A Review of the Imaging Techniques for Measuring Kidney and Cyst Volume in Establishing Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Progression
Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the commonest inherited renal disorder; it is defined by progressive renal cyst formation and subsequent renal enlargement that leads to end-stage renal disease. Until recently, only symptomatic treatments for ADPKD existed. However, therapies that address the underlying pathophysiology of ADPKD are now available and accurate identification of the rate of disease progression is essential.Summary: Published data on the different imaging modalities for measuring kidney and cyst volumes in ADPKD are reviewed. The advantages and drawbacks of the different tech...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - August 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Use of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockers Increases Serum Potassium in Anuric Hemodialysis Patients
Conclusions: ACEi/ARB therapy is associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia in anuric hemodialysis patients. The proportion of patients with normal sK concentrations decreased from 82 to 29% and with mild hyperkalemia increased from 18 to 52%. Severe hyperkalemia necessitating the interruption of ACEi/ARB therapy developed in 19% of patients. This suggests great caution in the widest utilization of this class of drugs in HD patients.Am J Nephrol 2018;48:79 –86 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - August 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Total Kidney Volume and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Long-Standing Relationship.
PMID: 30071513 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - August 2, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Irazabal MV, Torres VE Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Effect of Anti-Hypertensive Medication History on Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation Outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: CCB use may be associated with a lower risk of overall AVF maturation failure. Further studies are needed to determine whether CCBs might play a causal role in improving AVF maturation outcomes. PMID: 30071516 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - August 2, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wang K, Zelnick LR, Imrey PB, deBoer IH, Himmelfarb J, Allon MD, Cheung AK, Dember LM, Roy-Chaudhury P, Vazquez MA, Kusek JW, Feldman HI, Beck GJ, Kestenbaum B, the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study Group Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

A Review of the Imaging Techniques for Measuring Kidney and Cyst Volume in Establishing Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Progression.
rra R Abstract BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the commonest inherited renal disorder; it is defined by progressive renal cyst formation and subsequent renal enlargement that leads to end-stage renal disease. Until recently, only symptomatic treatments for ADPKD existed. However, therapies that address the underlying pathophysiology of ADPKD are now available and accurate identification of the rate of disease progression is essential. SUMMARY: Published data on the different imaging modalities for measuring kidney and cyst volumes in ADPKD are reviewed. The advantages and d...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - August 2, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Magistroni R, Corsi C, Martí T, Torra R Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Use of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockers Increases Serum Potassium in Anuric Hemodialysis Patients.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are increasingly used in uremic patients (pts). However, their effect on serum potassium (sK) concentrations in anuric pts on chronic hemodialysis treatment (HD) is controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate sK before and after the start of ACEi/ARB therapy. METHODS: In the period 1/1/2015 - 31/12/2015, 112 out of 240 prevalent HD pts on thrice weekly HD treatment followed at our institution started the ACEi/ARB therapy. The mean age was 67 ± 14 years, 67/112 were men, dialysis vintage ...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - August 2, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Movilli E, Camerini C, Gaggia P, Zubani R, Cancarini G Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Cause-Specific Mortality in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Atrial Fibrillation
Conclusions: In a non-dialysis-dependent CKD population, the presence of AF was associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. These data suggest that patients with both CKD and AF are at high cardiovascular risk, and thus clinical practice (or trials) should aim at reducing the overall excess cardiovascular mortality (not stroke alone) in patients with AF and CKD.Am J Nephrol 2018;48:36 –45 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Renal Hypoxia: An Important Prognostic Marker in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the clinical feasibility of BOLD-MRI to evaluate renal oxygenation and cortex hypoxia aggravates with the decline of renal function, and cortex hypoxia was a prognostic marker in the progression of CKD.Am J Nephrol 2018;48:46 –55 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cause-Specific Mortality in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Atrial Fibrillation.
CONCLUSIONS: In a non-dialysis-dependent CKD population, the presence of AF was associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. These data suggest that patients with both CKD and AF are at high cardiovascular risk, and thus clinical practice (or trials) should aim at reducing the overall excess cardiovascular mortality (not stroke alone) in patients with AF and CKD. PMID: 30048961 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 26, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Airy M, Schold JD, Jolly SE, Arrigain S, Bansal N, Winkelmayer WC, Nally JV, Navaneethan SD Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Renal Hypoxia: An Important Prognostic Marker in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.
CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that the clinical feasibility of BOLD-MRI to evaluate renal oxygenation and cortex hypoxia aggravates with the decline of renal function, and cortex hypoxia was a prognostic marker in the progression of CKD. PMID: 30048964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 26, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhou H, Yang M, Jiang Z, Ding J, Di J, Cui L Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Beyond Hypertension and Cardio-Renal Syndrome: The Need to Acknowledge and Incorporate Renal Disease in Cardiac Electrophysiology Trials
Am J Nephrol 2018;48:32 –35 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Beyond Hypertension and Cardio-Renal Syndrome: The Need to Acknowledge and Incorporate Renal Disease in Cardiac Electrophysiology Trials.
PMID: 30032155 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Laffin LJ, Hofmann-Bowman MA Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 47, 2018
Am J Nephrol 2018;47:I –VI (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Serum Calcification Propensity and Fetuin-A: Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease in Kidney Transplant Recipients
Conclusions: Shortened T50, as well as reduced fetuin-A levels, ostensible promoters of vascular calcification, remained associated with greater risk for CVD outcomes, after adjustment for major CVD risk factors, measures of kidney function and damage, and KTR clinical characteristics and demographics, in a large, multiethnic cohort of long-term KTRs. Increased hsCRP was an effect modifier of these CVD risk associations.Am J Nephrol 2018;48:21 –31 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Serum Calcification Propensity and Fetuin-A: Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease in Kidney Transplant Recipients.
CONCLUSIONS: Shortened T50, as well as reduced fetuin-A levels, ostensible promoters of vascular calcification, remained associated with greater risk for CVD outcomes, after adjustment for major CVD risk factors, measures of kidney function and damage, and KTR clinical characteristics and demographics, in a large, multiethnic cohort of long-term KTRs. Increased hsCRP was an effect modifier of these CVD risk associations. PMID: 29996127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 11, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bostom A, Pasch A, Madsen T, Roberts MB, Franceschini N, Steubl D, Garimella PS, Ix JH, Tuttle KR, Ivanova A, Shireman T, Gohh R, Merhi B, Jarolim P, Kusek JW, Pfeffer MA, Liu S, Eaton CB Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Vascular Access Differences in Men and Women: Time to Solve the Problem?
Am J Nephrol 2018;48:1 –3 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gender and Racial Disparities in Initial Hemodialysis Access and Outcomes in Incident End-Stage Renal Disease Patients
Conclusion: Females had lower odds of using AV access than do males for hemodialysis initiation. As compared to whites, blacks and Asians were more likely, and Hispanics were less likely to use AV access for first outpatient hemodialysis. Further investigation of biological and process of care factors may help in developing ways to reduce these disparities.Am J Nephrol 2018;48:4 –14 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Re-Evaluation of Total CO < sub > 2 < /sub > Concentration in Apparently Healthy Younger Adults
The initial assessment of acid-base status is usually based on the measurement of total CO2 concentration ([TCO2]) in venous blood, a surrogate for [HCO3–]. Previously, we posited that the reference limits of serum [TCO2] in current use are too wide. Based on studies on the acid-base composition of normal subjects, we suggested that the reference limits of serum [TCO2] at sea level be set at 23 –30 mEq/L. To validate this proposal, we queried the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA’s) Integrated Clinical and Research Data Repository, a database containing information on 4.5 million patients seen...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Vascular Access Differences in Men and Women: Time to Solve the Problem?
PMID: 29990962 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 10, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Levin A Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Re-Evaluation of Total CO2 Concentration in Apparently Healthy Younger Adults.
Abstract The initial assessment of acid-base status is usually based on the measurement of total CO2 concentration ([TCO2]) in venous blood, a surrogate for [HCO3-]. Previously, we posited that the reference limits of serum [TCO2] in current use are too wide. Based on studies on the acid-base composition of normal subjects, we suggested that the reference limits of serum [TCO2] at sea level be set at 23-30 mEq/L. To validate this proposal, we queried the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA's) Integrated Clinical and Research Data Repository, a database containing information on 4.5 million patients seen ...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 10, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kraut JA, Lew V, Madias NE Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Gender and Racial Disparities in Initial Hemodialysis Access and Outcomes in Incident End-Stage Renal Disease Patients.
CONCLUSION: Females had lower odds of using AV access than do males for hemodialysis initiation. As compared to whites, blacks and Asians were more likely, and Hispanics were less likely to use AV access for first outpatient hemodialysis. Further investigation of biological and process of care factors may help in developing ways to reduce these disparities. PMID: 29990994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - July 10, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shah S, Leonard AC, Meganathan K, Christianson AL, Thakar CV Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Erratum
Am J Nephrol 2018;47:450 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Can Emergency Department Visits for Adverse Drug Reactions in Dialysis Patients be Reduced?
Am J Nephrol 2018;47:435 –437 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Iatrogenesis Imperfecta Medicamentosa: Adverse Drug Events in Dialysis Patients are Associated with Higher Resource Utilization and Mortality
Am J Nephrol 2018;47:438 –440 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

National Trends in Emergency Room Visits of Dialysis Patients for Adverse Drug Reactions
Conclusions: ED visits for ADEs are substantially higher in dialysis patients than non-dialysis patients. In dialysis patients, ADEs associated with agents primarily affecting blood constituents are on the rise. ED visits for ADEs in dialysis patients have higher inpatient admissions and in-hospital mortality. Further studies are needed to identify and implement measures aimed at reducing ADEs in dialysis patients.Am J Nephrol 2018;47:441 –449 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Can Emergency Department Visits for Adverse Drug Reactions in Dialysis Patients be Reduced?
PMID: 29895004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 12, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Doshi S, Wish JB Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

National Trends in Emergency Room Visits of Dialysis Patients for Adverse Drug Reactions.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Various medications are cleared by the kidneys, therefore patients with impaired renal function, especially dialysis patients are at risk for adverse drug events (ADEs). There are limited studies on ADEs in maintenance dialysis patients. METHODS: We utilized a nationally representative database, the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, from 2008 to 2013, to compare emergency department (ED) visits for dialysis and propensity matched non-dialysis patients. Log binomial regression was used to calculate relative risk of hospital admission and logistic regression to calculate ORs for in-ho...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 12, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Chan L, Saha A, Poojary P, Chauhan K, Naik N, Coca S, Garimella PS, Nadkarni GN Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Iatrogenesis Imperfecta Medicamentosa: Adverse Drug Events in Dialysis Patients are Associated with Higher Resource Utilization and Mortality.
PMID: 29895031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 12, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Blum D, Chan CT Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Dialysate Potassium and Mortality in a Prospective Hemodialysis Cohort
Conclusion: Low (1 mEq/L) dialysate potassium ­concentrations were associated with higher mortality, particularly in hemodialysis patients with high pre-dialysis serum potassium. Further studies are needed to identify therapeutic strategies that mitigate inter-dialytic serum potassium accumulation and subsequent high dialysate serum potassium gradients in this population.Am J Nephrol 2018;47:415 –423 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Recognizing Downstream Consequences of Acute Kidney Injury
Am J Nephrol 2018;47:424 –426 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury before Dialysis Initiation Predicts Adverse Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients
Conclusion: An AKI event prior to initiating hemodialysis independently increases the risk of CVC use and predicts 1-year mortality. Improving processes of care after AKI events may improve dialysis outcomes in patients who progress to ESRD.Am J Nephrol 2018;47:427 –434 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dialysate Potassium and Mortality in a Prospective Hemodialysis Cohort.
We examined the association of dialysate potassium concentration, categorized as 1, 2, and 3 mEq/L, with all-cause mortality risk in the -overall cohort, and stratified by pre-dialysis serum potassium (
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ferrey A, You AS, Kovesdy CP, Nakata T, Veliz M, Nguyen DV, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Rhee CM Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Recognizing Downstream Consequences of Acute Kidney Injury.
PMID: 29879715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yessayan L, Heung M Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury before Dialysis Initiation Predicts Adverse Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients.
We examined the impact of pre-ESRD AKI events in the 2-year pre-ESRD period on the type of vascular access used at hemodialysis initiation (central venous catheter (CVC) versus arteriovenous access), and 1-year all-cause mortality after initiating hemodialysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 72 ± 11 years. Of the study cohort, 18% initiated hemodialysis with arteriovenous access, and 54% of patients had at least one pre-ESRD AKI event. One-year, all-cause mortality was 32%. Compared to 75% for patients without a pre-ESRD AKI event, 89% of patients with a pre-ESRD AKI event initiated hemodialysis with CVC than arteriovenous access (p
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lee T, Shah S, Leonard AC, Parikh P, Thakar CV Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Corticosteroid for IgA Nephropathy: Are They Really Therapeutic?
Conclusion: This study provides the clear beneficial effects of the steroids therapy on the kidney function and proteinuria, although it should be used with caution.Am J Nephrol 2018;47:385 –394 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 with Death and Atherosclerotic Events in Chronic Kidney Disease
Conclusions: Although plasma MCP-1 increased with decreased eGFR, it remained an independent risk factor for death in CKD. MCP-1 did not correlate with intermediate CV outcomes, implicating pathways other than atherosclerosis in the association of MCP-1 with death in CKD.Am J Nephrol 2018;47:395 –405 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ferric Citrate Decreases Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Improves Erythropoietin Responsiveness in Hemodialysis Patients
Conclusion: In patients on hemodialysis, 24-week treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reduction in FGF23 and ERI independently of serum phosphate level.Am J Nephrol 2018;47:406 –414 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Corticosteroid for IgA Nephropathy: Are They Really Therapeutic?
Abstract BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common chronic glomerular disease that, in most patients, slowly progresses to end-stage kidney disease. The therapy with corticosteroid in IgAN is still a worldwide problem that is confusing the clinicians. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and article reference lists were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared corticosteroids with placebo and any other non-immunosuppressive agents in treating IgAN. Twelve RCTs involving 1,057 patients were included. RESULTS: Overall, we found that steroids had statistically significa...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 6, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lin Y, Jia J, Guo Y, He D, Zhang Y, Wang F, Yan T, Liu Y, Lin S Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Ferric Citrate Decreases Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Improves Erythropoietin Responsiveness in Hemodialysis Patients.
CONCLUSION: In patients on hemodialysis, 24-week treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reduction in FGF23 and ERI independently of serum phosphate level. PMID: 29874654 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 6, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Maruyama N, Otsuki T, Yoshida Y, Nagura C, Kitai M, Shibahara N, Tomita H, Maruyama T, Abe M Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Association of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 with Death and Atherosclerotic Events in Chronic Kidney Disease.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 -(MCP-1), a marker of inflammation and monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic plaques, is associated with cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Although plasma levels are elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD), associations with reduced kidney function or outcomes in CKD have not been explored. METHODS: In this population-based, probability-sampled, longitudinal cohort of 3,257 participants, including 286 (8.8%) patients with CKD, we studied the association of plasma MCP-1 with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGF...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 6, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gregg LP, Tio MC, Li X, Adams-Huet B, de Lemos JA, Hedayati SS Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

PRELIMS: Proteinuria in Nephrotic Syndrome: Mechanistic and Clinical Considerations in Optimizing Management.
Authors: PMID: 29860245 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

PRELIMS: Proteinuria in Nephrotic Syndrome: Mechanistic and Clinical Considerations in Optimizing Management
Am J Nephrol 2018;47(suppl 1):I –IV (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - June 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Proteinuria in Nephrotic Syndrome: Mechanistic and Clinical Considerations in Optimizing Management
Am J Nephrol 2018;47(suppl 1):1 –2 (Source: American Journal of Nephrology)
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - May 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Review of Podocyte Biology
Background: Podocyte biology is a developing science that promises to help improve understanding of the mechanistic nature of multiple diseases associated with proteinuria. Proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome has been linked to mechanistic dysfunctions in the renal glomerulus involving the function of podocyte epithelial cells, including podocyte foot process effacement.Summary: Developments in imaging technology are improving knowledge of the detailed structure of the human renal glomerulus and cortex. Podocyte foot processes attach themselves to the glomerular capillaries at the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) forming i...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - May 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Protecting Podocytes: A Key Target for Therapy of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
Background: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a histologic pattern of injury demonstrated by renal biopsy that can arise from a diverse range of causes and mechanisms. It has an estimated incidence of 7 per 1 million and is the most common primary glomerular disorder leading to end-stage renal disease in the United States. This review focuses on damage to the podocyte and the consequences of this injury in patients with FSGS, the genetics of FSGS, and approaches to treatment with a focus on the effects on podocytes.Summary: The podocyte is central to the glomerular filtration barrier and is particularly vulnerab...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - May 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Membranous Nephropathy: Approaches to Treatment
Background: Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. This review focuses on mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of MN and approaches to treatment of this disease.Summary: Our understanding of the pathogenesis of primary MN has advanced greatly with the identification of M-type phospholipase A2 receptor and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A as target antigens whose antibodies serve as biomarkers of this disease. Additional research, including investigations into the roles of complement and melanocortin receptors on the podocyte, may further improve our understanding of how ...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - May 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy: Advances in Understanding of Pathogenesis and Treatment
Background: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis and has clinical associations with a wide range of inflammatory and infectious diseases. There is a substantial variation in clinical course and outcomes, with many patients not diagnosed until they present with sequelae, which may include gross hematuria, hypertension, renal insufficiency, and/or significant proteinuria. Treatment options are currently limited and directed mainly toward control of these sequelae and have limited ability to reduce the incidence of end-stage renal disease or treat the primary IgA defect.Summ...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - May 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Membranous Nephropathy: Approaches to Treatment.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. This review focuses on mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of MN and approaches to treatment of this disease. SUMMARY: Our understanding of the pathogenesis of primary MN has advanced greatly with the identification of M-type phospholipase A2 receptor and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A as target antigens whose antibodies serve as biomarkers of this disease. Additional research, including investigations into the roles of complement and melanocortin receptors on the podocyte, may further improve o...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - May 31, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bomback AS, Fervenza FC Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

A Review of Podocyte Biology.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Podocyte biology is a developing science that promises to help improve understanding of the mechanistic nature of multiple diseases associated with proteinuria. Proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome has been linked to mechanistic dysfunctions in the renal glomerulus involving the function of podocyte epithelial cells, including podocyte foot process effacement. SUMMARY: Developments in imaging technology are improving knowledge of the detailed structure of the human renal glomerulus and cortex. Podocyte foot processes attach themselves to the glomerular capillaries at the glomerular basement ...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - May 31, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Garg P Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research

Protecting Podocytes: A Key Target for Therapy of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a histologic pattern of injury demonstrated by renal biopsy that can arise from a diverse range of causes and mechanisms. It has an estimated incidence of 7 per 1 million and is the most common primary glomerular disorder leading to end-stage renal disease in the United States. This review focuses on damage to the podocyte and the consequences of this injury in patients with FSGS, the genetics of FSGS, and approaches to treatment with a focus on the effects on podocytes. SUMMARY: The podocyte is central to the glomerular filtration barrier and ...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - May 31, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Campbell KN, Tumlin JA Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research