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Impact of Staging With Positron-emission Tomography (PET) and Comorbidities on Management and Survival of American Veterans With Stage I-III Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer
Conclusions: PET scans resulted in upstaging in 15% in CS I-III NSCLC. AAC scores dictated therapy decisions and outcomes more than PET staging. Veterans had lower 5-year survival rates (26.3%, 15.8%/13.4%) compared with 53% and 27% in age/sex/time-period matched SEER data for stage I-II/III NSCLC. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Thoracic Source Type: research

Patient-reported Adherence to Adjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy Using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale: An Evaluation of Predictors
Conclusions: Using the MMAS, only 50% of women with stage 1 to 3 breast cancer reported high adherence to AI therapy, consistent with other reports showing suboptimal adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy. The MMAS allows for the rapid assessment of adherence to oral adjuvant endocrine therapy and is valuable in a busy clinical setting. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Breast Source Type: research

A Pooled Analysis of Biochemical Failure in Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer Following Definitive Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) or High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-B) Monotherapy
Conclusions: With a median follow-up period of 4 years, SBRT and HDR-B monotherapy provide excellent BRFS in intermediate-risk PC. Longer-term follow-up is necessary to determine the ultimate efficacy of these hypofractionated approaches, but they appear promising relative to standard fractionation outcomes. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Genitourinary Source Type: research

Targeted Prostate Biopsy Gleason Score Heterogeneity and Implications for Risk Stratification
Conclusions: Over half of multiparametric MRI-defined targets demonstrated GS heterogeneity. The addition of high GS from TB leads to risk inflation compared with using SB alone. Further research is needed on how to integrate these findings into current risk stratification models and clinical practice. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Genitourinary Source Type: research

Vulvar Recurrences After Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus
Conclusions: In a cohort of patients treated with IMRT-based chemoradiation, 2 vulvar recurrences were identified within the avoided external genitalia despite limited recurrence rates within the cohort overall. This experience suggests that for patients with a locally advanced primary tumor and bulky bilateral inguinal or pelvic disease, the in-transit vulvar dermal lymphatics may be at risk for subclinical involvement and subsequent recurrence. If substantiated by a similar pattern of recurrence at other institutions, the external genitalia may need to be reclassified from an avoidance structure to a clinical treatment...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research

Comparison of Demographics, Tumor Characteristics, and Survival Between Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Population-based Study
Conclusions: PNETs present with favorable features such as higher proportion of early-stage tumor, higher proportion of well differentiated tumors, and younger age at diagnosis. PNETs have a significantly better survival than pancreatic adenocarcinomas even after adjusting for age, sex, race, site, grade, and stage. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research

Perioperative Mortality in Nonelderly Adult Patients With Cancer: A Population-based Study Evaluating Health Care Disparities in the United States According to Insurance Status
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether insurance status predicts for perioperative mortality (death within 30 d of cancer-directed surgery) for the 20 most common surgically treated cancers. Methods: The SEER database was examined for the 20 most common surgically resected cancers and included nonelderly adults, aged 18 to 64 years. The database was queried from 2007 to 2011, with a total of 506,722 patients included in the analysis. Results: Insurance status for all patients were the following: non-Medicaid insurance (83%), any Medicaid (10%), uninsured (4%), and unknown (3%). In univariate ...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Health Services Source Type: research

Disparity in Outcomes for Adolescent and Young Adult Patients Diagnosed With Pediatric Solid Tumors Across 4 Decades
Objective: Cancer mortality is a leading cause of disease-related death in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population. Compared with older and younger patients, AYA patients often experience worse cancer-specific outcomes. Here, we compare AYA and pediatric overall survival (OS) in the most common pediatric extracranial solid tumors. Materials and Methods: Using the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we studied patients (age, 0 to 39 y) diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Wilms tumor. Results: A total of 12,375 patients (age, 0 to 39 y) were di...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Pediatric Source Type: research

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors: A Single Institution’s Experience Using Combined Surgery and Radiation Therapy
Conclusions: Combination therapy with surgery and RT provides favorable LC. Distant recurrences, however, continue to be challenging with limited salvage success at the time of relapse. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Soft Tissue Source Type: research

Secondary Surgery Versus Chemotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Cancer
Objective: The best course of treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer is uncertain. We sought to determine whether secondary cytoreductive surgery for first recurrence of ovarian cancer improves overall survival compared with other treatments. Materials and Methods: We assessed survival using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data for advanced stage ovarian cancer cases diagnosed from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2007 with survival data through 2010 using multinomial propensity weighted finite mixture survival regression models to distinguish true from misclassified recurrences. Of 35,995 women age...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gynecologic Source Type: research

Utilization of Postoperative Chemoradiotherapy Among Women in the United States With High-risk Cervical Cancer
Conclusions: Despite level I evidence supporting its use, less than half of women in this large US cohort with high-risk cervical cancer received adjuvant CRT. Use of adjuvant CRT for women did not significantly increase between 2002 and 2012. Patient age, race, and pathologic risk factors were associated with use of adjuvant CRT. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gynecologic Source Type: research

Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Outcomes With Variable Adherence to Treatment
Conclusions: Adherence to both optimal treatment time and radiation dose is significantly associated with improved survival. Total radiation dose is an independent predictor of survival among patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gynecologic Source Type: research

Phase I Trial Using Induction Ciplatin, Docetaxel, 5-FU and Erlotinib Followed by Cisplatin, Bevacizumab and Erlotinib With Concurrent Radiotherapy for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer
Conclusions: Erlotinib in combination with induction TPF followed by erlotinib, cisplatin, and bevacizumab with XRT is active but toxic. Gastrointestinal toxicities partly caused high rates of study withdrawal. All doses studied in this protocol caused unexpected toxicities and we do not recommend advancement to phase II. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Head and Neck Source Type: research

Retrospective Analysis of Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer Receiving Outpatient Treatment With Concurrent High-dose Cisplatin and Radiotherapy
Objectives: Cisplatin remains the pivotal chemotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), with nephrotoxicity considered the dose-limiting toxicity. The purpose of our study was to propose an outpatient high-dose cisplatin protocol aimed at preventing nephrotoxicity and to analyze the results of its utilization in patients with SCCHN treated with concurrent radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 82 SCCHN patients treated with outpatient high-dose cisplatin concurrent with radiotherapy at our institution. Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease were defined ...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Head and Neck Source Type: research

Survival of Patients With Multiple Intracranial Metastases Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Does the Number of Tumors Matter?
Background: Defining prognostic factors is a crucial initial step for determining the management of patients with brain metastases. Randomized trials assessing radiosurgery have commonly limited inclusion criteria to 1 to 4 brain metastases, in part due to multiple retrospective studies reporting on the number of brain metastases as a prognostic indicator. The present study reports on the survival of patients with 1 to 4 versus ≥5 brain metastases treated with radiosurgery. Methods: We evaluated a retrospective multi-institutional database of 1523 brain metastases in 507 patients who were treated with radiosurgery ...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Central Nervous System Source Type: research

Thyroid Paraganglioma: Our Experience and Systematic Review of the Literature on a Rare Tumor
We describe 2 cases of thyroid PG, suggest a possible diagnostic and therapeutic management strategy, and present a systematic review of the literature. Case Reports: Two 67-year-old women presented similarly with asymptomatic but rapidly growing thyroid nodules in which malignancy was suspected after fine needle aspiration biopsy, “THY 4” according to the 2014 SIAPEC classification, both undergoing total thyroidectomy. Unexpectedly, immunohistochemistry showed neuroendocrine cellular architecture that was negative for common markers of well-differentiated follicular neoplasms, thyroglobulin, thyroid transcr...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Endocrine Source Type: research

Impact of Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation on Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Toxicities
Objectives: Freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) is a common primary outcome of randomized-controlled trials of prostate cancer (PCa). We aimed to determine how increasing the PCa biologically equivalent dose (BED) of external radiation therapy (RT) is correlated with FFBF and overall patient outcomes: overall survival (OS), distant metastasis (DM), and cancer-specific mortality (CSM); as well as genitourinary (GU), and gastrointestinal toxicities. Materials and Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of 6884 PCa patients from 12 randomized-controlled trials of external beam RT. Mixed effects regression models were u...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Genitourinary Source Type: research

Age Bias in Time From Diagnosis Comparisons of Prostate Cancer Treatment
Conclusions: The survival benefit apparent to prostatectomy in conventional observational cohort studies could reflect an age-related bias attributable to their use of TFD analysis. Care is warranted in the choice of timescale in observational analysis if large age differences exist between treatment cohorts. Randomized controlled trials remain the most reliable means to compare prostate cancer treatments. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Genitourinary Source Type: research

Utility of the ACE Inhibitor Captopril in Mitigating Radiation-associated Pulmonary Toxicity in Lung Cancer: Results From NRG Oncology RTOG 0123
Conclusions: Despite significant resources and multiple amendments, NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0123 was unable to test the hypothesis that captopril mitigates radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity. It did show the safety of such an approach and the use of newer angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors started during radiotherapy may solve the accrual problems. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Thoracic Source Type: research

Analysis of the Relationship Between Response to Chemotherapy and Response to Radiation Therapy in Patients With Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Sequential Treatment
Conclusions: This study suggests that response to chemotherapy does not predict response to radiotherapy in locally advanced or oligometastatic non–small cell lung cancer. Lack of response to chemotherapy, therefore, should not preclude treatment with definitive radiotherapy. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Thoracic Source Type: research

EGFR Exon 19 Deletion is Associated With Favorable Overall Survival After First-line Gefitinib Therapy in Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients
Objectives: Exon 19 deletion and L858R mutation in exon 21 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are both common mutations that predict a good response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the existence of clinically significant difference in sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors among different EGFR mutation subtypes is still a matter of debate. Materials and Methods: The outcome of 60 EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC patients who received first-line gefitinib therapy (250 mg/d) was retrospectively analyzed according to EGFR mutation subtypes....
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Thoracic Source Type: research

Chemotherapy is of Value in Second Line and Beyond, Relapsed High-grade, Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: An Analysis of Outcomes Obtained With Oral Etoposide
Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer is chemotherapy responsive, and multiple lines of chemotherapy are often given. However, there are few data with regard to its effectiveness in later lines. Our aim was to assess its benefit in the high-grade, serous subtype relative to the line of therapy, using etoposide as the example. Methods: Women treated with oral etoposide at the British Columbia Cancer Agency upon recurrence/progression in the years 2000 to 2010 were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to correlate line of therapy with overall survival, progression-free survival, and interval betwe...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gynecologic Source Type: research

Early-stage Uterine Pure and Mixed Clear Cell Carcinoma: Outcomes and Recurrence With and Without Adjuvant Therapy
Conclusions: Given aggressive and often unsalvageable nature of recurrence, consideration of adjuvant treatment (including chemotherapy and radiation) is warranted for early-stage CCC, particularly for stage II or those with poor prognostic factors. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gynecologic Source Type: research

Pre-ESRD Care and Mortality in Incident ESRD Patients With Multiple Myeloma
Conclusions: MM-ESRD patients were less likely to have predialysis nephrology care and more likely to use catheters on first dialysis. However, predialysis care is independently associated with lower mortality in MM-ESRD patients. Predialysis care should be prioritized in MM patients approaching ESRD. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Hematopoietic Source Type: research

Prognostic Impact of Missed Chemotherapy Doses During Chemoradiation Therapy for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer
Conclusions: MCA correlated with worse prognosis and increased mortality. Methods to reduce toxicity may improve administration of all chemotherapy doses and increase overall survival in NSCLC treated with CRT. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Soft Tissue Source Type: research

Myoepithelioma of Soft Tissues: A Single Institution Retrospective Case Series
Conclusions: Surgery continues as the primary modality of treatment for myoepithelioma of soft tissues. Our study did not show a clear benefit of chemotherapy in the metastatic disease setting, but supports the use of perioperative RT in the management of high-grade disease; further investigation is warranted. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Soft Tissue Source Type: research

A Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Radiation Therapy and Survival for Surgically Resected Soft-Tissue Sarcoma
Conclusions: High-quality studies reporting adjusted hazard ratios are associated with improved survival in patients receiving radiotherapy for STS. Studies in which odds ratios are calculated from event data and those that do not report adjusted outcomes do not show the same association, likely due to confounding by indication. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Soft Tissue Source Type: research

Medicare Cancer Screening in the Context of Clinical Guidelines: 2000 to 2012
Discussion: Both the aggressiveness of screening guidelines and screening rates for the Medicare FFS population peaked and then declined from 2000 to 2012. However, guideline publications did not consistently precede utilization trend shifts. Technology adoption, practical and financial concerns, and patient preferences may have also contributed to the observed trends. Further research should be performed on the impact of multiple, conflicting guidelines in cancer screening. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Screening Source Type: research

Efficacy, Safety, and Potential Biomarkers of Sunitinib and Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) Combination in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): Phase II Trial
Conclusions: Encouraging progression-free survival and overall survival were seen with acceptable toxicity in our study of sunitinib and TACE combination in advanced HCC. Potential imaging and serum biomarkers showed increased benefit with combination therapy. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research

Phase I Trial of Dose-escalated Whole Liver Irradiation With Hepatic Arterial Fluorodeoxyuridine/Leucovorin and Streptozotocin Followed by Fluorodeoxyuridine/Leucovorin and Chemoembolization for Patients With Neuroendocrine Hepatic Metastases
Conclusions: Thirty-two in 2 Gy daily fractions can be delivered safely when combined with HA chemotherapy and subsequent transarterial chemoembolization. However, although objective responses were observed, this combination was not significantly better than our prior approaches. Further treatment intensification strategies, including individualized dose escalation for radiation-tolerant livers, and improved radiosensitization should be investigated, along with improved systemic therapy. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research

A Phase I/II Study of Docetaxel, Oxaliplatin, and Fluorouracil (D-FOX) Chemotherapy in Patients With Untreated Locally Unresectable or Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach and Gastroesophageal Junction
Conclusions: D-FOX administered every 2 weeks is a well-tolerated and active regimen in untreated AGC patients. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research

Tumor Growth Kinetics Before and After First-line Chemotherapy in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: A Prostate-specific Antigen-based Retrospective Analysis
Objectives: The role of the tumor growth fraction has been investigated poorly in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The aim of this study was to assess whether some prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-related variables of tumor cell kinetics predict the overall survival in early and late mCRPC, and to explore changes in the tumor growth fraction after chemotherapy. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 3 tumor cell kinetic variables in patients with mCRPC receiving first-line chemotherapy has been performed. The PSA-related tumor growth rate, the log ratio, and the tumor response have been measured a...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Genitourinary Source Type: research

Is Hormone Replacement Therapy Safe in Women With a BRCA Mutation?: A Systematic Review of the Contemporary Literature
Conclusions: Decisions regarding the use of HT in women who undergo BSO after detection of a BRCA mutation must be individualized based on careful consideration of the risks and benefits. However, the risks of a subsequent cancer diagnosis appear small, particularly in regards to the benefits of treatment afforded by HT. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Breast Source Type: research

Late Effects After Radiotherapy for Childhood Low-grade Glioma
Conclusions: Over half of children diagnosed with LGG survive>20 years after RT; this report reveals the chronicity of toxicity beyond the typically reported follow-up. Our findings inform the therapeutic ratio of RT in this disease and may help guide late-effect screening recommendations. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Central Nervous System Source Type: research

Stage I and II Endometrial Adenocarcinoma: Analysis of 2009 FIGO Staging Revision and Impact on Survival by Adjuvant Therapy
We examined the implications of the staging changes and the survival impact of adjuvant therapy in stage I to II endometrial adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the National Oncology Data Alliance. Stage I to II endometrial adenocarcinoma patients diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 were identified and grouped according to the 1988 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging. Multivariate analysis (MVA) was performed using proportional hazards model; comparison of Kaplan-Meier survival curves was based on the log-rank statistic. Results: A total of 14,158 patients with stage I...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gynecologic Source Type: research

Smoking Decreases Survival in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Treated With Radiation
Purpose: To study the prevalence and effect of smoking on cervical cancer recurrence and mortality in patients undergoing definitive treatment with radiation. Materials and Methods: Between July 2007 and September 2013, 96 locally advanced cervical cancer patients received definitive radiation or chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. Smoking status was obtained from prospective intake questionnaires and quantified by pack-years. Pelvic control (PC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Smoking history included 51 (53.1%) ...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gynecologic Source Type: research

Impact of Widespread Cervical Cancer Screening: Number of Cancers Prevented and Changes in Race-specific Incidence
We examined early, late, and race-specific trends in cancer incidence, and calculated the estimated number of cancers prevented over the past 3 decades. Results: From 1976 to 2009, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of early-stage cervical cancer, from 9.8 to 4.9 cases per 100,000 women (P (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gynecologic Source Type: research

Breast Cancer is Common in Women With Ovarian Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumors
Conclusions: Although an uncommon tumor, MMMTs are often found in women with breast cancer. Despite this finding, BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations are not common in this population. Precis: Ovarian MMMTs are frequently found in women with cancer but are not frequently associated with defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gynecologic Source Type: research

Primary Debulking Surgery Versus Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Propensity-matched Analysis
Aims: To compare the surgical and survival outcomes of patients undergoing primary debulking surgery (PDS) versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) plus interval debulking surgery (IDS) for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients managed for advanced EOC since 2009 were matched through a propensity score analysis, defined as the probability of a woman having PDS or NACT plus IDS. Results: The study group consisted of 100 propensity-matched women receiving PDS or NACT plus IDS. Groups resulted homogeneous in terms of baseline characteristics and pathologic findings. Patien...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gynecologic Source Type: research

The Benefit of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in High-grade Nonmetastatic Retroperitoneal Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A SEER Analysis
Objectives: Controversy persists on the use of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS). High-grade disease is known to be associated with decreased local control and overall survival (OS). Because RT has proven beneficial for local control and OS in patients with high-grade extremity soft tissue sarcoma, we evaluated the efficacy of adjuvant RT in high-grade RPS. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify patients with pathology-confirmed RPS from 1973 to 2010. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Of 480 total pat...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Soft Tissue Source Type: research

Induction Therapies Plus Surgery Versus Exclusive Radiochemotherapy in Stage IIIA/N2 Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
In spite of the growing body of data from prospective randomized clinical trials (PRCTs) and meta-analyses, the optimal treatment approach in patients with stage IIIA non–small cell lung cancer remains unknown. This review focuses on the available data directly confronting induction chemotherapy or induction radiochemotherapy (RT-CHT) when followed by surgery with exclusive RT-CHT. Seven PRCTs and 4 meta-analyses investigated this issue. In addition, numerous retrospective studies attempted to identify potential predictors and/or prognosticators that may have influenced the decision to offer surgery in a particular p...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Review Article: Thoracic Source Type: research

Changes in Treatment Patterns and Overall Survival in Patients With Early-Stage Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer in the United States After the Incorporation of Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy: A Population-based Analysis
This study sought to determine changes in practice patterns for treatment of stage IA non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after the introduction of SABR into the United States. This population-based study also examined changes in survival during this time period for all patients and specifically for patients treated with RT, surgery, or observation. Methods: We included patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database diagnosed with stage IA NSCLC diagnosed between 2004 and 2012. Changes in treatment patterns were assessed. Outcomes were compared across 2 time periods: 2004 to 2008 (pre-SABR) an...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Thoracic Source Type: research

Correlation Between Standardized Uptake Value in Preneoadjuvant and Postneoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy and Tumor Regression Grade in Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer
Purpose: To investigate whether positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) initial and restaging imaging predicts for pathologic response measured by tumor regression grade (TRG) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. Methods: A retrospective review of 220 patients with stage II-III esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery was performed. In total, 187 patients were eligible for statistical analysis. Pretreatment and posttreatment PET/CT scans were reviewed. Maximum standard uptake value (SUV) at the site of the primary tu...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Thoracic Source Type: research

Immunogenicity of Influenza Vaccination in Patients With Cancer
Conclusions: Patients with nonhematological malignancies who are receiving chemotherapy mount an immune response to influenza vaccination. Timing of influenza vaccination in relation to chemotherapy does not seem to matter. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Supportive Care Source Type: research

Albumin and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) Predict Survival in Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Treated With SBRT
Conclusions: Preradiotherapy low albumin levels and NLR>5 correlate with decreased survival in patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with SBRT, indicating the prognostic value of systemic inflammatory markers (such as NLR) and a role of nutritional supplementation to improve outcomes in these patients. Further investigation is warranted. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research

Use of Radiation Therapy in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Improves Survival: A SEER Database Analysis
In this study, we evaluate the survival benefit of radiation therapy using SEER dataset in patients with LAPC. Materials and Methods: The SEER Registry dataset from 2004 to 2011 was queried to identify LAPC (TNM stage III) patients. Patients with survival (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research

A Phase 2 Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial of Imexon Plus Gemcitabine Versus Gemcitabine Plus Placebo in Patients With Metastatic Chemotherapy-naïve Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Conclusions: The combination of imexon and gemcitabine does not result in improved outcome as initial therapy of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research

Factors Associated With Receipt of Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer
Conclusions: In this cohort of patients, sociodemographic factors such as race/ethnicity, insurance status, and socioeconomic status, did not influence the receipt of radiation. Further research is needed, however, to understand why aging, greater comorbidity, and having surgery present a barrier to radiation therapy, particularly given that it is a well-tolerated treatment in most patients. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research

Long-term Outcomes After Radiosurgery for Temporal Bone Paragangliomas
Conclusions: SRS for benign head and neck paragangliomas is a safe and efficacious treatment associated with minimal morbidity. SRS is suitable for patients with skull base tumors (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Head and Neck Source Type: research

Early Results From the Implementation of a Lung Cancer Screening Program: The Beaumont Health System Experience
Conclusions: The establishment of a low-dose CT lung cancer screening program improved the ability to screen patients as demonstrated by the number of patients screened and those diagnosed with a malignancy. These findings were also consistent with the findings from the National Lung Screening Trial study. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Health Policy Source Type: research