We are the Change We Seek
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00090.2021. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33710925 | DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00090.2021 (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Merry L Lindsey Zamaneh Kassiri Kara Hansell Keehan Keith R Brunt Jason R Carter Jonathan A Kirk Amanda J LeBlanc Petra Kleinbongard Crystal M Ripplinger Source Type: research

Exercise alters Cardiac Function Independent of Acute Systemic Inflammation in Healthy Men
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00809.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAcute elevations in inflammatory cytokines have been demonstrated to increase aortic and left ventricular stiffness and reduce endothelial function in healthy subjects. As vascular and cardiac function are often transiently reduced following prolonged exercise, it is possible that cytokines released during exercise may contribute to these alterations. The a priori aims of this study were to determine if vaccine-induced increases in inflammatory-cytokines would reduce vascular and left ventricular function, whether ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Alexandra M Coates Heather L Petrick Philip J Millar Jamie F Burr Source Type: research

Global Reach 2018: Dysfunctional Extracellular Microvesicles in Andean Highlander Males with Excessive Erythrocytosis
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00016.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHigh altitude-related excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The experimental aim of this study was to determine the effects of microvesicles isolated from Andean highlanders with EE on endothelial cell inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and nitric oxide (NO) production.Twenty-six male residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m) were studied: 12 highlanders without EE (age: 40±4 yr; BMI: 26.4±1.7; Hb: 17.4±0.5 g/dL, SpO2: 86.9±1.0%) and 14 ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: L Madden Brewster Anthony R Bain Vinicius P Pacheco Garcia Hannah K Fandl Rachel Stone Noah M DeSouza Jared J Greiner Michael M Tymko Gustavo A Vizcardo-Galindo Romulo J Figueroa-Mujica Francisco C Villafuerte Philip N Ainslie Christopher A DeSouza Source Type: research

Effect of endothelial glycocalyx on water and low density lipoprotein (LDL) transport through the rat abdominal aorta
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00861.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe surface of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) is covered by a protective negatively charged layer known as the endothelial glycocalyx. Herein, we hypothesized its transport barrier and mechanosensory role in transmural water flux and low density lipoprotein (LDL) transport in an isolated rat abdominal aorta perfused under 85 mm Hg and 20 dyn/cm2 ex vivo. The endothelial glycocalyx was digested by hyaluronidase (HAase) from bovine tests. Water infiltration velocity (Vw) was measured by a graduated pipette. LDL cov...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Hongyan Kang Jiali Yang Weichen Zhang Jinyan Lu Xuejiao Ma Anqiang Sun Xiaoyan Deng Source Type: research

Role of perivascular nerve and sensory neurotransmitter dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00037.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is associated with both impaired intestinal blood flow and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the functional role of perivascular nerves that control vasomotor function of mesenteric arteries (MAs) perfusing the intestine during IBD is unknown. Because perivascular sensory nerves and their transmitters calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) are important mediators of both vasodilation and inflammatory responses, our objective was to identify IBD-relat...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Charles E Norton Elizabeth A Grunz-Borgmann Marcia L Hart Benjamin W Jones Craig L Franklin Erika M Boerman Source Type: research

Impact of hyperleptinemia during placental ischemia-induced hypertension in pregnant rats
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00724.2019. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe prevalence of preeclampsia and obesity have increased. While obesity is a major risk factor for preeclampsia, the mechanisms linking these morbidities are poorly understood. Circulating leptin levels increase in proportion to fat mass. Infusion of this adipokine elicits hypertension in non-pregnant rats, but less is known about how hyperleptinemia impacts blood pressure during placental ischemia, an initiating event in the pathophysiology of hypertension in preeclampsia. We tested the hypothesis that hyperlepti...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Ana C Palei Hunter L Martin Barbara A Wilson Christopher D Anderson Joey P Granger Frank T Spradley Source Type: research

Personalized physiologic flow waveforms improve wave reflection estimates compared to triangular flow waveforms in adults
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00747.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCentral aortic pressure waveforms contain valuable prognostic information in addition to central systolic pressure. Using pressure-flow relations, wave separation analysis can be used to decompose aortic pressure waveforms into forward- (Pf) and backward-travelling (Pb) components. Reflection magnitude, the ratio of pressure amplitudes (RM=Pb/Pf), is a predictor of heart failure and all-cause mortality. Aortic flow can be measured via Doppler echocardiography or estimated using a triangular flow waveform; however, ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Ninette Shenouda Joseph M Stock Jordan C Patik Julio A Chirinos David G Edwards Source Type: research

We are the Change We Seek
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00090.2021. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33710925 | DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00090.2021 (Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology)
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Merry L Lindsey Zamaneh Kassiri Kara Hansell Keehan Keith R Brunt Jason R Carter Jonathan A Kirk Amanda J LeBlanc Petra Kleinbongard Crystal M Ripplinger Source Type: research

Exercise alters Cardiac Function Independent of Acute Systemic Inflammation in Healthy Men
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00809.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAcute elevations in inflammatory cytokines have been demonstrated to increase aortic and left ventricular stiffness and reduce endothelial function in healthy subjects. As vascular and cardiac function are often transiently reduced following prolonged exercise, it is possible that cytokines released during exercise may contribute to these alterations. The a priori aims of this study were to determine if vaccine-induced increases in inflammatory-cytokines would reduce vascular and left ventricular function, whether ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Alexandra M Coates Heather L Petrick Philip J Millar Jamie F Burr Source Type: research

Global Reach 2018: Dysfunctional Extracellular Microvesicles in Andean Highlander Males with Excessive Erythrocytosis
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00016.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHigh altitude-related excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The experimental aim of this study was to determine the effects of microvesicles isolated from Andean highlanders with EE on endothelial cell inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and nitric oxide (NO) production.Twenty-six male residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m) were studied: 12 highlanders without EE (age: 40±4 yr; BMI: 26.4±1.7; Hb: 17.4±0.5 g/dL, SpO2: 86.9±1.0%) and 14 ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: L Madden Brewster Anthony R Bain Vinicius P Pacheco Garcia Hannah K Fandl Rachel Stone Noah M DeSouza Jared J Greiner Michael M Tymko Gustavo A Vizcardo-Galindo Romulo J Figueroa-Mujica Francisco C Villafuerte Philip N Ainslie Christopher A DeSouza Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicle interplay in cardiovascular pathophysiology
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00925.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized lipid bilayer-delimited particles released from cells that mediate intercellular communications and play a pivotal role in various physiological and pathological processes. Subtypes of EVs may include plasma-membrane ectosomes or microvesicles and endosomal-origin exosomes, although functional distinctions remain unclear. EVs carry cargo proteins, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), lipids, and metabolites. By presenting or transferring this cargo to recipient cells, EVs can trigg...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Sherin Saheera Vivek P Jani Kenneth W Witwer Shelby Kutty Source Type: research

Maternal Systemic Vascular Dysfunction in a Primate Model of Defective Uterine Spiral Artery Remodeling
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00613.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUterine spiral artery remodeling (UAR) is essential for placental perfusion and fetal development. A defect in UAR underpins placental ischemia disorders, e.g. preeclampsia, that result in maternal systemic vascular endothelial oxidative stress and dysfunction and hypertension. We have established a model of impaired UAR by prematurely elevating maternal serum estradiol levels during the first trimester of baboon pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether this experimental paradigm is associated with maternal vascula...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Eugene D Albrecht Jeffery S Babischkin Graham W Aberdeen Marcia G Burch Gerald J Pepe Source Type: research

The peroxisomal enzyme, FAR1, is induced during ER stress in an ATF6-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00999.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhile peroxisomes have been extensively studied in other cell types, their presence and function have gone virtually unexamined in cardiac myocytes. Here, in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) we showed that several known peroxisomal proteins co-localize to punctate structures with a morphology typical of peroxisomes. Surprisingly, we found that the peroxisomal protein, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1), was upregulated by chemical and pathophysiological ER stress induced by tunicamycin (TM) and simulated isch...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kayleigh G Marsh Adrian Arrieta Donna J Thuerauf Erik A Blackwood Lauren MacDonnell Christopher C Glembotski Source Type: research

Cardiac myosin binding protein-C phosphorylation accelerates β-cardiac myosin detachment rate in mouse myocardium
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00673.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament protein that modulates cardiac contraction-relaxation through its phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and ablation of cMyBP-C have been shown to increase the rate of MgADP release in the acto-myosin crossbridge cycle in the intact sarcomere. The influence of cMyBP-C on Pi-dependent myosin kinetics has not yet been examined. We investigated the effect of cMyBP-C and its phosphorylation on myosin kinetics in demembranated papillary muscle strips be...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bertrand C W Tanner Michael J Previs Yuan Wang Jeffrey Robbins Bradley M Palmer Source Type: research

Fine particulate matter (PM < sub > 2.5 < /sub > ) inhalation-induced alterations in the plasma lipidome as promoters of vascular inflammation and insulin resistance
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00881.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution exposure increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the precise mechanisms by which air pollution exposure increases CVD risk remain uncertain, research indicates that PM2.5-induced endothelial dysfunction contributes to the CVD risk. Previous studies demonstrate that concentrated PM2.5 (CAP) exposure induces vascular inflammation and impairs insulin and VEGF signaling dependent upon pulmonary oxidative stress. To assess whether CAP exposure ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bradford G Hill Benjamin Rood Amanda Ribble Petra Haberzettl Source Type: research

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor is involved in flow-induced vasomotor responses of isolated middle cerebral arteries. Role of oxidative stress
This study aimed to determine the mechanosensing role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in flow-induced dilation (FID) and oxidative stress production in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of Sprague-Dawley rats. Eleven-weeks old, healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats on a standard diet were given the AT1R blocker losartan (1 mg/mL) in drinking water (losartan group) or tap water (control group) ad libitum for 7 days. Blockade of AT1R attenuated FID and acetylcholine-induced dilations was compared to control group. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and cyclooxygenase inhibit...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Ivana Jukic Zrinka Mihaljevic Anita Matic Martina Mihalj Natasa Kozina Kristina Selthofer-Relatic Dubravka Mihaljevic Akos Koller Ivana Tartaro Bujak Ines Drenjancevic Source Type: research

Geometrical remodeling of the mitral and tricuspid annuli in response to exercise training: a 3D echocardiographic study in elite athletes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00877.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntense exercise exposes the heart to significant hemodynamic demands, resulting in adaptive changes in cardiac morphology and function. Nevertheless, the athletic adaptation of the atrioventricular valves remains to be elucidated. Our study aimed to characterize the geometry of mitral (MA) and tricuspid (TA) annuli in elite athletes using 3D echocardiography. Thirty-four athletes presented with functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) were retrospectively identified and compared to 34 athletes without MR, and 34 healt...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Alexandra Fabian B álint Károly Lakatos Marton Tokodi Anna Reka Kiss N óra Sydó Emese Csulak Erika Kispal M áté Babity Andrea Szucs Orsolya Kiss B éla Merkely Attila Kov ács Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicle interplay in cardiovascular pathophysiology
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00925.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized lipid bilayer-delimited particles released from cells that mediate intercellular communications and play a pivotal role in various physiological and pathological processes. Subtypes of EVs may include plasma-membrane ectosomes or microvesicles and endosomal-origin exosomes, although functional distinctions remain unclear. EVs carry cargo proteins, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), lipids, and metabolites. By presenting or transferring this cargo to recipient cells, EVs can trigg...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Sherin Saheera Vivek P Jani Kenneth W Witwer Shelby Kutty Source Type: research

Maternal Systemic Vascular Dysfunction in a Primate Model of Defective Uterine Spiral Artery Remodeling
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00613.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUterine spiral artery remodeling (UAR) is essential for placental perfusion and fetal development. A defect in UAR underpins placental ischemia disorders, e.g. preeclampsia, that result in maternal systemic vascular endothelial oxidative stress and dysfunction and hypertension. We have established a model of impaired UAR by prematurely elevating maternal serum estradiol levels during the first trimester of baboon pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether this experimental paradigm is associated with maternal vascula...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Eugene D Albrecht Jeffery S Babischkin Graham W Aberdeen Marcia G Burch Gerald J Pepe Source Type: research

The peroxisomal enzyme, FAR1, is induced during ER stress in an ATF6-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00999.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhile peroxisomes have been extensively studied in other cell types, their presence and function have gone virtually unexamined in cardiac myocytes. Here, in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) we showed that several known peroxisomal proteins co-localize to punctate structures with a morphology typical of peroxisomes. Surprisingly, we found that the peroxisomal protein, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1), was upregulated by chemical and pathophysiological ER stress induced by tunicamycin (TM) and simulated isch...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kayleigh G Marsh Adrian Arrieta Donna J Thuerauf Erik A Blackwood Lauren MacDonnell Christopher C Glembotski Source Type: research

Cardiac myosin binding protein-C phosphorylation accelerates β-cardiac myosin detachment rate in mouse myocardium
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00673.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament protein that modulates cardiac contraction-relaxation through its phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and ablation of cMyBP-C have been shown to increase the rate of MgADP release in the acto-myosin crossbridge cycle in the intact sarcomere. The influence of cMyBP-C on Pi-dependent myosin kinetics has not yet been examined. We investigated the effect of cMyBP-C and its phosphorylation on myosin kinetics in demembranated papillary muscle strips be...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bertrand C W Tanner Michael J Previs Yuan Wang Jeffrey Robbins Bradley M Palmer Source Type: research

Fine particulate matter (PM < sub > 2.5 < /sub > ) inhalation-induced alterations in the plasma lipidome as promoters of vascular inflammation and insulin resistance
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00881.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution exposure increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the precise mechanisms by which air pollution exposure increases CVD risk remain uncertain, research indicates that PM2.5-induced endothelial dysfunction contributes to the CVD risk. Previous studies demonstrate that concentrated PM2.5 (CAP) exposure induces vascular inflammation and impairs insulin and VEGF signaling dependent upon pulmonary oxidative stress. To assess whether CAP exposure ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bradford G Hill Benjamin Rood Amanda Ribble Petra Haberzettl Source Type: research

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor is involved in flow-induced vasomotor responses of isolated middle cerebral arteries. Role of oxidative stress
This study aimed to determine the mechanosensing role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in flow-induced dilation (FID) and oxidative stress production in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of Sprague-Dawley rats. Eleven-weeks old, healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats on a standard diet were given the AT1R blocker losartan (1 mg/mL) in drinking water (losartan group) or tap water (control group) ad libitum for 7 days. Blockade of AT1R attenuated FID and acetylcholine-induced dilations was compared to control group. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and cyclooxygenase inhibit...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Ivana Jukic Zrinka Mihaljevic Anita Matic Martina Mihalj Natasa Kozina Kristina Selthofer-Relatic Dubravka Mihaljevic Akos Koller Ivana Tartaro Bujak Ines Drenjancevic Source Type: research

Geometrical remodeling of the mitral and tricuspid annuli in response to exercise training: a 3D echocardiographic study in elite athletes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00877.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntense exercise exposes the heart to significant hemodynamic demands, resulting in adaptive changes in cardiac morphology and function. Nevertheless, the athletic adaptation of the atrioventricular valves remains to be elucidated. Our study aimed to characterize the geometry of mitral (MA) and tricuspid (TA) annuli in elite athletes using 3D echocardiography. Thirty-four athletes presented with functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) were retrospectively identified and compared to 34 athletes without MR, and 34 healt...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Alexandra Fabian B álint Károly Lakatos Marton Tokodi Anna Reka Kiss N óra Sydó Emese Csulak Erika Kispal M áté Babity Andrea Szucs Orsolya Kiss B éla Merkely Attila Kov ács Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicle interplay in cardiovascular pathophysiology
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00925.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized lipid bilayer-delimited particles released from cells that mediate intercellular communications and play a pivotal role in various physiological and pathological processes. Subtypes of EVs may include plasma-membrane ectosomes or microvesicles and endosomal-origin exosomes, although functional distinctions remain unclear. EVs carry cargo proteins, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), lipids, and metabolites. By presenting or transferring this cargo to recipient cells, EVs can trigg...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Sherin Saheera Vivek P Jani Kenneth W Witwer Shelby Kutty Source Type: research

Maternal Systemic Vascular Dysfunction in a Primate Model of Defective Uterine Spiral Artery Remodeling
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00613.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUterine spiral artery remodeling (UAR) is essential for placental perfusion and fetal development. A defect in UAR underpins placental ischemia disorders, e.g. preeclampsia, that result in maternal systemic vascular endothelial oxidative stress and dysfunction and hypertension. We have established a model of impaired UAR by prematurely elevating maternal serum estradiol levels during the first trimester of baboon pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether this experimental paradigm is associated with maternal vascula...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Eugene D Albrecht Jeffery S Babischkin Graham W Aberdeen Marcia G Burch Gerald J Pepe Source Type: research

The peroxisomal enzyme, FAR1, is induced during ER stress in an ATF6-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00999.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhile peroxisomes have been extensively studied in other cell types, their presence and function have gone virtually unexamined in cardiac myocytes. Here, in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) we showed that several known peroxisomal proteins co-localize to punctate structures with a morphology typical of peroxisomes. Surprisingly, we found that the peroxisomal protein, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1), was upregulated by chemical and pathophysiological ER stress induced by tunicamycin (TM) and simulated isch...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kayleigh G Marsh Adrian Arrieta Donna J Thuerauf Erik A Blackwood Lauren MacDonnell Christopher C Glembotski Source Type: research

Cardiac myosin binding protein-C phosphorylation accelerates β-cardiac myosin detachment rate in mouse myocardium
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00673.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament protein that modulates cardiac contraction-relaxation through its phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and ablation of cMyBP-C have been shown to increase the rate of MgADP release in the acto-myosin crossbridge cycle in the intact sarcomere. The influence of cMyBP-C on Pi-dependent myosin kinetics has not yet been examined. We investigated the effect of cMyBP-C and its phosphorylation on myosin kinetics in demembranated papillary muscle strips be...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bertrand C W Tanner Michael J Previs Yuan Wang Jeffrey Robbins Bradley M Palmer Source Type: research

Fine particulate matter (PM < sub > 2.5 < /sub > ) inhalation-induced alterations in the plasma lipidome as promoters of vascular inflammation and insulin resistance
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00881.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution exposure increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the precise mechanisms by which air pollution exposure increases CVD risk remain uncertain, research indicates that PM2.5-induced endothelial dysfunction contributes to the CVD risk. Previous studies demonstrate that concentrated PM2.5 (CAP) exposure induces vascular inflammation and impairs insulin and VEGF signaling dependent upon pulmonary oxidative stress. To assess whether CAP exposure ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bradford G Hill Benjamin Rood Amanda Ribble Petra Haberzettl Source Type: research

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor is involved in flow-induced vasomotor responses of isolated middle cerebral arteries. Role of oxidative stress
This study aimed to determine the mechanosensing role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in flow-induced dilation (FID) and oxidative stress production in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of Sprague-Dawley rats. Eleven-weeks old, healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats on a standard diet were given the AT1R blocker losartan (1 mg/mL) in drinking water (losartan group) or tap water (control group) ad libitum for 7 days. Blockade of AT1R attenuated FID and acetylcholine-induced dilations was compared to control group. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and cyclooxygenase inhibit...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Ivana Jukic Zrinka Mihaljevic Anita Matic Martina Mihalj Natasa Kozina Kristina Selthofer-Relatic Dubravka Mihaljevic Akos Koller Ivana Tartaro Bujak Ines Drenjancevic Source Type: research

Geometrical remodeling of the mitral and tricuspid annuli in response to exercise training: a 3D echocardiographic study in elite athletes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00877.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntense exercise exposes the heart to significant hemodynamic demands, resulting in adaptive changes in cardiac morphology and function. Nevertheless, the athletic adaptation of the atrioventricular valves remains to be elucidated. Our study aimed to characterize the geometry of mitral (MA) and tricuspid (TA) annuli in elite athletes using 3D echocardiography. Thirty-four athletes presented with functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) were retrospectively identified and compared to 34 athletes without MR, and 34 healt...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Alexandra Fabian B álint Károly Lakatos Marton Tokodi Anna Reka Kiss N óra Sydó Emese Csulak Erika Kispal M áté Babity Andrea Szucs Orsolya Kiss B éla Merkely Attila Kov ács Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicle interplay in cardiovascular pathophysiology
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00925.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized lipid bilayer-delimited particles released from cells that mediate intercellular communications and play a pivotal role in various physiological and pathological processes. Subtypes of EVs may include plasma-membrane ectosomes or microvesicles and endosomal-origin exosomes, although functional distinctions remain unclear. EVs carry cargo proteins, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), lipids, and metabolites. By presenting or transferring this cargo to recipient cells, EVs can trigg...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Sherin Saheera Vivek P Jani Kenneth W Witwer Shelby Kutty Source Type: research

Maternal Systemic Vascular Dysfunction in a Primate Model of Defective Uterine Spiral Artery Remodeling
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00613.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUterine spiral artery remodeling (UAR) is essential for placental perfusion and fetal development. A defect in UAR underpins placental ischemia disorders, e.g. preeclampsia, that result in maternal systemic vascular endothelial oxidative stress and dysfunction and hypertension. We have established a model of impaired UAR by prematurely elevating maternal serum estradiol levels during the first trimester of baboon pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether this experimental paradigm is associated with maternal vascula...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Eugene D Albrecht Jeffery S Babischkin Graham W Aberdeen Marcia G Burch Gerald J Pepe Source Type: research

The peroxisomal enzyme, FAR1, is induced during ER stress in an ATF6-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00999.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhile peroxisomes have been extensively studied in other cell types, their presence and function have gone virtually unexamined in cardiac myocytes. Here, in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) we showed that several known peroxisomal proteins co-localize to punctate structures with a morphology typical of peroxisomes. Surprisingly, we found that the peroxisomal protein, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1), was upregulated by chemical and pathophysiological ER stress induced by tunicamycin (TM) and simulated isch...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kayleigh G Marsh Adrian Arrieta Donna J Thuerauf Erik A Blackwood Lauren MacDonnell Christopher C Glembotski Source Type: research

Cardiac myosin binding protein-C phosphorylation accelerates β-cardiac myosin detachment rate in mouse myocardium
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00673.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament protein that modulates cardiac contraction-relaxation through its phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and ablation of cMyBP-C have been shown to increase the rate of MgADP release in the acto-myosin crossbridge cycle in the intact sarcomere. The influence of cMyBP-C on Pi-dependent myosin kinetics has not yet been examined. We investigated the effect of cMyBP-C and its phosphorylation on myosin kinetics in demembranated papillary muscle strips be...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bertrand C W Tanner Michael J Previs Yuan Wang Jeffrey Robbins Bradley M Palmer Source Type: research

Fine particulate matter (PM < sub > 2.5 < /sub > ) inhalation-induced alterations in the plasma lipidome as promoters of vascular inflammation and insulin resistance
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00881.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution exposure increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the precise mechanisms by which air pollution exposure increases CVD risk remain uncertain, research indicates that PM2.5-induced endothelial dysfunction contributes to the CVD risk. Previous studies demonstrate that concentrated PM2.5 (CAP) exposure induces vascular inflammation and impairs insulin and VEGF signaling dependent upon pulmonary oxidative stress. To assess whether CAP exposure ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bradford G Hill Benjamin Rood Amanda Ribble Petra Haberzettl Source Type: research

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor is involved in flow-induced vasomotor responses of isolated middle cerebral arteries. Role of oxidative stress
This study aimed to determine the mechanosensing role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in flow-induced dilation (FID) and oxidative stress production in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of Sprague-Dawley rats. Eleven-weeks old, healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats on a standard diet were given the AT1R blocker losartan (1 mg/mL) in drinking water (losartan group) or tap water (control group) ad libitum for 7 days. Blockade of AT1R attenuated FID and acetylcholine-induced dilations was compared to control group. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and cyclooxygenase inhibit...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Ivana Jukic Zrinka Mihaljevic Anita Matic Martina Mihalj Natasa Kozina Kristina Selthofer-Relatic Dubravka Mihaljevic Akos Koller Ivana Tartaro Bujak Ines Drenjancevic Source Type: research

Geometrical remodeling of the mitral and tricuspid annuli in response to exercise training: a 3D echocardiographic study in elite athletes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00877.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntense exercise exposes the heart to significant hemodynamic demands, resulting in adaptive changes in cardiac morphology and function. Nevertheless, the athletic adaptation of the atrioventricular valves remains to be elucidated. Our study aimed to characterize the geometry of mitral (MA) and tricuspid (TA) annuli in elite athletes using 3D echocardiography. Thirty-four athletes presented with functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) were retrospectively identified and compared to 34 athletes without MR, and 34 healt...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Alexandra Fabian B álint Károly Lakatos Marton Tokodi Anna Reka Kiss N óra Sydó Emese Csulak Erika Kispal M áté Babity Andrea Szucs Orsolya Kiss B éla Merkely Attila Kov ács Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicle interplay in cardiovascular pathophysiology
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00925.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized lipid bilayer-delimited particles released from cells that mediate intercellular communications and play a pivotal role in various physiological and pathological processes. Subtypes of EVs may include plasma-membrane ectosomes or microvesicles and endosomal-origin exosomes, although functional distinctions remain unclear. EVs carry cargo proteins, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), lipids, and metabolites. By presenting or transferring this cargo to recipient cells, EVs can trigg...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Sherin Saheera Vivek P Jani Kenneth W Witwer Shelby Kutty Source Type: research

Maternal Systemic Vascular Dysfunction in a Primate Model of Defective Uterine Spiral Artery Remodeling
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00613.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUterine spiral artery remodeling (UAR) is essential for placental perfusion and fetal development. A defect in UAR underpins placental ischemia disorders, e.g. preeclampsia, that result in maternal systemic vascular endothelial oxidative stress and dysfunction and hypertension. We have established a model of impaired UAR by prematurely elevating maternal serum estradiol levels during the first trimester of baboon pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether this experimental paradigm is associated with maternal vascula...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Eugene D Albrecht Jeffery S Babischkin Graham W Aberdeen Marcia G Burch Gerald J Pepe Source Type: research

The peroxisomal enzyme, FAR1, is induced during ER stress in an ATF6-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00999.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhile peroxisomes have been extensively studied in other cell types, their presence and function have gone virtually unexamined in cardiac myocytes. Here, in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) we showed that several known peroxisomal proteins co-localize to punctate structures with a morphology typical of peroxisomes. Surprisingly, we found that the peroxisomal protein, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1), was upregulated by chemical and pathophysiological ER stress induced by tunicamycin (TM) and simulated isch...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kayleigh G Marsh Adrian Arrieta Donna J Thuerauf Erik A Blackwood Lauren MacDonnell Christopher C Glembotski Source Type: research

Cardiac myosin binding protein-C phosphorylation accelerates β-cardiac myosin detachment rate in mouse myocardium
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00673.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament protein that modulates cardiac contraction-relaxation through its phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and ablation of cMyBP-C have been shown to increase the rate of MgADP release in the acto-myosin crossbridge cycle in the intact sarcomere. The influence of cMyBP-C on Pi-dependent myosin kinetics has not yet been examined. We investigated the effect of cMyBP-C and its phosphorylation on myosin kinetics in demembranated papillary muscle strips be...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bertrand C W Tanner Michael J Previs Yuan Wang Jeffrey Robbins Bradley M Palmer Source Type: research

Fine particulate matter (PM < sub > 2.5 < /sub > ) inhalation-induced alterations in the plasma lipidome as promoters of vascular inflammation and insulin resistance
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00881.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution exposure increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the precise mechanisms by which air pollution exposure increases CVD risk remain uncertain, research indicates that PM2.5-induced endothelial dysfunction contributes to the CVD risk. Previous studies demonstrate that concentrated PM2.5 (CAP) exposure induces vascular inflammation and impairs insulin and VEGF signaling dependent upon pulmonary oxidative stress. To assess whether CAP exposure ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bradford G Hill Benjamin Rood Amanda Ribble Petra Haberzettl Source Type: research

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor is involved in flow-induced vasomotor responses of isolated middle cerebral arteries. Role of oxidative stress
This study aimed to determine the mechanosensing role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in flow-induced dilation (FID) and oxidative stress production in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of Sprague-Dawley rats. Eleven-weeks old, healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats on a standard diet were given the AT1R blocker losartan (1 mg/mL) in drinking water (losartan group) or tap water (control group) ad libitum for 7 days. Blockade of AT1R attenuated FID and acetylcholine-induced dilations was compared to control group. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and cyclooxygenase inhibit...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Ivana Jukic Zrinka Mihaljevic Anita Matic Martina Mihalj Natasa Kozina Kristina Selthofer-Relatic Dubravka Mihaljevic Akos Koller Ivana Tartaro Bujak Ines Drenjancevic Source Type: research

Geometrical remodeling of the mitral and tricuspid annuli in response to exercise training: a 3D echocardiographic study in elite athletes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00877.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntense exercise exposes the heart to significant hemodynamic demands, resulting in adaptive changes in cardiac morphology and function. Nevertheless, the athletic adaptation of the atrioventricular valves remains to be elucidated. Our study aimed to characterize the geometry of mitral (MA) and tricuspid (TA) annuli in elite athletes using 3D echocardiography. Thirty-four athletes presented with functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) were retrospectively identified and compared to 34 athletes without MR, and 34 healt...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Alexandra Fabian B álint Károly Lakatos Marton Tokodi Anna Reka Kiss N óra Sydó Emese Csulak Erika Kispal M áté Babity Andrea Szucs Orsolya Kiss B éla Merkely Attila Kov ács Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicle interplay in cardiovascular pathophysiology
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00925.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized lipid bilayer-delimited particles released from cells that mediate intercellular communications and play a pivotal role in various physiological and pathological processes. Subtypes of EVs may include plasma-membrane ectosomes or microvesicles and endosomal-origin exosomes, although functional distinctions remain unclear. EVs carry cargo proteins, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), lipids, and metabolites. By presenting or transferring this cargo to recipient cells, EVs can trigg...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Sherin Saheera Vivek P Jani Kenneth W Witwer Shelby Kutty Source Type: research

Maternal Systemic Vascular Dysfunction in a Primate Model of Defective Uterine Spiral Artery Remodeling
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00613.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUterine spiral artery remodeling (UAR) is essential for placental perfusion and fetal development. A defect in UAR underpins placental ischemia disorders, e.g. preeclampsia, that result in maternal systemic vascular endothelial oxidative stress and dysfunction and hypertension. We have established a model of impaired UAR by prematurely elevating maternal serum estradiol levels during the first trimester of baboon pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether this experimental paradigm is associated with maternal vascula...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Eugene D Albrecht Jeffery S Babischkin Graham W Aberdeen Marcia G Burch Gerald J Pepe Source Type: research

The peroxisomal enzyme, FAR1, is induced during ER stress in an ATF6-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00999.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhile peroxisomes have been extensively studied in other cell types, their presence and function have gone virtually unexamined in cardiac myocytes. Here, in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) we showed that several known peroxisomal proteins co-localize to punctate structures with a morphology typical of peroxisomes. Surprisingly, we found that the peroxisomal protein, fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1), was upregulated by chemical and pathophysiological ER stress induced by tunicamycin (TM) and simulated isch...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kayleigh G Marsh Adrian Arrieta Donna J Thuerauf Erik A Blackwood Lauren MacDonnell Christopher C Glembotski Source Type: research

Cardiac myosin binding protein-C phosphorylation accelerates β-cardiac myosin detachment rate in mouse myocardium
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00673.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament protein that modulates cardiac contraction-relaxation through its phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and ablation of cMyBP-C have been shown to increase the rate of MgADP release in the acto-myosin crossbridge cycle in the intact sarcomere. The influence of cMyBP-C on Pi-dependent myosin kinetics has not yet been examined. We investigated the effect of cMyBP-C and its phosphorylation on myosin kinetics in demembranated papillary muscle strips be...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bertrand C W Tanner Michael J Previs Yuan Wang Jeffrey Robbins Bradley M Palmer Source Type: research

Fine particulate matter (PM < sub > 2.5 < /sub > ) inhalation-induced alterations in the plasma lipidome as promoters of vascular inflammation and insulin resistance
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00881.2020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution exposure increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the precise mechanisms by which air pollution exposure increases CVD risk remain uncertain, research indicates that PM2.5-induced endothelial dysfunction contributes to the CVD risk. Previous studies demonstrate that concentrated PM2.5 (CAP) exposure induces vascular inflammation and impairs insulin and VEGF signaling dependent upon pulmonary oxidative stress. To assess whether CAP exposure ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bradford G Hill Benjamin Rood Amanda Ribble Petra Haberzettl Source Type: research