Statins and Aspirin: Do They Really Work in Women?
Abstract Cardiovascular disease continues to be the most common cause of mortality in women in the USA. As a result, greater emphasis has been placed on preventive measures. Studies examining the role of aspirin and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have shown important clinical differences in men versus women in the preventive realm. This has led to inconsistent recommendations by guideline committees and clinicians alike. This review presents a summary of the past and current guidelines. In addition, important clinical trials influencing current era practice are also discussed. Both strengths and limitation...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 27, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Bivalirudin Versus Heparin Plus Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
In conclusion, thrombin inhibition with bivalirudin alone was associated with reduced 30-day major bleeding and 1-year all-cause mortality compared with heparin plus GPI in diabetic patients undergoing PCI. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Antihypertensive Drugs, Hypotension, and Ischemic Colitis
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 14, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Focus on Sex-Related Differences in Outcomes
Abstract Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has transformed the management of severe aortic stenosis for high-risk and inoperable patients. The 10-year experience in Europe has proven the technology to be safe and effective in select populations. The PARTNER trial, the first prospective, randomized, controlled trial for TAVR, showed the technology to be superior to medical management for inoperable patients and equivalent to surgical aortic valve replacement for high-risk patients. Research in cardiovascular medicine has been dominated by studies on the male sex, due to the incidence of the disease proc...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - March 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Ticagrelor: A Review of Its Use in Adults with Acute Coronary Syndromes
Abstract Ticagrelor (Brilique™, Brilinta®), a cyclopentyl-triazolopyrimidine, is an orally active, reversible, and selective adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist indicated for use in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Ticagrelor has a faster onset of action and provides greater inhibition of platelet aggregation than clopidogrel. In the large well-designed, PLATO study in adult patients with ACS, 12 months’ treatment with ticagrelor was more effective than clopidogrel in reducing the incidence of the primary composite endpoint of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiova...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - February 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with HIV Infection
Abstract HIV-infected patients are known to be at risk for premature coronary artery disease. This emerging paradigm is a rising concern for clinicians. Due to advances in the treatment of HIV, this once fatal infection has been transformed into a chronic illness. Traditional risk factors paired with the long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and chronic inflammation leads to premature atherosclerosis, particularly progression of atherosclerotic plaque. This population of patients requires early recognition of subclinical atherosclerosis, as well aggressive primary and secondary prevention strategies among ...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - February 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Continuous Ultrafiltration in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Current Issues and Future Directions
Abstract Most patients hospitalized for acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF) present with symptoms and signs of volume overload, which are also associated with high rates of death and re-hospitalization. Several studies have investigated the possible use of extracorporeal ultrafiltration in the management of ADHF, evaluating potential clinical benefits in terms of hospitalization and survival rates versus those of conventional diuretic therapy. Though ultrafiltration remains an extremely appealing therapeutic option for patients with AHDF, some of the most recent studies have reported conflicting results. Di...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - February 4, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology: Aug 30–Sept 3 2014; Barcelona, Spain
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - February 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology: Aug 30–Sept 3 2014; Barcelona, Spain
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 24, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Management of Pump Thrombosis in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Devices
Abstract The gradual evolution of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy has resulted in a durable option for patients as either a bridge to transplantation (BTT) or a destination therapy (DT). Outcomes with current continuous-flow devices continue to demonstrate significant patient benefit, not only in enhanced survival but also in improved functional capacity and quality of life. While the lessening of adverse events through time has resulted in more widespread adoption of this therapy, there continues to be unintended consequences, including, most notably, infection, bleeding, and thrombosis. Beginning i...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Thiazide-Like/Calcium Channel Blocker Agents: A Major Combination for Hypertension Management
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Ventricular Dysrhythmias Associated with Poisoning and Drug Overdose: A 10-Year Review of Statewide Poison Control Center Data from California
Conclusions Antidepressants and stimulants were the most common drugs associated with ventricular dysrhythmias. Patients with suspected poisonings by medications with a high risk of ventricular dysrhythmia warrant prompt ECG monitoring. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Incidence of Ischemic Colitis in Treated, Commercially Insured Hypertensive Adults: A Cohort Study of US Health Claims Data
Conclusion Study results indicate that the treated hypertensive patients may have a higher risk of pIC compared with non-hypertensive populations. The quantity of antihypertensive agents prescribed may contribute to IC more than treatment duration. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - January 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Aspirin in Primary Prevention: Is It Time for a New Approach?
Conclusion Available data on aspirin in primary prevention suggest a modest benefit for patients at high risk of CVD, and a promising benefit for those at risk of cancer. Future studies should help to elucidate whether the benefit of aspirin outweighs risk in appropriate patient groups. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - December 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Icosapent Ethyl: A Review of Its Use in Severe Hypertriglyceridemia
Abstract Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa®) is a high-purity ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that is de-esterified to EPA following oral administration. Both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that have been associated with triglyceride (TG)-lowering. However, DHA has been associated with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Icosapent ethyl contains ≥96 % of the EPA ethyl ester, does not contain DHA, and is approved in the USA for use as an adjunct to diet to lower TG levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL [≥5.65 m...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - November 26, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Admission Hyperglycemia Is Associated with Failed Reperfusion Following Fibrinolytic Therapy in Patients with STEMI: Results of a Retrospective Study
Abstract Background Hyperglycemia on admission is associated with increased mortality rates in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are treated with either fibrinolytic therapy (FT) or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, data regarding the relationship between hyperglycemia and the success of FT are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of admission blood glucose for the prediction of failed reperfusion following FT. Methods and Results This is a retrospective study of 304 STEMI patient...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - November 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Clinical Pharmacology of Endothelin Receptor Antagonists Used in the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating life-threatening disorder characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance leading to elevated pulmonary arterial pressures, right ventricular failure, and ultimately death. Vascular endothelial cells mainly produce and secrete endothelin (ET-1) in vessels that lead to a potent and long-lasting vasoconstrictive effect in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Along with its strong vasoconstrictive action, ET-1 can promote smooth muscle cell proliferation. Thus, ET-1 blockers have attracted attention as an antihypertensive drug, and the ET-1 si...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - November 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Referees
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - November 21, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Role of Vascular Inflammation in Coronary Artery Disease: Potential of Anti-inflammatory Drugs in the Prevention of Atherothrombosis
Abstract Coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are inflammatory pathologies, involving interleukins (ILs), such as IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and acute phase proteins production, such as for C reactive protein (CRP). The process begins with retention of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its oxidation inside the intima, with the formation of the “foam cells.” Toll-like receptors and inflamassomes participate in atherosclerosis formation, as well as in the activation of the complement system. In addition to innate immunity, adaptive immunit...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - November 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Simvastatin Prescribing Patterns Before and After FDA Dosing Restrictions: A Retrospective Analysis of a Large Healthcare Claims Database
Conclusions Despite improvements in prescribing practices, many patients are still exposed to potentially harmful simvastatin combinations. Aggressive changes in simvastatin prescribing systems and processes are needed to improve compliance with FDA labeling to improve medication and patient safety. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - October 28, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cost Effectiveness of New Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Two Different European Healthcare Settings
Conclusions Apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran are cost-effective alternatives to coumarin derivatives in the UK, while in the Netherlands, only apixaban and dabigatran could be considered cost effective. The cost effectiveness of the new oral anticoagulants is largely dependent on the setting and quality of local anticoagulant care facilities. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - October 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Epoprostenol (Veletri ® , Caripul ® ): A Review of Its Use in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
This article summarizes the pharmacology of epoprostenol AS and reviews its therapeutic use in adult patients with PAH. In clinical trials, epoprostenol AS provided sustained efficacy in terms of hemodynamic and symptomatic outcomes, and was generally well tolerated after transitioning from stable epoprostenol GM therapy and during an open-label extension study. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the treatment convenience with epoprostenol AS compared with epoprostenol GM. Therefore, epoprostenol AS is a valuable therapeutic option that has the potential to overcome some of the limitations of long-term intrav...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - October 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Omega-3 Carboxylic Acids (Epanova®): A Review of Its Use in Patients with Severe Hypertriglyceridemia
Abstract Omega-3 carboxylic acids (Epanova®) [OM3-CA] is the first free fatty acid form of long-chain marine omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid being the most abundant) to be approved by the US FDA as an adjunct to diet to lower triglyceride levels in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥500 mg/dL). Oral OM3-CA has greater bioavailability than ethyl ester forms of omega-3 and, unlike omega-3 acid ethyl esters, does not require co-ingestion of a high-fat meal, as it does not need pancreatic enzyme activity for absorption. In the 12-week EpanoVa fOr Lowering Very h...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - September 19, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Thiazide-Like/Calcium Channel Blocker Agents: A Major Combination for Hypertension Management
Abstract In recent years, treatment strategies for hypertension have often focused on combination therapies that include diuretics and renin angiotensin aldosterone system blockers such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. However, in clinical practice, a significant number of patients do not respond completely to these combination treatments, and long-term reduction of cardiovascular risk remains insufficient. The particularly high residual cardiovascular risk of hypertensive patients, even when adequately treated with strategies based on renin angiotensin aldosterone syst...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 28, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Cardioprotection of the Insulin-Mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway
Abstract Apoptosis occurs frequently in myocardial infarction, oxidative stress injury, and ischemia/reperfusion injury, and plays a pivotal role in the development of heart diseases. Inhibition of apoptosis alone does not necessarily lead to meaningful rescue in terms of either cardiomyocyte survival or function. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway induced by insulin not only inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis but also substantially preserves and even improves regional and overall cardiac function. Insulin can protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis by regulating a number of signaling molecules, such as eNOS...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 27, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Patterns in the Use of Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid and Other Therapies Following Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Conclusions Antiplatelet use fell after UGIB events. In patients who were prescribed a PPI after a UGIB event, there was increased re-prescription of antiplatelet agents and antithrombotics. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Novel Therapeutic Targets in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation
Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, contributing to increased morbidity and reduced survival through its associations with stroke and heart failure. AF contributes to a four- to fivefold increase in the risk of stroke in the general population and is responsible for 10–15 % of all ischemic strokes. Diagnosis and treatment of AF require considerable health care resources. Current therapies to restore sinus rhythm in AF are suboptimal and are limited either by their pro-arrhythmic effects or by their procedure-related complications. These limitations have necessitated ...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Efficacy and Tolerability of Commonly Used Agents to Prevent Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation After Successful Cardioversion
Abstract A number of therapeutic strategies exist for the restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. The acute success rate with electrical cardioversion is high. However, many patients relapse into atrial fibrillation. A major challenge faced by those who care for patients with atrial fibrillation is the long-term maintenance of sinus rhythm whilst avoiding treatment-related adverse effects. This review examines the efficacy and tolerability of conventional anti-arrhythmic drugs for the secondary prevention of atrial fibrillation in the post-cardioversion period....
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Serelaxin: A Novel Therapy for Acute Heart Failure with a Range of Hemodynamic and Non-Hemodynamic Actions
Abstract Acute heart failure (AHF) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality and high costs. Although the treatment of AHF has not changed substantially in recent decades, it is becoming clear that treatment strategies for AHF need to address both the immediate hemodynamic abnormalities giving rise to congestion as well as prevent organ damage that can influence long-term prognosis. Serelaxin, the recombinant form of human relaxin-2, a naturally occurring peptide hormone, has been found to significantly improve symptoms and signs of AHF, prevent in-hospital worsening heart failure, as well as significantly...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Effect of Nutritional Supplements on Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein A-I
Abstract One of the factors contributing to the increased risk of developing premature atherosclerosis is low plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Multiple potential mechanisms account for the cardioprotective effects of HDL and its main protein apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I). Diet has an important role in modulating HDL cholesterol level. The widespread use of nutritional supplements may also alter the biology of HDL. In this review, we discuss the effect of select nutritional supplements on serum HDL cholesterol and apo A-I levels. Some nutritional supplements, such as phytosterols...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Challenges with Nitrate Therapy and Nitrate Tolerance: Prevalence, Prevention, and Clinical Relevance
Abstract Nitrate therapy has been an effective treatment for ischemic heart disease for over 100 years. The anti-ischemic and exercise-promoting benefits of sublingually administered nitrates are well established. Nitroglycerin is indicated for the relief of an established attack of angina and for prophylactic use, but its effects are short lived. In an effort to increase the duration of beneficial effects, long-acting orally administered and topical applications of nitrates have been developed; however, following their continued or frequent daily use, patients soon develop tolerance to these long-acting nitrate ...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

63rd Annual Scientific Sessions of the American College of Cardiology: 29–31 March 2014; Washington, DC, USA
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Represcription of Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid After Discontinuation in Patients Receiving Treatment for Secondary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in the UK
In conclusion, approximately 85 % of patients who discontinued low-dose ASA therapy were subsequently represcribed ASA during the study period. Comorbidities and comedication use affected represcription rates. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Severe Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction is Independently Associated with High On-Clopidogrel Platelet Reactivity
Abstract Objective The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between left ventricular systolic function and the response to clopidogrel. Methods The efficacy of clopidogrel was measured by the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation 20 ± 4 h after 600 mg of clopidogrel. High on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HCPR) was defined as a platelet reactivity index (PRI) ≥50 %. The 30-day combined incidence of death, non-fatal acute coronary syndrome, re-percutaneous coronary inte...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Dyspnea and Reversibility Profile of P2Y12 Antagonists: Systematic Review of New Antiplatelet Drugs
Conclusions The reversible P2Y12 antagonists ticagrelor, cangrelor, and elinogrel have an increased incidence of dyspnea in increasing order when compared with irreversible P2Y12 inhibitors such as clopidogrel or prasugrel. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Beta-Blockers and Ivabradine in Chronic Heart Failure: From Clinical Trials to Clinical Practice
(Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - August 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Could Vitamin D Supplements Be a New Therapy for Heart Failure? Possible Pathogenic Mechanisms from Data of Intervention Studies
Abstract Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (HF), but whether giving patients supplements to raise vitamin D into the normal range improves their survival is not clear. It has been demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with HF, especially the elderly, in obese and in dark skinned people, and that low vitamin D levels are associated with adverse outcome. The epidemiological data have been confirmed by experimental data, which show that knockout mice for the vitamin D receptor developed myocardial hypertrophy and dysfunction. Data from interventio...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - June 17, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Recombinant Human Relaxin-2: (How) Can a Pregnancy Hormone Save Lives in Acute Heart Failure?
Abstract Acute heart failure (AHF) syndrome, characterized by pulmonary and/or venous congestion owing to increased cardiac filling pressures with or without diminished cardiac output, is still associated with high post-discharge mortality and hospitalization rates. Many novel and promising therapeutic approaches, among them endothelin-1, vasopressin and adenosine antagonists, calcium sensitization, and recombinant B-type natriuretic hormone, have failed in large studies. Likewise, the classic drugs, vasodilators, diuretics, and inotropes, have never been shown to lower mortality. The phase III trial RELA...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - June 17, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Risk Factors and Early Pharmacological Interventions to Prevent Chronic Postsurgical Pain Following Cardiac Surgery
Abstract Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after cardiac surgery represents a significant clinical problem. The prevalence of CPSP varies widely between studies, but severe CPSP is present in less than 10 % of the patients. Important differential diagnoses for CPSP after cardiac surgery are myocardial ischemia, sternal instability and mediastinitis. CPSP after cardiac surgery may be thoracic pain present at the site of the sternotomy or leg pain due to vein-graft harvesting. The CPSP can be neuropathic pain, visceral pain, somatic pain or mixed pain. Potential risk factors for CPSP are young age, female gender...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - June 17, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Add-on Ezetimibe Reduces Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Without Affecting Absorption of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Pilot Study
Conclusion Ezetimibe shows great promise as an add-on therapy to statins to reduce sdLDL-cholesterol-related residual risk of cardiovascular disease without affecting absorption of supplemental EPA in patients with coronary artery disease. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - June 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Mipomersen is a Promising Therapy in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Conclusions Mipomersen therapy is effective for lowering ApoB-containing lipoproteins in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia. Future studies exploring how to minimize side effects of mipomersen therapy are needed. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - June 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic–Pharmacodynamic Relationships of Macitentan, a New Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, After Multiple Dosing in Healthy Korean Subjects
Conclusion Multiple oral doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg of macitentan were well tolerated in healthy Korean subjects, and its pharmacokinetics correlated positively with ET-1 concentrations. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - June 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research