Characteristics of nursing homes with comprehensive antibiotic stewardship programs: Results of a national survey
ConclusionsNH ASPs are becoming more comprehensive. Infection control training and partnerships with QIN-QIOs can support NHs to increase ASP comprehensiveness. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Table of Contents
Publication date: September 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 9Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: September 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 9Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

APIC Masthead
Publication date: September 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 9Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Information for Readers
Publication date: September 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 9Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Information for Authors
Publication date: September 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 9Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

APIC Awards: Recognition for Those Advancing Infection Prevention
Publication date: September 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 9Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mortality in mechanically ventilated ICU patients
ConclusionsThis study did not identify a relationship between the resistance profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mortality. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A scoping review to assess the impact of public education campaigns to affect behavior change pertaining to antimicrobial resistance
ConclusionsThe existing body of research fails to provide robust evidence to support sound evidential interventions supported by theoretical justifications. Furthermore, interventions to ensure long-term sustained behavior change are unclear and not addressed. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Efficacy of a novel ultraviolet light-emitting diode device for decontamination of shared pens in a health care setting
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Erica Emig, Heba Alhmidi, Yilen K. Ng-Wong, Thriveen S.C. Mana, Jennifer L. Cadnum, Curtis J. DonskeyShared pens and styluses are a potential source for transmission of health care–associated pathogens and respiratory viruses in health care facilities. A novel ultraviolet light-emitting diode device was effective in reducing bacteria and viruses inoculated on pens and in reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transferred to pens by colonized patients. The device could be useful in reducing the risk o...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Addressing the threat from within: Investigation of respiratory symptoms in a health care worker with untreated latent tuberculosis infection
We describe a pediatric intensive care unit nurse with latent TB infection who developed hemoptysis and a lung infiltrate concerning for active TB. Her evaluation and contact investigation were facilitated by our institution's command center. Although TB was ultimately ruled out, this case tested our team-based care in response to a suspected high-consequence pathogen. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Does systemic antibiotic prophylaxis prior to the placement of totally implantable venous access devices reduce early infection? A retrospective study of 1,485 cases at a large academic institution
ConclusionsEnding the practice of administrating systemic antibiotic prophylaxis prior to the placement of TIVADs had no effect on the 30-day bloodstream infection–related TIVAD removals rate at our institution. We do not recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics for the placement of TIVAD. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Recovery of Curvularia mold from a duodenoscope after reprocessing in accordance with the manufacturer's cleaning protocol
We describe the recovery of the mold Curvularia from a duodenoscope processed according to the manufacturer's instructions using this revised sampling process. To our knowledge, this is the first time a mold has been recovered from a duodenoscope after following the Food and Drug Administration/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention protocol. This suggests that manufacturer's recommendation for scope reprocessing may be insufficient to adequately remove mold from these scopes. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

‘‘Methods for microbial needleless connector decontamination: A systematic review and meta-analysis” – Interpret results with caution
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Ludwig Serge Aho Glélé, Adrien Guilloteau, Karine Astruc, Yolene Carre, Pascal Chaize, Olivia Keita-Perse, Yves Lurton, Didier Lepelletier (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A retrospective review of treatment and outcomes in a long-term acute care hospital
ConclusionsIn this retrospective analysis of our clinical experience treating CRE infections in an LTACH setting, we documented that CRE infections occur in patients with substantial comorbidities. Although clinical outcome remains of great concern, the 28-day mortality and rate of eradication of CRE in this study were comparatively better than other national estimates. Inappropriate empiric treatment may be one of many factors leading to overall poor treatment outcomes. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk factors for influenza B virus–associated pneumonia in adults
ConclusionsThis study suggests that chronic respiratory diseases and shortness of breath are independent risk factors for influenza B virus–associated pneumonia in adult patients. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

EXPO-S.T.O.P. 2016 and 2017 blood exposure surveys: An alarming rise
ConclusionsThere is an urgent need for aggressive SI-reduction strategies, including leadership support, safety-engineered devices (SED) training/education, and adoption of safer, less user-dependent SED. Further research on SI mechanisms, SED effectiveness, and reduction strategies is required. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Instillation of disinfectant behind a temporary obstruction created by an inflated urinary catheter balloon improves sink drain disinfection
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Lucas D. Jones, Thriveen S.C. Mana, Jennifer L. Cadnum, Annette L. Jencson, Heba Alhmidi, Sandra Y. Silva, Brigid M. Wilson, Curtis J. Donskey (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis prescribing practices and impact on infection risk: Results from a multicenter surveillance study in Italy (2012-2017)
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that appropriate narrow-spectrum agents could be more effective than BSAs in preventing SSIs. Interventions to improve SAP compliance with guidelines could significantly contribute to reducing antimicrobial resistance by reducing SSIs and promoting more prudent use of antimicrobials. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The importance of sampling technique and rinse water for assessing flexible gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing: A 3-year study covering 59 centers
ConclusionsThe problem of residual microorganisms of the postreprocessing endoscope was severe. Sampling technique and final rinse water were critical for endoscope reprocessing verification.Graphical abstract (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Incidence of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
ConclusionsThe prevalence of CR-Ab increased in the investigated hospital, passing to an endemic pathogen with a direct impact on mortality and the control of these strains. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

You get back what you give: Decreased hospital infections with improvement in CHG bathing, a mathematical modeling and cost analysis
ConclusionsAs CHG bathing compliance increases, yearly HAIs decrease, and the overall cost associated with the HAIs also decreases. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Microbiology and prevalence of E2SKAPE-resistant strains in catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with cancer
ConclusionsMRSA, ESBL E. coli and ESBL Klebsiella spp were significantly more frequently isolated from hospitalized patients with CRBSI. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk factors for central line–associated bloodstream infections in children with tunneled central venous catheters
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Paolo Paioni, Sereina Kuhn, Yvonne Strässle, Burkhardt Seifert, Christoph BergerBackgroundCentral line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most common complications of central venous catheters (CVCs). The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology of CLABSIs in tunneled CVCs and analyze their risk factors in a general pediatric population.MethodsChildren with a tunneled CVC inserted at the University Children's Hospital Zürich between January 2009 and December 2015 were eligib...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Validation of a carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization risk prediction model: A retrospective cohort study in Korean intensive care units
ConclusionsThe CREP-model showed good performance in the validation sample; therefore, we recommend introducing the CREP-model into intensive care units of tertiary hospitals to improve decision-making. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Regional differences in temporal incidence of Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
This study aimed to determine temporal trends in the incidence of C difficile infection across geographic regions.MethodsAn initial search of the relevant literature was conducted from date inception to October 2018 without language restriction. We estimated the pooled incidences using logit transformation, weighted by inverse variance. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis Program was used to explore its temporal trend.ResultsGlobally, the estimated incidence of C difficile infection increased from 6.60 per 10,000 patient-days in 1997 to 13.8 per 10,000 patient-days in 2004. Thereafter, a significant downward trend was observ...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Tales from the auditors: What we learned from endoscope auditing
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Rebecca Washburn, Eman Chami, Abigail Keskimaki, Patricia StarrEndoscope auditing is unique from other types of auditing normally completed as part of ongoing quality initiatives. When auditors walk into an endoscopy processing area, they are confronted with a variety of complex processes generally packed into a small space. Auditors are challenged to become experts on the processes they are evaluating, and must stay current with changes in practice and equipment. In our 10 years of endoscope processing assessments compl...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Exploring the role of infection preventionists in antimicrobial stewardship programs through several lenses: A brief report
This study explored perceptions of the role of infection preventionists (IPs) in antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) among IPs, pharmacists, infectious diseases physicians, and hospital executives. Expert telephone interviews, using a validated survey tool, were conducted from November 1, 2016 to December 12, 2016 (n = 28). Participants with clinical responsibilities reported modest expectations of the IP in ASPs. Competing IP job responsibilities and limited ASP role clarity were cited as common barriers to IP engagement. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk of infection in patients undergoing urologic surgery based on the presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria: A prospective study
ConclusionsThere was no association between ASB and postoperative infectious complications. There were other factors associated with infectious complications, such as urologic cancer, previous history of urologic manipulation, and antibiotic use. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - August 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Moving beyond hand hygiene monitoring as a marker of infection prevention performance: Development of a tailored infection control continuous quality improvement tool
ConclusionsHand hygiene compliance monitoring alone misses other important aspects of infection control compliance. A continuous quality improvement tool was developed reflecting specific organizational needs that could be transferred or adapted to other organizations. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs in the operating theater
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Yonatan Ilibman Arzi, Marc V. Assous, Kashat Livnat, Amos M. Yinnon, Yonit Wiener-WellBackgroundMeasures for the prevention of postsurgical infections include issuing special scrubs for the operating room (OR) and prohibiting walking out of the OR complex wearing these scrubs. The aim of this study was to provide further data on bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs.MethodsSpecimens were collected at the entrance to the OR from surgical scrubs worn by surgeons. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding the tim...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prophylactic antibiotics prior to dental procedures: A cross-disciplinary survey of dentists and medical providers
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Morgan McCarthy, Rebecca Andrews, David B. BanachThe prescription of prophylactic antibiotics prior to dental procedures is common, although factors influencing prescribing are poorly understood. We surveyed general and specialist medical providers and dentists on beliefs and attitudes regarding prophylactic antibiotic prescribing prior to dental procedures. There were significant differences in factors influencing decisions and perceived responsibility regarding prophylactic antibiotic prescribing between groups, althoug...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A systematic risk-based strategy to select personal protective equipment for infectious diseases
ConclusionsParticipation, documentation, and transparency are necessary to ensure the decisions can be communicated, critiqued, and understood by HCP. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The impact of automatic video auditing with real-time feedback on the quality and quantity of handwash events in a hospital setting
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Gerard Lacey, Jiang Zhou, Xuchun Li, Christine Craven, Chris GushBackgroundPoor quality handwashing contributes to the spread of nosocomial infections. We investigate the impact of automatic video auditing (AVA) with feedback on the quality and quantity of handwashing in a hospital setting.MethodsAVA systems were mounted over all handwash sinks in a surgical unit. Phase 1 established baseline handwashing quality and quantity. Phase 2 examined the impact of real-time performance feedback, and phase 3 examined the increment...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clostridioides difficile nurse driven protocol: A cautionary tale
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Ariana Kavazovic, Michele S. Fleming, Shelley Knowlson, Michelle Doll, Kaila D. Cooper, Robin R. Hemphill, Rachel J. Pryor, Emily J. Godbout, Michael P. Stevens, Gonzalo BearmanIn a 12-month study, a nurse driven protocol was implemented at a tertiary academic medical center. The purpose of the nurse driven protocol was to identify community-onset Clostridioides difficile infections, expeditiously isolate patients with presumed C difficile diarrheal illness, and prevent transmission while simultaneously decreasing the inc...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Incidence of health care–associated extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive patients before and after discontinuation of contact precautions
ConclusionsThis study found that discontinuing the use of contact precautions for patients colonized or infected with ESBL-positive organisms did not lead to an increased rate of health care–associated ESBL-positive infections or colonization. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Bronchoscope-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa pseudo-outbreak attributed to contaminated rinse water
ConclusionsWe report a pseudo-outbreak of P aeruginosa associated with bronchoscope, for which connecting tube was the hidden reservoir for contaminating bronchoscopes. This highlights that effective measures are needed to control the bacterial load in final rinsing water to protect reusable equipment from contamination in reprocessing and cleaning. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Intermittent occurrence of health care–onset influenza cases in a tertiary care facility during the 2017-2018 flu season
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Werner Bischoff, Mark Petraglia, Christopher McLouth, James Viviano, Tammy Bischoff, Elizabeth PalavecinoHealth care–onset influenza (HOI) poses a major risk for hospitalized patients. During the 2017-2018 season, 37 HOI cases out of 382 inpatients (9.7%) with influenza were detected in a tertiary care hospital. HOI and community-onset influenza cases peaked simultaneously, and employee absenteeism was delayed by 1 month. A HOI to community-onset influenza case-comparison revealed associations with placement in reha...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Discourse on hygiene between hospitalized patients and health care workers as an accepted norm: Making it legitimate to remind health care workers about hand hygiene
ConclusionsTo overcome HP and HCW barriers to maintaining HH, tailored video clips on HH should specify barriers and solutions with which they can both identify, thus turning discourse on HH into an accepted norm. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Table of Contents
Publication date: August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 8Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 8Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

APIC Masthead
Publication date: August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 8Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Information for Readers
Publication date: August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 8Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Information for Authors
Publication date: August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 8Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Meet us in St. Louis! APIC's Inaugural Applied Learning Conference October 26–27, 2019
Publication date: August 2019Source: American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 47, Issue 8Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Microbial colonization of intravascular catheter connectors in hospitalized patients
ConclusionsBacterial colonization of the lever lock system was unacceptably high among all catheter types and hospital locations. Transition to luer lock catheter connectors and alcohol port protectors decreased the colonization; however, colonization still remained substantial. Causation of colonization cannot be determined with these results. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Investigation of an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia infection caused by drug contamination in a tertiary hospital in China
ConclusionsOur investigation revealed that the outbreak of B cepacia infection was caused by drug contamination. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A call for improved occupational surveillance for measles in the United States
Publication date: Available online 23 July 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Christopher K. Brown (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Assessing sustainability of hand hygiene adherence 5 years after a contest-based intervention in 3 Japanese hospitals
Publication date: Available online 23 July 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Tomoko Sakihama, Naomi Kayauchi, Toru Kamiya, Sanjay Saint, Karen E. Fowler, David Ratz, Yumiko Sato, Ritsuko Iuchi, Hitoshi Honda, Yasuharu TokudaAbstractBackgroundOur goal was to evaluate the 5-year sustainability of a multimodal intervention that included a prize to the hospital with the highest overall hand hygiene adherence rates among health care workers.MethodsWe conducted an observational study in 3 Japanese tertiary care hospitals using unobtrusive direct observation of physician and nurse hand hygiene adherence....
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The challenges of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in China
Publication date: Available online 23 July 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Jiancong Wang (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - July 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research