis 2017–2018) using logistic regression. Stratified analyses explored whether gender, time since military separation, or recent mental health service use moderated this relationship.ResultsThe prevalence of suicide ideation was significantly higher (p
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

April Roeseler, BSN, MSPH, Neal Kohatsu MD, MPH. Advancing Smoking Cessation in California's Medicaid Population. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55(6S2):S126–S129.
Publication date: April 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Masthead
Publication date: April 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Information for CME Credit—Workplace Smoke-Free Policies and Cessation Programs Among U.S. Working Adults
Publication date: April 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Information for CME Credit—The Relationship Between Hearing Loss and Substance Use Disorders Among Adults in the U.S.
Publication date: April 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acknowledgments for AJPM Volumes 54 and 55
Publication date: April 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Menthol Smoking Patterns and Smoking Perceptions Among Youth: Findings From the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study
ConclusionsYouth who smoke menthol cigarettes perceive them as easier to smoke, even after adjusting for other factors. Age of initiation and black race emerged as correlates of menthol cigarette initiation, brand preference, and cigarette harm perceptions, and may inform future prevention campaigns. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Perceived Impact of Incentives for Chronic Disease Prevention
ConclusionsProgram delivery method, incentive form, and incentive magnitude are important characteristics to consider when designing incentive programs. Incentive programs can consider providing modest incentive amounts to achieve self-reported impact on behavior change. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

E-cigarette Use and Myocardial Infarction: Association Versus Causal Inference
Publication date: April 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4Author(s): Konstantinos Farsalinos, Raymond Niaura (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Association Between E-cigarette Use and Myocardial Infarction Is What One Would Expect Based on the Biological and Clinical Evidence
Publication date: April 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4Author(s): Talal Alzahrani, Stanton A. Glantz (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Kenneth W. Kizer, MD, MPH. Advancing Tobacco Control Among Medicaid Beneficiaries: A Historical Perspective and Call to Action. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55(6S2):S222–S226.
Publication date: April 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Fall Prevention Self-Management Among Older Adults: A Systematic Review
ConclusionsThe systematic literature review revealed the personal characteristics of older adults who engage in fall prevention self-management actions and behaviors. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Food Security and 10-Year Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among U.S. Adults
ConclusionsAdults with food insecurity have elevated cardiovascular disease risk factors and excess predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. Substantially improving food security may be an important public health intervention to reduce future cardiovascular disease in the U.S. population. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

State-Level Beer Excise Tax and Firearm Homicide in Adolescents and Young Adults
This study sought to determine the association between changes in state-level beer excise tax and firearm homicide rates among individuals aged 15–34years.MethodsA time series analysis with synthetic controls was conducted for the years 2003–2015. Exposed states changed the beer excise tax during the study period. Synthetic controls were weighted mimics that combined portions of unexposed states using state–year specific demographic and firearm covariates. Average annual incidence rate differences were calculated between each exposed state and its synthetic control. Alcohol taxes were available through th...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Health Insurance Coverage Among U.S. Workers: Differences by Work Arrangements in 2010 and 2015
ConclusionsImportant disparities in health insurance coverage among workers with different work arrangements existed in 2010 and persisted in 2015. Further research is needed to monitor coverage trends among workers. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Public Health Workforce Development Needs: A National Assessment of Executives’ Perspectives
ConclusionsThe Directors Assessment of Workforce Needs Survey fills important knowledge gaps and complements previously identified evidence to guide refinement of workforce development efforts. Although competition from the private sector remains challenging, these findings indicate that recruitment and retention must be top priorities in state health agencies nationwide. Prioritizing individual state health agency workforce gaps and committing to provide specific local-level interventions to those priorities is crucial for individual health agencies. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

E-cigarette Use Among Young Adults in the U.S.
ConclusionsUse of e-cigarettes by U.S. young adults, most of which is not intended to help reduce smoking, is related to more rather than less frequent and intensive cigarette smoking. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Regular Sunscreen Use and Risk of Mortality: Long-Term Follow-up of a Skin Cancer Prevention Trial
ConclusionsRegular use of a sun protection factor 16 sunscreen on head, neck, arms, and hands for 4.5years did not increase mortality. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Non-clinical Prevention Opportunities and Waste in the U.S. Healthcare System
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): J. Mac McCullough, Matthew Speer, Steven M. Teutsch, Jonathan E. Fielding (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

U.S. Emergency Department Visits Resulting From Nonmedical Use of Pharmaceuticals, 2016
ConclusionsAlthough prescription opioids or benzodiazepines are frequently implicated in emergency department visits for nonmedical use, because other substances and additional pharmaceuticals are most often involved, prescribing clinicians should consider implementing specific screening to address polysubstance use and, when warranted, treatment interventions. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - March 6, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Critical Assessment of the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study at 20 Years
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Craig A. McEwen, Scout F. Gregerson (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Distracted Driving, Visual Inattention, and Crash Risk Among Teenage Drivers
ConclusionsSecondary tasks vary in the risk they introduce to the teenage driver. Manual cellphone use and reaching for objects were found to be associated with increased crash risk. These findings objectively quantify the effect of visual inattention resulting from distracting secondary tasks on teenage drivers’ crash risk. Teenage drivers may benefit from technologic and behavioral interventions that will keep their eyes on the road at all times and discourage engagement in distracting secondary tasks. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Suicides Among Lesbian and Gay Male Individuals: Findings From the National Violent Death Reporting System
ConclusionsFindings highlight differences in the characteristics of suicide among lesbian and gay male and non-lesbian and non-gay male decedents. It is important for suicide prevention efforts to be culturally sensitive and consider the needs of sexual minority populations. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Colorectal and Breast Cancer Screening Status for People in Ontario Provincial Correctional Facilities
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Andres McConnon, Kinwah Fung, Aisha Lofters, Stephen W. Hwang, Fiona G. KouyoumdjianIntroductionPrimary care represents an opportunity to improve health for people who experience imprisonment, and screening for colorectal and breast cancer indicate primary care quality. The study objectives were to examine the proportion of people released from provincial correctional facilities who were overdue for colorectal or breast cancer screening on admission to the correctional facility and who were still overdue after 3 yea...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Facilitators and Barriers to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Incentive Use: Findings From a Clinic Intervention for Low-Income Patients
ConclusionsLow-income patients who received an informational intervention about Double Up Food Bucks reported numerous benefits from participation. Yet barriers remained for a subset of patients. Improving geographic accessibility and ease of SNAP incentive redemption may further improve dietary quality and food security among vulnerable populations. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Harnessing the Power of Food Labels for Public Health
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Jennifer L. Pomeranz, Peter G. Lurie (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 20, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Emerging Identity of the Preventive Medicine Specialty: A Model for the Population Health Transition
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Yuri T. Jadotte, Heather B. Leisy, Kimberly Noel, Dorothy S. Lane (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 18, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Urban–Rural Differences in Older Adult Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Comparative Studies
ConclusionsConverging trends of urbanization and population aging could increase the global burden of depression among older adults. The pathways through which urban–rural residence influences depression risk among older adults might differ by country context. Future research should focus on measuring variation in these contexts. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women in the U.S., 2012–2015
This study aims to assess influenza vaccination coverage during three influenza seasons (2012–2015) from a national probability-based sampling survey and evaluate potential factors that influence vaccination uptake among pregnant women.MethodsData from the 2012 through 2015 National Health Interview Surveys were analyzed in 2017. Pregnant women aged 18−49 years were included in the analysis. The Kaplan−Meier survival analysis procedure was used for vaccination coverage in each season. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with vaccination. Ad...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Exercise Videogames, Physical Activity, and Health: Wii Heart Fitness: A Randomized Clinical Trial
This study compared exercise videogames with standard exercise modalities for improving uptake and maintenance of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and health risk indices.Study designA three-arm clinical RCT including 12 weeks of supervised laboratory-based moderate to vigorous physical activity followed by 6 months follow-up.Setting/participantsThis study was conducted at a university affiliated hospital research lab. Healthy, sedentary adults were eligible.InterventionsThis study compared a 12-week program of supervised exercise videogames versus standard exercise (e.g., treadmill) versus control. Data were collec...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Economics of Community Health Workers for Chronic Disease: Findings From Community Guide Systematic Reviews
ConclusionsInterventions engaging community health workers are cost effective for cardiovascular disease prevention and type 2 diabetes management, based on a conservative $50,000 benchmark for cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Two cost per quality-adjusted life year estimates for type 2 diabetes prevention were far below the $50,000 benchmark. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Masthead
Publication date: March 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Information for CME Credit— Differences in Prenatal Care by Presence and Type of Maternal Disability
Publication date: March 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Information for CME Credit— A Primary Care Intervention to Prevent Repeat Pregnancy Among Teen Mothers
Publication date: March 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Vaccine Education, Reasons for Refusal, and Vaccination Behavior
ConclusionsDifferent reasons for refusal are associated with different patterns of vaccination behavior. Furthermore, results suggest that education sessions may overcome vaccine refusal in some cases, and that distinct refusal reasons mark real differences in parental motivations regarding vaccination choices. These differences in parental motivations may indicate the existence of different sites for potential pro-vaccination interventions. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Racial Differences in Maintaining Optimal Health Behaviors Into Middle Age
Publication date: March 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 3Author(s): John N. Booth, Norrina B. Allen, David Calhoun, April P. Carson, Luqin Deng, David C. Goff, David T. Redden, Jared P. Reis, Daichi Shimbo, James M. Shikany, Stephen Sidney, Bonnie Spring, Cora E. Lewis, Paul MuntnerIntroductionEarlier development of cardiovascular disease risk factors in blacks versus whites may result from differences in maintaining health behaviors. Age-specific racial differences in maintaining health behaviors from ages 18 to 50 years were determined.MethodsIn 1985–1986, the population-based ...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Physical Activity Levels and New Public Transit: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
ConclusionsResults show new public transit options can substantially contribute to increasing low- to moderate-intensity exercise levels, which has the potential to improve health on a population scale. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Neighborhood Food Environment and Dementia Incidence: the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study Cohort Survey
ConclusionsLower food store availability was associated with increased dementia incidence. Given that food shopping is a routine activity and a main motive for going out among older adults, increasing the availability of food stores may contribute to dementia prevention. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Primary Care Intervention to Prevent Repeat Pregnancy Among Teen Mothers
Publication date: March 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 3Author(s): Amy Lewin, Stephanie J. Mitchell, Deirdre A. Quinn, Towanda M. Street, Kristine Schmitz, Lee S. BeersIntroductionThe purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a patient-centered medical home intervention for teen parent families in reducing rates of unintended repeat pregnancy in the first 2 years postpartum.MethodsA prospective quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted with 98 African American, low-income, teen mother (aged
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Wellness Committee Status and Local Wellness Policy Implementation Over Time
Publication date: March 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 3Author(s): Carolyn D. McIlree, Hannah G. Lane, Yan Wang, Erin R. HagerIntroductionLocal Wellness Policies are school-district documents containing guidelines for schools to promote nutrition/physical activity. In cross-sectional studies, schools with wellness committees are more likely to implement Local Wellness Policies. This prospective cohort study examines associations between wellness committee status over time and change in Local Wellness Policy implementation using a biennial, statewide survey.MethodsSchool administrators...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Nicotine Dependence and Pre-Enlistment Suicidal Behavior Among U.S. Army Soldiers
This study investigated associations of nicotine dependence with suicidal behaviors among incoming soldiers.MethodsLifetime DSM-IV nicotine dependence, mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and their ages of onset were retrospectively assessed in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) New Soldier Study. Discrete-time survival analysis of person-year data from 30,436 soldiers was performed to evaluate associations of nicotine dependence with subsequent suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts. Among respondents with lifetime ideation (n=4,060), models tested associations of nicotine depen...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Vaccination Practices Among Obstetrician/Gynecologists for Non-pregnant Patients
The objectives were to assess, among a national sample of obstetrician-gynecologists, practices related to vaccine delivery in non-pregnant patients and factors associated with stocking and administering more than three different vaccines to non-pregnant patients.MethodsE-mail and mail surveys were administered July–October 2015, with analyses performed during October–November 2015 and April–June 2018.ResultsThe response rate was 73% (353/482). Human papillomavirus (92%); influenza (82%); and tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis vaccines (50%) were the vaccines most commonly assessed, with the remaini...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Long-Term Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention: A Pragmatic Community Trial to Prevent Metabolic Syndrome
ConclusionsIn a middle-income country, face-to-face educational sessions followed by a long-term maintenance community-level educational program could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome for up to 6 years. A booster face-to-face session is recommended to retain this preventive effect.Trial registrationThis study is registered at Iran Registry for Clinical Trials (http://irct.ir) IRCT138705301058N1. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Temporal Patterns in Chlamydia Repeat Testing in Massachusetts
ConclusionsChlamydia test-of-cure and test-of-reinfection rates are low, with no evidence of improvement over time. There are substantial opportunities to improve adherence to chlamydia repeat testing recommendations. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Documentation of ENDS Use in the Veterans Affairs Electronic Health Record (2008–2014)
Publication date: March 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 3Author(s): Mike Conway, Danielle L. Mowery, Brett R. South, Gregory J. Stoddard, Wendy W. Chapman, Olga V. Patterson, Shu-Hong Zhu (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Differences in Prenatal Care by Presence and Type of Maternal Disability
ConclusionsThere were key differences in prenatal care utilization by disability type, reflective of particularly pronounced disparities for women with intellectual/developmental disabilities and women with limited hearing. Delays in receipt of prenatal care and low numbers of prenatal care visits may contribute to the poorer birth outcomes that have been observed previously in these groups. Targeted interventions are needed to improve uptake of prenatal care in these vulnerable populations. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Longitudinal Sedentary Time Among Females Aged 17 to 23 Years
This study examined longitudinal correlates of sedentary time among a cohort of females from about age 17 to age 23 years.MethodsThe cohort included females originally participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls Maryland site who had assessments in 2009 and 2015 (n=431). Percentage daily time in sedentary behaviors was determined from accelerometers. Sociodemographics, psychosocial factors, and health behaviors were assessed by questionnaire. Lasso variable selection identified potential variables included in linear mixed effects models. As a secondary analysis, a k-means algorithm for longitudinal data ide...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Interventions in the U.S.: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
ConclusionsEvidence supports behavioral interventions for increasing human papillomavirus vaccine initiation and completion. Future studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of interventions in reaching diverse populations and reducing missed opportunities for human papillomavirus vaccination. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - February 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research