Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

Relation of psychosocial factors to diverse behaviors and attitudes among Somali refugees.
Refugee studies have examined both resilience and adverse outcomes, but no research has examined how different outcomes co-occur or are distinct, and the social-contextual factors that give rise to these diverse outcomes. The current study begins to address this gap by using latent profile analysis to examine the ways in which delinquency, gang involvement, civic engagement, political engagement, and openness to violent extremism cluster among Somali refugees. We then use multivariable regression analyses to examine how adversity (e.g., discrimination, trauma, and marginalization) is associated with the identified latent c...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ellis, B. Heidi; Abdi, Saida M.; Lazarevic, Vanja; White, Matthew T.; Lincoln, Alisa K.; Stern, Jessica E.; Horgan, John G. Source Type: research

Assessment of anxiety among Northern Plains Indians.
This study is an examination of the reliability and validity of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988) in a sample of NPIs (N = 529). Validity was assessed by comparing BAI scores among 3 different diagnostic categories in a clinical sample (anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and comorbid anxiety/mood disorder diagnostic groups) and a community sample of participants with no self-reported mental health diagnoses. The BAI was also compared with depression, quality of life, and anxiety measures to assess validity. Support toward the validity of the BAI was demonstrated through high correlatio...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gray, Jacqueline S.; McCullagh, John A.; Petros, Thomas Source Type: research

Emergency shelter care utilization in child welfare: Who goes to shelter care? How long do they stay?
Emergency shelter care for children entering foster care is widely used as a temporary first placement, despite its contraindications. However, little research has examined predictors of utilization (e.g., entry into care, length of stay in care). A sample of 123 children (ages 6–13) entering foster care was studied to explore the variables associated with an initial placement in shelter care versus kinship care and variables associated with children staying less than 30 days in the shelter versus 30 days or longer. After applying a classification tree analysis (CTA via Optimal Data Analysis), results indicated that ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 16, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leon, Scott C.; Jhe Bai, Grace; Fuller, Anne K.; Busching, Michelle Source Type: research

Extending the RENO model: Clinical and ethical applications.
This article extends the RENO Model core principles by describing how to apply these strategies to clinical practice. This discussion examines the central tenets of the model and includes a review of (a) the ethical principles that should guide the development, implementation, and practice of RENO Model responsible gambling activities; (b) a brief consideration of the various perspectives that influence the treatment of gambling-related problems; and (c) a discussion of key applied elements of responsible gambling programs. This article advances the argument that, to maximize positive outcomes and to avoid unintended harms...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shaffer, Howard J.; Ladouceur, Robert; Blaszczynski, Alex; Whyte, Keith Source Type: research

Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.
There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16–24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gattis, Maurice N.; Larson, Andrea Source Type: research

Patterns of depression among adolescent mothers: Resilience related to father support and home visiting program.
The negative consequences of maternal depression are a major public health concern, both for mothers and for their children. Despite the high prevalence of depression among adolescent mothers, little is known about the patterns of adolescent mothers’ depression in the early parenting years. The present study examined mothers’ depression during the first 2 years following childbirth in a sample of 428 young mothers (20 or younger at first childbirth) who were participants in a randomized controlled trial of a home visiting parenting support program. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-reported Cente...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Kotake, Chie; Raskin, Maryna; Bumgarner, Erin Source Type: research

The relationship between race/ethnicity and the perceived experience of mental health care.
Although there is a vast amount of literature on differences in the perceived experiences of general health care among different racial/ethnic groups, few studies have examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and perceptions of mental health care. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics had more negative (or less positive) perceptions of the mental health treatment they receive compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Data were from the 1998 –2006 Florida Health Services Surveys. The findings indicated that African Americans and Hispanics were less likely than W...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cai, Angela; Robst, John Source Type: research

Israeli mothers ’ meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide.
This study is the first to our knowledge to provide an in-depth account of the meanings reconstructed by bereaved Israeli mothers of homicide victims. Homicide survivors tend to receive little or no support from society; this is especially true in Israel, where homicide victims are a neglected population whose voice is socially muted. Constructivist theories have informed understanding of grief, emphasizing the role of meaning reconstruction in adaptation to bereavement, as well as the role of social support in the process of meaning reconstruction. We derived 3 prototypes of meaning from interviews of 12 bereaved mothers:...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Leichtentritt, Ronit D. Source Type: research

Israeli mothers’ meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide.
This study is the first to our knowledge to provide an in-depth account of the meanings reconstructed by bereaved Israeli mothers of homicide victims. Homicide survivors tend to receive little or no support from society; this is especially true in Israel, where homicide victims are a neglected population whose voice is socially muted. Constructivist theories have informed understanding of grief, emphasizing the role of meaning reconstruction in adaptation to bereavement, as well as the role of social support in the process of meaning reconstruction. We derived 3 prototypes of meaning from interviews of 12 bereaved mothers:...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Leichtentritt, Ronit D. Source Type: research

Differential accounts of refugee and resettlement experiences in youth with high and low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology: A mixed-methods investigation.
This study was conducted to broaden the conceptualization and examination of the outcomes of the refugee experience by jointly examining how adaptive processes, psychosocial factors, and psychopathology are implicated. A mixed-methods approach was used to specifically examine whether adolescents’ (N = 10) accounts of their refugee and resettlement experiences differed according to their level, “high” or “low,” of PTSD symptomatology. The superordinate themes of cultural belongingness and identification, psychological functioning, family unit functioning and relationships, and friendships and i...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 13, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: McGregor, Lucy S.; Melvin, Glenn A.; Newman, Louise K. Source Type: research

Acculturative heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM mental and substance use disorders.
Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identific...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 13, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C. Source Type: research

Happiness on the street: Overall happiness among homeless people in Madrid (Spain).
This article tests a hypothesized model of overall happiness among homeless people in Spain. The research was conducted based on a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid (n = 235), all adults, who had spent the night before the interview in a shelter for homeless people, on the street or in other places not initially designed for sleeping, or who were in supervised accommodation for homeless people at the time of the interview. Information was gathered using a structured interview. The results obtained show that around half of the homeless people in Madrid said that they were happy. A positive meta-stereotype a...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 13, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Panadero, Sonia; Guillén, Ana Isabel; Vázquez, José Juan Source Type: research

Suicide risk assessments: Examining influences on clinicians’ professional judgment.
This study revealed significant variations in clinical judgments of practitioners assessing suicide risk. While scores on standardized risk assessment measures were the strongest predictor of judgments regarding the need for hospitalization to ensure the safety of the patient, other influences included clinician age and levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Mental health clinicians and organizations that employ them should be aware of possible individual influences on professional judgments related to suicide risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Regehr, Cheryl; LeBlanc, Vicki R.; Bogo, Marion; Paterson, Jane; Birze, Arija Source Type: research

An exploratory study of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors in adolescent Latinas.
We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H. Source Type: research

Building resilience: A qualitative study of Spanish women who have suffered intimate partner violence.
This study used grounded theory to explore the factors that contribute to building resilience in Spanish women who have undergone IPV. A sample of 22 women who had experienced IPV participated in the study (mean age = 46.45 years, SD = 10.49). Findings revealed that these women were capable of using various factors, both individual and external, that promoted resilience. The women employed the following individual factors: physical activity, rediscovering oneself, altruism, control over one’s life, creativity, spirituality, focus on the present, sense of humor, introspection, optimism, and projects and goals. The ext...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 25, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: López-Fuentes, Iratxe; Calvete, Esther Source Type: research

Asylum-seeking children’s experiences of detention in Canada: A qualitative study.
Children and parents seeking asylum are regularly detained in Canada, however little is known about the experiences of detained families. International literature suggests that the detention of children is associated with significant morbidity. Our study aims to understand the experiences of detained children and families who have sought asylum in Canada by using a qualitative methodology that includes semistructured interviews and ethnographic participant observation. Detention appears to be a frightening experience of deprivation that leaves children feeling criminalized and helpless. Family separation further shatters c...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kronick, Rachel; Rousseau, Cécile; Cleveland, Janet Source Type: research

Risk for behavior problems in children of parents with substance use disorders.
This study also tested whether parenting mediated the relations between these variables. Results suggest that children of parents with current diagnoses were at elevated risk for externalizing and internalizing problems, but children of parents with recovered diagnoses were only at risk for externalizing problems. Perceived parental consistency of support mediated the relations between parent current SUD and child externalizing and internalizing problems. Disruption of the home environment may in part explain why children of parents with SUDs are at risk for externalizing and internalizing problems. However, even after par...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bountress, Kaitlin; Chassin, Laurie Source Type: research

Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.
This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina Source Type: research

A structural equation modeling study of the Spanish Mental Illness Stigma Attribution Questionnaire (AQ-27-E).
The main purpose of this study was the translation and analysis of psychometric properties of the Attribution Questionnaire for use in Spanish-speaking populations (AQ-27-E) and to test the dangerousness and responsibility models of mental illness stigma in a Spanish sample. The sample consisted of 439 adults from the general population of the community of Madrid (Spain). The questionnaire was translated using the translation/back-translation method. Cronbach’s alpha was used to carry out the reliability analysis, and structural equations were used to test the dangerousness and the responsibility models of stigma. In...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Muñoz, Manuel; Guillén, Ana I.; Pérez-Santos, Eloísa; Corrigan, Patrick W. Source Type: research

The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part II: Reparative Adaptational Impacts.
The impacts of the Holocaust on children of survivors have been widely investigated. However, consensus is limited, and no validated measures have been tailored with or to them. We aimed to develop and validate a scale that measures these specific impacts (Part II of the Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma). We studied 484 adult children of survivors who participated in a cross-sectional web-based survey in English or Hebrew; of these, 191 participated in a clinical interview. Exploratory factor analyses of 58 items to reduce and refine the measure yielded a 36-item scale, Reparative Adaptational Impa...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H.; Lindert, Jutta; Paisner, Vera; Kronenberg, Sefi; Engdahl, Brian; Richter, Julia Source Type: research

A broader perspective of gun control.
The point of this commentary is not to advocate for either position. Rather, the aim is to put the matter of gun control into a broader context, inclusive of a theological and spiritual perspective. Shining a different light on the roots of gun control provides a different understanding of it. A different understanding has the potential to change the tone of the national debate. It is the authors' belief that the tone and complexity of the national debate does not stem from the content of the issue but from the emotionality. The perspective of this comment is taken from a systems view of life in America that includes an at...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hargrove, David S.; Perdue, Roland P. Source Type: research

Preventing the invisible plague of firearm suicide.
There is an underappreciation among the general public and among health professionals that firearms are implicated in just over half of all suicide deaths. Suicide attempts with firearms are much more lethal than attempts using other methods, with more than 85% of individuals using a firearm dying compared to 2% for individuals using poisoning, 31% by jumping, and 69% by hanging. There is a well-researched and clear connection between access to firearms in the home and an increased risk of firearm suicide of a family member. Additionally, it has long been demonstrated that states and cities with fewer guns have fewer suici...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Runyan, Carol W.; Brown, Talia L.; Brooks-Russell, Ashley Source Type: research

Our schools are safe: Challenging the misperception that schools are dangerous places.
Massive public attention to school shootings has created the misperception that schools are dangerous places, even though crime statistics show that schools are one of the safest places in the United States. The fear of school shootings has caused many school systems to divert their budgets to excessive building security measures and adopt dubious crisis response plans. School disciplinary practices have shifted toward the criminalization of student misbehavior and a zero tolerance philosophy that fails to improve school safety and results in high rates of student suspensions and dropouts. The use of a threat assessment ap...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cornell, Dewey Source Type: research

Challenging the political assumption that “Guns don’t kill people, crazy people kill people!”.
Presumptions that mental illness is causally tied to firearm violence and that guns are too easily acquired by such persons have given rise to laws that categorically restrict people with mental health concerns from exercising a Constitutional right. Underlying these reforms appears to be a revised idiom, “Guns don’t kill people—crazy people kill people.” The purpose of this commentary is to address these assumptions and provide suggestions for managing this critical threat. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hodges, Heath J.; Scalora, Mario J. Source Type: research

Defying the odds on gun regulation: The passage of bipartisan mental health laws across the States.
This study begins with a brief overview and evaluation of the barriers to enacting firearms regulations (of all sorts) in America. The author next reviews lawmaking at the nexus of mental health and firearms over the past decade. The author provides an overview of the types of laws that have been enacted and the political circumstances that have facilitated their passage. The author concludes with some thoughts about whether these cases provide any generalizable lessons for consensus-based policymaking on guns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Goss, Kristin A. Source Type: research

The new normal? Addressing gun violence in America.
Despite the fact that children die every day from gun violence, school shootings upset us in ways that are difficult to comprehend. In our minds, schools serve as safe havens for children. When that image is shattered, the unpredictability and randomness of such heinous acts leave us wondering if anywhere is safe anymore. This issue of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry includes a set of commentaries that seek to help us better understand responses to gun violence, challenge some of the typical policy responses to such events, and seek to offer constructive strategies for preventing gun violence. (PsycINFO Database Re...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: McLeigh, Jill D. Source Type: research

Psychological distress among victimized women on probation and parole: A latent class analysis.
Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of victimized women (N = 406) on probation and parole differentiated by levels of general psychological distress. The 9 primary symptom dimensions from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used individually as latent class indicators (Derogatis, 1993). Results identified 3 classes of women characterized by increasing levels of psychological distress; classes were further differentiated by posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, cumulative victimization, substance use and other domains of psychosocial functioning (i.e., sociodemographic characteristics; informal social ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Golder, Seana; Engstrom, Malitta; Hall, Martin T.; Higgins, George E.; Logan, TK Source Type: research

The relevance and implications of organizational involvement for serious mental illness populations.
This study surveyed adults with SMI regarding their current level of organizational involvement along with their preferences and beliefs about organizational involvement. Additionally, a path model was conducted to understand the relationships between domains of consumer involvement. Although participants reported wanting to be involved in identified organizational involvement activities and believing it was important to be involved in these kinds of activities, organizational involvement was low overall. The path model indicated that psychological involvement among other factors influence organizational involvement, which...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Treichler, Emily B. H.; Evans, Eric A.; Johnson, J. Rock; O’Hare, Mary; Spaulding, William D. Source Type: research

China’s only children and psychopathology: A quantitative synthesis.
Conclusions based on this synthesis are limited by the fact that this body of studies is based on convenience samples of relatively successful youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Falbo, Toni; Hooper, Sophia Y. Source Type: research

Evaluating the measurement of mental health service accessibility, acceptability, and availability in the Canadian Community Health Survey.
Given the underutilization of mental health services by those with mental health problems, growing attention has focused on barriers to utilizing services. Several researchers have used the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 1.2 dataset, including measures of barriers because of accessibility, acceptability, and availability, to explore the gap between mental health service need and use. Because the psychometric properties of these barrier measures have not been evaluated, the reliability and validity of the 3 measures were examined in the present study. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using data fro...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elliott, Katherine P.; Hunsley, John Source Type: research

Family functioning and posttraumatic growth among parents and youth following wildfire disasters.
A conceptual model was used to investigate how demographic characteristics, perceived fire stress, aspects of the recovery environment (life stressors since the disaster, social support), mental health, and coping influences parent and youth reports of family functioning and posttraumatic growth (PTG) following multiple wildfires. Participants included 50 parent–youth dyads (M = 14.5 years) who had been evacuated because of the fire, many of whom had homes that were damaged (60%) or destroyed (30%). For youth, younger age, being female, greater fire stress, more life stressors, and those using more positive reapprais...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Felix, Erika; Afifi, Tamara; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Brown, Laurel; Afifi, Walid; Reyes, Gil Source Type: research

Respecting our elders: Evaluation of an educational program for adolescent students to promote respect toward older adults.
The current project explored issues related to respect for older people, and then developed, implemented, and evaluated an educational intervention program for adolescents to raise understanding and improve attitudes toward older people. In Study 1, 46 focus groups were conducted, with participants (n = 211) drawn from older people, carers of older people, and adolescents to inform on issues related to the expression of respect to older people. The emergent themes were used to inform the design of the educational program delivered to adolescents and evaluated in Study 2. A total of 118 year-9 students were allocated to an ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita; Rizzuto, Laura; Gruner, Alan Source Type: research

Normative identity construction among women diagnosed with a gambling disorder.
Women with a gambling problem bear a negative social stigma. Based on the theory of symbolic interactionism, this study examined the construction of social identities by 17 Israeli women diagnosed with a gambling disorder. Interpretive interactionist analysis revealed how they construct their identity through correspondence with patterns of behavior that are perceived as normative, and identified 3 major themes: “I’m not actually a gambler” (the presentation of a multidimensional identity comprising other identities besides that of a gambler); “Staying normative during gambling”; and “I ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Peled, Einat; Ajzenstadt, Mimi Source Type: research

Childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among women on probation and parole.
The present analysis was guided by a gendered pathways-based theoretical model and examined relationships between childhood victimization and current attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among 406 women with histories of victimization who were on probation and parole in an urban Kentucky county. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use. Additionally, we examined the mediational role that attachment plays in relationships between childhood victimization and both psychological distress and substance use. The data ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Winham, Katherine M.; Engstrom, Malitta; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Higgins, George E.; Logan, TK Source Type: research

University students’ identification of stigmatizing schizophrenia in Italian newspapers.
Stigma associated with mental disorders represents one main obstacle to receive appropriate care for people with mental disorders. Compared to adults, university students have higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward patients with schizophrenia. The primary aim of this case-control study was to assess university students’ ability to identify stigma toward schizophrenia in Italian newspapers. Secondary aims were: a) to explore differences in stigmatizing attitudes among two different groups of university students (health professionals [HP] and nonhealth professionals [n-HP]) and b) to compare the attitudes of th...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pingani, Luca; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Catellani, Sara; Hamati, Arneda; Rigatelli, Marco; Fiorillo, Andrea Source Type: research

How people evaluate others with social anxiety disorder: A comparison to depression and general mental illness stigma.
Despite the availability of effective interventions, most individuals with social anxiety disorder do not seek treatment. Given their fear of negative evaluation, socially anxious individuals might be especially susceptible to stigma concerns, a recognized barrier for mental health treatment. However, very little is known about the stigma specific to social anxiety disorder. In a design similar to Feldman and Crandall (2007), university undergraduate students read vignettes about target individuals with a generic mental illness label, major depressive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Subjects rated each of 3 people i...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anderson, Kristin N.; Jeon, Andrew B.; Blenner, Jordan A.; Wiener, Richard L.; Hope, Debra A. Source Type: research

Examining the role of methamphetamine in permanency: A competing risks analysis of reunification, guardianship, and adoption.
This study sought to compare the impact of parental methamphetamine use to alcohol use, other drug use, and polysubstance use on the timing of 3 types of permanency: reunification, guardianship, and adoption. Using an entry cohort of 16,620 children who had entered foster care during a 5-year period, competing risks event history models were conducted for each permanency type. Findings showed that, after controlling for several case characteristics, parent illicit drug use significantly impacted the timing of the 3 types of permanency, but alcohol use did not. Methamphetamine, other drug, and polysubstance with methampheta...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Akin, Becci A.; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H. Source Type: research

Overcoming the educational disadvantages of poor children: How much do teacher preparation, workload, and expectations matter.
This article reviews data on aspects of the learning environment most closely associated with successful development of early academic competence, compares children from low socioeconomic backgrounds to children with higher socioeconomic status (SES) on access to academically auspicious environments, and uses the findings to identify promising targets for social innovations aimed at improving the educational prospects of poor children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 30, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Barbarin, Oscar A.; Aikens, Nikki Source Type: research

Positive aspects of being a heterosexual ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people.
Research on heterosexual allies has focused on heterosexual identity development models and pathways to ally activism. The positive aspects or positive experiences of identifying as an ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identified individuals and communities have received little attention. Using an online survey of participants recruited from LGBT ally related social media, we collected open-ended responses to a question about the positive aspects of self-identifying as a heterosexual ally. A final analytic sample of 292 self-identified male and female heterosexual adults (age 18–71, M = 33.47, SD...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rostosky, Sharon S.; Black, Whitney W.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.; Rosenkrantz, Dani Source Type: research

Developmental delays at arrival and postmenarcheal Chinese adolescents’ adjustment.
Internationally adopted (IA) children often have delays at adoption and undergo massive catch-up after adoption. Before achieving developmental catch-up, however, delays at adoption present a risk for IA children’s adjustment, but it remains unknown whether such delays foreshadow IA children’s outcomes after catch-up development has completed or ceased. In the current analysis, we utilized menarche as a practical marker to indicate the cessation of developmental catch-up. We investigated how delays at arrival predicted long-term outcomes in 132 postmenarcheal teens (M = 14.2 years, SD = 1.7) who were adopted fr...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tan, Tony X.; Rice, Jessica L.; Mahoney, E. Emily Source Type: research

Perceived benefits and proposed solutions for teen pregnancy: Qualitative interviews with youth care workers.
The purpose of this article is to examine youth care workers’ perceptions of the specific and unique sexual health needs of youth at risk for foster care. Semistructured interviews were conducted with youth care workers (N = 10) at a shelter for youth in or at risk for foster care. Youth care workers perceive that youth have unique experiences and needs related to sexual health programming and pregnancy prevention. Reflecting a great deal of family dysfunction, 3 themes emerged that revealed perceived benefits of teen pregnancy: youths’ effort to prove themselves as adults, opportunity to secure their relations...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Boustani, Maya Mroué; Frazier, Stacy L.; Hartley, Chelsey; Meinzer, Michael; Hedemann, Erin Source Type: research

Coping with war trauma and psychological distress among school-age Palestinian children.
This study investigated the long-term effects of the 2012 war on children’s psychological distress in Gaza Strip. It was hypothesized that a) greater levels of exposure to war trauma would be associated with greater behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms; b) children who rely more on problem-focused coping will manifest less behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms whereas children who rely more on emotion-focused coping will manifest higher levels of behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms; and c) certain children’s characteristic...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Khamis, Vivian Source Type: research

A multilevel analysis of the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and depressive symptoms: Evidence from the South African National Income Dynamics Study.
The apartheid regime that governed South Africa from 1948–1994 established spatial segregation that is understood to have contributed to the magnitude of neighborhood social disorder in the postapartheid era. Although a number of neighborhood social disorder characteristics, such as perceived violence and crime in the community, are prominent issues in South Africa, the extent to which these perceived spatial attributes are linked to depression is unknown at the population level. Multilevel modeling of data from the second wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was utilized to examine the ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K. Source Type: research

Understanding Bhutanese refugee suicide through the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior.
This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated w...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ellis, B. Heidi; Lankau, Emily W.; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A.; Miller, Alisa B.; Shetty, Sharmila; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Geltman, Paul L.; Cochran, Jennifer Source Type: research

Teaching with strengths in trauma-affected students: A new approach to healing and growth in the classroom.
The National Child Traumatic Stress Network in the United States reports that up to 40% of students have experienced, or been witness to, traumatic stressors in their short lifetimes. These include home destabilization, violence, neglect, sexual abuse, substance abuse, death, and other adverse childhood experiences. The effects of trauma on a child severely compound the ability to self-regulate and sustain healthy relationships. In the classroom, the effects of trauma may manifest as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiance disorder, reactive attachment, disinhibited social engageme...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brunzell, Tom; Waters, Lea; Stokes, Helen Source Type: research

Comments from the new editors.
This editorial provides comments from the new editors of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (AJO). In the previous issue of the journal, former editors highlighted some of the changes that have occurred over the last several years. AJO will continue its bimonthly production schedule in 2015. In the fall, however, AJO subscribers will receive two special issues that include The Community articles. Each issue will be organized around a theme. One issue will focus on the dramatic generational changes our society is experiencing. It will focus on the ways in which these changes manifest themselves in the mental health nee...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: McLeigh, Jill D.; Spaulding, William D. Source Type: research

Deep in the heart of Texas: A phenomenological exploration of unsheltered homelessness.
This study supports the use of nontraditional housing interventions and robust community-based approaches to care for individuals experiencing unsheltered homelessness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Petrovich, James C.; Cronley, Courtney C. Source Type: research

“I have lost everything”: Trade-offs of seeking safety from intimate partner violence.
A primary aim of mainstream domestic violence (DV) programs is to help survivors and their children achieve safety from intimate partner violence. That goal, however, is neither simple nor straightforward. Instead, research demonstrates that the very actions survivors take to achieve safety may trigger a wide range of negative consequences. Missing from this research, however, is a focus on survivors’ own perception, evaluation, and expectation of the costs surrounding their safety-seeking efforts. Using a mixed-methods design, this study explored safety-related trade-offs among a convenience sample of 301 female sur...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thomas, Kristie A.; Goodman, Lisa; Putnins, Susan Source Type: research

School-based service delivery for homeless students: Relevant laws and overcoming access barriers.
Schools in the United States are facing a record number of homeless students. These students are highly at-risk for experiencing negative life outcomes, and they face considerable academic and social-emotional functional impairments. To help address the complex needs of homeless students, this article reviews the intersection of laws and practices that impact homeless students, as well as contemporary school-based service delivery efforts to support the academic and social-emotional needs of these students. In addition, this article also reviews several barriers to school-based service delivery for homeless students and wa...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sulkowski, Michael L.; Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana K. Source Type: research

A conceptual framework for understanding the association between school bullying victimization and substance misuse.
This article reviews current research findings and presents a conceptual framework for better understanding the relationship between bullying victimization (hereafter referred to as victimization) and substance misuse (hereafter referred to as SM) among adolescents. Although victimization and SM may appear to be separate problems, research suggests an intriguing relationship between the 2. We present a brief, empirical overview of the direct association between victimization and adolescent SM, followed by a proposed conceptual framework that includes co-occurring risk factors for victimization and SM within family, peer, a...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hong, Jun Sung; Davis, Jordan P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Yoon, Jina; Choi, Shinwoo; Smith, Douglas C. Source Type: research